WorldWideScience

Sample records for activator appliances

  1. An extraorally activated expansion appliance for cleft palate infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, R A; Kusy, R P; Georgiade, N G

    1976-07-01

    A new lever-action expansion appliance is described which is designed specifically for use in infants with cleft lip and palate. An extraoral control knob allows for easy activation, while the important anterior cleft areas are left clear for premaxillary repositioning and clinical assessment. Activation is registered by a positive clicking sound. Rapid expansion is made possible by the design of the appliance which is retained by stainless steel pins.

  2. Evaluation of photo-activation appliances used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Ribeiro de Magalhães Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the Vickers microhardness promoted by three photo-activation appliances: one Halogen Light Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and two Light Emitting Diodes. One with a larger diode (Ultraled, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and the other with seven smaller diodes (Ultraled xp, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in composites with different matrixes. Methods: Three test specimens were made for each resinous materials using silicone molds measuring 4 X 8 X 30 mm. Polymerization was performedin three stages and on the two surfaces. After having been submitted to careful polishing with sequential abrasive papers and diamond paste, the Vickers microhardness of the test specimens was determined. Afterwards these values were submitted to statistical analysis by the ANOVA table and Student’s-t test. Results: The microhardness values obtained in the hybrid composite were as follows: 51.63 kg/mm2 +- 3.27; 52.22 kg/mm2 +- 3.3; 38.08 kg/mm2 +-0.31 and in the ormocer, 41.87 kg/mm2 +- 2.36; 41.5 kg/mm2 +- 1.2; 33.63 kg/mm2 +- 1.2, by the Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances, respectively. Conclusion: The Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances promoted microhardness values that were similar between them and higher than the values produced by Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in the composites. It was verified that the intensity of the photo-activator appliances is directly related to the microhardness they produce in the composites.

  3. Class II: a comparison of activator and activator headgear combination appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Y; Tankuter, N

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dental effects of activator and activator high-pull headgear combination appliances on growing patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusion. The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment cephalograms of 17 boys and 20 girls. Seventeen patients (eight male and nine female) were treated with an activator, the remaining 20 (9 male and 11 female) were treated with an activator high-pull headgear combination (AHGC) appliance. Changes due to treatment were compared with a group of 19 (nine male and ten female) untreated children. ANB angle was significantly reduced and mandibular growth development was favourable in both treatment groups. The AHGC appliance was more effective in the reduction of the maxillary prognathism. An increase of the anterior facial height and clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane was observed in the patients treated with activator appliance. The cant of the mandibular plane remained stable during both treatment periods. On the other hand, the forward displacement of the upper first molars was reduced significantly and the axial inclination of the lower incisors was controlled much better with the AHGC appliance.

  4. Treatment effects of Fränkel, activator and extraoral traction appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righellis, E G

    1983-04-01

    The effects of the Fränkel appliance on the treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion were compared with the activator, high-pull headgear, cervical traction and a control group. A sample of 16 Fränkel cases treated in the mixed dentition was tested in four craniofacial areas, with findings as follows: a. Maxillae, no significant horizontal effect b. Mandibular length, significantly increased c. Lower face height, widely variable effects. d. Less upper molar eruption and more lower molar eruption. Although the findings of this study should be interpreted as tentative, they do show the Fränkel appliance to have some different mean effects on the craniofacial complex. Variability is a most important aspect of the findings of this study. Future studies must deal not only with mean changes, but with the Fränkel appliance's variable effects on differential individuals. Optimal application of this appliance requires judgment in case selection and careful analysis of progress, using adequate follow-up records and a firm knowledge of normal growth and development of the craniofacial complex.

  5. In vitro immunotoxic and genotoxic activities of particles emitted from two different small-scale wood combustion appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S.; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Nuutinen, Kati; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood combustion appliances emit large quantities of fine particles which are suspected to cause a substantial health burden worldwide. Wood combustion particles contain several potential health-damaging metals and carbon compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which may determine the toxic properties of the emitted particles. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro immunotoxicological and chemical properties of PM 1 ( Dp ≤ 1 μm) emitted from a pellet boiler and a conventional masonry heater. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed for 24 h to different doses of the emission particles. Cytotoxicity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine MIP-2, apoptosis and phases of the cell cycle as well as genotoxic activity were measured after the exposure. The type of wood combustion appliance had a significant effect on emissions and chemical composition of the particles. All the studied PM 1 samples induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. The particles emitted from the conventional masonry heater were 3-fold more potent inducers of programmed cell death and DNA damage than those emitted from the pellet boiler. Furthermore, the particulate samples that induced extensive DNA damage contained also large amounts of PAH compounds. Instead, significant differences between the studied appliances were not detected in measurements of inflammatory mediators, although the chemical composition of the combustion particles differed considerably from each other. In conclusion, the present results show that appliances representing different combustion technology have remarkable effects on physicochemical and associated toxicological and properties of wood combustion particles. The present data indicate that the particles emitted from incomplete combustion are toxicologically more potent than those emitted from more complete combustion processes.

  6. Hybrid LCA of a design for disassembly technology: active disassembling fasteners of hydrogen storage alloys for home appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Yamasue, Eiji

    2010-06-15

    In the current recycling system of end-of-life (EoL) appliances, which is based on shredding, alloying elements tend to end up in the scrap of base metals. The uncontrolled mixing of alloying elements contaminates secondary metals and calls for dilution with primary metals. Active disassembling fastener (ADF) is a design for disassembly (DfD) technology that is expected to solve this problem by significantly reducing the extent of mixing. This paper deals with a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on the waste input-output (WIO) model of an ADF developed using hydrogen storage alloys. Special attention is paid to the issue of dilution of mixed iron scrap using pig iron in an electric arc furnace (EAF). The results for Japanese electrical and electronic appliances indicate superiority of the recycling system based on the ADF over the current system in terms of reduced emissions of CO(2). The superiority of ADF was found to increase with an increase in the requirement for dilution of scrap.

  7. Modified Activation Technique for Nasal Stent of Nasoalveolar Molding Appliance for Columellar Lengthening in Bilateral Cleft Lip/Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita P

    2016-03-22

    Bilateral cleft lip/cleft palate is associated with nasal deformities typified by a short columella. The presurgical nasoalveolar molding (NAM) therapy approach includes reduction of the size of the intraoral alveolar cleft as well as positioning of the surrounding deformed soft tissues and cartilages. In a bilateral cleft patient, NAM, along with columellar elongation, eliminates the need for columellar lengthening surgery. Thus the frequent surgical intervention to achieve the desired esthetic results can be avoided. This article proposes a modified activation technique of the nasal stent for a NAM appliance for columellar lengthening in bilateral cleft lip/palate patients. The design highlights relining of the columellar portion of the nasal stent and the wire-bending of the nasal stent to achieve desirable results within the limited span of plasticity of the nasal cartilages. With this technique the vertical taping of the premaxilla to the oral plate can be avoided.

  8. Home Appliance Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUMBO; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    With 900 chain stores and three retail brands, Gome, China’s largest home appliance retail group, is pursuing grandiose dreams of becoming a home appliance kingdomOn November 22, 2006, Chinese home appliance retail heavyweights Beijing-based Gome Electri

  9. Inter-rater reliability of cyclic and non-cyclic task assessment using the hand activity level in appliance manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Robert; Schwatka, Natalie; Gober, Jennifer; Gilkey, David; Anton, Dan; Gerr, Fred; Rosecrance, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(®)) hand activity level (HAL), an observational ergonomic assessment method used to estimate physical exposure to repetitive exertions during task performance. Video recordings of 858 cyclic and non-cyclic appliance manufacturing tasks were assessed by sixteen pairs of raters using the HAL visual-analog scale. A weighted Pearson Product Moment-Correlation Coefficient was used to evaluate the agreement between the HAL scores recorded by each rater pair, and the mean weighted correlation coefficients for cyclic and non-cyclic tasks were calculated. Results indicated that the HAL is a reliable exposure assessment method for cyclic (r̄-bar w = 0.69) and non-cyclic work tasks (r̄-bar w = 0.68). When the two reliability scores were compared using a two-sample Student's t-test, no significant difference in reliability (p = 0.63) between these work task categories was found. This study demonstrated that the HAL may be a useful measure of exposure to repetitive exertions during cyclic and non-cyclic tasks.

  10. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 9: functional appliances to midcentury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Norman

    2006-06-01

    The history of the functional appliance can be traced back to 1879, when Norman Kingsley introduced the "bite-jumping" appliance. In the early 1900s, parallel development began in the United States and Europe in fixed and functional techniques, respectively, but the Atlantic Ocean was a geographic barrier that restricted the sharing of knowledge and experience in these philosophies. The only exception to this was the fixed functional appliance designed by Herbst. The monobloc, developed by Robin in 1902, is generally considered the forerunner of removable functional appliances, but the activator developed in Norway by Andresen in the 1920s was the first functional appliance to be widely accepted, becoming the basis of the "Norwegian system" of treatment. Both the appliance system and its theoretical underpinnings were improved and extended elsewhere in Europe, particularly by the German school led by Häupl, Bimler, and Balters. It would be after midcentury before functional appliances were reintroduced into American orthodontics.

  11. Guiding occlusal development with functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, I L

    1996-10-01

    Functional appliances have been used in orthodontics since their introduction by Pierre Robin almost one hundred years ago, however, our understanding of how they bring about orthodontic correction is still limited. This article is a brief overview of their history, mode of action, advantages and disadvantages, and includes the results of a study of attempts to control and minimise their side-effects using a recent development in functional appliances: the 'Teuscher Appliance'. This appliance combines a high-pull headgear with the activator, and is designed to reduce the often reported side-effects of functional appliances. The skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of treatment with the Teuscher Appliance on 40 consecutively-treated patients are reported and illustrated with four individual case reports. The results showed that the skeletal effect on the maxilla was a retardation of the normal forward and downward growth in 80 per cent of the cases, and that mandibular growth in 70 per cent of cases was forward. In patients whose mandibular growth was primarily in a vertical direction, such growth could be ascribed mainly to posterior rotation of the maxilla and/or the fact that the acrylic covering the lower posterior teeth to correct a deep bite was removed, promoting the eruption of these teeth and increasing the anterior vertical development. The dentoalveolar changes were characterised by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90 per cent of the patients, and were due to insufficient torque control by the built-in torque springs, which need further development. The mandibular incisors were well controlled by capping. The statistical analysis showed an inverse correlation between the initial incisor inclination and the change during treatment. This suggests that proclination of the lower incisors, as previously reported, is not a contra-indication to functional appliance treatment, provided the appliance is correctly designed. Overall, this study showed

  12. Study of Occlusal-maxillo-facial 3-dimentional Structural Change of Orthodontic Therapy of Crossbite Maloccl usion by Modified ACTIVATOR Appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛靖

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Occlusal-maxillo-facial structural change of crossbite malocclusion after orthodontic thera-py by modified ACTIVATOR appliance was investigated. Eighty crossbite cases of deciduous denti tion and mixed dentition were treated by modified ACTIVATOR. Through pre- and post-treatment analysis of stone model, Schuller's position X-ray and craniofaciometrics, the change in craniofacial length, width and height in early-phase crossbite malocclusion was studied. The results showed that there was no significant change in the width of maxillary and mandibular dental arch. Maxillary length and protrusion was increased significantly, upper incisors slopped labially. The lower incisors slopped lingually, mental angle decreased more severely. The lower and posterior facial height was in creased to normal level.

  13. New horizons in orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics: fixed Twin Blocks & TransForce lingual appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century functional appliances evolved from night time wear to more flexible appliances for increased day time wear to full time wear with Twin Block appliances. The current trend is towards fixed functional appliances and this paper introduces the Fixed Twin Block, bonded to the teeth to eliminate problems of compliance in functional therapy. TransForce lingual appliances are pre-activated and may be used in first phase treatment for sagittal and transverse arch development. Alternatively they may be integrated with fixed appliances at any stage of treatment.

  14. Hair Styling Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  15. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  16. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...

  17. Comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, P F; Schneider, B J

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective comparison of Roth appliance and standard edgewise appliance treatment results was made using two indices. The first, the ideal tooth relationship index (ITRI), scored dental casts for the presence of ideal tooth contacts. The second judged posttreatment dental casts on the basis of criteria established by Andrews in his "Six Keys to Normal Occlusion." The sample consisted of 120 orthodontically treated cases completed by two practitioners who have used both the Roth and standard edgewise appliances. Thirty cases of each appliance type were collected from each practitioner. The overall posttreatment ITRI percentage scores showed no significant differences between the appliances. Practitioner differences existed for the anterior intraarch, anterior interarch, and posterior buccal interarch relationships. These differences were related to both treatment time and finishing arch wire size. The results of the Six Keys Analysis showed that the angulation and inclination of the maxillary posterior teeth were better with the Roth appliance. However, success in achieving some components of the six keys did not translate into an increased percentage of ideal tooth contacts as measured by the ITRI. Despite using the Roth appliance, experienced clinicians still found it difficult to achieve all six keys to normal occlusion.

  18. [Interceptive treatment with the DAC appliance: structural analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Archer, Jean-Antoine; Lautrou, Alain; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective short and middle term study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects during early class II treatment. Thirty subjects were treated with DAC appliance, 32 children were not treated. Data were collected at the start of the study (t(1)), after the active treatment (t(1')) and 28 months after t(1) (t(2)). L.D.V. and Tweed cephalometric analyses were applied on the lateral roentgenograms of the three groups. Differences for all the variables from t(1) to t(1') and t(2) were calculated and compared by t-test. Results suggested that DAC appliance was able to achieve twice more mandibular growth in the treated group than in the non treated group. Anterior total skeletal and matricial rotations were similar to control group. Early DAC appliance achieved overjet correction thanks to major skeletal participation (89%) and little dental participation (11%). During following-up stage, overjet relapsed partially as shown in other articles with other appliances. As a conclusion, DAC appliance may be an orthopedic appliance indicated to achieve correction in class II skeletal pattern without maxillary prognathism and with mandibular retrognathism.

  19. Preformed beading and boxing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J Sashi Deepth; Padmanabhan, T V; Veerareddy, Chandrika; Chandrasekhar, M; Narendra, R

    2013-03-01

    Conventional beading and boxing procedure is time consuming and involves application of heat that might distort green stick compound used for border molding. Earlier studies regarding beading and boxing methods have shown usage of various materials that were disposable and that cannot be recycled. To reduce the time consumed for beading and boxing procedure and to make this procedure cost-effective by using recyclable beading material, "Preformed boxing appliance" with moldable clay meant for beading the secondary impression was used. Secondary impression was supported by 3 studs provided on the floor of the boxing appliance. The cast was poured. The duration for the entire procedure was much less than the conventional procedure.

  20. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Reji Abraham; Geetha Kamath; Jasmeet Singh Sodhi; Sonia Sodhi; Chandki Rita; Sai Kalyan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle ret...

  1. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  2. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  3. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA, designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  4. Gesture & Speech Based Appliance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sayleegharge,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This document explores the use of speech & gestures to control home appliances. Aiming at the aging population of the world and relieving them from their dependencies. The two approaches used to sail through the target are the MFCC approach for speech processing and the Identification of Characteristic Point Algorithm for gesture recognition. A barrier preventing wide adoption is that this audience can find controlling assistive technology difficult, as they are less dexterous and computer literate. Our results hope to provide a more natural and intuitive interface to help bridge the gap between technology and elderly users.

  5. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appliances, cooling. 3280.714... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.714 Appliances, cooling. (a) Every air conditioning unit or a combination air...

  6. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  7. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  8. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  9. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  10. Anterior crossbite correction in primary and mixed dentition with removable inclined plane (Bruckl appliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirgensone, Irena; Liepa, Andra; Abeltins, Andris

    2008-01-01

    Anterior crossbite correction in early mixed dentition is highly recommended as this kind of malocclusion do not diminish with age. Uncorrected anterior crossbite may lead to abnormal wear of the lower incisors, dental compensation of mandibular incisors leading to thinning of labial alveolar plate and/or gingival recession. There are several methods for solving this problem. In this article we would like to describe removable inclined plane. This is a removable simple functional appliance on the lower arch (jaw), which works as inclined plane. One of the advantage of the Bruckl appliance is that it can also be used as retention appliance after active treatment as well as it is possible to add acrylic teeth if necessary. Therefore it can be used as a removable partial denture in lower jaw in case where there is a premature loss of the primary teeth. The use of this appliance is illustrated with three cases.

  11. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements.

  12. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi;

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  13. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  14. Evaluation of safety management in an Appliances manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of accidents and work related diseases, are not allowed regardless of the safety of employees, customers, contractors and other persons. Assessment of individual safety management activities could reduce many losses. Present study aimed to evaluate the safety management of a household appliance manufacturing company.  .Material and Method: This study has done in a household appliance manufacturing company in Damavand city. Two questionnaires were firstly designed based on the weighted scores. The questionnaire 1 consisted of 4 indicators: Safety of machinery, Electrical safety, Risk assessment and Fire safety. Questionnaire 2 consisted of 11 sub indicators. Both questionnaires were completed by 30 HSE experts and supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was based on cronbachs alpha coefficient. the safety status of each unit was determined and scored using information acquired by the questionnaires. Lastly, the safety of the entire company was determined.  .Result: Results showed that in safety management: the pressing and store house were in a good range of 66.66 and 60.12 points. Powder painting, enameling, laboratory were in a average range of 56.25, 55.92 and 54.15 points. Assembling and door storage were in a week range of 46.06 points.  .Conclusion: The findings showed that the safety status in the studied appliances company is in average range with 55.45 points. Therefore, it is recommended that the safety indicators should be improved for the betterment of the safety management in the company.

  15. Posibilities Of Appliance Of Therapeutic Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnikowski, I.; Spiechowicz, E.

    1987-10-01

    The appliance of a therapeutic laser also known as soft laser has gained wider scope in the latest years. The main characteristics of the laser radiation, namely its monochromatic and coherent nature render the photochemic activity selecive especially on the intracelluar level, stimulating the dynamics of the oxido-reductive changes in a cell. The action of the laser beam upon living tissue depends on the power of the used laser as well as upon the physical properties of the object itself i.e. its optical, mechanical, chemical properties. The use of a high powered laser causes a big rise in the temperature and prescure inside tissue which leads to denaturation of protein and than to evaporation and destruction of the cell. It is possible to gain quite diffrent effects using a soft /or therapeutic/ laser which in the course of stimulating the biological changes in a cell causes its regeneration and not its degradation. There exist three main phenomena on the level of the radiation emition. These are absorption, reflection and penetration. The most important from the medical point of view are penetration and absorption, for the direct biological changes depend upon these very parameters. The action of the laser beam upon tissue in fig. 1.

  16. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  17. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  18. [Oral appliances in the treatment of snoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorunek, Tomasz; Lewandowski, Leszek; Młynarczyk, Witold; Banaszewski, Jacek; Nowicka, Agata; Kanikowski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    There are many methods of snoring treatment from conservative and prosthetic to surgical. The snoring sound is produced by vibration of the soft tissues of the pharynx, soft palate and also uvula. Snoring occurs in 50% of the adult male population and it can be isolated or sign of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Oral appliances modify the position of the mandibule, the tongue and other structures in oral cavity. Oral appliances are recommended for the treatment of snoring and mild obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. That is why we constructed the study to assess wheather oral appliances correct snoring. 12 mails (aged 43-57) with intensive snoring for at least 50% of the sleep time were qualified to the treatment with oral appliances. The decision about the type of the device were made by ENT surgeon and maxillo-facial surgeon. The various oral appliances were used; some of which were modyfied by us. During the treatment snoring was tested with Poly-Mesam device. The best results were obtained with the use of devices that correct the position of soft palate and uvula. All the devices decreased snoring significantly. They were tolerated by the majority of patients.

  19. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such...

  20. Treatment of Class II open bite in the mixed dentition with a removable functional appliance and headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, P; Wilson, S; Florman, M; Wei, S H

    1992-05-01

    Early diagnosis of patients exhibiting open bites that are complicated by skeletal Class II and vertical growth problems can facilitate subsequent treatment. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite were treated with the high-pull activator appliance and compared to reasonably matched controls to determine the effects of the appliance. The high-pull activator was found to reduce forward growth of the maxilla and increase mandibular alveolar height, transforming the Class II molar relationship into a Class I molar relationship. The overjet and open bite were decreased, and, in addition, the appliance reduced the amount of forward and downward movement of the maxillary molars, providing vertical control of the maxilla during Class II orthopedic correction. These results demonstrated that open bite complicated by a Class II vertical growth pattern can be treated during the mixed dentition with favorable results by a combination of a removable functional appliance and high-pull headgear.

  1. Activator reloaded - Myofunctional appliance at its best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil S Malik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontics from time immemorial has always been considered as the first speciality of dentistry. Diagnosis and treatment planning from Dr. Tweed′s time always required extraction of four vital and functional premolar teeth. However, many patients, parents and general dentists have failed to understand that orthodontic treatment at an early age can help save the extraction teeth to achieve a full functional and esthetic harmonius dentition. Our case demonstrates a non-extraction orthodontic treatment plan of a developing skeletal Class II malocclusion. The results of this case show a successful correction of Class II molar malocclusion with excellent form and function, which resulted in improvement of the patient′s frontal and facial profile, which, thereby boosted her personality and self-confidence.

  2. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  3. 75 FR 41696 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 Appliance Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission... vary by region and consumer and change over time. In NEMA's view, unless shoppers make a...

  4. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non-advancement...

  5. Clinical evolution of the Invisalign appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskalic, Vicki; Boyd, Robert L

    2002-10-01

    The Invisalign System of tooth movement has been available to orthodontists since 1999 and has now become available to the entire dental profession. This paper explores the role of this system within the dental armamentarium and describes the clinical evolution of the appliance, based on a feasibility study initiated at the University of the Pacific in 1997.

  6. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  7. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  8. The FTB (Flores Twin Block): a new fixed functional appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Flores, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    Functional Orthopaedics, Functionalism and their appliances have as their objective to correct the skeletal dysplasia that underlies many malocclusions, taking advantage of the potential of the stomatognathic system's strength. The range of functional appliances is very extensive and there is a great variety thereof. Basically, functional appliances can be: removable functional appliances and fixed functional appliances. In this article, we are going to present a new design for fixed functional appliances for the treatment of Class II, basing ourselves on the biomechanical principles of the Twin Block. We believe this new design, compared with other fixed functional appliances currently in use, improves patient comfort, providing a more effective response and helps us to treat our Class II cases with total success.

  9. Operations manual for the patient assist device. [to handle electrical appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quadriplegic patients and multiple amputee patients are almost totally dependent on nursing personnel for any activities or interests in which they participate. A patient assist device is reported which provides patient control over electrical devices in his environment. The patient operates three switches to acquire control over a desired electrical appliance. The type switches employed are chosen to conform to patient capabilities, even when such capabilities are as limited as eye or head movements. The switch operations are sensed and converted into command signals by the patient assist device to control ten electrical appliances simulataneously and independently.

  10. An Efficient, Scalable Time-Frequency Method for Tracking Energy Usage of Domestic Appliances Using a Two-Step Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Meehan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Load monitoring is the practice of measuring electrical signals in a domestic environment in order to identify which electrical appliances are consuming power. One reason for developing a load monitoring system is to reduce power consumption by increasing consumers’ awareness of which appliances consume the most energy. Another example of an application of load monitoring is activity sensing in the home for the provision of healthcare services. This paper outlines the development of a load disaggregation method that measures the aggregate electrical signals of a domestic environment and extracts features to identify each power consuming appliance. A single sensor is deployed at the main incoming power point, to sample the aggregate current signal. The method senses when an appliance switches ON or OFF and uses a two-step classification algorithm to identify which appliance has caused the event. Parameters from the current in the temporal and frequency domains are used as features to define each appliance. These parameters are the steady-state current harmonics and the rate of change of the transient signal. Each appliance’s electrical characteristics are distinguishable using these parameters. There are three Types of loads that an appliance can fall into, linear nonreactive, linear reactive or nonlinear reactive. It has been found that by identifying the load type first and then using a second classifier to identify individual appliances within these Types, the overall accuracy of the identification algorithm is improved.

  11. Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dusan Gosnik

    2009-01-01

    The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some na...

  12. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  13. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  14. Clinical application of palatal lift appliance in velopharyngeal incompetence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Premkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nasal air leak in cleft palate patients with velopharyngeal incompetence leads to characteristic nasal snort. The efficacy of the palatal lift appliance in patients with adequate velopharyngeal tissue with incompetence was tested. Speech quality improved after the wearing of palatal lift appliance. Palatal lift appliances are simple and efficient in reducing the nasal air leak. Ongoing speech therapy is necessary and advised for patients receiving palatal lift.

  15. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  16. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea treatment with dental appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimão, R; De Gouveia, M M; Pestana, M C; Lopes, S R; Papaiz, E G; Papaiz, L F

    1994-12-01

    The case of a 40-year-old male patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is reported, with emphasis on treatment with a dental appliance. This therapeutic approach, which has been focused on recent research, has as its objective, the posturing of the mandibule and, consequently, the tongue more anteriorly, thus in turn leading to an increase in the posterior oropharyngeal airway space (PAS). Cephalometry contributed determining in this case whereby enlargement limits were observed in the PAS with mandibular displacement. Clinical and polysomnographic controls showed subjective reduction of the excessive daytime sleepiness and objective decrease in apneas intensity to normal limits. Eight months follow-up evidenced the steady improvement.

  18. [Fixed appliances current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droschl, H; Eskici, A; Bantleon, H P; Muchitsch, A P

    1989-11-01

    Recent advances in fixed appliances are reviewed and discussed. These include cosmetically more appealing brackets (ceramic, lingual); new wires (nickel-titanium and titanium-molybdenum alloys); new biomechanical approaches (accurate computation of forces and torques according to Burstone resulting in the use of new mechanical concepts); experiences in the treatment of transplanted teeth made in the past 15 years; new approaches to the orthodontic finish (implementation of Andrews' "six keys to normal occlusion" with straight wires, accurate positioning of brackets, and gnathological positioners). Cases will be demonstrated.

  19. Scheduling home appliances for energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    the electrical devices are classified into low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate normally. On the contrary, the low priority devices are granted or denied access to electrical power according to; their energy consumption and the available margin....... This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks. Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. To analyze...

  20. Turning the Appliance Market Around towards A++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Brange, Birgitte; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    2007-01-01

    energy efficient model within their specification, and 4) in the website are also listed the shops, where consumers can get the appliances at lowest prices. The latter was the most innovative and maybe also the most effective measure in the package. Results showed up as a permanent U-turn of the market...... in the course of a few years. Where models C, D, E earlier dominated the market, the A, A+ and A++, came to dominate as the standard models in stock. Consequently, their prices dropped significantly. The theory of a rational market behavior is based on some assumptions, one being that full information...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and...

  2. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  3. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  4. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (p<0.05). Also, there were fewer unplanned changes (p<0.0005) seen with SenSura than with the reference appliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (p<0.0005), and they had greater resistance to erosion (p<0.05). In conclusion, SenSura performed better than the reference appliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  5. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  6. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  7. A Comparative Survey on Importance of Marketing Communications between European Companies and Eastern Asian Companies for Home Appliances in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communications or promotion is one of the elements which can have an effect on consumers’ behavior through five important and effective marketing elements. Among all commercial products, household appliances are significantly noteworthy based on their strategic nature. Exploiting marketing communications mix in selling domestic appliances produced in other countries, in an attempt to sell them in Iran could effectively entice customers into buying such products through the manipulation of their tastes and wants. The present study with focus on related literature on marketing communications, aims at investigating the degree of importance of marketing communications on selling the foreign household appliances in Iran based on a descriptive-applied research through pair wise comparison. Using a pair wise comparison questionnaire, including 60 questions in three parts, the researcher collected data from the senior managers of big household appliances companies in Europe and East Asia who are active in Iran as well, under the basis of present and desirable circumstances. It was concluded that there is a difference between companies producing household appliances in Europe and East Asia considering the importance of elements of marketing communications.

  8. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss.

  9. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Wilhelm; Pfaller, Karin; Konta, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific

  10. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application

  11. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  12. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea treatment with dental appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Reimão

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 40-year-old male patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is reported, with emphasis on treatment with a dental appliance. This therapeutic approach, which has been focused on recent research, has as its objective, the posturing of the mandibule and, consequently, the tongue more anteriorly, thus in turn leading to an increase in the posterior oropharyngeal airway space (PAS. Cephalometry contributed determining in this case whereby enlargement limits were observed in the PAS with mandibular displacement. Clinical and polysomnographic controls showed subjective reduction of the excessive daytime sleepiness and objective decrease in apneas intensity to normal limits. Eight months follow-up evidenced the steady improvement.

  14. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S3: THIRD INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  15. Simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Simulation technology has been widely used for performance prediction and optimal design of refrigeration and air conditioning appliances. A brief history of simulation technology for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is reviewed. The models for evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube and thermal insulation layer are summarized, and a fast calculation method for thermodynamic properties of refrigerant is introduced in this paper. The model-based intelligent simulation technology and the simulation technology based on graph theory are also illustrated. Finally, an updated trend of simulation technology development for refrigeration and air conditioning appliances is discussed.

  16. Twin block appliance combined with activator in correction of mandibular retrognathism%双阻板矫治器联合肌激动器矫治下颌后缩畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟小龙; 陈松龄; 张春元

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨用双阻板矫治器(twin block appliance,TBA)联合肌激动器矫治下颌后缩畸形的临床价值.方法 24例下颌后缩的骨性Ⅱ类Ⅰ分类错(牙合)患者,分为两组,每组12例,分别采用TBA联合肌激动器和传统的TBA矫治方法进行矫治.患者均在治疗的开始、第1期结束时和第2期结束时摄取X线头颅侧位定位片,用McNamara分析法进行各参数的测量分析.结果 两组在矫治的第1期皆能有效改善面型,下颌后缩得到纠正,前牙建立正常咬合关系.在矫治的第2期,TBA联合肌激动器矫治组后牙建(牙合)良好,并能维持第1期达到的前牙正常咬合关系;传统的TBA矫治组在后牙建(牙合)过程中不能很好地维持前牙正常咬合关系,下前牙向后移动,下颌向后向上回复.结论 TBA联合肌激动器矫治下颌后缩畸形,较传统的TBA矫治器矫治方法有明显的优势,值得提倡.

  17. Residential consumer's handbook for wood-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, D.; Maxwell, T. T.; Nunnelly, R. M.

    1981-11-01

    This manual describes the various types of wood burning appliances and accessories on the market. The characteristics of the various types of units are given to assess the best unit for a given application. Tips on selecting a unit are given. The most important overall considerations are shown to be the size (heat output) and safety features of the unit. Performance parameters, particularly heat output and efficiency, are defined. Test values for these parameters for several appliances of each type are given. This summary of results allows the various types of appliances and design features to be evaluated. This table also shows that the performance of units in a given category is very similar. Hence price, quality of construction, appearance, and type of appliance, rather than efficiency, become the most important parameters in selecting a stove in a given category.

  18. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  19. [Neon-colored plastics for orthodontic appliances. Biocompatibility studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, K U; Erdinger, L; Komposch, G; Sonntag, H G

    1995-01-01

    Public concern and issues of liability have made product safety a major concern throughout the medical field including orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of the new neon colored plastic materials to be used for removable orthodontic appliances before they reach the market and are used in patient treatment. In addition, eight modifications of this synthetic material, which has been used in appliances for many years, were examined without neon color. The procedures established tested for: 1. mutagenicity, 2. toxicity, and 3. irritation of the mucous membrane. As alternatives to using animals the Ames Test, the Agar Overlay Assay, and the HET-CAM Test were employed to test for these properties. The tests revealed that, when the manufacturer's instructions are followed, neither the polymerized materials as used in patient appliances nor the shavings resulting from the orthodontist or the technician grinding the appliance exhibit mutagenic, toxic, or irritating properties.

  20. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the standard provides for the same complement of handholds, sill steps, ladders, hand or parking brakes, running boards, and other safety appliances as are required for a piece of equipment of...

  1. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good opportunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode

  2. Mini-implant-borne Pendulum B appliance for maxillary molar distalisation: design and clinical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Benedict; Katyal, Vandana; Drescher, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    A treatment objective of upper molar distalisation may often be required during the correction of a malocclusion. Distalisation is not only indicated for the management of Class II patients, but also for Class III surgery patients who require decompensation in the upper arch if upper incisor retrusion is needed. Unfortunately, most conventional intra-oral devices for non-compliance maxillary molar distalisation experience anchorage loss. A Pendulum type of appliance and a mini-implant-borne distalisation mechanism have been designed which can be inserted at chair-side, without a prior laboratory procedure and immediately after mini-implant placement. For re-activation purposes, a distal screw may be added to the Pendulum B appliance.

  3. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  4. Formal Modeling for Information Appliance Using Abstract MVC Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Arichika, Yuji; Araki, Keijiro

    2004-01-01

    In information appliance development, it is important to divide core functions and display functions because information appliance have various user interface and display functions changed frequently. Using MVC architecture is one way to divide display functions and core functions. But MVC architecture is implementation architecture and there are some gaps to get abstract model. On the other hand it is known that formal methods are useful for constructing abstract model. Therefore we intend t...

  5. Electrical part Temelin NPP - important electrical appliance power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Trnka, Radek

    2009-01-01

    Radek Trnka Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of South Bohemia Electrical part of Temelin Nuclear Power Station - Power supply of important electrical appliances The subject of this bachelor's work is an elaboration of problems of secured electric power supply for all important appliances in Temelin Nuclear Power Station (JE Temelin). There is an essential electrical conception of the nuclear power station described there, as well as possibilities of failure state emerge...

  6. Improved Appliance Coordination Scheme with Waiting Time in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas A. Al Balas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids aim to merge the advances in communications and information technologies with traditional power grids. In smart grids, users can generate energy and sell it to the local utility supplier. The users can reduce energy consumption by shifting appliances’ start time to off-peak hours. Many researchers have proposed techniques to reduce the previous issue for home appliances, such as the Appliances Coordination (ACORD scheme and Appliances Coordination with Feed In (ACORD-FI scheme. The goal of this work is to introduce an efficient scheme to reduce the total cost of energy bills by utilizing the ACORD-FI scheme to obtain an effective solution. In this work three scheduling schemes are proposed: the Appliances Coordination by Giving Waiting Time (ACORD-WT, the Appliances Coordination by Giving Priority (ACORD-P, and using photovoltaic (PV with priority and waiting time scheduling algorithms. A simulator written in C++ is used to test the performance of the proposed schemes using. The performance metric used is the total savings in the cost of the energy bill in dollars. The first comparison for the proposed schemes with the ACORD-FI, and the results show that the efficiency of the proposed ACORD-WT is better than the ACORD-FI, regardless of the number of appliances. Moreover, the proposed ACORD-P, is also better than the standard ACORD-FI.

  7. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  8. Preventive and interceptive orthodontics for the 5 to 12 year-old. Functional appliances: the Nite-Guide and Occlus-o-Guide techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinerman, V; Bergersen, E O

    2011-04-01

    hree orthodontic procedures are described that are used to prevent, intercept, and correct malocclusions at three distinct stages of dental development. Each stage of development (5 to 7 years, 8 to 12 years, and 12 years through adulthood) uses an appliance selected from a series of several preformed sizes. All have predicted socket dimensions to receive unerupted, erupting or fully erupted teeth. These sockets are prearranged in a perfect Class I occlusion. In the first group of appliances, specifically designed for the 5 to 7 year-old (called Nite-Guide), one selects a single size that is large enough to accommodate the teeth after they become straight. This appliance is worn passively while sleeping and simply guides the incoming incisors to straighten themselves using only their own force of eruption. Once straight, the adult collagenous fibers form and thereby prevent most future relapse from occurring. At the same time, the incoming incisors are prevented from over-erupting into a deep overbite and the mandible is advanced to correct any excess overjet. Similarly-designed appliances are also used to correct malocclusions in the mixed and adult dentitions. To obtain optimum results at these ages, active wear of about two hours per day is required. The treatment time is very fast (1 to 12 months in most cases) and the same appliance is also used as the retainer of choice. Most malocclusion problems such as crowding, rotations, overbite, overjet and TMD are 80 to 95% corrected in those wearing the appliance as directed.

  9. Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Dental Plaque and Gingiva in Patients with Oral Cleft Malformation Treated with Multibracket and Removable Appliances: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Machorowska-Pieniążek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic appliances modify the local environment of the oral cavity, increase the accumulation of dental plaque, and affect the condition of the gingiva. The aim of this study is assessment of Brazilian propolis toothpaste’s effect on plaque index (PLI and gingival index (GI in patients with CL/CLP treated using orthodontic appliances in the 35-day study period. The study population included 96 patients of an Orthodontic Outpatient Clinic, ACSiMS in Bytom. All the patients participated in the active phase of orthodontic treatment using buccal multibracket appliances or removable appliances. During the first examination, each patient was randomly qualified to the propolis group or control group. A statistically significant decrease in GI and PLI in the entire propolis group (P<0.01 was shown during repeated examination. Insignificant change in GI was in the entire control group during the repeated examination compared to the baseline. Similar result was obtained in patients treated with multibracket and removable appliances. The orthodontic appliance type did not affect the final dental plaque amount and gingival condition in patients using the propolis toothpaste. These results may be clinically useful to improve prevention and control oral infectious diseases during orthodontic treatment patients with oral cleft.

  10. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. METHODS: Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p < 0.05 to assess force, resilience, and elastic modulus. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference in the forces generated, resilience and elastic modulus were found between the 0.032-in 0.036-in thicknesses (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Appliances made of low-nickel stainless steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  11. The application of masonry chimney venting tables for oil-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the results of work in developing a set of rational guidelines for the venting of modern oil-fired appliances. The activities included the continued development and completion of the Oil-Heat Vent Analysis Program (OHVAP), Version 1.0 and the interpretation of nearly 2,000 runs in preparing recommendations for presentation in table form. These results are presented in the form of venting tables for the installation of chimney vent systems for mid- and high-efficiency oil-fired heating appliances using masonry chimneys. A brief description of OHVAP is given as well as a discussion of what the program does. Recommendations based on the results of OHVAP are presented in the form of five tables spanning oil-fired appliance Steady state Efficiencies (Eff{sub ss}) of 80% to 88%. The assumptions used in the calculations and examples of the computed results are presented as well as a discussion of the rationale for masonry chimney system treatment. Working examples are given with suggested diagnostic approaches for application of the table recommendations.

  12. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  13. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  14. Energy efficient appliance choice under the EU labeling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This paper extends the existing empirical literature on consumers' choices when exposed to energy labeling schemes by allowing choices to depend on household socio-economic characteristics, technology-related factors, behavioral and motivational factors, and country conditions in a multi-country analysis. To account for a possible knowledge-based selection bias, the econometric model distinguishes label class knowledge from the energy class choice decision. As a general finding, most covariates show stronger relationships with knowledge of labeling class than with the choice of energy efficiency class. Four factors show particularly strong and expected influences on label class awareness. First, general awareness of household energy use and energy saving technologies spills over into awareness of the energy class of specific appliances. Second, socioeconomic characteristics mater, as education increases label class awareness and older age reduces awareness. Third, economic incentives matter, as stated economic importance of energy saving and higher country electricity prices both generate greater label awareness. By contrast, stated concerns about global warming do not appear to have a broad impact on awareness. Fourth, effective country implementation of the labeling scheme raises label awareness. More surprisingly, most factors that promote awareness of appliance energy classes have a limited influence on actual appliance energy class choice. Efficient energy behavior in the household is not strongly linked to appliance energy class choice. Socio-economic characteristics also have limited influence. This finding is inline with other studies that find that household socio-economic characteristics have relatively weak associations with the adoption of energy efficient technologies (Mills and Schleich 2010, Brohmann et al. 2009). In fact, with education it is vocational degrees rather than university degrees that are positively associated with the propensity to

  15. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  16. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  17. The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Monika A; van Waes, Hubertus J M; Filippi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Halitosis is a widely spread condition. There are numerous causes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on the occurrence of halitosis. 55 patients in an orthodontic practice were monitored at three points in time after application of orthodontic appliance (T1: immediately after application, T2: 4 weeks after application, T3: 3 months after application). Monitoring included patient self-evaluation, plaque index, tongue coating index and organoleptic measurement. The subjective parameters taste, dry mouth and breath odor did not show statistical differences. However, with the presence of fixed orthodontic appliances, confidence when performing dental hygiene decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.003). Additionally, the tongue coating index showed a statistically significant difference between T1 and T2 (p = 0.012) as well as T1 and T3 (p ⟩ 0.001). Analogous results were found for organoleptic measurement (T1 and T2 [p = 0.002]; T1 and T3 [p ⟨ 0.001]) and plaque index (T1 and T2/ T3 [p ⟨ 0.001]). Fixed orthodontic appliances lead to a statistically significant increase of the plaque and tongue coating indices. A statistically significant increase was also observed with organoleptic measurement scores. The suspected positive correlation between halitosis and fixed orthodontic appliances was confirmed. Halitosis can be an important indicator of oral health during orthodontic treatment and can serve as a motivating factor for adequate patient oral health care maintenance.

  18. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  19. Class II malocclusion therapy using fixed orthodontic appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škufca Bojan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depending on the indication, and the age of a patient, class II division I malocclusion can be treated by a fixed or mobile orthodontic appliance, with or without teeth extraction. Case report. A treatment of a male patient, 15 years old, with dentoalveolar class II division I was described. On the base of clinical findings, study case analysis, analysis of orthopan and profile cephalogram, there were class II division I with protrusion of frontal teeth and mild crowding in lower jaw assessed. The patient was treated by fixed orthodontics appliances (SWA Roth .022" in both jaws for 18 months, with the retention period of the same length. Conclusion. Fixed ortodontic appliances are necessary when bodily movement of the teeth is indicated - in this case for cuspids distalization and retraction of incisors.

  20. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  1. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  2. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  3. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  4. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk;

    2011-01-01

    (RFS) algorithm, which was originally developed for telecommunication networks, is applied. The purpose is to analyze how a power consumption limit and priorities for home appliances will affect the demand peak and the users’ everyday life. Verification of the effectiveness of the RFS algorithm is done....... Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. In order to analyze this scenario, teletraffic engineering theory, which is used in evaluating the performance of telecommunication networks, is used. A reversible fair scheduling...

  5. Management of anterior dental crossbite with removable appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Tuba Ulusoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the treatment of an 8-year-old girl with anterior dental crossbite using a series of removable appliances to bring the teeth into a normal position. Clinical presentation and intervention: A removable acrylic appliance with a bite plate incorporating a screw was used to correct the anterior dental crossbite and align the incisors. The subsequent eruption of the maxillary left lateral incisor on the palatinal side was treated with a second acrylic plate incorporating a labiolingual spring. After an 8-month period, the anterior crossbite involving multiple incisors was corrected.

  6. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  7. Design and Implementation of the Information Appliance's Home Gateway Based on CORBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhu; LIU Hong

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of a variety of IA (information appliances) and the development of network technology, a convenient and effective platform is needed to control home appliances.This paper presents a "Web_CORBA home gateway" ,provides an inter-face definition of information appliances and eventually complete the internet remote control.Information Appliance refrigerator to be given as an example of the specific design process.

  8. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for..., airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided...

  9. 77 FR 61385 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... purposes, the written product description, available in Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks...

  10. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of... rescission of administrative review concerning the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and...

  11. Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

  12. Energy conservation opportunities in commercial appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.R.; Searight, E.F.; Wong, A.

    1978-12-01

    This study establishes a data base of energy-consuming appliances in the commercial sector, and identifies and rates the most-promising development opportunities that would save significant amounts of energy on a national level. A detailed national inventory of 45 major appliances and their energy consumption was established for the year 1975. Thirty-four potential appliance improvements were identified, evaluated, and ranked. The opportunities are identified by means of a literature search and contact with industry representatives. The commercial sector is defined in terms of the divisions prescribed in the S.I.C. Manual (1972) of the OMB. These groups are recombined into the commercial subsectors of communications; utilities; wholesale; retail; finance, insurance, real estate, and services; hospital; schools; and public administration. The major energy-consuming appliances in the following six functional-use categories were identified: space heating and cooling; water heating; refrigeration; cooking; and lighting. The equipment in these categories was estimated to consume 87% of the total energy used in the commercial sector, with the remaining 13% consumed by equipment such as computers, business machines, laundry equipment, dishwashing, and other food-service equipment. (MCW)

  13. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to avoid displacement. For the purpose of servicing and replacement, each appliance shall be both... the manufactured home. Any opening for ducts, piping, wiring, etc., shall be sealed. (e) A forced air... enclosure. (3) Cooling coils installed as a portion of, or in connection with, any forced-air furnace...

  14. The Next Generation of Appliances: Visions for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1998-01-01

    The suggestions for future generations of appliances presented in this paper are based on the assumption of an increasing awareness of the environmental problems and of real human well-being. In some sense it will reflect the author´s personal preferences. A future refrigerator can be designed...

  15. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  16. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  17. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  18. A System for Smart Home Control of Appliances based on Timer and Speech Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Haque, S M Anamul; Islam, Md Ashraful

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to design and construct a microcomputer based system: to control electric appliances such as light, fan, heater, washing machine, motor, TV, etc. The paper discusses two major approaches to control home appliances. The first involves controlling home appliances using timer option. The second approach is to control home appliances using voice command. Moreover, it is also possible to control appliances using Graphical User Interface. The parallel port is used to transfer data from computer to the particular device to be controlled. An interface box is designed to connect the high power loads to the parallel port. This system will play an important role for the elderly and physically disable people to control their home appliances in intuitive and flexible way. We have developed a system, which is able to control eight electric appliances properly in these three modes.

  19. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself.

  20. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice.

  1. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  2. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Kaushik, Noopur; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most challenging tasks for a pediatric dentist is the management of deleterious oral habits which adversely affect the dentofacial complex. However, if these habits can be intercepted and diagnosed well in time, they can save the patient from the psychological impact of undergoing long treatment therapies. One such rare deleterious oral habit is cheek biting that affects the buccal mucosa. Presented here is a case report which describes the interception of this deleterious habit in a 15-year-old female child who was a bilateral cheek biter with the help of an innovative intraoral appliance: The cheek plumper. How to cite this article: Rana V, Srivastava N, Kaushik N, Panthri P. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):146-148. PMID:27365937

  3. "False" migration of rigid fixation appliances in pediatric craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, F A; Hardy, S; Morales, L; Walker, M; Enlow, D

    1995-07-01

    Osseous fixation techniques have been widely used to provide rigid stabilization in the craniofacial skeleton. Reported sequelae of its usage has been limited to palpation of the screw-plate system and radiological imaging artifacts. Over the past 3 years we have identified miniplates, microplates, and wire sutures on the inner cranial table of the growing child. The observation of "false" migration of these appliances has provided the impetus to review these patients in more detail. Twenty patients underwent secondary cranial remodeling within a two-year period; 7 of these patients were seen to have "false" migration. There were no untoward sequelae in removal of these appliances, and no adverse neurological symptoms were seen.

  4. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  5. Exploration on the Development of Waste Household Appliance Reverse Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 王志玲

    2014-01-01

    China is not only the largest producer of electrical and electronic products, but also a big consumer. Over a long time, many products have reached the peak of being abandoned, with the increasingly awareness of environmental protection, developing an efficient recycling logistics system can not be delayed. It mainly leads to the concept of reverse logistics through analyzing the current situation of waste household appliances, and puts forward several suggestions for the current status and future development of reverse logistics.

  6. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  7. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  8. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  9. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments.

  10. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  11. Characteristics of indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling while using air appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornnumpa, C; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C

    2015-11-01

    Characteristics of radon and its progeny were investigated in different air conditions by turning four types of indoor air appliances on and off in a two-story concrete Japanese dwelling. The four appliances were air conditioner, air cleaner, gas heater and cooker hood. The measurements were done using two devices: (1) a Si-based semiconductor detector for continuous measurement of indoor radon concentration and (2) a ZnS(Ag) scintillation counting system for equilibrium-equivalent radon concentration. Throughout the entire experiment, the cooker hood was the most effective in decreasing indoor radon concentration over a long period of time and the less effective was the air conditioner, while the air cleaner and gas heater did not affect the concentration of radon. However, the results measured in each air condition will differ according to the lifestyles and activities of the inhabitants. In this study, indoor radon and its progeny in a Japanese dwelling will be characterised by the different air conditions.

  12. Estimating the impact of the home appliances trade-in policy on WEEE management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuguang; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Juwen; Liang, Honggen; Han, Yuebin

    2012-11-01

    The ever-increasing amount of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a global problem. In view of the deleterious effects of WEEE on the environment and the valuable materials that can be reused in them, many countries have focused their attention on the management of WEEE and the recovery technologies of WEEE. The Chinese government has been active in creating a legislative and institutional framework to realize WEEE recycling. In June 2009, Chinese government launched home appliances and electronics trade-in implementation solution. This paper elaborates the home appliances trade-in policy and its significant impact on the WEEE management. The trade-in policy is not only conducive to expanding the consumption demand and promoting the balance of domestic and overseas demand, but also favorable to improving the energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution. Under this policy, China has successfully established an effective WEEE recycling system, using the financial means and network design. Experiences gained from the trade-in policy have shown that management systems of WEEE need to be designed and implemented in a multi-stakeholder dialogue.

  13. Functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) II--modus operandi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardimon, A D; Stutzmann, J J; Graber, T M; Voss, L R; Petrovic, A G

    1989-05-01

    A new functional appliance (FA) to correct Class II dentoskeletal malocclusions is introduced. The functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) II uses upper and lower attracting magnetic means (Nd2Fe14B) to constrain the lower jaw in an advanced sagittal posture. In vitro, a special gauge transducer measured the magnetic attractive path and forces. In vivo, 13 prepubertal female Macaca fascicularis monkeys received facial implants and were treated for 4 months with the following appliances: conventional FA (four subjects), FOMA II (five subjects), a combined FOMA II + FA (two subjects), and sham (control) appliance (two subjects). The in vitro results showed the following: vertico-sagitally displaced upper and lower magnets attracted ultimately along an oblique line with a terminal horizonal slide to become fully superimposed; the functional performance improved when the magnetic interface acted as a magnetic inclined plane; and the magnetic force was able to guide and constrain the mandible toward the constructive protrusive closure position (CPCP) (1.2 mm, F = 570 gm) from levels below the habitual rest position (3 mm, F = 219 gm) and the electromyographic (EMG) relaxed position (8.5 mm, F = 45 gm). The in vivo results demonstrated the following: functional performance increased in FOMA II (22%) and in the combined FOMA II + FA (28%) over the conventional FA; mandibular length increased significantly in the treated animals (means = 2.83 +/- 0.70 mm) over the control animals (means = 0.43 +/- 0.08 mm); incisor proclination was lower in magnetic appliances (means = 4.57 +/- 1.76 degrees) than in the conventional FA (means = 8.75 +/- 1.85 degrees); mandibular elongation and condylar posterior inclination resulted from posterosuperior endochondral growth (increased cell proliferation and/or hyperplasia of functional chondroblasts) and by bony remodeling of the condylar neck (apposition posterior border, resorption anterior border), respectively; virtually no

  14. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  15. Management of severe Class II malocclusion with sequential modified twin block and fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Chowdhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliance is an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. A 12 months stepwise mandibular advancement protocol with Herbst appliance has been proved to enhance condylar growth and improve mandibular prognathism. The present case report documents a 12-year-old boy presenting with Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion associated with excessive overjet (11 mm, 100% deep bite, and retrognathic mandible. He was treated by a phase I growth modification therapy using twin block appliance with lip pads in a stepwise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a phase II preadjusted Edgewise appliance therapy.

  16. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Juhi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC). However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA) is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance.

  17. CONSIDERATION UNDER THE SURVEY ON ATTITUDES AMONG USERS TOWARD RECYCLING IN USED COMPACT APPLIANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Nariaki; Nakano, Kazuko

    In this paper, we consider establishment of recycling system under the result of questionary investigation about 10 items of used compact appliances. On gender basis, they have different comprehension about compact appliances recycling system, but make out the importance of it. By age bracket, young people have positive attitudes toward recycling, and great difference of burden charges for compact appliances disposal was seen; they are 1,522 yen in old generations, 1,531 yen in middle age generations, and 560 yen in young generations. This indicates that the recovery in their own backyard with the respect of age compositions at the area is needed for establishment of compact appliances recycling system.

  18. Standby consumption of household appliances; Standby-Verbrauch von Haushaltgeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.; Bush, E.

    2003-07-01

    While electricity consumption of household appliances is well documented for conventional operation cycles, there are still many gaps in our knowledge regarding consumption in the standby status. The aim of this project was to obtain new findings by carrying out market surveys, measurements and evaluations. The total standby losses for household appliances in Switzerland amount to approximately 400 GWh, and the associated electricity costs are about 80 million Swiss francs. The greatest fraction - approximately 80 percent - is traceable to heating requirements for coffee machines. In some appliance categories the share of standby losses compared to overall electricity consumption is extremely high. This figure for coffee machines in offices is 84 percent, for coffee machines in private households it is 60 percent, and for induction cooker tops it is 48 percent. The main technical requirements for enhancing the energy efficiency of coffee machines are an automatic switch-off function and improved insulation of boilers. According to the latest manufacturers' specifications of induction cooker tops, it is apparently possible to significantly reduce the surprisingly high losses associated with control devices. Generally speaking, the efficiency of power supply units could still be improved. It is now possible to reduce consumption levels from the previously standard level of about 4 W to less than 0.5 W. Since it appears that relatively simple measures may significantly increase the efficiency, it is recommended that action be taken. Here, it is essential to work out detailed guidelines and define testing standards for declaring standby losses. The proposal put forward here for an energy declaration for coffee machines is intended to help test centres, EU authorities and manufacturers to carry out uniform measurements and evaluations. Given the high power consumption of coffee machines, their significant efficiency enhancement potential and the availability of

  19. Patients' adherence to hard acrylic interocclusal appliance treatment in general dental practice in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Erik; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate patient adherence to treatment with hard acrylic interocclusal appliance in general dentistry in Sweden and to see if some general factors could predict patient adherence or non-adherence. During the period January - May 2009 a postal questionnaire was sent to all adult patients (> or = 20 years of age) that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance from the public dental health service in the County of Uppsala during 2007 (n=388). The same questionnaire was also sent to all adult patients that had received a hard acrylic interocclusal appliance at a specialist clinic during the same year (n=69). The response rate in general dental practice was 71% and at the specialist clinic the response rate was 91%. In general dental practice, 97% of the hard acrylic interocclusal appliances were stabilisation appliances. At the specialist clinic other types of interocclusal appliances was used to a greater extent. A vast majority of patients in both general dental practice and at the specialist clinic experienced that the interocclusal appliance had a positive treatment effect. In general dental practice, 73% of the patients still used their interocclusal appliances 1 1/2-2 years after they had received them. The corresponding figure at the specialist clinic was 54%. The main reasons for not using the interocclusal appliance, besides disappearance/reduction of TMD symptoms, were different kinds of comfort problems. From the results of this study it is concluded that the patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances made in general dental practice in Sweden is good. It can also be concluded that a perceived good treatment effect, as well as treatment of more long-term conditions, predicted a better patient adherence to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. More studies concerning factors affecting patient adherence in TMD therapy are warranted.

  20. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  1. Surgical and orthodontic considerations for distraction osteogenesis with ROD appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessner, S; Razdolsky, Y; el-Bialy, T

    2001-03-01

    Tooth-borne/hybrid distraction devices offer a new approach for intraoral DO and better control of the distracted bony segments. These appliances also offer a unique characteristic by using the teeth as reference points for obtaining parallelism of the distraction devices to each other and to the vector of distraction in bilateral cases. More studies may be needed for long-term evaluation of the obtained results with intraoral distraction devices as well as biomechanical analysis of stress distribution throughout the mandible after distraction.

  2. REACH Basics for Chinese Producers of Electric Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.Klaus W.Mehl

    2008-01-01

    The following article explains the EU chemical regulation "REACH', explicates the requirements that Chinese producers are facing, and shows how they can fulfill the requirements and secure their access to the EU market. The consequences of failing to fulfill REACH requirements are given in REACH Article 5: No data, no market: ... substances ... in articles ... shall not be ... placed on the market unless they have been registered In other words: Without registration of chemicals Chinese producers of electric household appliances may loose their EU market.

  3. Research and development of efficient, environmentally improved household gas appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research and analysis of performance of three domestic house hold gas appliances was carried out. The objective of this work, based on the conducted analysis of the research data, was to improve the appliances’ performance, prefer ably through relative simple modifications, in order to satisfy DIN 4702 emissions and efficiency standards when using different fuels, including natural gas, liquefied petroleum gases and lower quality natural gas. This report summarizes details of this work and how the objectives were achieved. .

  4. Modified distal shoe appliance--fabrication and clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Indushekar, K R; Amith, H V; Sharma, Shefali Li

    2012-01-01

    When the primary second molar is prematurely lost, mesial movement and migration of the permanent first molar often occurs. This is one of the most difficult problems of the developing dentition confronted by pediatric dentists. Use of a space maintainer that will guide the permanent first molar into its normal position is indicated. In cases with bilateral premature loss of primary molars, the conventional design of distal shoe poses a variety of problems and, therefore, necessitates a customized design for the eruption guidance of permanent first molars. The purpose of this case report is to discuss an innovative design of a distal shoe appliance, which was used with good clinical results.

  5. Mechanical appliances, mechanical movements and novelties of construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2008-01-01

    From the devices that power ships and trains to the workings of clocks, typewriters, and guns, this engrossing visual narrative profiles the specific and unique properties of hundreds of mechanical devices. Nearly 1,000 detailed illustrations depict steam-powered appliances, spring-powered devices, hydraulic equipment, and other machines, many of which remain in common use today. Each apparatus features a detailed line drawing and an informative explanation of its workings and uses. A final chapter chronicles 400 years of impassioned but futile searching for a perpetual motion machine.The comp

  6. System Construction of Reverse Logistics of Retired Home Appliance Products%退役家电产品逆向物流体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何敏; 邓梅玲

    2016-01-01

    In order to construct the reverse logistics system of the retired home appliance products for the household electrical appliance manufacturers, this paper mainly uses the method of literature research, starts from the channel members and channel activities of reverse logistics, and discusses the characteristics of the reverse logistics system of the retired home appliance products in three models, in order to provide an effective way for household electrical ap-pliance manufacturers when choosing the reverse logistics system.%为构建家电生产企业的退役家电产品逆向物流体系,本文主要用文献研究的方法,以逆向物流的渠道成员和渠道活动为出发点,探讨三种模式下的退役家电产品逆向物流体系的特点,为家电生产企业在选择逆向物流体系时提供行之有效的思路和方法。

  7. CAPILLARY BLOOD FLOW STATE ESTIMATION DURING PATIENTS TREATMENT WITH ORTODENTIC MECHANICAL APPLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Domenyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to investigate the palatal muscosa capillary bloodflow in children aged 4.5-9 years with crowded teeth undergoing treatment with removable orthodontic appliances from cold-cured base polymers. The results obtained from the examination of the capillary blood flow based on the amplitude standard deviation, the variation coefficient, the amplitudes of vasomotor, breathing, and cardiorhythms, as well as the indices for active and passive mechanisms of blood flow modulation at the areas under study, showed that the hemodynamics indices in the palatal muscosa got disturbed a month after the treatment was started while the disturbances went even worse at later stages

  8. Developing a New Appliance to Dissipate Mechanical Load on Teeth and Improve Limitation of Vertical Mouth Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Satomi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The principle of leverage to superpose the convex surfaces of two shells was applied to develop a device for treating limitation of mouth opening and called it the “shell-shaped mouth opener” and analyzed pressure on the teeth with the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance. Material and Methods: To compare the TheraBite® appliance and the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance, pressure on the teeth in the dentition model with both devices was analyzed using the Inastomer® flexible conductive sensor. Results: The load was better dispersed to each tooth in the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance in the all quadrants compared to the TheraBite® appliance. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the shell-shaped mouth opening appliance which was originally invented in our lab, dissipated the mechanical load on teeth more evenly than the TheraBite® appliance.

  9. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c)...

  10. Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Cilil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1, and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2. Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

  11. What to Do If Your Appliances Are Wet After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If your home was flooded, look for signs that your appliances have gotten wet. Throw away wet or flooded appliances to protect from shock and fire.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  12. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S4: FINAL REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates from household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy consumption is therefore a matter of managing and optimizi

  13. Toward semantic interoperability of energy using and producing appliances in residential environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy is therefore a matter of managing and optimizing the energy uti

  14. Created in Close Interaction with the Industry: The Smart Appliances REFerence (SAREF) Ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Around two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings can be traced back to the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Today, most appliances are highly intelligent and networked devices, in principle being able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing

  15. Regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances using reversible fair scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption threshold which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. According to the bandwidth demand and priority of each class, the reversible fair scheduling algorithm delays some of the appliances and prolongs...

  16. 77 FR 61396 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of...'') is conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``kitchen racks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of...

  17. 77 FR 12811 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen... Duty Order--Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China, dated January...

  18. 78 FR 63166 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... conducting an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (kitchen racks) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR)...

  19. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsors to distribute copies of this book worldwide at no charge for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.CLASPonline.org and can be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  20. Work-related electrocutions involving portable power tools and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruda, A; Smith, L

    1992-09-01

    Portable power tools and appliances can be identified as the source of injury in approximately 9% of occupational electrocutions. A search of fatality records for 1984 through 1986 in National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) data bases identified 102 electrocutions involving portable appliances and tools that used 110-volt AC and 33 deaths involving welding equipment, which usually operates on 220-volt AC or higher. Of these 102 deaths, 51 occurred in the construction industry, 13 in services, 13 in manufacturing, and 25 in other industries. Plumbing contractors (Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] 1711) had the largest number of deaths (15) in construction. Powered hand-tools were involved in 58 deaths, with electric drills (23) and saws (13) the two largest classes. Proper provision of ground-fault circuit interrupter protection, particularly at temporary work sites, could have prevented most of the deaths from 110-volt AC. Engineering controls for preventing electrocution from portable arc-welding equipment should be evaluated.

  1. Multimedia architectures: from desktop systems to portable appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Vasudev; Konstantinides, Konstantinos; Natarajan, Balas R.

    1997-01-01

    Future desktop and portable computing systems will have as their core an integrated multimedia system. Such a system will seamlessly combine digital video, digital audio, computer animation, text, and graphics. Furthermore, such a system will allow for mixed-media creation, dissemination, and interactive access in real time. Multimedia architectures that need to support these functions have traditionally required special display and processing units for the different media types. This approach tends to be expensive and is inefficient in its use of silicon. Furthermore, such media-specific processing units are unable to cope with the fluid nature of the multimedia market wherein the needs and standards are changing and system manufacturers may demand a single component media engine across a range of products. This constraint has led to a shift towards providing a single-component multimedia specific computing engine that can be integrated easily within desktop systems, tethered consumer appliances, or portable appliances. In this paper, we review some of the recent architectural efforts in developing integrated media systems. We primarily focus on two efforts, namely the evolution of multimedia-capable general purpose processors and a more recent effort in developing single component mixed media co-processors. Design considerations that could facilitate the migration of these technologies to a portable integrated media system also are presented.

  2. Non-compliance Appliances for Upper Molar Distalization: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Tooth Size Arch-length Discrepancy (TSALD) is a common problem in orthodontics. Its clinical signs are tooth crowding, impaction and incisor proclination. The treatment options are dental arch expansion or tooth mass reduction (stripping or extraction). The "extraction versus non-extraction" controversy has been widely debated in the orthodontic literature. Distalization is a kind of arch expansion in anetro-posterior dimension. Several studies have evaluated both the therapeutic effectiveness and the side effects of the appliances for this method of space gaining. In some cases molar distalization is preferred, e.g., a patient with acceptable profile and skeletal pattern and half cusp Class II molar malocclusion or even less. In some cases molar distalization is the only way, e.g., the patient with previous upper premolar extraction and excessive overijet, or a skeletal Class III patient with previous upper premolar extraction needed upper anterior teeth retraction to create reverse overjet aspre surgical orthodontic decompensation. In this review article, we described non-compliance upper molar distalizing appliances.

  3. National Technical Committee on Household Appliances of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 46) Upon the approval of Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Administration of China (SAC),National Technical Committee on Household Appliances of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 46) was officially established in May 2005,taking charge of the work of standardization regarding the safety,performance,installation and repair,etc.,of household and similar electrical appliances nationwide.The secretariat was established in China Household Electric Appliance Research Institute.

  4. 76 FR 56126 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation...'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as well as in test procedures used to...'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as well as in test procedures used...

  5. 77 FR 82 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China, covering the period January 7, 2009, through December 31, 2009. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks...

  6. 78 FR 78815 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of... antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China... kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the PRC.\\1\\ On September 30, 2013, the Department received...

  7. 77 FR 21734 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance... (``POR'') March 5, 2009, through August 31, 2010.\\2\\ \\1\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and...

  8. 77 FR 22559 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period... Review of Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Selection...

  9. 78 FR 5414 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested... Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

  10. 76 FR 20950 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... (``Department'') initiated an administrative review of certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the... Antidumping Review of Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of...

  11. Routines for interocclusal appliance therapy among general dental practitioners in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Maja; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate what kind of interocclusal appliances that were chosen among Swedish dentists when treating temporomandibular disorders (TMD), the clinical rationale for the treatment, the diagnoses that warranted the appliance treatment, the use of adjunct TMD treatments and prognostic considerations, and possible differences in these respects between children/adolescents and adults with TMD, and, finally, possible differences between private practitioners and general practitioners in the public dental service. During the 12-months-period April 2009-March 2010 all general dental practitioners in the county of Jönköping, Sweden, were asked to fill in a questionnaire when performing a TMD treatment with an interocclusal appliance. A total of 394 questionnaires were filled in and returned, 216 (55%) from dentists in public dental service and 178 (45%) from private practitioners. It was found that in 40% of the cases, no pre-treatment recording of the functional status in the masticatory system had been made. The commonest reasons for the treatment were bruxism, headache, and replacement of a previous appliance. Less than half of the appliances made were hard acrylic appliances. Some kind of adjunct therapy had been made in 22% of the cases treated in public dental service. The corresponding figure for those treated by private practitioners was 25%. Therapeutic jaw exercises was the commonest adjunct therapy followed by selective occlusal adjustment. In the vast majority of cases, the dentists judged the prognosis of the treatment to be good. It is concluded that a large number of appliances made to treat TMD were soft appliances, especially in public dental service. This reflects a possible overuse of soft appliances at the expense of hard acrylic appliances. Furthermore, in a large number of cases, the treatment was performed without any pre-treatment registrations, and adjunct therapies were rarely used. In all these respects,there is

  12. Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

    2011-08-26

    Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items

  13. Variations in cyclic mandibular movements during treatment of Class II malocclusions with removable functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Kirsten M; Nägerl, Hans; Hahn, Wolfram; Ihlow, Dankmar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether juveniles with a Class II malocclusion change the neuromuscular control of mandibular movements during the course of orthodontic treatment with removable functional appliances (RFAs). Neuromuscular control can be indirectly evaluated by recording cyclic planar mandibular movements which were freely carried out by the patients (28 girls, 14 boys, aged 11.1 ± 1.1 years at the start of treatment) and measured with an ultrasonic device before, during, and after Class II functional appliance therapy, with either an activator or a bite jumping plate. The cyclic movements represented simultaneous rotations of the mandible around a maxillary and mandibular fixed axis (MFHA) and could be characterized by μ(α)-diagrams (μ = swing angle of MFHA, α = mouth opening angle) and path length (L) of the MFHA. The μ(α)-diagrams clearly divided into four parts: movement representing protrusion, mouth opening, and two parts of backward closing as known from Posselt diagrams. Parameters from the Posselt and μ(α)-diagrams were checked by one-factor analysis of variance on a 5 per cent significance level for group dependency. For one-third of the patients investigated, no significant changes were seen in any parameter pre- or post-therapy. However, patients showing an initially large mouth opening capacity or a very short condylar path changed their neuromuscular control to that of Class I subjects. Analysis of μ(α)-diagrams provides the possibility of assessing changes in the neuromuscular control of the mandible during Class II treatment.

  14. Structural conformation and leaching from in vitro aged and retrieved Invisalign appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Susan; Eliades, George; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, Theodore; Bradley, T Gerard

    2004-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the structure of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) after intraoral exposure, and to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the substances leached from the aligners after accelerated in vitro aging. Samples of Invisalign appliances were randomly selected from 10 patients before intraoral placement and after retrieval, and the prepared specimens were subjected to (1) bright-field optical reflection microscopy to study the surface morphology; (2) Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy to characterize the in vivo changes in molecular composition induced on appliance surfaces, (3) scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to identify the elemental composition of integuments formed on the surface, and (4) Vickers hardness (HV 200) testing. Another set of reference and retrieved appliances was subjected to artificial aging for 2 weeks, and the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The retrieved appliances demonstrated substantial morphological variation relative to the as-received specimens involving abrasion at the cusp tips, adsorption of integuments, and localized calcification of the precipitated biofilm at stagnation sites. Buccal segments of retrieved appliances showed an increase in hardness, which might be attributed to mastication-induced cold work; however, the clinical implication of this effect on mechanotherapy is unknown. In vitro aged and retrieved appliances were found to leach no traceable amount of substances in an ethanol aging solution.

  15. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  16. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  17. Poster Abstract: A Practical Model for Human-Smart Appliances Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Jonathan; Fruergaard, Andreas; Johannesen, Marco Høvinghof

    2016-01-01

    interaction with smart appliances. Two issues stand out: (1) How to impose logical locality when interacting with a smart appliance? (2) How to mediate conflicts between several persons in a room, or between building-wide policies and user preferences? We approach both problems by defining a general model...... for human-smart appliance interaction. We present a prototype implementation with an off-the-shelf smart lighting and heating system in a shared office space. Our approach minimizes the need for location metadata. It relies on a human-feedback loop (both sensor based and manual) to identify the optimal...

  18. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  19. Home Appliances as Home Controllers: Concepts and Set-Top Box Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jovanovic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel softwarebased home control platform suitable as an extension to digital home appliances that are equipped with a CPU (settop boxes, home theatre systems, TV sets, gaming consoles, etc. By using an appliance they are already accustomed to, users become able to control lights, appliances and media playback in their homes. Intelligence and awareness are achieved with a support for execution of recipes – preprepared scripts that define timely actions and respond to triggers obtained from sensors. Software abstraction layer facilitates integration of any desired communication protocol. In our prototype, we supported Zigbee and DMX for light control, X10 for light/appliances control over power line, as well as Ethernet-based optical cameras as motion/presence sensors and UPnP/DLNA based equipment for distributed media playback.

  20. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  1. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeevarathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA, which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  2. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  3. 77 FR 15745 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC): Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... (ASRAC) and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal...

  4. Treatment of pseudo Class III malocclusion by modified Hawleys appliance with inverted labial bow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Negi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo Class III malocclusion is characterized by an anterior crossbite with functional forward mandibular displacement. Various appliances have been devised for early treatment of a pseudo Class III. The aim of this article is to highlight the method of construction and use a simple removable appliance termed as "Modified Hawleys appliance with inverted labial bow" to treat psuedo class III malocclusion in the mixed dentition period. It also emphasizes the importance of differentiating between true Class III and pseudo Class III. This appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of a dental malocclusion in a few months and therapeutic stability of a mesially positioned mandible encouraging favorable skeletal growth.

  5. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathan, J; Koora, Kiran; Sudhakar, V; Muthu, M S; Prabhu, Rathna V

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA), which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  6. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  7. Prevalence of white-spot lesions before and during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, Alessandra; Gherlone, Enrico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of white-spot lesions (WSLs) in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The cross-sectional study sample consisted of three groups of patients: group I, 59 patients treated orthodontically for 6 months; group II, 64 patients treated for 12 months; group 0 (control), 68 patients examined immediately before appliance placement. All groups were treated with a 0.022-inch slot preadjusted appliance and they wore a functional fixed appliance. The presence of WSLs was evaluated by visual examination using the scoring system proposed by Gorelick. The groups were evaluated for differences in the prevalence of at least one WSL using Fisher's exact test, followed by Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. The prevalence of WSLs by tooth type was evaluated with logistic regression (P orthodontic bonding. Considering how quickly these lesions can develop and become irreversible, early diagnosis is of critical importance.

  8. Modified Intraoral Repositioning Appliance in Complete Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    OpenAIRE

    Raghav, Pradeep; Ahuja, NK; Gahlawat, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the modified repositioning appliance was to overcome the shortcoming of existing design for repositioning protruded premaxilla in a child with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Methods The basic principles of design were similar to Latham’s appliance but the surgical pinning of premaxillary segment was avoided and instead acrylic splint was prepared. Conclusions This technique avoids any invasive procedure, is useful to reposition protruded premaxillary segment in bilat...

  9. A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances Through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    can be controlled remotely. The proliferation of smart , controllable devices such as intelligent lighting, AV equipment, HVAC systems, or kitchen ...novel method for selecting and controlling smart appliances in physical spaces through a head-worn computing device with near-eye display and wireless...list selection on a wearable device. We also report qualitative data from using our device to control multiple appliances in a smart home scenario

  10. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  11. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic demands of young age groups. PMID:23956884

  12. Fixed Appliance with Expansion Screw for the Treatment of Primary Anterior Crossbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sanchit; Rao, Ashwin; Chalakkal, Paul; Mony, Saranya

    2016-05-01

    Anterior crossbite occurring during the primary dentition stage needs immediate correction so that functional, aesthetic and skeletal complications may be avoided in the future. This article describes a fixed appliance with an expansion screw that was successfully used for the treatment of primary anterior crossbite. Crossbite correction was achieved in about six weeks. A detailed description with regard to fabrication of the appliance has also been discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil Sema Atuğ Özcan; İsmail Ceylan; Erkan Özcan; Nezahat Kurt; İlhan Metin Dağsuyu; Cenk Fatih Çanakçi

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the levels of interleukine-1 beta (IL-1 β ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in saliva and IL-1 β , TNF- α , and NO in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Method. The subject population consisted of 50 volunteers who were in need of orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. ...

  14. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  15. Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Gošnik

    2009-01-01

    bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowermen...

  16. Introducing the Ordinance on energy efficiency labelling of household appliances on Croatian market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolega, Vesna [Energy institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-07-01

    The legal basis for the transposition of EU appliances labelling legislation in Croatia is the Energy law which Article 13 says: 'All electricity appliances have to be labelled by energy efficiency labels. The contents and design of energy efficiency labels have to be regulated by sub-law document called the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Households Appliances'. On 17th November 2005 the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Household Appliances entered into force. It is based on the Framework Directive 92/75/EEC and implementing Directives 94/2/EC, 95/12/EC, etc for the following appliances: refrigerators and freezers; washing machines; tumble driers; washing/drying machines; dishwashers; electrical ovens; electrical lamps; air-conditioners. Before 1st May 2006, in the majority of larger retail stores in Croatia, the energy efficiency labels were present on strictly voluntary basis. Such labels could be found mainly on refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, dryers and dishwashers. Recently, air-conditioners were also very often equipped with labels. These labels were correctly translated in Croatian, although text does not completely match the label defined in the Ordinance on Energy Efficiency Labelling of Household Appliances. Although such labels are not recognized as the appropriate labelling according the Ordinance, they do provide some practical basis for the implementation itself. Since 1st May 2006, although the Ordinance has been fully adopted, there are no valid Croatian labels attached on all displayed appliances in a number of HA stores. Aiming at household appliances market transformation in Croatia, it is very important at the moment to find the best ways for the Ordinance verification and enforcement.

  17. Assessment of nickel release from various dental appliances used routinely in pediatric dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Parimala; Agrawal, Suchi; Bansal, Arpana; Jain, Ankur; Tiwari, Utkarsh; Anand, Ayushi

    2016-01-01

    Context: The use of nickel-containing alloys in dentistry has been questioned because of the biological liabilities of nickel and the release of nickel ions from dental appliances into the oral cavity. The potential health hazards of nickel and chromium and their compounds have been the focus of attention for more than 100 years. It has established that these metals could cause hypersensitivity. Aims: To assess the nickel release from various dental appliances used in pediatric dentistry. Set...

  18. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances.

  19. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  20. Effect of excess air on the optimization of heating appliances for biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menghini, D. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Marra, F.S.; Allouis, C.; Beretta, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The performance of a domestic appliance for wood logs combustion is a function of several variables, such as the geometric design of the appliance and its operating parameters. Among them, air feeding conditions are really decisive if the objective function is the maximization of the heat recovered from flue gases. Therefore, even if pollutant emissions have to be ever considered, the amount of excess air can be seen as a fundamental parameter in the definition of thermal efficiency of the appliance. In this paper the role of this parameter is analysed. The analysis is conducted by linking the results obtained from experimental data, detailed CFD simulations and a simplified mathematical model based on a network of CSTR. The derivation of an idealized schematization of the appliance was essential to realize the role of excess air variations, with more generality than with respect to a specific appliance configuration. Conversely, while the experimental data and CFD results were necessary to derive the simplified model, the indications given by this simplified model were useful to analyze results coming from both experiments and detailed numerical simulations. It has been evidenced the need to distinguish between the role of excess air in the chemical combustion and in the heat recovery in the appliance as well as to quantify the feedback between these two processes. (author)

  1. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  2. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak Load Shifting & Spinning Reserves: Cost Benefit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.

    2010-12-01

    Abstract In this paper, we present the results of an analytical cost-benefit study of residential smart appliances in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the EPA and DOE to provide a 5% credit to meet ENERGY STAR eligibility criteria for products that meet the definition of a smart appliance. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the challenges associated with increased electricity demand, and increased penetration of renewable sources of power. Our analytical model utilizes current annual appliance electricity consumption data, and estimates what the wholesale grid operating cost savings would be if some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads serve power system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. Historical wholesale market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States are used to estimate savings. The savings are then compared with the five percent credit, to determine if the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as the credit (cost) if not higher.

  3. Treatment with an orthopedic appliance system in relation to treatment intensity and growth periods. A study of initial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmgren, O; Omblus, J; Hägg, U; Pancherz, H

    1987-02-01

    The study comprises an analysis of the effect of treatment with a modified activator combined with a high-pull headgear during a standardized observation period of the initial 6 months of treatment. All patients (24 girls and 32 boys, aged 8.5 to 15 years) had severe skeletal Class II malocclusion. In the first part of the study, the effect of treatment with the appliance both day and night is compared with the effect when it was worn only at night. Only a small and nonsignificant difference was found, but the patients tended to cooperate better if they were instructed to wear the appliance continuously. In the second part of the study, the effect of treatment is related to the somatic maturation of the patients. Longitudinal records of standing height were used to assess whether treatment had been performed before maximal pubertal growth (prepeak period), during maximal pubertal growth (peak period), or after maximal pubertal growth (postpeak period). The skeletal effect was significantly greater in boys treated during the peak period than in those treated during the prepeak period and a similar tendency, although not significant, was found among girls. The number of patients treated during the postpeak period was too small for statistical analysis.

  4. Sleep apnea and occupational accidents: Are oral appliances the solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Lourdes Rabelo Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental practitioners have a key role in the quality of life and prevention of occupational accidents of workers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS. Aim: The aim of this study was to review the impact of OSAS, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP therapy, and the evidence regarding the use of oral appliances (OA on the health and safety of workers. Materials and Methods: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed, Lilacs and Sci ELO. Articles published from January 1980 to June 2014 were included. Results: The research retrieved 2188 articles and 99 met the inclusion criteria. An increase in occupational accidents due to reduced vigilance and attention in snorers and patients with OSAS was observed. Such involvements were related to excessive daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive function impairments. The use of OA are less effective when compared with CPAP, but the results related to excessive sleepiness and cognitive performance showed improvements similar to CPAP. Treatments with OA showed greater patient compliance than the CPAP therapy. Conclusion: OSAS is a prevalent disorder among workers, leads to increased risk of occupational accidents, and has a significant impact on the economy. The CPAP therapy reduces the risk of occupational accidents. The OA can improve the work performance; but there is no scientific evidence associating its use with occupational accidents reduction. Future research should focus on determining the cost-effectiveness of OA as well as its influence and efficacy in preventing occupational accidents.

  5. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  6. The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Abbott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians’ interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5 designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described.

  7. A Novel Approach to Regain Anterior Space Using Modified 2 by 3 Fixed Appliance: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ziauddin; Cheruku, Sampath Reddy; Penmetcha, Sarada; Bagalkotkar, Apeksha; Kumari, Surabhi

    2015-10-01

    Early loss of permanent anterior teeth in growing children has a psychological impact on the child. Anterior teeth are important both aesthetically and functionally. When a permanent tooth is lost, the teeth adjacent to the created space tend to migrate into the space resulting in the space loss. Management of regaining space with the removable appliance always depends on child cooperation for using the appliance as well as for the recall visits. The advantages of fixed appliances over the removable appliances are minimal discomfort, reduced need for patient cooperation and increased control of tooth movements in all three directions of space. Thus, a short course of fixed appliance like the modified 2 by 3 fixed appliance followed by fixed functional space maintainer could be an ideal treatment option for such cases.

  8. The response of periodontal ligament collagen fibres and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noengki Prameswari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that there were several reactions in cellular activity and periodontal ligament collagen fibre as a response after orthodontic force application. Cementum has function to give attachment to collagen fibres of the periodontal ligament, maintaining the integrity of the root, helping to maintain the tooth in its functional position in the mouth, and being involved in tooth repair and regeneration so in the orthodontic tooth movement can induce changes in the cementum. The aim of this research is to investigate that fixed orthodontic appliance can change the amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at pressure site of cementum. This experimental study was held in laboratory with post test only control group design. Twenty two (22 premolar sample from 11 patient were divided into 2 groups. K group as control group (without treatment and P group as treatment group (with using fixed orthodontic appliance. The amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles was examined by light microscopy and measured by image tool program. In the summary, there are increasing amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites as a normal response to remodeling and regenerating to orthodontic appliance and have function for strengthen adhering tooth cementum to the periodontal ligament.

  9. Treatment of Class II high angle malocclusions with the Herbst appliance: a cephalometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavoni, R; Grenga, V; Macri, V

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of treatment of Class II malocclusions by using two different designs of the Herbst appliance. Cephalometric records from lateral headplates of 19 consecutively treated Class II cases were evaluated. The headplates were taken before and after the treatment stage in which the Herbst appliance was used. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group, normohypodivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to bands; the second group, hyperdivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in which a high-pull headgear was also used. The results were compared between these groups and with a control group age-matched from Bolton standards to match the changes in the Herbst samples against what might be expected in case of normal growth during similar periods of time. The results of the investigation revealed the following: (1) 9 months of treatment resulted in Class I dental arch relationships in all 19 cases; (2) the Herbst appliance attached to bands did not significantly modify the vertical growth pattern of the normohypodivergent patients; and (3) in hyperdivergent patients, the use of a Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in conjunction with the use of a high-pull headgear allowed a better control of the vertical dimension, as assessed by the cephalometric parameters (FA, FMA, Go-Gn-SN). The clinician should be aware of the different dentofacial changes induced in the vertical plane by different designs of the Herbst appliance to better program treatment strategy.

  10. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  11. Temporomandibular joint involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: treatment with an orthodontic appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gattinara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: About 65% of children suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA shows a more or less marked involvement of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ with altered mandibular growth, resorption of the condyles, occlusary instability, reduced chewing ability and facial dysmorphia. The purpose of our study is to prevent and to treat the progressive evolution of JIA on craniofacial growth and morphology with a functional appliance; surgery should be considered only in so far as the adequacy of TMJ movement is concemed. Methods: From 1992 until now 72 children with proved JIA and TMJ involvement have been treated (50 females, 22 males, aged 6 to 16 years old. TMJ involvement was bilateral in 61% and unilateral in 39% of patients. A diagnostic workup was carried out involving tomograms of TMJ and cephalometric radiograph and analysis. The authors used a bimaxillary activator in the attempt to modify the unfavourable growth pattern and provide a gradual ante-rotation of the jaw. Results: Almost all JIA patients showed satisfactory long term results, easing of pain, reduced skeletal discrepancy, increased function and good facial profile. Conclusions: The long term results of this study indicate that orthopaedic therapy might control the vicious circle of the malocclusion in children with JIA, preventing exacerbation of mandibular clockwise rotation. Surgical intervention for the improvement of TMJ function should be considered only if a severe restricted state is imminent.

  12. Does the degree of advancement during functional appliance therapy matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kalaly, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of varied degrees of mandibular advancement on condylar growth. Three hundred and thirty five 35-day-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 10 experimental groups (n = 10) and five control groups (n = 5) for analysis of new bone formation and 10 experimental groups (n = 14) and five control groups (n = 14) for molecular analysis. The experimental animals were fitted with bite-jumping appliance to advance the mandible 2 and 4 mm. The rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30. A computer-assisted image analysing system was used to assess the quantity of new condylar bone formation. Molecular analysis utilizing real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the different levels of mRNA expression of different growth markers in the condyle. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a Bonferroni multiple comparison test, showed significantly more newly formed bone in the 4 mm group compared with the 2 mm and control groups on days 21 and 30 (P < 0.05). Most of the examined growth markers demonstrated a significant increase during the 4 mm advancement (P < 0.05). Indian hedgehog (Ihh) mRNA showed a 7- and 5-fold change, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) a 5.2- and 3-fold change and type II collagen a 9.6- and 3.7-fold change in the 4 and 2 mm advancement groups, respectively. Varied degrees of mandibular advancement result in different quantities of new bone formation and levels of expression of growth members: Ihh, PTHrP, and type II collagen. PMID:18343894

  13. Comparison of 2 modifications of the twin-block appliance in matched Class II samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, N A; McKeown, H F; Sandler, P J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes contributing to Class II correction with 2 modifications of the Twin-block appliance: Twin-block appliances that use a labial bow (TB1) and Twin-block appliances that incorporate high-pull headgear and torquing spurs on the maxillary central incisors (TB2). After pretreatment equivalence was established, a total of 36 consecutively treated patients with the TB1 modification were compared with 27 patients treated with the TB2 modification. Both samples were treated in the same hospital department and the same technician made all the appliances. The cephalostat, digitizing package, and statistical methods were common to both groups. The results demonstrated that the addition of headgear to the appliance resulted in effective vertical and sagittal control of the maxillary complex and thus maximized the Class II skeletal correction in the TB2 sample. Use of the torquing springs resulted in less retroclination of the maxillary incisors in the TB2 sample when compared with the TB1 sample; however, this difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.

  14. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  15. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

  16. Implementationof Single Phasing, Over Voltage, Under Voltage, Protection of Three Phase Appliances without Using Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Thakur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tends to develop for protection for costly appliances which require three-phase AC supply for operation. Failure of any of the phases or sudden change in voltage makes the appliance prone to erratic functioning and may even lead to failure. Hence it is of paramount importance to monitor the availability of the three-phase supply and proper voltage supply and switch off the appliance in the event of failure of one or two phases or if required voltage level is not available. The power to the appliance should resume with the availability of all phases of the supply with proper voltage level. The main advantage of this protector circuit is that it protects three-phase appliances from failure of any phase as well as from fluctuation of voltage. The concept in future can be extended to developing a mechanism to send message to the authority via SMS by interfacing GSM modem. Details description of all types of faults is given below.

  17. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  18. Basic Ideas on the Development of Safe Service Life Standard for Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yan

    2011-01-01

    GB/T 21097.1 General Rules about the Safe Service Life and Recycling of Household and Similar Electrical Appliances has been promulgated and implemented.The development of the standard has gone through a few main stages,including basic framework,fundamental requirements,supplementation of details and actual implementation.In China,the safety standards for household appliances are basically identical with IEC 60335 standards and cover a wide range of products.Basically,the standards have got in line with international level and have been identically applied for several years.However,there have been no corresponding standards or specific rules concerning the safe service life of household appliances in the international community including industrially developed countries.

  19. Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

    2012-01-01

    Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 μm-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

  20. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  1. Changes in subgingival microflora after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković-Sandić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to increased plaque accumulation and changes in subgingival microflora. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in frequency of subgingival microflora that occur after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods. This study included 33 orthodontic patients, who were divided into two groups. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the right upper incisor (U1 and right upper first molar (U6. In group A, the samples were taken three times: before placement appliance (T1, after one month (T2, and after 3 months (T3. In group B the samples were also taken three times: before appliance removal (T1, after one month (T2, and after three months (T3. PCR method was used to determine the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia. Results. In group A the frequency of P. gingivalis showed statistically significant decrease at U1 (p=0.049 and U6 (p=0.008, from T1 to T2, and at U1 (p=0.048 from T1 to T3. In group B only the frequency of T. forsythia showed a statistically significant decrease, at U6 (T1 vs. T2, p=0.004; T1 vs. T3, p=0.0003. Regarding other analyzed bacteria, changes in the presence were noticed but no statistical significance was found. Conclusion. Placement of fixed appliances may have an impact on subgingival microflora, but in the first months after the placement and removal of the appliance changes were not significant, probably due to good oral hygiene. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  2. Impact of functional mandibular advancement appliances on the temporomandibular joint - a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivorra-Carbonell, Laura; Montiel-Company, José-María; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many orthodontists have no doubts about the effectiveness of functional appliances for mandibular advancement, the impact on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is still in dispute. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the main effects on the TMJ of using functional appliances, both in healthy patients and in patients with a pre-existing disorder. Material and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Only systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), case-control studies and cohort studies were included. A detailed language-independent electronic search was conducted in the Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Embase databases. All studies published between 2000 and 2015 were included. Results A total of 401 articles were identified. Of these, 159 were duplicates and were excluded. On reading the title and abstract, 213 articles were excluded because they did not answer the research question, leaving a total of 29 articles. These articles were read and assessed. Following critical reading of the full text, eight articles were excluded: seven because they were considered of low quality and one because it published redundant data. As a result, 21 articles were included. Conclusions After treatment with functional appliances, the condyle was found to be in a more advanced position, with remodelling of the condyle and adaptation of the morphology of the glenoid fossa. No significant adverse effects on the TMJ were observed in healthy patients and the appliances could improve joints that initially presented forward dislocation of the disk. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, TMJ, orthodontic appliances, functional, mandibular advancement, herbst appliance, bionator. PMID:27475694

  3. A retrospective cephalometric study of the effects of the Harvold appliance in the treatment of 20 patients with a Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the Harvold appliance on the dentoalveolar and skeletal structures and note the changes produced. The primary impact of the Harvold appliance as shown in this study was dentoalveolar.

  4. New challenge for residential building energy efficiency standards in Japan: unify energy efficiency of envelope and housing appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Chiharu; Nakagami, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Mikiko [Jyukankyo Research Inst. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Residential energy efficiency standards of many countries evaluate envelope performance. Japanese energy efficiency standards of residential building were revised in 1999, and include both a performance standard and a prescriptive standard for envelope energy efficiency. The target is for over 50 % of new houses to meet the standard in 2010. Efficiency of residential appliances are governed by the Top Runner standards. However, these standards consider each appliance individually, but do not evaluate the whole house comprehensively.Because residential energy efficiency varies greatly depending on the performance of appliances, we developed a method to evaluate performance of both the envelope and the appliances, with the following characteristics. 1) Evaluate the energy efficiency of the envelope and appliance together. 2) Evaluate the energy efficiency of the whole house using total energy consumption specified for the space conditioning, water heating, lighting, and ventilation appliances at the time of construction. 3) Evaluate the efficiency for space conditioning and water heating appliances using efficiencies during actual operating time. 4) We have performed detailed measurements to understand the efficiency during actual operation. The evaluation method we developed will have a major impact on future Japanese standards for residential energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the composition of new standards for housing energy efficiency and explain our method for evaluating energy efficiency of household appliances.

  5. 78 FR 21594 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of...'') has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on certain kitchen... rebuttal brief on December 17, 2012. \\1\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...

  6. 77 FR 21744 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of... Department'') has completed its administrative review of the countervailable duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks (``Kitchen Racks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for...

  7. Modified quad helix appliance for thumb sucking and cross bite correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digit sucking habit is a learned pattern of behavior commonly seen in children of preschool age. Prolonged digit sucking beyond the preschool age, lead to the development of malocclusion such as anterior open bite, maxillary constriction and posterior crossbite. Treatment strategies include interception of habit and correction of the malocclusion. The present case report describes a modified quad helix appliance used successfully in a 9-year-old child to intercept thumb sucking habit and simultaneous correction of posterior crossbite. The appliance has the advantage of easy fabrication, being versatile and more patients compliant.

  8. Dental rehabilitation of a child with early childhood caries using Groper's appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joybell, C. Chrishantha; Ramesh, K.; Simon, Paul; Mohan, Jayashree; Ramesh, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The mainstay of pediatric dental practice is the successful esthetic rehabilitation of a preschooler with advanced carious lesions. Loss of masticatory efficiency, compromised esthesis, mispronunciation of labiodentals sounds, and development of abnormal oral habits are compromises arising due to the loss of primary anterior teeth at an early age either due to trauma or due to caries. Parental desire is the most decisive factor for the placement of an anterior esthetic appliance. This unique case report highlights the fabrication of simple, Groper's appliance in a 5-year-old child with early childhood caries. PMID:26538948

  9. Modified Thurow appliance: a clinical alternative for correcting skeletal open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuani, Maria Bernadete Sasso; Stuani, Andréa Sasso; Stuani, Adriana Sasso

    2005-07-01

    Open bite malocclusion is frequently discussed in orthodontics; diagnosis, treatment, and retention can be difficult because this malocclusion has numerous correlated etiological factors. The earlier this malocclusion is corrected, the better the prognosis will be, especially when the problem is skeletal. This article presents a patient with skeletal open bite who was treated in the mixed dentition with an orthodontic appliance that included an acrylic occlusal splint and an expansion screw, based on the original Thurow appliance, to guide the vertical force against the posterior teeth and the alveolar process.

  10. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    , development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsor to distribute copies of this book worldwide, at no charge, for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.clasponline.org and may be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  11. Treatment of temporomandibular disorders with a combination of hard acrylic stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw. A retro- and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Erik; Nilsson, Håkan; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment effect of a combined treatment with a stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw in patients refractory to previous TMD treatment. During a 5-year-period, 2001-2005, a total of 98 patients received the combined treatment at the Department of Stomatognathic Physiology, the Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden. Before the patients received the combined treatment, they had already been given several different TMD treatments during a long period of time, either before referral or at the specialist clinic, with only minor or no effect on their TMD symptoms. The patients were followed prospectively (n=10), or analysed retrospectively (n=88). The data registered were gender, age, main indication for TMD treatment, number of visits to the clinic before and after the introduction of the combined treatment, as well as according to a clinical (Di) and anamnestic (Ai) dysfunction index. The most common causes for treatment in the retrospective material were problems of muscular origin and problems of both muscular and TMJ origin. In the prospective material, most of the patients had mainly muscular symptoms. Both the clinical and anamnestic dysfunction index decreased statistically significantly in the retrospective material after the introduction of the combined treatment. There was a numerical improvement of both indices also in the prospective material. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that a combined treatment with a hard acrylic stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw seems to give a remarkable improvement of TMD signs and symptoms in apparently therapy resistant TMD patients. General conclusions should, however, be made with caution due to the fact that the study did not include any control group. There is an obvious need for randomized controlled studies concerning the efficacy and effectiveness of the combined treatment presented

  12. Sound design for appeal and systems information with vehicles and appliances; Sound-Design fuer Anmutung und Systeminformationen bei Fahrzeugen und Geraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, G. [Universitaet Kassel (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Sound design is introduced as a creative design activity for the development of nonspeech auditory displays. Possibilities and problems with the usage of sound in medicine, aircraft guidance, and film production are presented. Different types and characteristics of sound as well as their importance for appeal and systems information are explained. A procedural model for sound design emphasizes the necessity of task and user orientations. Sound designs for mobile robots as well as, briefly also, for cars, mobile phones, and medical appliances are exemplified and partly demonstrated. (orig.)

  13. Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2003-09-01

    The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a dialogue among participants as to the benefits and barriers associated with EES&L programs. In addition, it is the role of the program organizers to provide participants with the technical details necessary to make progress towards effective efficiency programs. One component of the initiative is to encourage the harmonization (alignment) of existing program components, and the pursuit of new programs coordinated at the regional level. In support of this goal, the report provides information aimed at motivating and enabling cooperative activities which will provide concrete benefits to programs in each country, whether well developed, or still in the initial planning stage. It should be emphasized that the underlying objective of the harmonization component of the SARI/Energy project is to increase the potential for success of EES&L programs of all countries involved, and to reduce burdens on manufacturers, exporters and importers in each country. Harmonization ''for it's own sake'' is not desirable, nor is it suggested that policymakers should bring their programs in line with international norms if doing so would present a disadvantage to their own efficiency programs, or to commercial interests within their country. If there is no such disadvantage, however, the program encourages alignment of policies and provides a forum at which this alignment can be pursued. The report covers several main topics, with varying emphasis. First, a general discussion of the motivation for an explicit policy of regional harmonization is given. Next, the current status

  14. Space Maintenance with an Innovative "Tube and Loop" Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limitations both for operators and for patients. Presented in this article is an innovative "Tube and Loop" SM (Nikhil appliance) which offers several advantages over the conventional band and loop SM. It is not only easy and quick to fabricate but can also be completed in a single sitting and cumbersome steps like impression making and laboratory procedures namely soldering are eliminated. How to cite this article: Srivastava N, Grover J, Panthri P. Space Maintenance with an Innovative "Tube and Loop" Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):86-89.

  15. The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

    2002-01-01

    This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market.

  16. Application of shape changing smart materials in household appliances: A fragmented and inconsistent uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Kassim, A.; Horvath, I.; Gerritsen, B.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shape changing smart materials (SCSM) have a wide range of applications, supporting product functions through material features. Surprisingly, their application in consumer durables such as household appliances is not as expected. This phenomenon could be related to a possible SCSM knowledge gap amo

  17. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  18. 78 FR 51100 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .../Webinar AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open Teleconference/Webinar. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Appliance Standards and..., 2013 at 1:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. (EDT). ADDRESSES: Webinar Only, you may register at...

  19. Microimplant-assisted rapid palatal expansion appliance to orthopedically correct transverse maxillary deficiency in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Chuck; Sung, Jay; McComb, Ryan W; Machado, Andre Wilson; Moon, Won

    2016-05-01

    This case report describes the use of a microimplant-assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) appliance to orthopedically correct a transverse maxillary deficiency in an adult patient. Expansion forces transmitted through the teeth in traditional rapid palatal expansion appliances create unwanted dental effects rather than true skeletal expansion, particularly in older patients with more rigid interdigitation of the midpalatal suture. This 19-year-old patient had maxillary constriction with a unilateral posterior crossbite. A MARPE appliance secured to the palatal bones with 4 microimplants was expanded by 10 mm. Pre-MARPE and post-MARPE cone-beam computed tomography cross sections demonstrated 4 to 6 mm of expansion of the maxillofacial structures, including the zygoma and nasal bone area, and widening of the circummaxillary sutures. Minor buccal tipping of the dentition was observed, but the integrity of the alveolar bone was preserved. This report demonstrates that careful design and application of the MARPE appliance can achieve successful transverse expansion of the maxilla and the surrounding structures in a patient beyond the age typically considered acceptable for traditional rapid palatal expansion.

  20. Distributed demand side management via smart appliances contributing to frequency control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-chen

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays renewable energy has become a trend for energy production but its variable nature has made balancing of demand and supply of the power grid difficult. Dynamic demand management using smart appliances is proposed to serve as a way that part of the regulation burden of balancing demand and supply is shifted to the demand side. However, if all appliances respond to the same frequency deviation, they may start to synchronize, causing large power overshoots and instability of the power grid. Therefore, the idea of implementing randomness into the frequency control of the appliances is proposed and this is what we call a stochastic approach. Simulators are built from scratch to model both scenarios. The effect of synchronization is analyzed and the parameters that can affect the synchronization are investigated. It has been found that the larger the contribution from the smart appliances to the power grid, the easier and faster the synchronization takes place. The stochastic approach solves the problem of synchronization and averages out the large power overshoot. However, the overall performance of stochastic operations is unacceptable due to the randomness in the operation though the mean and variance are as expected. More advanced feedback policies and schemes may be designed to achieve a better performance.

  1. Space Maintenance with an Innovative “Tube and Loop” Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limitations both for operators and for patients. Presented in this article is an innovative “Tube and Loop” SM (Nikhil appliance) which offers several advantages over the conventional band and loop SM. It is not only easy and quick to fabricate but can also be completed in a single sitting and cumbersome steps like impression making and laboratory procedures namely soldering are eliminated. How to cite this article: Srivastava N, Grover J, Panthri P. Space Maintenance with an Innovative “Tube and Loop” Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):86-89. PMID:27274163

  2. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months : a controlled observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maret, Delphine; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Hamel, Olivier; Georgelin-Gurgel, Marie; Van Der Sluis, Lucas; Sixou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eigh

  3. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  4. 75 FR 11939 - Fisher & Paykel Appliances, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Fisher & Paykel Appliances, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 221 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, an...

  5. Pre-directional appliance: A new approach to correct shifted premaxilla in bilateral cleft cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Daigavane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of bilateral cleft lip and palate cases is a challenging task, and if the premaxilla is shifted to either side, it poses a problem for the surgeon to operate and also for the orthodontist to do the orthodontic alignment. The aim of this study was to reposition the shifted premaxilla for better retraction with presurgical infant orthopedics, thus reducing the tissue tension and further scarring which have detrimental effects on maxillary growth. The innovative technique with pre-directional (PD appliance is easy to fabricate and use and works in this direction. Acrylic, springs, permasoft liner, elastics, retentive tapes. Previous approach for the shifted premaxilla was more focused on the surgical correction. In adults, surgery with osteotomy is the only option, with its own limitations and disadvantages, in repositioning the shifted premaxilla. Thus, PD appliance aids to correct the shifted premaxilla in presurgical molding stage. The premaxilla was thus shifted 5.5 mm to the left side, with premaxilla in facial symmetry, with the PD appliance. Presurgical orthopedics with PD appliance is worth in infants with shifted premaxilla in bilateral clefts cases.

  6. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances : A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, W. Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. METHODS: The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (

  7. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  8. Experimental determination of demand side management potential of wet appliances in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M. R.; de Boer-Meulman, P. D M; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2017-01-01

    The potential of demand side management (DSM) of wet appliances (washing machine, dishwasher and tumble dryer) in households with photovoltaic (PV) systems is studied experimentally focusing on evening peak demand reduction and increase in PV self-consumption. In a sample of 100 Dutch households the

  9. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  10. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. Methods. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (

  11. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Willem A.; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Background. The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," " brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into Google

  12. Appliance Diffusion Model for Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Evaluation in the Capital of Lao Pdr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Sasaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the rapid growth of energy demand in developing countries, policies for energy efficiency are receiving increasing attention. Although energy efficiency standards and labeling (EES&L is a standard policy tool in many countries, some developing countries, such as Lao PDR, have not yet implemented them fully. In order to understand the potential impact of EES&L, this paper aims at collecting data that contribute to EES&L and at analysing appliance possessions in Vientiane City, Lao PDR. We conducted an interview survey on 600 households in Vientiane City and performed logistic regression analysis that set possession of appliances as the dependent variable. As a result of the analysis, we identified that the income level and the electricity consumption are the principal independent variables and the relationship of these variables with possession rates depends on appliances. Our model helps identify appliances that are expected to be in high demand associated with either economic growth or human population increase in Vientiane City.

  13. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-01-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  14. Caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Katsaros, C.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic review was performed of published data on the caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The purpose was to develop evidence-based recommendations about the most effective means of preventing white spot lesions in orthodontic pati

  15. Caries outcomes after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: do lingual brackets make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.H.; Attin, R.; Schwestka-Polly, R.; Wiechmann, D.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is considered a risk factor for the development of white spot caries lesions (WSL). Traditionally, brackets are bonded to the buccal surfaces. Lingual brackets are developing rapidly and have become more readily available. Buccal surfaces are considered to

  16. Perception of pain as a result of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, P A; Firestone, A R; Bürgin, W B

    1996-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the intensity, location and duration of patients' discomfort following insertion of orthodontic appliances, and to examine for interactions between patient age, gender, appliance type and the perception of pain. After insertion of orthodontic appliances, 170 patients received eight questionnaires, one they completed and returned after 4 h, then one daily for 7 days. The respondents' ages ranged from 8-53 years (median age 13 years 7 months); 45 per cent were male and 55 per cent female. Of the patients, 65 per cent reported pain after 4 h and 95 per cent after 24 h. After 7 days, 25 per cent of the patients still reported discomfort. Patients' pain intensity scores were significantly higher for the anterior than for the posterior teeth. On day 1, 16 per cent took analgesics and 18 per cent reported being awakened the first night. Comparing a 2 x 4 appliance, a full appliance in one arch and in both arches, no statistical differences were found for reported pain frequency, general intensity of pain, pain at the teeth, discomfort when biting and chewing and analgesic consumption. The perception of general pain intensity, analgesic consumption, pain when eating and the influence of discomfort on daily life were all significantly greater in girls than in boys. Patients younger than 13 years reported pain significantly less frequently than the older patients. The highest frequency of pain was found in the group of 13-16 year olds. The pain intensity did not differ among the age groups.

  17. Greens, suits, and bureaucrats: A sociological study of dynamic organizational relationships in energy efficient appliance policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwom-Evelich, Rachael Leah

    In this dissertation I develop an approach to understanding dynamic organizational relations and the processes of environmental degradation and reform. To do this, I draw on environmental and organizational sociology to inform an empirical study of interorganizational relationships in defining and promoting energy efficient appliances in the United States (US). The dissertation follows a three paper approach which involves (a) an overall introduction to the substantive issue of appliance energy efficiency in the US; (b) producing three separate and stand alone articles of publishable quality to be submitted to professional journals; and (c) an overall conclusion. The three articles are as follows: (1) a synthetic literature review identifying five lessons that organizational sociology and environmental sociology can learn from each other to advance our sociological understanding of organizations, energy issues, and climate change (2) a qualitative case study of the changing relationships between business, government and environmental and energy advocacy organizations around mandatory appliance efficiency standards supporting the development of a context-dependent theory of ecological modernization and treadmill of production theories in environmental sociology and (3) a network analysis of public government, business and energy efficiency advocate's interorganizational relationships and its influence on subsequent organizational behaviors in the appliance energy efficiency field. The second and third articles are based on extensive archival research on organizational negotiations of public record over defining energy efficient appliances in both regulatory and voluntary settings. Finally I will provide an overall conclusion that brings together the most significant findings of each individual article in anticipation of a synthetic approach to the study of organizations in environmental reform.

  18. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  19. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a controlled study on temporomandibular side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doff, Michiel H J; Veldhuis, Steffanie K B; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Slater, James J R Huddleston; Wijkstra, P J; de Bont, Lambert G M; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess variations in the occurrence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients treated with either an oral appliance (mandibular advancement device) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in a 2-year follow-up study. In addition, we assessed the relationship between the mean mandibular protrusion and the frequency of wearing the appliance during follow-up with the occurrence of pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex. Fifty-one patients were randomized to oral appliance therapy and 52 patients to CPAP therapy. TMDs (diagnosed according to the Axis I Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD), pain intensity and disability and mandibular function impairment were recorded at baseline, after 2 months, 1 year and 2 years of therapy. Only in the initial period of treatment the occurrence of pain-related TMDs was considerably higher (24%) in the oral appliance group compared to CPAP (6%). Oral appliance therapy furthermore resulted in more temporomandibular pain compared to CPAP (odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval (1.22-4.43)). However, there were no limitations in mandibular function in both groups during the (entire) follow-up period. Although generally not serious and of transient nature, oral appliance therapy results in more pain-related TMDs in the initial period of use compared with CPAP therapy. Oral appliance therapy is associated with increased pain in the temporomandibular complex in the initial period of use. Because of the transient nature, this pain is not a reason to contra-indicate an oral appliance in OSAS patients. Moreover, TMDs and the risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex appear limited with long-term oral appliance use.

  20. Anterior Sectional Twin Bracket Appliance - Innovative Use for Correction of Single Tooth Crossbite: A Case Report with Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Raj Kumar; Raghav, Pradeep; Reddy, Munish C; Kanwal, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Anterior sectional twin bracket appliance (ASTBA) is a sectional mechanism that involves two brackets on upper central incisors. This appliance is previously been used for correction of rotated incisors and midline spacing. But, detail biomechanics for single tooth crossbite correction is not previously explained. Here, in this article, we are presenting a detailed biomechanics of ASTBA for anterior single tooth crossbite correction along with case report. How to cite this article: Verma RK, Raghav P, Reddy MC, Kanwal R. Anterior Sectional Twin Bracket Appliance- Innovative Use for Correction of Single Tooth Crossbite: A Case Report with Biomechanics. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1): 66-69.

  1. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  2. Comparative Effects of Two Oral Appliances on Upper Airway Structure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Deane, Sheryn A.; Chan, Andrew S.L.; Schwab, Richard J.; Ng, Andrew T.; Darendeliler, M. Ali; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Oral appliances are increasingly being used for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mandibular advancement splint (MAS) mechanically protrudes the mandible, while the tongue stabilizing device (TSD) protrudes and holds the tongue using suction. Although both appliances can significantly improve or ameliorate OSA, their comparative effects on upper airway structure have not been investigated. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep Investigation Unit. Patients: 39 patients undergoing oral appliance treatment for OSA. Interventions: OSA patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the upper airway during wakefulness at baseline and with MAS and TSD in randomized order. Treatment efficacy was determined by polysomnography in a subset of 18 patients. Measurements and Results: Upper airway lumen and surrounding soft tissue structures were segmented using image analysis software. Upper airway dimensions and soft tissue centroid movements were determined. Both appliances altered upper airway geometry, associated with movement of the parapharyngeal fat pads away from the airway. TSD increased velopharyngeal lateral diameter to a greater extent (+0.35 ± 0.07 vs. +0.18 ± 0.05 cm; P < 0.001) and also increased antero-posterior diameter with anterior displacement of the tongue (0.68 ± 0.04 cm; P < 0.001) and soft palate (0.12 ± 0.03 cm; P < 0.001). MAS resulted in significant anterior displacement of the tongue base muscles (0.35 ± 0.04 cm). TSD responders (AHI reduction ≥ 50%) increased velopharyngeal volume more than non-responders (+2.65 ± 0.9 vs. –0.44 ± 0.8 cm3; P < 0.05). Airway structures did not differ between MAS responders and non-responders. Conclusions: These results indicate that the patterns and magnitude of changes in upper airway structure differ between appliances. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical relevance of these changes, and whether they can be used to predict treatment outcome. Citation

  3. Removable orthodontic appliance with nickel-titanium spring to reposition the upper incisors in an autistic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kan; Jang, Insan; Kubota, Kazumi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Taku

    2013-01-01

    A newly designed removable appliance with a shape-memory wire was used for the orthodontic treatment of the anterior teeth in an 11-year-old child who had autism and intellectual disability. The device was designed to reduce the lateral incisor crossbite and the central incisors' labial rotation. The child was treated for 1 year with this removable appliance. Tooth movement was analyzed using cephalograms and surface data were derived from study models. This device proved to be very durable. The lateral incisor crossbite was corrected, and the inclination of the upper central incisors and the interincisal angle were improved. This appliance exerts light and continuous orthodontic force, without requiring any adjustments of the spring wire. The appliance also facilitated orthodontic treatment in a child with intellectual disability in whom treatment with a standard orthodontic device would be unsuitable.

  4. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and

  5. A preliminary report on the use of cane and bamboo as basic construction materials for orthotic and prosthetic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, B; Banerji, J B

    1984-08-01

    Cane and bamboo have been found to be viable and alternative basic construction materials for orthotic/prosthetic appliances and rehabilitation aids. Amongst the appliances made, the night splint and the upper limb splints have proved effective in field trials. The lower limb orthoses and prosthesis however are still at an experimental stage. Of the rehabilitation aids, walkers, crutches and wheelchairs have been found to be remarkably useful, cheap and light.

  6. Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gošnik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

  7. Molar Uprighting Using Mini-Screws after Distalization by the Pendulum Appliance: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old Class II female patient was treated without tooth extraction. The upper first molars were distalized by the Pendulum appliance. After six months, the molars tipped significantly to the distal. To correct this side effect, we decided to upright the molars using skeletal anchorage. On each side, a mini-screw was inserted between first and second premolars in the buccal cortical plate. An auxiliary spring was placed between the mini-screw head and the molar buccal tube. The resultant moment made the first molar upright. In addition, the side effects of this mechanic, i.e. molar intrusion and molar buccal tipping, counteract the extrusion and medial movement caused by the Pendulum Appliance. The aim of this case report was to present an innovative method for molar uprighting using skeletal anchorage.

  8. Prosthodontic management of segmental mandibulectomy patient with guidance appliance and overlay denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, U; Thulasingam, C

    2013-12-01

    Patients who undergo segmental or hemi-mandibulectomy suffer from various postoperative problems in esthetics and function. The solution to such problem is providing a mandibular guidance appliance to correct mandibular deviation to resected side due to loss of muscle action on the affected side. This article describes the treatment of a female patient who underwent segmental mandibulectomy on right side secondary to adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue. An acrylic guidance appliance was constructed to help control the mandibular deviation and co-ordinate masticatory movements. The prosthesis was worn continuously by the patient for 1 month which corrected the occlusion on the left side. To compensate for the open-bite caused due to rotation of mandible following partial mandibulectomy, an overlay removable partial denture was given. The patient was satisfied with the improvement in esthetics and mastication.

  9. Efficacy of Natural Products in Fixed Orthodontic Appliances (FOA Treatment ?A Dental Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND KUMAR.S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacteria are the primary etiologic agents that cause dental caries/plaque. Bacteria have evolved to survive in the environment of the tooth surface, gingival epithelium, and oral cavity. Acidogenic oral bacteria like streptococcus mutans, streptococcus salivarius,Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis and lactobacillus acidophilus primarily causes dental caries/plaque that surround orthodontic appliances in many patients undergoing Orthodontic treatment 1. Such bacteria can lead to tooth enamel breakdown and potential discoloration of the tooth surface, and these aesthetic changes can persist for many years after orthodontic treatment2, 3. Natural products derived from plant source are found to be highly efficient in eradicating the dental caries/plaque found in fixed orthodontic appliances patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

  10. Improved Controller Design of Grid Friendly™ Appliances for Primary Frequency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Sun, Yannan; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2015-09-01

    The Grid Friendly$^\\textrm{TM}$ Appliance~(GFA) controller, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can autonomously switch off the appliances by detecting the under-frequency events. In this paper, the impacts of curtailing frequency threshold on the performance of frequency responsive GFAs are carefully analyzed first. The current method of selecting curtailing frequency thresholds for GFAs is found to be insufficient to guarantee the desired performance especially when the frequency deviation is shallow. In addition, the power reduction of online GFAs could be so excessive that it can even impact the system response negatively. As a remedy to the deficiency of the current controller design, a different way of selecting curtailing frequency thresholds is proposed to ensure the effectiveness of GFAs in frequency protection. Moreover, it is also proposed to introduce a supervisor at each distribution feeder to monitor the curtailing frequency thresholds of online GFAs and take corrective actions if necessary.

  11. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  12. Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajman, Omer; Crolotte, Alain; Steinhoff, David; Nambiar, Raghunath Othayoth; Poess, Meikel

    The success of Business Intelligence (BI) applications depends on two factors, the ability to analyze data ever more quickly and the ability to handle ever increasing volumes of data. Data Warehouse (DW) and Data Mart (DM) installations that support BI applications have historically been built using traditional architectures either designed from the ground up or based on customized reference system designs. The advent of Data Warehouse Appliances (DA) brings packaged software and hardware solutions that address performance and scalability requirements for certain market segments. The differences between DAs and custom installations make direct comparisons between them impractical and suggest the need for a targeted DA benchmark. In this paper we review data warehouse appliances by surveying thirteen products offered today. We assess the common characteristics among them and propose a classification for DA offerings. We hope our results will help define a useful benchmark for DAs.

  13. Interceptive Orthodontics and Growth Modification Therapy with Fixed Functional Appliance: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old female patient presented with proclined upper anteriors on a class II skeletal base, a retrognathic mandible and high maxillary- mandibular plane angle. Lower first molars were mesially tipped and lower second premolars were impacted. Treatment plan included uprighting and distalising the lower molars followed by growth modulation with Jasper Jumper to correct the mandibular retrognathism. Final finishing and detailing of occlusion was carried out through 0.022” MBT prescription preadjusted edgewise appliance therapy. PMID:27678237

  14. Development of a Moldable, Resorbable Appliance for Use in Maxillofacial Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-27

    MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Augusto C. Ibay, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Southern Research Institute 2000 Ninth Avenue South P.O. Box...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Development of a Moldable, Resorbable appliance for ontract No. use in Maxillofacial surgery AMl7-90-C-.0024 6. AUTOR(S... maxillofacial surgery , it still has shortcomings that must be overcome before it can be conveniently used in a clinical setting, particularly those in mass

  15. A Case Study of Marketing Strategy and Logistics System of Changhong, a Chinese Home Appliances Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Min; Li, Ruixue

    2007-01-01

    The growing process of Changhong, a representative Chinese home appliance enterprise, is described in this paper. Changhong succeeded in transforming from a former state-run military-radar factory into China’s leading consumer-electronics manufacturer. However it has been experiencing hardship since 1998 and reported significant losses in 2004.The success and failure of Changhong marketing strategy are expounded.This paper reports Changhong’s recent efforts in strategy shift. It shows Changho...

  16. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  17. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

  18. Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA) on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ cli...

  19. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility.

  20. Three-dimensional evaluation of changes in lip position from before to after orthodontic appliance removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Lindsey; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Hershey, H. Garland; Welch, Gregory; Rossouw, P. Emile

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our objectives were to develop a reproducible method of superimposing 3-dimensional images for measuring soft-tissue changes over time and to use this method to document changes in lip position after the removal of orthodontic appliances. Methods Three-dimensional photographs of 50 subjects were made in repose and maximum intercuspation before and after orthodontic appliance removal with a stereo camera. For reliability assessment, 2 photographs were repeated for 15 patients. The images were registered on stable areas, and surface-to-surface measurements were made for defined landmarks. Results Mean changes were below the level of clinical significance (set at 1.5 mm). However, 51% and 18% of the subjects experienced changes greater than 1.5 mm at the commissures and lower lips, respectively. Conclusions The use of serial 3-dimensional photographs is a reliable method of documenting soft-tissue changes. Soft-tissue changes after appliance removal are not clinically significant; however, there is great individual variability. PMID:22920709

  1. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Schwartz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years, Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B, lingual (L and total (T bone thicknesses were assessed at crestal (1, midroot (2 and apical (3 levels of mandibular incisors. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon t-test were used to compare dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship of changes in alveolar bone thickness. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results: Mandibular incisors showed no statistical significance for vertical alveolar bone level. Alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors significantly reduced after treatment at B1, B2, B3, T1 and significantly increased at L2. The magnitude of the statistically significant changes was less than 0.2 mm. The changes in alveolar bone thickness showed no statistical significance with incisor inclination degree. Conclusions: CBCT scans showed an association between the Herbst appliance and alveolar bone loss on the buccal surface of mandibular incisors; however, without clinical significance.

  2. Clinical evaluation of periodontal health during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hănțoiu T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fixed orthodontic appliances make daily application of oral hygiene standard procedures more difficult and in time may lead to accumulation of oral biofilms and development of gingivitis and hyperplasia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the periodontal health expressed by clinical indices in patients under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, according to different oral hygene maintenance programs. Material and method: We performed a randomized prospective study on 60 patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (17-25 years of age devided in three study groups. The clnical indices recorded were: modified gingival index, plaque index and sulcular bleeding index. Statistical analysis or the results were carried out using Student t test. Results: The patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A-patients were instructed to use electric brush, water flosser and interdental brush, group B- electric brush, interdental brush and fluoride and group C- manual brushing and fluoride. Statistical comparison of the values of the indexes with the Student t test for independent samples showed statistically significant differences in all three groups of patients studied between initial and final values of all recorded clinical parameters. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontics do not induce periodontal disease if basic principles of oral hygiene are followed in compliant patients, which are correctly instructed to deal with real challenge, represented by complete elimination of debris and bacterial accumulation.

  3. The effects, limitations, and long-term dentofacial adaptations to treatment with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancherz, H

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing scientific data with respect to the short- and long-term effects of the Herbst appliance on the occlusion and on the maxillo/mandibular complex. The article also discusses the treatment indications and possible treatment limitations. The Herbst method is most effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions. Long-term stability seems to be dependent on a stable cuspal interdigitation. Marked mandibular morphological changes occur during therapy and sagittal condylar growth is increased. Posttreatment, most of the mandibular morphological changes revert and no long-term influence of Herbst treatment on mandibular growth can be verified. The appliance effect on the maxillary complex can be compared with that of a high-pull headgear. Without proper retention, however, this effect is of a temporary nature. Herbst treatment is especially indicated in the permanent dentition at or just after the pubertal peak of growth. Mixed dentition treatment is not recommended, as a stable cuspal interdigitation after therapy is difficult to achieve and relapses are prone to occur. In the nongrowing patient, the appliance should be used with great caution.

  4. Energy Efficiency of Electrical Appliances - Effects of Instruments and Measures; Energieeffizienz bei Elektrogeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, C.U.; Bush, E.; Gasser, S.; Lingenhel, S.; Nipkow, J.

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of an analysis made of the market for electrical appliances in Switzerland with the aim of understanding the instruments and measures needed to improve energy efficiency better. The paper reports on reviews made of previous studies that were made in Switzerland and Germany and on interviews made with important persons and institutions in this field. Eight basic findings are listed concerning market expansion, technical progress, user behaviour, efficiency, possibilities for intervention, market forces, efficient appliances as a niche market and the competence lacking in the energy-efficiency area. Twelve basic points to be considered in the implementation of an energy-efficiency strategy are discussed and a list of requirements to be fulfilled by politics is presented. The results of the analysis for various sectors and the recommendations made for an implementation organisation are presented in detail. The report is concluded with a extract from the data base on the energy consumption of electrical appliances.

  5. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  6. Dental and skeletal components of Class II open bite treatment with a modified Thurow appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Baldi Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the lack of studies that distinguish between dentoalveolar and basal changes caused by the Thurow appliance, this clinical study, carried out by the School of Dentistry - State University of São Paulo/Araraquara, aimed at assessing the dental and skeletal changes induced by modified Thurow appliance. METHODS: The sample included an experimental group comprising 13 subjects aged between 7 and 10 years old, with Class II malocclusion and anterior open bite, and a control group comprising 22 subjects similar in age, sex and mandibular plane angle. Maxillary/mandibular, horizontal/vertical, dental/skeletal movements (ANS, PNS, U1, U6, Co, Go, Pog, L1, L6 were assessed, based on 14 landmarks, 8 angles (S-N-ANS, SNA, PPA, S-N-Pog, SNB, MPA, PP/MPA, ANB and 3 linear measures (N-Me, ANS-Me, S-Go. RESULTS: Treatment caused significantly greater angle decrease between the palatal and the mandibular plane of the experimental group, primarily due to an increase in the palatal plane angle. ANB, SNA and S-N-ANS angles significantly decreased more in patients from the experimental group. PNS was superiorly remodeled. Lower face height (ANS-Me decreased in the experimental group and increased in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Thurow appliance controlled vertical and horizontal displacements of the maxilla, rotated the maxilla and improved open bite malocclusion, decreasing lower facial height.

  7. A Cephalometric Comparison of Twin Block and Bionator Appliances in Treatment of Class II Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Araghbidi-Kashani, S. Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background Class II malocclusion is one of the most common orthodontic problems. In cases of class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency, functional appliances often are used with the intent of stimulating mandibular growth. Bionator and twin block are two of the more popular functional appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of these two appliances using cephalometric radiographs. Material and Methods Cephalometric radiographs of 33 patients who had class II division I malocclusion, before and after treatment were digitalized. The mean changes in twin block and bionator groups were compared using independent t test. Results Twin block and bionator showed no statistically significant differences in cephalometric parameters except for ANB, NA-Pog, Basal and Ar-Go-Me angles. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in dentoalveolar and mandibular position between twin block and bionator (p>0.1). Twin block was more efficient in inhibition of forward movement of maxilla (p<0.1). Key words:Functional, Class II malocclusion, Cephalometrics, Twin block, Bionator, Treatment. PMID:28149473

  8. The influence of orthodontic fixed appliances on the oral microbiota: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Osório Ayres de Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether there is scientific evidence to support the hypothesis that the presence of orthodontic fixed appliances influences the oral microbiota. Methods: The search for articles was conducted in PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge and Ovid databases, including articles published in English until May 17th, 2012. They should report human observational studies presenting the following keywords: "fixed orthodontic appliance" AND "microbiological colonization"; OR "periodontal pathogens"; OR "Streptococcus"; OR "Lactobacillus"; OR "Candida"; OR "Tannerella forsythia"; OR "Treponema denticola"; OR "Fusobacterium nucleatum"; OR "Actimomyces actinomycetemcomitans"; OR "Prevotella intermedia", OR "Prevotella nigrescens"; OR "Porphyromonas gingivalis". Articles were previously selected by title and abstract. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed and classified as having low, moderate or high methodology quality. A new detailed checklist for quality assessment was developed based on the information required for applicable data extraction for reviews. The study design, sample, follow-up period, collection and microbial analysis methods, statistical treatment, results and discussion were assessed. Results: The initial search retrieved 305 articles of which 33 articles were selected by title and abstract. After full-text reading, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria, out of which 4 articles were classified as having low and 4 as moderate methodological quality. The moderate methodological quality studies were included in the systematic review. Conclusions: The literature revealed moderate evidence that the presence of fixed appliances influences the quantity and quality of oral microbiota.

  9. The geography teacher's set of appliances - `GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' - Self improved school equipment used in teaching geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The multimedia application and the use of Internet are becoming more and more common at schools and at homes due to the widespread of computers. The multimedia programs offer a great help for geography teachers because with their use all the visual aids are not needed in the classroom. They mix the advantages of blacboards, slides, displays, overhead projectors and VCR-s. At the same time offering other opportunities which could not be provided by the aids mentioned above because of their limits. Using a projector connected to a computer students can see the visual aids prepared by the teacher projected. Their use is justified because student's books cannot contain all the increasing amount of knowledge. Success is guaranteed because students are sensitive to new approaches. Digitalizing the material and finding it on the internet that way preparing a colourful, varied geography lesson is a time-consuming process. Being the methodologist and didactic information technologist at the Geography Department of Eszterházy Károly College I have been working for years on facilitating the work of my students, colleagues and my own activity using varied visual aids and types of equipment as preparation for the geography lesson. I have created an electronic set of appliances using the Dreamweaver MX program (‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT', from the 1st September 2006 on the Internet), it can be a real help for the teacher in each teaching situation. The ‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' is a multimedia, Internet service which can be loaded free, the teacher gets into a virtual office clicking to the different pieces (drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, Tv set etc.) the teacher can continue with the necessary school equipment. Such equipment like: lesson plans for the lessons using digital technology, photos, video clips, animation, illustrations, pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database, diagrams, charts, bibliography, student's books, geography lexicons, magazines

  10. Bioinformatics pipelines for targeted resequencing and whole-exome sequencing of human and mouse genomes: a virtual appliance approach for instant deployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Li

    Full Text Available Targeted resequencing by massively parallel sequencing has become an effective and affordable way to survey small to large portions of the genome for genetic variation. Despite the rapid development in open source software for analysis of such data, the practical implementation of these tools through construction of sequencing analysis pipelines still remains a challenging and laborious activity, and a major hurdle for many small research and clinical laboratories. We developed TREVA (Targeted REsequencing Virtual Appliance, making pre-built pipelines immediately available as a virtual appliance. Based on virtual machine technologies, TREVA is a solution for rapid and efficient deployment of complex bioinformatics pipelines to laboratories of all sizes, enabling reproducible results. The analyses that are supported in TREVA include: somatic and germline single-nucleotide and insertion/deletion variant calling, copy number analysis, and cohort-based analyses such as pathway and significantly mutated genes analyses. TREVA is flexible and easy to use, and can be customised by Linux-based extensions if required. TREVA can also be deployed on the cloud (cloud computing, enabling instant access without investment overheads for additional hardware. TREVA is available at http://bioinformatics.petermac.org/treva/.

  11. Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Paula; Dutra, Caio S; Lisboa, Mário R P; Gondim, Delane V; Leitão, Renata; Brito, Gerly A C; Rego, Rodrigo O

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash containing 1% Matricaria chamomilla L. (MTC) extract in reducing gingival inflammation and plaque formation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled a total of 30 males and females (age, 10-40 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances and a minimum of 20 natural teeth. The participants were allocated to three groups (n = 10 each) and asked to rinse with 15 mL of a placebo, 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), or 1% MTC mouthwash, immediately after brushing for 1 min, in the morning and evening, for 15 days. Data (mean ± SD) on visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded on days 1 and 15. The placebo group exhibited increases in VPI and GBI (10.2% and 23.1%, respectively) from day 1 to day 15. As compared with placebo, VPI and GBI significantly decreased in the MTC group (-25.6% and -29.9%, respectively) and the CHX group (-39.9% and -32.0%, respectively). In summary, MTC reduced biofilm accumulation and gingival bleeding in patients with gingivitis, probably because of its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.(J Oral Sci 58, 569-574, 2016).

  12. Changes in soft tissue profile following the treatment using a Herbst appliance: A photographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aesthetics is the reason for most of the class II malocclusion patients to opt for orthodontic treatment. In order to regulate retrognathic profile Herbst appliance for anterior movement of the mandible can be a treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue profile changes following Herbst appliance therapy on before and after treatment photos, using the computer program. Methods. This investigation was performed on profile photographs of 20 class II patients (12 females and 8 males aged 18-23 years. Analysis of the changes in soft tissue facial structure relationships evident on the photographs before and after the Herbst appliance therapy was performed using Bentley Micro Station program. The first contour of the soft tissue profile was marked. The following reference lines were subsequently traced: Ricketts aesthetic E line and Juanita line. The area enclosed by these two lines included the nose, upper and lower lip, chin and free space in front of the lips. Using the computer program, the surfaces of the soft tissue structures and free space defined by the reference lines and profile contours were measured. Calculation of the relative proportion of surfaces was done for each photograph. The data obtained were then compared for each patient before and after the treatment. Skeletal and dentoalveolar treatment effects that support soft tissue changes were presented by the profile cephalometric parameters of sagital occlusion (SO analysis. Results. A reduction in the relative surface of the upper lip in males (p < 0.01 and females (p < 0.05 was shown by the pictures. The space occupied by the chin was reduced after the treatment for females only (p < 0.05. The relative surface of the nasal soft tissues, that was included in the reference space was increased (p < 0.01 in both genders. The relationship between the soft tissue and empty surface was changed in favor of the empty surface (p < 0.05 in

  13. [Appliancation of logistics in resources management of medical asset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Iu V; Goriachev, A B; Bunin, S A

    2011-06-01

    The usage of basic regulations of logistics in practical activity for providing joints and military units with medical asset is theoretically justified. The role of logistics in organizing, building and functioning of military (armed forces) medical supply system is found out. The methods of solving urgent problems of improvement the resources management of medical asset on the basis of logistics are presented.

  14. Efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance on sleep-disordered breathing in children: a study protocol of a crossover randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Idris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB varies from habitual snoring to partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway and can be found in up to 10% of children. SDB can significantly affect children’s wellbeing, as it can cause growth disorders, educational and behavioral problems, and even life-threatening conditions, such as cardiorespiratory failure. Adenotonsillectomy represents the primary treatment for pediatric SDB where adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy is indicated. For those with craniofacial anomalies, or for whom adenotonsillectomy or other treatment modalities have failed, or surgery is contra-indicated, mandibular advancement splints (MAS may represent a viable treatment option. Whilst the efficacy of these appliances has been consistently demonstrated in adults, there is little information about their effectiveness in children.Aims: To determine the efficacy of mandibular advancement appliances for the management of SDB and related health problems in children. Methods/design: The study will be designed as a single-blind crossover randomized controlled trial with administration of both an ‘Active MAS’ (Twin-block and a ‘Sham MAS’. Eligible participants will be children aged 8 to 12 years whose parents report they snore ≥ 3 nights per week. Sixteen children will enter the full study after confirming other inclusion criteria, particularly Skeletal class I or class II confirmed by lateral cephalometric radiograph. Each child will be randomly assigned to either a treatment sequence starting with the Active or the Sham MAS. Participants will wear the appliances for three weeks separated by a two-week washout period. For each participant, home-based polysomnographic data will be collected four times; once before and once after each treatment period. The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI will represent the main outcome variable. Secondary outcomes will include, snoring frequency, masseter muscle activity, sleep symptoms, quality

  15. The Appliance Pervasive of Internet of Things in Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sajjad Hussain Talpur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In fact, information systems are the foundation of new productivity sources, medical organizational forms, and erection of a global economy. IoT based healthcare systems play a significant role in ICT and have contribution in growth of medical information systems, which are underpinning of recent medical and economic development strategies. However, to take advantages of IoT, it is essential that medical enterprises and community should trust the IoT systems in terms of performance, security, privacy, reliability and return-on-investment, which are open challenges of current IoT systems. For heightening of healthcare system; tracking, tracing and monitoring of patients and medical objects are more essential. But due to the inadequate healthcare situation, medical environment, medical technologies and the unique requirements of some healthcare applications, the obtainable tools cannot meet them accurately. The tracking, tracing and monitoring of patients and healthcare actors activities in healthcare system are challenging research directions for IoT researchers. State-of-the-art IoT based healthcare system should be developed which ensure the safety of patients and other healthcare activities. With this manuscript, we elaborate the essential role of IoT in healthcare systems; immense prospects of Internet of things in healthcare systems; extensive aspect of the use of IoT is dissimilar among different healthcare components and finally the participation of IoT between the useful research and present realistic applications. IoT and few other modern technologies are still in underpinning stage; mainly in the healthcare system.

  16. Real-Time Recognition Non-Intrusive Electrical Appliance Monitoring Algorithm for a Residential Building Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Afrifa Agyeman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concern of energy price hikes and the impact of climate change because of energy generation and usage forms the basis for residential building energy conservation. Existing energy meters do not provide much information about the energy usage of the individual appliance apart from its power rating. The detection of the appliance energy usage will not only help in energy conservation, but also facilitate the demand response (DR market participation as well as being one way of building energy conservation. However, energy usage by individual appliance is quite difficult to estimate. This paper proposes a novel approach: an unsupervised disaggregation method, which is a variant of the hidden Markov model (HMM, to detect an appliance and its operation state based on practicable measurable parameters from the household energy meter. Performing experiments in a practical environment validates our proposed method. Our results show that our model can provide appliance detection and power usage information in a non-intrusive manner, which is ideal for enabling power conservation efforts and participation in the demand response market.

  17. The need for seasonal correction functions when calculating the annual electricity use of appliances based on shorter period measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennich, Peter (Testlab, The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Oefverholm, Egil; Bjoern, Torgny (The Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Norstedt, Inger (The Swedish Consumer Agency, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Along with the increasing number of smart electricity meters in the homes - both meters installed by the utilities and simpler ones installed by the household owners themselves - the interest in reliable methods for scaling up data measured during a limited time of the year to annual values, will most likely increase. For example, by measuring some specific loads for some time in a home, an inhabitant may assess possible annual savings when replacing old appliances with new ones. However, a straight forward scaling up calculation to annual values is not always appropriate. An obvious example is lighting, which displays a clear seasonal effect due to the difference in daylight: annual values based on measured summer data will strongly underestimate the annual consumption whereas winter data will lead to an overestimate. Another example going in the opposite direction is cold appliances, where the increase in ambient temperature during the summer increases the electricity consumption. This paper discusses an analysis of a set of appliances which nearly all display different seasonal effects. Apart from lighting and cold appliances, also washing machines, dish washers, TVs and PCs are analysed. Factors influencing the seasonality are discussed; either it is due to behaviour and/or technical parameters as well. Our analysis is based on 10 min measurements of appliances in 400 randomly selected households in Sweden. 40 households were measured during a full year and provided data for establishing seasonal correction functions. (See Appendix 1 for more details on the methodology.)

  18. Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS). An international appliance efficiency policy tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, M.A.; Letschert, V.E.; De la Rue du Can, S.; Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS) calculates potential energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of efficiency policies for lighting, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, appliances, and industrial equipment through 2030. The model includes 16 end use categories and covers 11 individual countries plus the European Union. BUENAS is a bottom-up stock accounting model that predicts energy consumption for each type of equipment in each country according to engineering-based estimates of annual unit energy consumption, scaled by projections of equipment stock. Energy demand in each scenario is determined by equipment stock, usage, intensity, and efficiency. When available, BUENAS uses sales forecasts taken from country studies to project equipment stock. Otherwise, BUENAS uses an econometric model of household appliance uptake developed by the authors. Once the business as usual scenario is established, a high-efficiency policy scenario is constructed that includes an improvement in the efficiency of equipment installed in 2015 or later. Policy case efficiency targets represent current 'best practice' and include standards already established in a major economy or well-defined levels known to enjoy a significant market share in a major economy. BUENAS calculates energy savings according to the difference in energy demand in the two scenarios. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation is then calculated using a forecast of electricity carbon factor. We find that mitigation of 1075 mt annual CO2 emissions is possible by 2030 from adopting current best practices of appliance efficiency policies. This represents a 17 % reduction in emissions in the business as usual case in that year.

  19. Nonsurgical treatment of hemifacial microsomia by therapeutic ultrasound and hybrid functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek El-Bialy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek El-Bialy1, Ali Hasan2, Ahmad Janadas3, Tarik Albaghdadi41Division of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2Division of Orthodontics, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry; 3Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry; 4Division of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAim: Conventional treatment of patients with hemifacial microsomia involves orthognathic surgery and/or distraction osteogenesis of the mandible. Previous reports showed that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances mandibular growth in growing rabbits and monkeys. In monkeys, LIPUS enhanced mandibular growth when combined with functional jaw orthopedic appliances. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate if LIPUS could enhance mandibular growth in children with hemifacial microsomia.Methods: Five children (age range 3–11 years with hemifacial microsomia were treated with hybrid jaw orthopedic functional appliances and treatment of the affected mandibular condyle by LIPUS for 20 minutes per day.Results: The results showed that after one year of treatment, significant improvement of the underdeveloped side of patients’ faces and mandibles was recognized both clinically and radiographically.Discussion: Although improvement took a longer time than did a surgical approach, optimizing this technique may achieve better results in a shorter treatment time. A randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the effect of optimized LIPUS application or functional appliances in the treatment of hemifacial microsomia is warranted.Keywords: hemifacial microsomia, LIPUS, non-surgical treatment, children

  20. Anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal class II patients treated with modified Thurow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Sampaio, Gêisa Aiane de Morais; de Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ≤ 35 and different maxillary patterns (n = 15), as follows: retrusive (SNA84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with modified Thurow cervical traction appliance, with expander screw and extraoral face bow with 10° to 20° fold in relation to the intraoral arch. Force of 500 gf was applied and use for 12 to 14 h/day, with fortnightly adjustments. Analysis of variance ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney were used (α = 5%). In changes obtained from stage T1 to T2, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups Protrusive, normal and retrusive maxilla for the variables SNB, SN.GoGn, 1.NA, overjet, overbite and Class II discrepancy (right and left) (p>0.05). Angular measurements SNA and ANB in the protrusive maxilla group were significantly greater than in the normal and retrusive maxilla groups (p0.05). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the modified Thurow cervical traction appliance was efficient for the correction of skeletal Class II irrespective of the maxillary pattern. The mandible had no significant rotation during treatment.

  1. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The

  2. Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM analysis.Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal was were evaluated.The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively.The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model.

  3. Historical Review of Electric Household Appliances using Induction-Heating and Future Challenging Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents historical progress on technology evolution of the electric and electronic household appliances using the inverter, especially for Induction-Heating applications, which have been put in practical use as the desk-top cooker for the first time at home in 1974 until being applied to the rice cooker and the multi-burner cooking heater. It also describes the future innovative evolution of the power semiconductor switching devices and the inverter circuit topologies supporting its progressive developments. Looking back its progress, the future trends on consumer power electronics is discussed on the practical problem in the future.

  4. A feeding appliance for a newborn baby with cleft lip and palate

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Abhay; Rana, Vivek; Shafi, Shabina

    2010-01-01

    A child born with cleft lip and palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Obtaining a good seal of the oral cavity can be difficult due to the incomplete facial and palatal structures. Nasal regurgitation and choking are common in infants with cleft palate because of inability of the palate to separate the nasal and oral cavities. The case presented here is a 3-day-old neonate born with cleft lip and palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using ...

  5. Management of pseudo Class III malocclusion--synergistic approach with fixed and functional appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P

    2013-01-01

    Class III malocclusion has been divided into two subtypes: skeletal and pseudo-Class III. A pseudo Class III malocclusion should be treated as early as possible to reduce the functional shift of the mandible and increase maxillary arch length. A case of pseudo-Class III malocclusion was presented here. A 11-year-old boy came with an anterior cross bite, the treatment was done with Fixed appliance (Roth prescription) and Reverse Twin block therapy. This case demonstrated that an anterior cross bite was corrected after 10 months of treatment.

  6. Coordinated Scheme of Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Intelligent Appliances in a Cyber Physical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic response information could be introduced to support a secure and stable power system. Combining demand response technology with the traditional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme, a new UFLS strategy-determining method involving intelligent appliances is put forward to achieve the coordinated control of quick response resources and the traditional control resources. Based on this method, intelligent appliances can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of system operation in advance and prevent significant frequency drop, thereby improving the flexibility and stability of the system. Time-domain simulation verifies the effectiveness of the scheme, which is able to mitigate frequency drop and reduce the amount of load shedding.

  7. Distalization of maxillary molars for Class Ⅱ malocclusion with Chinese Ni-Ti coil-springs appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yin-zhong; WU Jun-jie; CHEN Xue-peng; QIAN Hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the Chinese Ni-Ti coil springs appliance on distalization of maxillary molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchorage teeth. Methods :Twenty four adolescent patients(12 boys,12 girls) with Class Ⅱ malocclusion were selected and the coil springs appliance was used during the treatment. Pre and postdistalization lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed and compared. Results: The average time for the correction of Class Ⅱ molar relationship was 4. 6 months. And the mean distance of molar distalization was 4.4 mm. The Chinese Ni-Ti coil springs also demostrated less tipping and better bodily movement of maxillary molars. Conclusion: This study suggests that the Chinese Ni-Ti coil-springs appliance distalizes the upper molar significantly, while there is no remarkable loss of anchorage because of patients' wearing headgear with J hooks at night and Class Ⅱ elastics in the day time.

  8. Early treatment of class III malocclusion with modified tandem traction bow appliance and a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akhilesh; Joshi, Sourabh Ramesh; Hegde, Amitha M; Shetty, Rajmohan

    2014-09-01

    The accurate diagnosis and clinical management of class III malocclusion continues to be a challenging task for the pediatric dentist due to the poor compliance of patient and high rate of relapse. Two cases of early treatment of class III malocclusion are presented which were treated by modified tandem traction bow appliance. The correction in the cross bite was achieved in six to seven months. Children's compliance and acceptance for the appliance was good. Follow up of two years and one years showed no relapse.

  9. Latham's appliance for presurgical repositioning of the protruded premaxilla in bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, K

    1992-04-01

    Dislocation of the maxillary segments in cleft lip and palate still is a challenge to the surgeon and the orthodontist. The premaxillary protrusion in bilateral cleft lip and palate, complicates the treatment severely. Latham's appliance, inserted on average at 2-months-of-age, relocates the segments over 3-4 weeks. Removal of the appliance is immediately followed by functional surgery. The first operation comprises: (1) intra-alveolar veloplasty; (2) closure of the alveolar cleft with the help of a gingivo-periosteal-plasty; (3) lip adhesion and (4) insertion of ear tubes. This operating schedule establishes the functional matrix as early as possible. Midfacial growth as well as language and speech development are provided with the necessary preconditions as far as we understand this complex situation. Five cases, being representative of 41 cases, are outlined in detail. The longest follow up period is 3 years; no growth disturbance of the maxilla has been detected to date. Definitive lip and columella surgery is facilitated.

  10. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Łatuszyńska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data employed to analyse the factors influencing consumers’ purchase decision-making processes were obtained through a questionnaire that was conducted in December 2011 in Basra, a city in southern Iraq. The major findings of the study indicated that, overall, the set of independent variables are weakly associated with the dependent variable. However, the in-depth analysis found that social factors, physical factors, and marketing mix elements are strongly associated with consumer buying behaviour. These analyses make it possible to discover consumer decision-making rules. The results may assist producers and retailers in understanding consumer behaviour and improving consumer satisfaction.

  11. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  12. Smart meter deployment optimisation and its analysis for appliance load monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaharyar Khwaja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors study the problem of smart meter deployment optimisation for appliance load monitoring, that is, to monitor a number of devices without any ambiguity using the minimum number of low-cost smart meters. The importance of this problem is due to the fact that the number of meters should be reduced to decrease the deployment cost, improve reliability and decrease congestion. In this way, in future, smart meters can provide additional information about the type and number of distinct devices connected, besides their normal functionalities concerned with providing overall energy measurements and their communication. The authors present two exact smart meter deployment optimisation algorithms, one based on exhaustive search and the other based on efficient implementation of the exhaustive search. They formulate the problem mathematically and present computational complexity analysis of their algorithms. Simulation scenarios show that for a typical number of home appliances, the efficient search method is significantly faster compared to the exhaustive search and can provide the same optimal solution. The authors also show the dependency of their method on the distribution of the load pattern that can potentially be in a typical household.

  13. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  14. Tooth loss and the condition of the prosthodontic appliances in a group of elderly home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catović, A; Jerolimov, V; Catić, A

    2000-03-01

    The study assessed the number of missing teeth, the state of the existing prosthodontic appliances and the need for their replacement. Dental status and anamnesis were taken on a group of 120 elderly home residents by trained examiners. Prosthodontic appliances were evaluated according to the Karlsson's index for the crowns and bridges, and according to the modified Nevalainen et al. index for the evaluation of the complete dentures, as well as the need for prosthetic treatment. The most persistent teeth in both jaws were lower canines, while the most commonly missing teeth were lower first molars. On average, the crowns were older and in poorer condition than the bridges. Lower complete dentures had better stability but were also less retentive in comparison with the upper complete dentures. More than 82% of the subjects were in need of either fixed, removable or combined prosthodontic treatment. The high prevalence of needs for prosthodontic treatment pointed to the requirement for frequent dental check ups within elderly home residents in order to better identify and meet their dental needs.

  15. The headgear effect of the Herbst appliance: a cephalometric long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancherz, H; Anehus-Pancherz, M

    1993-06-01

    The short- and long-term effects of the Herbst appliance on the maxillary complex were evaluated in 45 patients who had Class II malocclusions. The patients were followed for 6.4 years (5 to 10 years) after treatment. Lateral cephalograms from before and after 7 months of treatment, 6 months, and 6.4 years after treatment were analyzed. During Herbst treatment the upper molars were distalized in 96% of the subjects (maximum 4.5 mm), and the upper molars were intruded in 69% of the subjects (maximum 3.5 mm). The maxillary occlusal plane was opened in 82% of the subjects (maximum 7.5 degrees). Sagittal maxillary jaw base position seemed unaffected by therapy. A downward tipping of the palatal plane was noted in 47% of the subjects (maximum 2 degrees). During the first 6 months after therapy most of the treatment changes reverted. During the following 5.9 years after treatment, normal growth developmental changes prevailed: the upper molars moved mesially, and the teeth extruded, the occlusal plane closed, the maxilla grew anteriorly, and the palatal plane tipped downward. In conclusion the Herbst appliance exhibited a pronounced high-pull headgear effect on the maxillary complex. Without proper retention, however, the effect seemed to be of a temporary nature.

  16. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion with a tandem traction bow appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Basaveshwar Valgadde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Class III malocclusion is progressive in nature, the facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age. Class III malocclusion is associated with a deviation in the sagittal relationship of the maxilla and the mandible, characterized by a deficient maxilla, retrognathic mandible, or a combination of both. The early orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusions, at the end of primary dentition or the beginning of mixed dentition, prior to growth spurt, allows the accomplishment of successful results, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development, and in many instances, preventing a future surgical treatment by increasing the stability. Many treatment approaches can be found in the literature regarding orthopedic and orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion, including intra- and extra-oral appliances. The major problem with extraoral anchorage has been of patient compliance due to its physical appearance. The case report presents an intraoral modified tandem appliance for maxillary protraction that has been used clinically to achieve successful results without relying much on patient co-operation.

  17. Soft tissue changes inconclusive in Class II division 1 patients treated with Activator and Bionator appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2007-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Medline, Medline In-Process and other non-indexed citations, Lilacs, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and all evidence-based medicine reviews were searched. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also searched by hand for possible missing articles. Authors were contacted to o

  18. Frog磨牙远移器和Cetlin推磨牙方法的临床对比研究%Comparative study of distalizing upper molar by Frog Molar Distalization Appliance and Cetlin’s Appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司新芹; 张彩娣; 李湘琳; 卢蓁

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To comparative the clinical efficacy of Frog Molar Distalization Appliance and Cet-lin’s Appliance on Angle classⅡ malocclusion treatment .Methods :30 cases of Angle classⅡ malocclusion whose maxillary dentitions were mild or moderate crowded were treated with Frog Molar Distalization Appliance and Cet-lin’s appliance to achieve non-extraction treatment respectively .Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed before and after the treatment .SPSS 13 .0 software package was used for paired-samples t test .Results :The varia-tions of OP-SN(o )and U1-PP (mm) were with significant differences(P<0 .01) .The variation of U1-NA(mm) was with significant difference (P<0 .05) between Frog Molar Distalization Appliance group and Cetlin ’s Appliance group .Conclusion :Frog Molar Distalization Appliance and Cetlin’s Appliance are both the good methods of non-extraction treatment to correct Angle classⅡ malocclusion with maxillary dentition mild or moderate crowded .Frog Molar Distalization Appliance is not impacted by patient compliance and more comfortable .Cetlin’s Appliance is more effective with shallow overbite patients .%目的:比较Frog磨牙远移器和经典Cetlin推磨牙向后两种方法治疗安氏Ⅱ类牙源性错畸形的临床疗效。方法:对30例安氏Ⅱ类错伴上颌牙列轻中度拥挤的病例,采用Frog磨牙远移器和Cetlin推磨牙向后各15例,结合X线头影测量,评价两种方法的治疗效果。结果:①治疗前后两组平面OP-SN(o )的变化:Frog 矫治器组减少0.38o ,Cetlin矫治器组增加1.76o (P<0.01);②切牙突度 U1-NA(mm)的变化:Cetlin矫治器组、Frog 矫治器组分别增加2.16 mm、0.94 mm(P<0.05);③切牙距腭平面垂直高度U1-PP (mm)的变化:Cetlin矫治器组、Frog矫治器组分别为0.47 mm、-0.7 mm(P<0.01)。结论:Cetlin推磨牙向后法和Frog磨牙远移器在支抗控制方面均较好

  19. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Use With Small Appliances C Appendix C to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment... and Emissions Reduction Pt. 82, Subpt. F, App. C Appendix C to Subpart F of Part 82—Method for Testing... system. II. Test Conditions Tests are to be conducted at 75 degrees F, plus or minus 2 degrees F (23.9...

  20. Class II treatment by extraction of maxillary first molars or Herbst appliance: dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Goeke, J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.; Ruf, S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare dentoskeletal and soft tissue treatment effects of two alternative Class II division 1 treatment modalities (maxillary first permanent molar extraction versus Herbst appliance). METHODS: One-hundred-fifty-four Class II division 1 patients that had either been treated with extractions

  1. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on temporomandibular side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, Michiel H. J.; Veldhuis, Steffanie K. B.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess variations in the occurrence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the risk of developing pain and function impairment of the temporomandibular complex in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients treated with either an oral appliance (mandibular

  2. Simulated driving in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea : effects of oral appliances and continuous positive airway pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Bakker, Marije; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired simulated driving performance has been demonstrated in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generally improves simulated driving performance, the effects of oral-appliance (OA) therapy are unknown. The aims of this

  3. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and t

  4. 78 FR 41387 - Petition for Waiver and Notice of Granting the Application for Interim Waiver of ASKO Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ..., Inc., P.O. Box 940609, Plano, TX 75094-0609. All submissions received must include the agency name and... michaelwasson@askousa.com Phone (972) 941-1948 ASKO Appliances, Inc. Street Address: 4001 E. Plano Pkwy Ste. 100 Plano, TX 75074 972-941-1900 Fax 972-941-1901 www.askousa.com Mailing Address: P.O. Box 940609 Plano,...

  5. CPR Appliance:Applications and Prospects%心肺复苏器的应用及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 张源波; 周荣斌

    2014-01-01

    心肺复苏器是有望替代传统人工胸外按压的器材,正逐步应用于现场急救和临床抢救工作当中。本文介绍了胸外按压泵机制的理念沿袭、不同心肺复苏器设计的理论依据和国内外常见心肺复苏器的使用方法及特点;同时对心肺复苏器的发展趋势和改进方向进行了展望。以期为心肺复苏器更有效地应用于临床抢救中提供有益借鉴和推广。%Cardiopulmonary resuscitation appliance is a promising substitution for traditional artificial compression and it is gradual y applied in the fields of first aid and salvage.This paper introduces the conception of pump mechanism of chest compression,the theoretical basis of design in various CPR appliance and application procedure as wel as characteristics of common CPR appliance at home and abroad.Besides,the paper shows future outlook in development tendency and improvement direction of the apparatus.Al this can be made use for reference and promotion of CPR appliance in the application of clinical emergency treatment.

  6. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  7. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Parts 430 and 431 Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation... Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Energy Conservations Standards: Treatment of Smart... INFORMATION: In support of its Energy Conservation Standards Rulemakings, DOE conducts in-depth technical...

  8. Emergencies in orthodontics. Part 1: Management of general orthodontic problems as well as common problems with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Fixed appliance treatment is a popular treatment modality with a burgeoning increase in the numbers of children and adults realizing the benefits that can be gained. Appliance breakage is an unavoidable nuisance which is at best inconvenient, and at worst may result in significant pain or discomfort for the patient. General dental practitioners (GDPs) should have the practical knowledge of how to provide timely and appropriate orthodontic 'emergency treatment'. This will significantly reduce the sometimes considerable inconvenience and discomfort for both the patient and his/her parents, and the inevitable frustration for the clinician providing ongoing care. This first paper will deal with general orthodontic problems that commonly present, as well as some issues specific to fixed appliances. The second paper will deal with the other orthodontic appliances that may be encountered by GDPs in their daily practice. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the general practitioner will, on many occasions, provide immediate relief of pain and distress for the patient. This will in turn allow treatment to continue moving in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  9. Long-term oral-appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea : A cephalometric study of craniofacial changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Hoekema, A.; Pruim, G. J.; Slater, J. J. R. Huddleston; Stegenga, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this randomized controlled study was to cephalometrically assess possible changes in craniofacial morphology associated with long term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea/hypop

  10. The enactment of thermal efficiency standard for domestic gas appliances and its foreground of Implementing in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGShini; PENGLuo; FUXiuping

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the principles we should obey and the problems we should be confronted with when thermal efficiency standards for instantaneous gas water heaters and gas ranges are enacted. It is considered that enactment of thermal efficiency standards for domestic gas appliances could intensify economization on domestic gas utilization and marked economic and environmental benefits could be generated consequently.

  11. Changes on facial profile in the mixed dentition, from natural growth and induced by Balters' bionator appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rocha Goes Landázuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial profile changes induced by Balters' bionator appliance in Class II division 1 patients, at mixed dentition stage. METHODS: The sample consisted of 28 prepubertal individuals at stages 1 and 2 of skeletal maturation (CVM, which were divided in two groups. The experimental group consisted of 14 individuals (7 boys and 7 girls, initial mean age of 8y12m which were treated with Balters' bionator appliance for 14.7 months. The effects of treatment were compared to a control group of 14 subjects (7 boys and 7 girls, initial mean age of 8y5m with Class II malocclusion, division 1, not orthodontically treated, which were followed up for 15.4 months. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The results showed that the Balters' bionator appliance promoted a significant increase on the mentolabial angle, in addition to demonstrating a tendency to reduce the facial skeletal convexity, to restrict the maxillary growth and to increase the nasolabial angle and the lower anterior facial height. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the Balters' bionator appliance improved the facial profile of children treated at mixed dentition stage.

  12. 不同矫治正畸作用下牙周骨改建过程中压力侧相关因子的变化%Changes of related factors on the pressure side under different appliance orthodontic during periodontal bone remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永平; 葛长青; 高琳青

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand is closely related to osteoclast differentiation, formation and function in bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand expression in the pressure side during periodontal tissue remodeling under different appliance orthodontics, and to explore the effect of different orthodontic appliances. METHODS: Sixty-four healthy rabbits were divided into four groups: control group, MBT appliance group, Begg appliance group, Damon Ⅲ appliance group, 16 rabbits in each group. In the MBT appliance group, Begg appliance group and Damon Ⅲ appliance group, corresponding appliances were used to correct the maxil ary incisors and first molars respectively, and the mesial movement traction force was 80 g; the control group did not receive correction. Four rabbits were selected from each group for testing at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after correction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the periodontal ligament cavity in the pressure side was narrow and the edge of the alveolar bone exhibited resorption pits. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining showed bone remodeling was active and the number of osteoclasts reached peak at 7 days after correction. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand on the pressure side of the alveolar bone tissue was significantly increased after force loading, and reached peak at 7 days after forcing, then gradual y decreased. At 7 days after forcing, the number of osteoclasts and the mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in the Damon Ⅲ appliance group were higher than those in the MBT appliance group and Begg appliance group (P < 0.05). In bone remodeling process, mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand was positively

  13. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  14. TiArA: a virtual appliance for the analysis of Tiling Array data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Greenbaum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic tiling arrays have been described in the scientific literature since 2003, yet there is a shortage of user-friendly applications available for their analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tiling Array Analyzer (TiArA is a software program that provides a user-friendly graphical interface for the background subtraction, normalization, and summarization of data acquired through the Affymetrix tiling array platform. The background signal is empirically measured using a group of nonspecific probes with varying levels of GC content and normalization is performed to enforce a common dynamic range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TiArA is implemented as a standalone program for Linux systems and is available as a cross-platform virtual machine that will run under most modern operating systems using virtualization software such as Sun VirtualBox or VMware. The software is available as a Debian package or a virtual appliance at http://purl.org/NET/tiara.

  15. Avulsion of posterior primary teeth and space maintaining appliance: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M J; Cardoso, M; de Oliveira, J

    2000-01-01

    A four-year-old child was presented to the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University, 21 days after an incident in which canine first and second primary molar teeth were avulsed, due to a trauma to the face. This was confirmed on radiological examination. The clinical examinations showed that tissues were normal. A removable space-maintaining dental-mucosa supported appliance was made in acrylic resin to replace the three missing teeth. After a period of eight months, the tissues were preserved, the device is helping the child to eat, to speak, and preserving the appearance of the patient. Radiograph examinations have shown that the first molar tooth and canine, first pre molar and second pre molar teeth are erupting normally. Trauma in primary dentition can cause psychological, morphological and functional problems. In the presented case the treatment was planned to recuperate the function and to avoid problems from the premature loss of primary teeth.

  16. Modified distal shoe appliance for the loss of a primary second molar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhull, Kanika Singh; Bhojraj, Nandlal; Yadav, Shweta; Prabhakaran, Sheeja Devi

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of primary teeth until their normal exfoliation plays a crucial role in preventive and interceptive dentistry. Premature loss of the primary second molar prior to the eruption of the permanent first molar in the absence of the primary second molar can lead to mesial movement and migration of the permanent molar before and during its eruption. In such cases, an intra-alveolar type of space maintainer to guide the eruption of the permanent first molar is indicated. In certain cases, however, the conventional design is not practical. This paper describes a new design for distal shoe appliances in cases of primary second molar loss prior to the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar.

  17. PAT portable appliance testing : in-service inspection and testing of electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 requires any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required. This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam. It is also an ideal revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff and caretakers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.

  18. A test procedure for energetic and performance analysis of cold appliances for the food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, F.; Boscolo, A.

    2013-09-01

    In this article we present a novel approach for the characterization of cold appliances and in particular of refrigerators based on the standard vapour compression cycle with a reciprocating on/off compressor. The test procedure is based on a virtual instrument that perform both the stimulus and the data acquisition on the device under test. Acquired data is elaborated to fit a semi-empirical model based on the energetic balances between thermal and electrical sub systems and the heat exchanged with the environment. This approach results in a simple method to calculate useful parameters of the refrigerator, such as energetic performance, cooling effect and limit values of thermal loads. The test procedure requires only a few temperatures and the electric power consumption to be monitored, resulting in a low impact on the refrigerator. Preliminary tests showed a good estimation of parameters and prediction of energy consumption and heat extraction capacity of the refrigerator under test.

  19. Effects of socioeconomic factors on household appliance, lighting, and space cooling electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinalp, M. [Itron Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ismet Ugursal, V.; Fung, A.S. [Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Two methods are currently used to model residential energy consumption at the national or regional level: the engineering method and the conditional demand analysis (CDA) method. One of the major difficulties associated with the use of engineering models is the inclusion of consumer behaviour and socioeconomic factors that have significant effects on the residential energy consumption. The CDA method can handle socioeconomic factors if they are included in the model formulation. However, the multicollinearity problem and the need for a very large amount of data make the use of CDA models very difficult. It is shown in this paper that the neural network (NN) method can be used to model the residential energy consumption with the inclusion of socioeconomic factors. The appliances, lighting, and cooling component of the NN based energy consumption model developed for the Canadian residential sector is presented here and the effects of some socioeconomic factors on the residential energy consumption are examined using the model. (author)

  20. Research into Noise Generated by Domestic Appliances in the Anechoic Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Žukauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Loud noise has a negative impact on the entire body, especially on listening. We can hear daily noise everywhere – in the street, at work or at home. The Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has adjusted an anechoic chamber adapted for suppressing sound. Under the above introduced conditions, 15 appliances (5 vacuum cleaners, 5 hair dryers and 5 shaving machines have been tested. Equivalent sound pressure level of the vacuum cleaner has varied from 66 dBA to 83 dBA, that of the hair dryer has made from 64 dBA to 70 dBA and for the shaving machine – from 39 to 56 dBA.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Under the Skin - Determining Electrical Appliances from Surface 3D Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krispel, Ulrich; Tamke, Martin; Ullrich, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    New computational methods provide means to deduce semantic information from measurements, such as range scans and photographs of building interiors. In this paper, we showcase a method that allows to estimate elements that are not directly observable – ducts and power lines in walls. For this, we...... approach. The approach is structured into the following steps: First, a coarse geometry is extracted from input measurements; i.e. the unstructured, laser-scanned point cloud is transformed into a simplistic building model. Then, visible endpoints of electrical appliances (e.g. sockets, switches...... combine information, which is deducted by algorithms from the raw data, with implicit information that is publicly available: technical standards that restrict the placement of powerlines. These requirements define preferred installation zones, which are represented by a rule-based system in the proposed...

  2. Modified Willet′s appliance for bilateral loss of multiple deciduous molars: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhindsa A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available No other factor plays a more significant role in preventive and interceptive dentistry than the preservation of deciduous dentition till its normal time of exfoliation. Premature loss of a deciduous tooth or a group of teeth might lead to wide range of implications. When the deciduous second molar is lost before the eruption of first permanent molar, intra-alveolar type of space maintainer is indicated. But in cases of bilateral loss of these teeth the conventional design generally poses a variety of problems. Thus, the conventional designs are required to be modified according to the needs of the patient. Therefore, this paper describes an entirely new design of the Willet′s appliance in cases of bilateral loss of deciduous molars before the eruption of first permanent molar.

  3. Evaluation of dental arch changes in patients following the use of Y shape appliance expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhondi MS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate Y shape appliance for expansion on maxillary arch of patients in their mixed dentition age. Eight patients, 6 girls and 2 boys, with maxillary constriction, retrusion of maxillary anteriors, and space deficiency of upper canine were treated by Y-plate expansion. For each patient 8 parameters on upper cast and 7 parameters on lower cast were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted by calculating the mean, standard deviation and p-value, of parameters. Since these parameters change during natural growth, the results were compared to normal growth changes of similar patients group form another study as control. Results showed significant increase in maxillary and mandibular cervical and coronal intercanine and intermolar width (P<0.005. The results also showed significant increase in maxillary arch length and perimeter.

  4. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  5. Case series of an intraoral balancing appliance therapy on subjective symptom severity and cervical spine alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Joo Kang; Jung, Soo Chang; Lee, Hwang-Woo; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA) on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ clinic. Main Measures. Any immediate change in the curvature of cervical spine and the degree of atlantoaxial rotation was investigated in the images of simple X-ray and computed tomography of cervical spine with or without OA. Changes of subjective symptom severity were also analyzed for the holistic OA therapy cases. Results. A total of 59 cases were reviewed. Alignment of upper cervical spine rotation showed an immediate improvement (P alignment. These results show that further researches may warrant for the holistic TMJ therapy.

  6. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  7. Do customized orthodontic appliances and vibration devices provide more efficient treatment than conventional methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of technological advances in the field of clinical orthodontics to increase treatment efficiency has led to the development of customized appliances (Insignia®), archwires (Suresmile®), and the production of devices to enhance tooth movement (Acceledent®). This review presents a comprehensive study of the literature concerning these products, and analyzes the available evidence of their efficiency. To date, one pilot study has evaluated the efficiency of the Insignia® system, three retrospective studies have assessed the efficiency of the Suresmile® system, and a few Acceledent® reports have described its effect on treatment time. Critical appraisal of the reviewed papers revealed that the efficiency of the Insignia® system cannot be confirmed based on the available evidence, while the use of Suresmile® can reduce overall treatment time in simple cases. The acceleration of tooth movement by Acceledent® devices has not yet been confirmed.

  8. Effect of oral appliances on genioglossus muscle tonicity seen with diffusion tensor imaging: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Hideo; Murano, Emi Z.; Zhuo, Jiachen; Landman, Bennett; Gullapalli, Rao P.; Prince, Jerry L.; Stone, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique can be used as a modality to represent the structural deformation in the in vivo genioglossus (GG) muscle fibers with oral appliances (OAs). Study Design Three healthy subjects were recruited for the pilot study. A custom-made OA, which is modified from a tongue retaining device (TRD), was constructed for each subject before the DTI acquisitions. Recordings were made with and without OAs to compare the GG muscle fiber deformation. Result DTI provided good resolution of tongue muscle fibers in vivo and successful isolation of each muscle fiber bundle. In particular, the GG muscle fiber deformation due to OAs was clearly visualized. Conclusions This DTI technique may be used not only to identify the individual myoarchitecture, but also to assess muscle fiber deformations in vivo, such as constriction, dilatation, and rotation with OAs. Clinical studies for OSA patients will be the next step. PMID:19217012

  9. Development of the consumption behavior that promotes sustainable society: Focusing on recycling of small waste home appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Takae

    2015-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) became the first UNESCO Associated School in Japan in 1953, and since then it has practiced ESD in various educational activities in all ranges of education. As a teacher of home economics, I have focused on consumer affairs and encouraged my students to consider what each of them can do as an individual consumer in order to create a sustainable society. In Japan, several acts related to consumer affairs have been enforced in recent years. "Act on Promotion of Consumer Education" was enforced in December 2012, and construction of the "Consumer Citizen Society" was proposed. It places emphasis not only on environmental concerns but also on the initiative of consumers and its influence on social and economic trends. In addition, "Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" was enforced in April, 2013. It aims at protecting living environment and healthy development of the national economy by appropriate treatment of waste materials and effective use of resources. For my lessons on "food, clothing and shelter in relation to consumption behavior and environmental problems", I took up "the recycling of small waste home appliances" as the teaching materials to raise awareness on resources recycling. The purpose of the lessons is three-fold: (1) to make students aware of environmental load; (2) to deepen the understanding of the influence which excessive consumption has on developing countries; (3) to encourage the students to think positively toward the solution of the problems. I am currently practicing the lessons, and I have shown below the summary of the instruction. Lesson 1: Give a quiz based on the database on environmental label from Ministry of the Environment website. Then show a film on whereabouts of the hi-tech industrial waste (e-waste). After the film, show some everyday products for which mineral resources are used in order to impress the idea of "urban mine". Lesson 2: Show a

  10. Evaluation of a prevention programme efficiency for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Sava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Orthodontic treatment enables the establishment of functional occlusion and improvement of oral health, however, it increases the risk of periodontal disease development. The aim of this paper was to examine the efficiency of the applied programme for the prevention of gingivitis in children undergoing the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy and to determine the most efficient devices and techniques for maintaining oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. Methods. The study included 80 patients of both genders - 60 patients comprised the experimental group and 20 patients comprised the control group. All of them were patients of the Clinic for Orthodontics at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, aged between 13 and 18. The Silness-Löe Plaque Index (PI was utilised for the assessment of oral hygiene quality and Silness-Löe Gingival Index (GI and Mühlemann Papilla Bleeding Index (PBI were utilised for the assessment of gingival state. Checkups were conducted as a single-blind study at the beginning and after the first, the third and the sixth month of the preventive and prophylactic programme. Results. During the observed period, a statistically significant change in PI, GI and PBI values was noticed (p < 0.005, as well as the difference in the dynamics of value changes during the periods between the observed groups. Conclusion. The preventive programme, applied to children undergoing the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy, had a positive effect both on oral hygiene quality and gingival state. The values of the examined parameters of the patients from the experimental group were significantly lower in comparison with those of the patients from the control group. The most efficient combination of devices for oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment was: a Curaprox CP5460 toothbrush, CD Ortho 60 orthodontic toothbrush and Curaprox CPS 14 interdental brush.

  11. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Favaro FRANCISCONI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. Material and Methods: The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions, treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1, final (T2 and long-term posttreatment (T3. A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. Results: The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Conclusions: Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  12. Assessment of nickel release from various dental appliances used routinely in pediatric dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Parimala; Agrawal, Suchi; Bansal, Arpana; Jain, Ankur; Tiwari, Utkarsh; Anand, Ayushi

    2016-01-01

    Context: The use of nickel-containing alloys in dentistry has been questioned because of the biological liabilities of nickel and the release of nickel ions from dental appliances into the oral cavity. The potential health hazards of nickel and chromium and their compounds have been the focus of attention for more than 100 years. It has established that these metals could cause hypersensitivity. Aims: To assess the nickel release from various dental appliances used in pediatric dentistry. Settings and Design: It is a in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken to analyze in vitro biodegradation of space maintainers and stainless steel crowns made out of stainless steel materials from different manufacturers. The leaching effect simulating the use of clinical practice was studied by keeping the respective number of Stainless Steel Crowns and space maintainers in the artificial saliva incubating at 37°C and analyzing for nickel release after 1,7,14,21 and 28 days using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed by using One way ANOVA and repeated measures of ANOVA was applied at different time intervals i.e. 1,7,14,21,28 days. The critical value for statistical significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: Results showed that there was measurable release of nickel which reached maximum level at the end of 7 days which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The release of nickel and chromium very much below when compared with the average dietary intake of nickel (200-300 ppm/day) which were not capable of causing any toxic effects. PMID:27433051

  13. Esthetic perception of facial profile after treatment with the Thurow appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to investigate the perception of esthetic changes in the facial profile of bilateral Class II patients treated with the Modified Thurow Appliance for extraoral treatment. Silhouettes were traced of profiles of patients who initially presented a bilateral Class II molar relationship and who, post-treatment, presented molars in a Class I relationship. Three groups were formed: the first composed of patients with maxillary protrusion (SNA >84°, the second with maxillary retrusion (SNA <80°, and the third with a well-positioned maxilla (SNA 80-84°. A panel of 200 lay evaluators judged the profile esthetics by a randomized drawing of the silhouettes. The multiple analysis results showed that the profile esthetic scores for the three positions of the maxilla were greatly influenced by significant interactions with the characteristics (like sex and age of the evaluators: retrusive maxilla (Score *Age Group, p< 0.001, normal maxilla (Score *Sex, p= 0.024; Score *Age Group,p= 0.050 and protrusive maxilla (Score *Age Group,p< 0.001. It was observed that the profile of Class II patients with protrusion, normal relationship and retrusion of the maxilla, improved in their esthetic post-treatment result; however, the evaluators showed greater satisfaction with the groups of protrusion and normal position of the maxilla. The Modified Thurow Appliance provided significant improvements in the esthetics of the profile of patients who presented protrusion and normal position of the maxilla. However, its use was not the best treatment option for patients with maxillary retrusion.

  14. Esthetic perception of facial profile after treatment with the Thurow Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Lacerda-Santos, Rogério; Oliveira, Danillo Lyrio de; Alves, Janaína Viana; Britto, Joyce Pereira; Souza, Eduardo da Silva; Alves, Leandro Pereira; Barbosa, George; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Alex Ferreira Dos

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the perception of esthetic changes in the facial profile of bilateral Class II patients treated with the Modified Thurow Appliance for extraoral treatment. Silhouettes were traced of profiles of patients who initially presented a bilateral Class II molar relationship and who, post-treatment, presented molars in a Class I relationship. Three groups were formed: the first composed of patients with maxillary protrusion (SNA >84°), the second with maxillary retrusion (SNA <80°), and the third with a well-positioned maxilla (SNA 80-84°). A panel of 200 lay evaluators judged the profile esthetics by a randomized drawing of the silhouettes. The multiple analysis results showed that the profile esthetic scores for the three positions of the maxilla were greatly influenced by significant interactions with the characteristics (like sex and age) of the evaluators: retrusive maxilla (Score *Age Group, p < 0.001), normal maxilla (Score *Sex, p = 0.024; Score *Age Group, p = 0.050) and protrusive maxilla (Score *Age Group, p < 0.001). It was observed that the profile of Class II patients with protrusion, normal relationship and retrusion of the maxilla, improved in their esthetic post-treatment result; however, the evaluators showed greater satisfaction with the groups of protrusion and normal position of the maxilla. The Modified Thurow Appliance provided significant improvements in the esthetics of the profile of patients who presented protrusion and normal position of the maxilla. However, its use was not the best treatment option for patients with maxillary retrusion.

  15. The Lynn Maxilla Rotator Combination Appliance and Lynn Archial Face Bow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J M

    1989-01-01

    This combination orthopedic traction appliance offers a new dimension in treating long faced, mouth breathing patients, who generally exhibit pre-maxillary gingival excess and lip incompetency or a short upper lip. The dynamics of excessive clockwise growth can be reversed if the physical pressures placed on the craniofacial skeletal tissues are reversed. In many instances extraction therapy or orthognatic surgery may be unnecessary to achieve acceptable occlusion and facial esthetics. Dr. Ullrich Teuscher, M.D., D.M.D., of Zurich, Switzerland published an article in the American Journal of Orthodontics in 1978, which addressed a growth related traction treatment of Class II facial patterns. This appliance expands on this concept with important modifications. There are many causes of a "long face". One of the primary causes, however, is upper airway compromise. This may be a result of enlargement of the tonsils, adenoids, nasal tubinates, nasal polyps, hemangiomas, allergies, nasal septal deviations, nasal floor narrowing, etc. In our Westernized society of "non-chewing" youths (most fast or processed food we eat today is practically pre-chewed or per-digested), the orofacial musculature is lacking in functional use. This condition further enhances the lack of full facial development because the necessary forces transmitted from the masticatory musculature to the facial skeleton are lacking. Therefore, if a person has tendencies toward a narrow-face, nasal vault, etc., there is no chance that nature's inherent counterbalancing forces will have any positive effect in resolving the airway compromise by producing wide or broad dental arches, because these forces do not exist anymore as a result of no necessity to chew food. The purpose of this paper is not to study the etiology of upper respiratory compromise, but rather to suggest a possible treatment alternative which sequentially counteracts the undesirable forces placed on the craniofacial skeleton by the

  16. Use of appliances in stand-alone PV power supply systems: problems and solutions. Task 3 use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallve, X.; Gafas, G. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Spain); Villoz, M. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (Switzerland); Wilshaw, A. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (United Kingdom); Jacquin, P. [IEA PVPS, Task 3 (France)

    2002-09-15

    In Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems (SAPV systems), special attention must be paid to the used appliances and loads. Inappropriate loads are very often the origin of PV system malfunction or failure. Start-up power peaks, or reactive power and harmonic distortion can cause system signal instability and protective devices will close the system down. A well-matched load together with a carefully selected choice of appliances can lead to significant savings in terms of reduced need for PV and electricity storage capacity. Conversely, inefficient appliances and processes, standby loads and inappropriate loads will increase the requirement for expensive PV and storage capacity. This paper presents a survey of real cases with load related problems in worldwide applications, their effect on quality and cost of the service and the solutions that were adopted and suggested alternative solutions. One of the main conclusions of the work is the importance to integrate the choice of the appliance while designing the SAPV system. (author)

  17. 家用和类似用途器具电磁场(EMF)的测量%Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Measurement for Household and Similar Electrical Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕

    2005-01-01

    The requirement of Electromagnetic Fields had been added into Low Voltage Directive, the test introduces the actuality of Electromagnetic Fields measurement, focuses in electromagnetic fields evaluation and measurement for household and similar electrical appliances.

  18. An Investigation on the Perceived Quality of the Home Appliances Based on the Policy of Home Appliances to the Countryside%家电下乡产品感知质量的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温德成; 傅田; 张亚竞; 孙中瑞; 孙得友

    2014-01-01

    为全面了解顾客对家电下乡产品质量的感知水平,对山东、河南和重庆三地的家电下乡产品进行了入户访谈调查。分析了顾客对家电下乡各主要类别产品整体质量和各主要品牌的关键质量特性的感知水平。结果显示农村顾客对家电下乡产品的总体质量是比较满意的,价格有补贴与质量有保障是农村顾客购买下乡产品的主要因素。%In order to see the customer's perceived quality based on the policy of Sending Home Appliances to the Countryside,this paper investigates countryside customers by household survey, and analyzes the perceived quality levels of the main types of home appliances,as well as the perceived quality levels of the main different brands.It is found that the whole countryside customers'perceived quality is rather good,and the price subsidy and good quality are the two main factors to promote the countryside customer to buy the home appliances.

  19. Four novel prosthodontic methods for managing upper airway resistance syndrome: An investigative analysis revealing the efficacy of the new nasopharyngeal aperture guard appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Obstructive sleep apnea is the most frequent cause for insomnia in the populace. Snoring is mulled over as the potential factor that can lead the sequel to obstructive sleep apnea. Although the etiology and deterrence measures for snoring are yet to be undoubtedly clarified by our scientific sorority, various means of surgical corrections have been affirmed and put into practice, with a substantial degree of success. Despite this, it is implicit that a noninvasive method of managing obstructive sleep apnea is more relevant for overcoming this condition. Purpose: This manuscript intends to establish how snoring can be controlled prosthodontically by different modalities of scientifically defensible approaches. The most effective among the modalities was affirmed as the investigative analyses of the treatment outcomes with each modality. Novel Methods: Four new methods of managing obstructive sleep apnea - uvula lift appliance, uvula and velopharynx lift appliance, nasopharyngeal aperture guard, and soft palate lift appliance were demonstrated through this article. Clinical Reports: The four new modalities stated and one conventional modality of mandibular advancement appliance for managing obstructive sleep apnea, a total of five types of appliance therapies, were described with case reports for each. Investigation: Five individuals undergoing the appliance therapy were chosen for each modality. The treatment outcome with each modality was examined by analysis of clinical predictors and also by means of standard investigation, with nasal and oral endoscopic analyses. Result: Among the five types of appliance therapies, the nasopharyngeal aperture guard provided the best treatment outcome in terms of clinical predictors and endoscopic analyses. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal aperture guard, the novel method stated in this article is the better modality for managing obstructive sleep apnea, among the five different appliance

  20. Supplemental vibrational force does not reduce pain experience during initial alignment with fixed orthodontic appliances: a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Neil R; DiBiase, Andrew T; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Johnson, Nicola; Slipper, Carmel; Grant, James; Alsaleh, Maryam; Cobourne, Martyn T

    2015-11-27

    This prospective randomized trial investigated the effect of supplemental vibrational force on orthodontic pain during alignment with fixed-appliances. Eighty-one subjects analgesics reported slightly higher maximum-pain although this was not significant (P = 0.170). The effect of intervention was independent of analgesia (P = 0.883). At T1 and T2, a statistically and clinically significant increase in mean pain was seen at 4 and 24-hours, declining at 72-hours and becoming insignificant at 1-week. For mean alignment-rate, pain-intensity and use of analgesics, no significant differences existed between groups (P > 0.003). The only significant predictor for mean pain was time. Use of an AcceleDent vibrational device had no significant effect on orthodontic pain or analgesia consumption during initial alignment with fixed appliances.

  1. Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffer, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available See also: Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2015; 19(01: 080-085 DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1393957 Rio de Janeiro, July 23, 2015 Dear readers, In the article Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review,[1] published in Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2015;19(1:80–85, where it reads: José Faibes Lubianca Lubianca2 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil It should read José Faibes Lubianca Neto2 2Department of Clinical Surgery, UFSCPA, Porto Alegre, Brazil

  2. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  3. Implementation of Wi-Ap; An IEEE 802.11b/g Based Electrical Switch Module With Web Enabled Interface for Electrical Appliances Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Adetiba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study is to design and implement a Wi-Fi-based control panel for remote control of lights and electrical appliances with a web functionality that allows for wide area control via the intranet or Internet. This eliminates the inconvenience of moving from one switch to another for analog operation of light fixtures and appliance in home, office and campus environment. The wireless technology we adopted is IEEE 802.11 (2008 b/g, also called Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity which operates in free band and is easily accessible. Wi-Ap (Wi-Fi Automated Appliance control system contains a web portal which allows for management and control purposes via the intranet or Internet. We built a standalone Wi-Ap console that allows the wireless switching on and off of any appliance(s that is(are plugged into it. The prototype we built was tested within the Electrical and Information Engineering department, Covenant University, Nigeria intranet and the test achieved our aim of remote appliances control from a web portal vial the intranet.

  4. A case report of bilateral Brodie bite in early mixed dentition using bonded constriction quad-helix appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kunihiko; Takaku, Sakiko; Murase, Chiaki; Nishii, Yasushi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Brodie bite is a comparatively rare type of malocclusion found in primary and mixed dentition. It not only adversely affects chewing and muscle functions, but also impairs normal growth and development of the mandible. This report describes the therapeutic results of a patient with bilateral Brodie bite in early mixed dentition after using a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance. The patient, a boy aged 9 years and 2 months, first visited our hospital after occlusal abnormality in the molar region was detected at a local dental clinic. Case analysis resulted in a diagnosis of bilateral Brodie bite with slight mandibular retrognathism. Treatment objectives were to reduce the arch width of the maxillary dentition and expand the mandibular arch in order to establish and stabilize molar occlusion and to achieve a Class I molar relation and appropriate overbite and overjet. Treatment comprised covering the occlusal surface of the maxillary molars with resin and attaching a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance joined with a 0.040-inch quad-helix wire. A bi-helix appliance was also fixed to the mandibular dentition. Brodie bite visibly improved after 5 months. Cervical headgear was then fitted and the patient observed until eruption of the permanent dentition was complete. Class I molar relation was achieved after 2 years and 6 months, although spacing remained in the maxillary and mandibular dentitions. Treatment of bilateral Brodie bite in mixed dentition by means of a bonded constriction quad-helix appliance attached to the maxillary dentition enabled effective bite opening and reduction in the width of maxillary arch independent of the patient's cooperation, providing good therapeutic outcome in a short time period.

  5. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 6: More early 20th-century appliances and the extraction controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Norman

    2005-12-01

    The trying conditions of the Great Depression and World War II did not deter innovative orthodontists from adding 3 new appliances to our armamentarium. Clinicians become fragmented into various technique "camps." Silas Kloehn's neck gear became a more patient-friendly version of extraoral anchorage, but it still had drawbacks. Angle's stranglehold on the specialty was finally broken when 3 of his disciples made extractions respectable.

  6. Effectiveness of the Facemask and an Intraoral Appliance in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Gutiérrez, Kelia; Residente IV Especialización en Odontología Pediátrica Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia;; González Carrera, Maria Clara; Directora grupo UMIMC, Universidad el Bosque, Coordinadora Postgrados, Facultad de Odontología, Profesor Titular, Docente Programa de Especialización Odontología Pediátrica, Universidad el Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia. Odontóloga FISULAB.; Mora Diaz, Ingrid Isabel; OD Universidad El Bosque, Especialización en periodoncia y medicina oral. Universidad El Bosque.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies describe the orthopedic treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate, diagnosed with class III malocclusion; however, there is no standardization in the orthopedic treatment planning in these patients. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of treatment with facemask and a fixed intra-oral appliance for patients with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion. Methods: A literature search conducted in several databases and print journals produced 199 art...

  7. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  8. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Lopatiene; Marija Borisovaite; Egle Lapenaite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria...

  9. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  10. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lopatiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results: 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15. Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs (P < 0.05; fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  11. The effectiveness of oral appliances in elderly patients with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with lorazepam--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihacek-Sojic, L; Andjelkovic, M; Milic-Lemic, A; Milosevic, B

    2012-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one of the most common sleep disorders in elderly and represents a special problem for elderly patients. Elderly patients use a large number of drugs that might have an influence on the upper airway structure, anxiolytics or benzodiazepines being the most common. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mild or moderate OSA treatment with mandibular advance oral appliance in older lorazepam users compared with the age-matched lorazepam-free patients. A total of 40 functionally independent patients with the age of 65-74 were enrolled in the study. All included patients were found to suffer from at least two of the existing OSA symptoms (snoring, sleep fragmentation, daytime sleepiness) and were diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA after nocturnal polysomnography. Patients were divided into two groups. The experimental group consisted of 20 patients who used lorazepam in their daily therapy, and a control group consisted of 20 patients who did not take lorazepam. A mandibular advance appliance was made individually for each patient. Patients involved in the study were not overweight and were suggested to practise sleeping on the side and reduce alcohol consumption during the study. The study has shown that mandibular advance oral appliances were responsible for complete control of the OSA in over 37% of cases (15 patients). Patients have also reported substantial improvement in the symptoms; 80% of them reported that they had snored less, slept better (94%) and have not experienced daytime sleepiness (100%).

  12. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  13. O aparelho quadrihélice (Quad-helix e suas variações The Quad-helix appliance and their variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sergio Duarte

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo objetivou mostrar a eficiência dos vários desenhos do aparelho quadrihélice, de Ricketts, na correção das desarmonias dentoalveolares. Devido às suas várias formas de confecção, assim como de sua ativação, o quadrihélice tornou-se um acessório útil não somente na sobrecorreção da discrepância transversal e sagital, mas também no tratamento das más oclusões da Classe II, divisão 1, de Angle, principalmente nos casos em que a rotação do molar é desejada como parte do tratamento. Também é relevante o seu efeito no tratamento das mordidas abertas anteriores, atuando como coadjuvante no tratamento dos fatores ambientais que contribuem, muitas vezes, para exacerbar o desenvolvimento das más oclusões. Em relação ao alinhamento do arco dentário, o quadrihélice abrevia essa fase do tratamento em 4 a 5 meses (o tratamento convencional levaria muito mais tempo e pelo menos uma grande série de troca de arcos em mecânicas de nivelamento. Portanto, este trabalho tem a intenção de mostrar algumas das ativações possíveis do aparelho quadrihélice, bem como algumas de suas variações, que contribuem para conseguir resultados estáveis em longo prazo.The aim of this present article was to show the efficiency of several drawings of Ricketts Quad-helix appliance in the correction of dentoalveolar disharmonies. Due its varied forms, as well as its activation, the Quad-helix became a useful accessory not only in overcorrecting the transversal discrepancy and sagittal, but also in treating Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusions, mainly when molar rotation is a necessary part of the treatment. It is also relevant its effect in the treatment of anterior open-bites. It gives support in the treatment of environmental factors that contribute to exacerbate the development of malocclusions. In relation to dental arch alignment, the Quad-helix appliance abbreviate this treatment phase in 4 to 5 months, what would

  14. The effects of orthopedic forces on the craniofacial complex utilizing cervical and headgear appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaconas, S J; Caputo, A A; Davis, J C

    1976-05-01

    1. A three-dimensional anatomic model of a human skull was produced with birefringent materials for photoelastic analysis. By means of photoelastic techniques during application of high-pull and cervical extraoral traction, stresses were visualized within the model. 2. Extraoral anchorage affected the position of the maxillary molar and its resulting alveolar development. Cervical headgear had a much greater tipping effect on the maxillary molar than did the high-pull headgear. Both appliances examined could produce stresses which may be transmitted to distant eraniofacial sutures. As opposed to high-pull traction, cervical pull in general stressed more areas and to a much greater degree. 4. The pterygoid plates of the sphenoid bone, the zygomatic arches, the junction of the maxilla with the lacrimal bone and the ethmoid, and the maxillary teeth were affected by both types of headgear. 5. Only cervical traction produced stresses at the frontal process of the maxilla and the Zygomaticofrontal suture. 6. There were two findings which had not been previously reported: First, cervical traction tended to open the palate in the posterior region. Second, high-pull traction produced compressive stresses at the junction of the right and left maxillae inferior to the anterior nasal spine.

  15. Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ clinic. Main Measures. Any immediate change in the curvature of cervical spine and the degree of atlantoaxial rotation was investigated in the images of simple X-ray and computed tomography of cervical spine with or without OA. Changes of subjective symptom severity were also analyzed for the holistic OA therapy cases. Results. A total of 59 cases were reviewed. Alignment of upper cervical spine rotation showed an immediate improvement (. Changes of subjective symptom severity also showed significant improvement (. Conclusion. These cases revealed rudimentary clinical evidence that holistic OA therapy may be related to an alleviated symptom severity and an improved cervical spinal alignment. These results show that further researches may warrant for the holistic TMJ therapy.

  16. [Effect of extraoral facemask appliance in 48 cases of malocclusion and dentofacial deformity in class III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Su, X

    1993-10-01

    Malocclusion and dentofacial deformity in class III is always characterized by maxillary skeletal retrusion and/or mandibular protrusion. It affects function and facial esthetics. An orthopedic mask appliance with class III extraoral traction made by the authors was applied in 48 cases from Aug. 1985 to Oct. 1991. The study population included 5 patients with deciduous dentition, 30 with permanent dentition, and 13 with mixed dentition. The second deciduous molars or permanent first molars are a class III relationship. These exhibited bilateral crossbites and negative overjet greater than 5 mm severe arch length discrepancies existed in both arches, maxillary skeletal retrusion and/or mandibular protrusion. The results of these 48 cases were very satisfactory. The relationship between maxillary and mandibular second deciduous molar or permanent first molar all showed centric occlusal position. Dentofacial orthopedics therapy is one of the most important treatments of malocclusion and dentofacial deformity. The choice of therapy and orthodontic force must follow the age and endurance of the patient. Also, exercise of the tongue muscle must be considered.

  17. Condylar restoration after early TMJ fractures and functional appliance therapy. Part II: Muscle evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl-Nieke, B; Fischbach, R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and to describe the condition of the lateral pterygoid muscle during and after functional appliance therapy in children who had sustained condylar fractures. The treatment group consisted of 19 patients with an average age of 13.4 years, who had sustained a unilateral fracture at an average age of 8.4 years and had been treated functionally for 6 to 8 months. Muscle condition was assessed through axial soft tissue description. The volume and density of the lateral pterygoid muscle were measured in both groups and were compared on the basis of sex, age and fracture type. 74% of the patients in the follow-up group showed muscle differences of more than 10% between the 2 sides. In 2/3 of these patients the lateral pterygoid of the fracture side was 13 to 69% smaller. The volumes of the contralateral pterygoid muscles in the 2 patient groups differed by 10% on the basis of sex. Both in the treatment group and in the follow-up group the volume difference between the healthy and fractured side was as high as 70% depending on localization and type of fracture. Deep fractures and fractures with complete dislocation of the condyle evoked the most serious reduction in muscle volume.

  18. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  19. Modified distal shoe appliance for premature loss of multiple deciduous molars: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; K, Navin H; Idris, Mohammed; Christopher, Pradeep; Rai, Niharika

    2014-08-01

    Preservation of the primary dentition until the normal time of exfoliation is one of the most important factor involved in preventive and interceptive dentistry. The premature loss of second primary molar before the eruption of permanent first molar can create a significant arch space/tooth size discrepancy. Distal shoe space maintainer is a valuable part of the Paediatric Dentist's armamentarium in those cases where the second primary molar is prematurely lost and it helps to guide the first permanent molar into place. Conventional design poses various limitations in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. Thus, it is required to modify the conventional designs according to the needs of the patient. This case report describes an innovative modification of distal shoe appliance in cases of premature loss of multiple deciduous molars. In the present case, modification of distal shoe space maintainer was advocated because of inadequate abutments caused due to multiple loss of deciduous molars. Bilateral design of distal shoe was planned for unilateral loss of deciduous molars.

  20. Morphological changes of the facial skeleton in Class II/1 patients treated with orthodontic functional appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Festila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate, using lateral cephalometry, the skeletal changes in maxillary bones induced through functional jaw orthopedic therapy. 30 patients with class II division 1 malocclusion and average age of 10.4 years were included in the study. Material and Methods: Cephalometric data were analyzed with the following methods: Burstone, McNamara, Rickets, Tweed and Wits and treatment changes were evaluated overlapping the lateral cephalograms on cranial base with sella registered. Results: The results showed reduced over-jet in average with 2.46 mm, mandibular advancement with a mean value of 2.72 mm and increasing of the total mandibular length with a mean value of 4.17 mm. Although we found an inhibiting in the anterior development of the maxilla with an average of 1.57 degree, the decrease of the anterior-posterior discrepancy was due especially to the mandible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that functional appliances were effective in correcting class II malocclusion. Changes of the position and mandible′s length determined improved facial profile but did not correct it completely because of the chin that moved not only anterior but also downward, as a result of vertical ramus growth.

  1. A Multiwell Disc Appliance Used to Deliver Quantifiable Accelerations and Shear Stresses at Sonic Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Klemuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To mimic in vivo vibration of vocal fold cells, we studied the controllability and range of frequency, acceleration, duration, and shear stress in a new bioreactor attachment. The custom multiwell disc appliance fits into a commercially built rheometer, together termed a torsional rheometer bioreactor (TRB. Previous attachments to the TRB were capable of 50–100 Hz vibrations at relatively high strains but were limited to single-sample experiments. The TRB-multiwell disc system accommodates 20 samples in partially fluid-filled wells in an aseptic environment delivering three different acceleration conditions to different samples simultaneously. Frequency and amplitude used to calculate acceleration along with duration and shear stress were controllable and quantifiable using a combination of built-in rheometer sensors, manufacturer software, and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH simulations. Computed shear stresses at the well bottom using SPH in two and three dimensions were verified with analytical approximations. Results demonstrate capabilities of the TRB-multiwell disc system that, when combined with computational modeling, provide quantifiable vibration parameters covering frequencies 0.01–250 Hz, accelerations of 0.02–300 m/s2, and shear stresses of 0.01–1.4 Pa. It is well-suited for studying cell function underlying vocal fold lamina propria homeostasis, inflammation, and wound healing under differential vibration conditions.

  2. Analysis of occlusal contacts in different types of prosthodontic appliances, Eichner classifications, presence RCP-ICP slide and the type of occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipetić, J; Celebić, A; Baucić, I; Lazić, B; Komar, D; Bratolić, V; Catić, A; Stefancić, S

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the number and the type of the occlusal contacts (strong, weak) with respect to the type of the prosthodontic appliance (fixed, removable, combined fixed-removable) and with respect to the Eichner classification in patients with their appliances being in a good function for a long time. The aim of the study was also to determine the number and the type of the occlusal contacts (strong, weak) with respect to the type of occlusion (canine guided, group function or balanced) and the presence of the RCP-ICP slide. A total of 440 patients with different types of prosthodontic appliances were examined for the antagonistic occlusal contacts using occlusal strips of 11 microm and 50 microm. The average number of occlusal contacts was 10.5 for the upper and 10.46 for the lower posterior teeth, approximately 5 on each side of the tooth arch. The results of the study suggest that the biggest number of occlusal contacts were recorded for the small span fixed appliances (2 on average), the greater span fixed and fixed-removable prosthodontic appliances exhibited 1.6 occlusal contacts, and the removable complete denture exhibited 1.2 contact per the tooth in the posterior region. The number of the hard occlusal contacts was significantly greater in fixed and fixed-removable prosthodontic appliances in comparison with the complete dentures (p 0.05). The overall number of the occlusal contacts, as well as the number of the hard occlusal contacts was significantly greater in the Eichner class I cases (p 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of occlusal contacts between the appliances with RCP-ICP slide and where ICP and RCP corresponded (p > 0.05).

  3. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  4. Application of Life Cycle Measures to Increase Efficiency of Domestic Cooling Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika ELIJOŠIŪTĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Eco-design refers to systematic incorporation of environmental factors into the product design and development with the aim to reduce environmental impact of products throughout their whole life cycle. Electric power consumption of electrical and electronic equipment is one of the principal environmental aspects throughout the product exploitation time. The objective of this study is the application of eco-design methodology for development of improvement of domestic cooling appliances. Refrigeration systems as energy using products have a negative impact on the environment: emissions to air (including greenhouse gases, soil, water, and energy consumption on the whole. Reduction in energy consumption in product use phase is a very important issue due to both environmental impact when equipment operates and to costs of electricity. The accomplished analysis demonstrates the way how global problems related to refrigeration systems could be resolved using the life cycle assessment (LCA as a measure for finding out significant environmental impact during all product life time.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC DISEASES AND REMOVABLE ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES ON THE QUALITY OF SALIVA IN CHILDHOOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Rashkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years numerous investigations using saliva as a diagnostic tool have been carried out. The aim of present study is to evaluate saliva qualities for various general diseases and conditions that influence its qualities. (1 Evaluation of salivary flow and saliva consistency of children. (2 Evaluation of saliva pH and buffer capacity of children. Material and Methods. The investigation was carried out with 126 children (age 6 to 17 selected by their general diseases and conditions influencing the oral risk environment. The children were divided into 4 groups: 30 children with diabetes, 25 children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, 27 healthy children with orthodontic treatment, 34 children as a control group (healthy children. The saliva of the children was tested with the help of “Saliva Check” of GC company. The instructions of the company producer were followed.Results. Stimulated saliva current is reliably lower for children with asthma treated with local corticosteroids, diabetes and children with orthodontic appliances. Saliva pH is with lower values for children with diabetes and asthma – diseases predisposing to acid oral environment. The decreased saliva buffer capacity for children with diabetes and asthma is an indicator for the difficult regulation of the dynamically changing oral electrolytic balance of those children.Conclusion. The saliva parameters studied can be used as biomarkers of the liquid oral environment with regard to the risks for caries and periodontal diseases in children. General health status influences saliva qualities increasing thus indirectly the caries risk.

  6. Simulation platform for direct load control of household appliances. Literature survey and G2 implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, J.; Vlaheli, A.

    1996-10-01

    There is an incentive for the power utilities to look for other ways than building new power stations to satisfy increasing customer power needs. One way to fulfill this demand is by redistributing the available electric power between the different power consumers. This method can successfully be used during high peak hours. The utility is also able to make financial profits selling the redistributed electric power at a higher price to customers with temporary high power demands. Direct Load Control - DLC, a Demand Side Management - DSM tool, is one way to achieve a redistribution of electric power. This masters thesis project consisted in developing a user-friendly simulation platform for domestic appliances combined with an electric power control system to be employed for Direct Load Control. The platform contains the necessary facilities for designing an electrical distribution network model and is implemented in G2, an object-oriented real-time environment. The final application provides an on-line instrument for the utility to control the power consumption over the entire system in terms of dispensing power in an electrical network. The report consists of two main parts. The first part describes a literature survey we systematically compiled to gather literature sources. The second part outlines our design and implementation of the G2 simulation platform for a water-heater model with a Direct Load Control system. The entire simulation platform is designed to allow a flexible change and improvement of the different models. Consequently, our software is a powerful tool for studying a wide range of problems related to a Load Management program involving electrical household loads. 9 refs, 32 figs

  7. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in

  8. Influence of Nasal Resistance on Oral Appliance Treatment Outcome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Biao; Ng, Andrew T.; Qian, Jin; Petocz, Peter; Darendeliler, M. Ali; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    It has been recognized that nasal airway resistance (NAR) is elevated in patients with OSA. However, little is known regarding the influence of nasal resistance on mandibular advancement splint (MAS) treatment outcome in OSA patient. We hypothesized that nasal resistance differs between MAS responders and nonresponders and therefore may influence treatment outcome. Thirty-eight patients with known OSA underwent polysomnography while wearing a custom-made MAS. Treatment outcome was defined as follows: Responders (R) ≥50% reduction in AHI, and Nonresponders (NR) as <50% reduction in AHI. NAR was measured using posterior rhinomanometry in both sitting and supine positions, with and without MAS. The mean AHI in 26 responders was significantly reduced from 29.0 ± 2.9/h to 6.7 ± 1.2/h; P < 0.01). In 12 nonresponders there was no significant change in AHI (23.9 ± 3.0/h vs 22.0 ± 4.3/h; P=ns). Baseline NAR was significantly lower in responders in the sitting position compared to nonresponders (6.5 ± 0.5 vs 9.4 ± 1.0cm H2O; P < 0.01). There was no significant change in NAR (from baseline) with MAS in either response group while in the sitting position, but in the supine position NAR increased significantly with MAS in the nonresponder group (11.8 ± 1.5 vs 13.8 ± 1.6 cm H2O/L/s; P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that NAR and BMI were the most important predictive factors for MAS treatment outcome. These data suggest that higher levels of NAR may negatively impact on treatment outcome with MAS. Citation: Zeng B; Ng AT; Qian J; Petocz P; Darendeliler MA; Cistulli PA. Influence of nasal resistance on oral appliance treatment outcome in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(4):543-547. PMID:18457242

  9. Periodontal evaluation of different toothbrushing techniques in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Oehlmeyer Nassar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plaque control is the major consensus during orthodontic treatment to prevent the occurrence of cavities and periodontal inflammation. The mechanic resource of greater effectiveness and frequent use in this control is the oral hygiene. The tooth brushing techniques most used in orthodontic patients are: Ramfjord's method, Modified Stillman technique and Bass method. OBJECTIVE: Since control studies evaluating the effectiveness of usual tooth brushing techniques do not show clear advantage, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three brushing methods, through periodontal clinical parameters of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. METHODS: Thirty patients were selected, with ages between 14 and 22 years old, with fixed orthodontic appliances. After basic periodontal treatment the following factors were evaluated: 1 - Plaque index and 2 - Gingival index and each patient was randomly included in one of the three selected groups according to the brushing technique: Group 1 - Scrubbing technique; Group 2 - Modified Stillman technique and Group 3 - Bass technique. Patients were evaluated for 9 months. RESULTS: The results showed a significant reduction of clinical parameters by the end of this period, however there was a very significant reduction of Gingival index on group 3 (13.6% when compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Thus, it can be suggested that the Bass technique can be effective on the reduction of periodontal clinical parameters of Plaque index and Gingival index in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.INTRODUÇÃO: o controle de placa bacteriana é o maior consenso durante o tratamento ortodôntico para prevenir a ocorrência de cáries e inflamação periodontal. O recurso mecânico de maior efetividade e uso frequente nesse controle é a higienização bucal. As técnicas de escovação dentária mais usadas por pacientes ortodônticos são: a friccional giratória de Ramfjord, a

  10. Periodontal health status in patients treated with the Invisalign® system and fixed orthodontic appliances: A 3 months clinical and microbiological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Mangano, Alessandro; Montanari, Paola; Margherini, Silvia; Caprioglio, Alberto; Abbate, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to compare the periodontal health and the microbiological changes via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and Invisalign® system (Align Technology, Santa Clara, California). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups (Invisalign® group, fixed orthodontic appliances group and control group). Plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing were assessed. Total biofilm mass and periodontal pathogens were analyzed and detected via real-time PCR. All these data were analyzed at the T0 (beginning of the treatment) T1 (1-month) and T2 (3 months); and statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney test for independent groups. Results: After 1-month and after 3 months of treatment there was only one sample with periodontopathic anaerobes found in patient treated using fixed orthodontic appliances. The Invisalign® group showed better results in terms of periodontal health and total biofilm mass compared to the fixed orthodontic appliance group. A statistical significant difference (P Invisalign® System show a superior periodontal health in the short-term when compared to patients in treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Invisalign® should be considered as a first treatment option in patients with risk of developing periodontal disease. PMID:26430371

  11. Factors Affecting the Formation, Severity and Location of White Spot Lesions during Orthodontic Treatment with Fixed Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khalaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the formation, severity and location of white spot lesions in patients completing fixed appliance therapy. Material and Methods: A total of 45 patients (19 males and 26 females, mean age 15.81 years, standard deviation 2.89 years attending consecutively Aberdeen Dental Hospital (ADH between January and June 2013 to have their fixed appliances removed were given a questionnaire to elicit information regarding their dental care and diet. They were then examined clinically as well as their pre-treatment photographs to record treatment data and white spot lesion (WSL location and severity using a modified version of Universal Visual Scale for Smooth Surfaces (UniViSS Smooth. Absolute risk (AR and risk ratios (RR were also calculated. Results: The incidence of at least one WSL observed in patients was 42%, with males displaying a higher incidence than females. The highest incidence of WSLs was recorded on the maxillary canines and lateral incisors, and on the maxillary and mandibular premolars and first molars. The gingival areas of the maxillary and mandibular teeth were the most affected surfaces. Significant (P < 0.05 relationships were found between the presence of WSLs and the following factors: poor oral hygiene (OH, males, increased treatment length, lack of use of fluoride supplements, use of carbonated soft drinks and/or fruit juices and the use of sugary foods. Poor OH posed the highest risk of developing WSL (RR = 8.55. Conclusions: 42% of patients have developed white spot lesions during fixed appliance therapy. Various contributing risk factors were identified with the greatest risk posed by a poor oral hygiene.

  12. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  13. Esthetic orthodontic treatment using the invisalign appliance for moderate to complex malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert L

    2008-08-01

    In this report, three patients were treated with a new treatment protocol for Invisalign to demonstrate that a variety of complex malocclusions can be successfully treated using this protocol, including correction of moderate crowding, correction of moderate Class II division 1, and deep overbite. Previous studies of Invisalign showed significant limitations for more complex orthodontic treatment, although a few recent case reports have shown successfully completed moderate to difficult orthodontic malocclusions. One reason for the discrepancy is that the earlier studies were done during the first four years of the appliance development (now ten years of clinical use), when significant problems existed with accomplishing bodily movement, torquing of roots, extrusions, and rotations of premolars and canines. The new protocol included new methods for anterior/posterior corrections, showing on the computer the effect of elastics for Class II treatment simulated as a one-stage anterior/posterior movement at the end of treatment. Staging for interproximal reduction (IPR) is now automatically staged when there is better access to interproximal contacts to avoid IPR where significant overlap between teeth is present to avoid performing IPR on surfaces that may be damaged by instruments such as burs, strips, and disks when cut on a sharp angle. Staging for tooth movements is now also done to enable combination movements to occur simultaneously for each tooth with the tooth that needs to move the most (the lead tooth) determining the minimum number of stages required. All other teeth move at a slower rate than the lead tooth throughout the duration of treatment. Attachments are now placed in the middle of the crown automatically for rotation and automatically sized in proportion to the clinical crown. Use of 1 mm thick (buccal-lingual dimension) horizontal beveled rectangular attachments is standard on premolars for retention of aligners during intrusive movements, such as

  14. Oral Appliance Treatment Response and Polysomnographic Phenotypes of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Takaya, Hisashi; Qian, Jin; Petocz, Peter; Ng, Andrew T.; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Mandibular advancement splints (MAS) are an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); however, therapeutic response is variable. Younger age, female gender, less obesity, and milder and supine-dependent OSA have variably been associated with treatment success in relatively small samples. Our objective was to utilize a large cohort of MAS treated patients (1) to compare efficacy across patients with different phenotypes of OSA and (2) to assess demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnography variables as treatment response predictors. Methods: Retrospective analysis of MAS-treated patients participating in clinical trials in sleep centers in Sydney, Australia between years 2000–2013. All studies used equivalent customized two-piece MAS devices and treatment protocols. Treatment response was defined as (1) apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 5/h, (2) AHI < 10/h and ≥ 50% reduction, and (3) ≥ 50% AHI reduction. Results: A total of 425 patients (109 female) were included (age 51.2 ± 10.9 years, BMI 29.2 ± 5.0 kg/m2). MAS reduced AHI by 50.3% ± 50.7% across the group. Supine-predominant OSA patients had lower treatment response rates than non-positional OSA (e.g., 36% vs. 59% for AHI < 10/h). REM-predominant OSA showed a lower response rate than either NREM or non-stage dependent OSA. In prediction modelling, age, baseline AHI, and anthropometric variables were predictive of MAS treatment outcome but not OSA phenotype. Gender was not associated with treatment outcome. Conclusions: Lower MAS treatment response rates were observed in supine and REM sleep. In a large sample, we confirm that demographic, anthropometric, and polysomnographic data only weakly inform about MAS efficacy, supporting the need for alternative objective prediction methods to reliably select patients for MAS treatment. Citation: Sutherland K, Takaya H, Qian J, Petocz P, Ng AT, Cistulli PA. Oral appliance treatment response and polysomnographic phenotypes of

  15. 模糊控制在家电产品中的应用与展望%Application of Fuzzy Control to Electrical Home Appliances and Its Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖健华; 经顺林

    2001-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is the application of fuzzy control to such electrical home appliances as automatic washing machine, air-conditioner, refrigerator and so on. Also discussed is the development trend of electrical home appliances based on the latest technology.%介绍了模糊控制技术在全自动洗衣机、空调、冰箱等家用电器中的应用,并结合最新的技术手段,讨论了智能家电的发展趋势.

  16. Two-phase treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion with the combination of the twin-block appliance and high-pull headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Yan, Bin; Wang, Lin

    2012-08-01

    The patient was a boy with a Class II skeletal and dental relationship, a large overjet, an impinging overbite, and a steep mandibular plane angle. Treatment started with the Twin-block appliance combined with high-pull headgear to promote growth of the mandible, restrain the maxilla in the anteroposterior and vertical planes, and improve his profile. This was followed by extraction of the maxillary second premolars and the mandibular first premolars. Then fixed appliances were used to align and level the dentition. Pretreatment and posttreatment records are shown, and the treatment results are stable 2 years after debonding.

  17. Study of rational energy consumption in electric appliances. An integrated approach; Estudio de racionalizacion del consumo energetico en electrodomesticos. Un enfoque integrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Pablo A.; Romero Tirado, Rene R. [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Electrotecnia

    1997-12-31

    This work presents a global and integrated approach about rational energy consumption concerning the use of electric appliances based on studies carried out in this investigation and information obtained through a joint action of government agents and electric power manufacturers, producers and distributors. It also presents a program named `procaeh`(home electric appliances quality program) in the scope of the communications and energy bureau and energy rational use (URE) management 8 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.; e-mail: massa at isis.unlp.edu.ar

  18. Modified Bluegrass Appliance: A Nonpunitive Therapy for Thumb Sucking in Pediatric Patients—A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amish Diwanji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral habits in form of digit/thumb sucking are common phenomenon and part of childhood behavior. They are normally associated with oral pleasure, hunger, anxiety, and sometimes psychological disturbances. Chronic practice can cause major orthopedic alterations to the skeletal structures of the oral cavity and lower face. Aversive approaches in form of punitive therapy have been moderately effective. Modified bluegrass appliance is nonpunitive therapy to treat sucking habits. It acts as a habit reversal technique and installs positive reinforcement in children. Modified blue grass appliance proved to be very comfortable to patients and encourages neuromuscular stimulations.

  19. Exploration on the Recycling Mechanism of Waste Household Appliances and Electronic Products in China%我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少艺

    2012-01-01

    我国因人口众多,电子电器产品的实际拥有量非常大,当这些产品被淘汰或换代时,产品废弃的数量同样巨大。如何有效地进行废旧电器电子的资源化回收处理,已经成为当前关系到我国经济、社会和环境可持续发展及我国再生资源回收利用面临的一个新课题。分析了我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理现状及存在问题,提出建立相关的法律、法规、市场机制及出台积极的经济政策,同时利用经济政策和利益驱动刺激回收市场发展,并加大绿色技术投入,使得废旧家电回收利用规模化发展。%Our country has a large population, electronic appliances products with the actual ownership is very big, when these products are eliminated or generation, the number of waste products also great. How to effectively carry out of waste electrical and electronic resources recycling processing, already became current relates our country economy, society and the environment sustainable development and our country renewable resource recycling faces a new topic. This article has analyzed our country waste household appliances and electronic products recycling status and problems, proposed the establishment of relevant laws, regulations, the market mechanism and the introduction of active economic policy, while the use of economic policy and interest drive stimulus recycling market development, and increase the green technology investment, the scale development of waste house-hold appliances recycling.

  20. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  1. Morphological changes of condyles and Helkimo clinical dysfunction index in patients treated with Herbst--orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidar, Luís Antônio de Arruda; Abrahão, Márcio; Yamashita, Hélio K; Dominguez, Gladys Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the morphological changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyles and calculated the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index (CDI) in adolescents with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrognathism treated with the Herbst appliance (phase I) and fixed orthodontic appliances (phase II). Thirty-two consecutive adolescents underwent phase I, and 23 completed phase II. The TMJs were evaluated qualitatively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning of treatment (T1), during phase I (T2), at the end of phase I (T3) and at the end of phase II (T4). The CDI was calculated at T1, T3 and T4. From T1 to T3 (p=0.326), there were no changes in condyle morphology in 86.0% of the TMJs. From T3 to T4 (p<0.05) and T1 to T4 (p<0.05), changes occurred in 39.1% and 43.4% of the condyles. No significant changes in CDI occurred from T1 to T3, T3 to T4 and T1 to T4 (p=1.000; 86.6%, 76.2% and 76.2% concordance). After phase I, there were practically no changes in condyle morphology. At the end of phase II, a mild flattening was observed in some condyles. It may be concluded that no significant changes occurred in CDI after both treatment phases.

  2. Extreme low-frequency electric and magnetic fields due to the use of household appliances; Extreem-laagfrequente elektrische en magnetische velden van huishoudelijke apparatuur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelfkens, G.; Pruppers, M.J.M.

    2005-07-01

    Exposure to electric and magnetic fields due to the use of most household appliances does not exceed the exposure levels recommended by the European Union. No short-term health effects are to be expected for these appliances. All appliances connected to the power grid are surrounded by electric and magnetic fields to which the user can be exposed. Because some people worry about possible health effects caused by this exposure, it is important to study the electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of household appliances. This report evaluates the scientific investigations of health effects that may occur in using household appliances. The legislation for the use of these appliances in both the European Union and the Netherlands is also described. Finally, an overview is given of comparative measurements with respect to the magnetic fields and exposure in the neighbourhood of household appliances. Scientific literature, which is not always up to date, suggests that for some household appliances possibly still in use, the magnetic fields will exceed the exposure levels advised by the EU. As a result of both technological improvement and the current obligation that household appliances comply with a European standard, exceeding the levels advised by the EU for appliances that come onto the market is less likely. The exposure levels recommended by the EU are based on effects that occur during or shortly afterwards exposure. It cannot be ruled out that exposure below these levels may lead to long-term health effects. However, there is no scientific evidence for a relationship between cancer and the use of household appliances. [Dutch] De blootstelling aan elektrische en magnetische velden ligt voor de meeste huishoudelijke apparaten onder de niveaus die de Europese Unie aanbeveelt. Voor die apparaten zijn geen gezondheidseffecten op de korte termijn te verwachten. Elk apparaat dat op het elektriciteitsnet is aangesloten, heeft een elektrisch en magnetisch veld om zich heen

  3. Propulsive appliance stimulates the synthesis of insulin-like growth factors I and II in the mandibular condylar cartilage of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Denise; Santos, Marinilce F; Kimura, Edna Teruko

    2003-09-01

    Functional orthopedic appliances correct dental malocclusion partially by exerting indirect mechanical stimulus on the condylar cartilage, modulating growth and the adaptation of orofacial structures. However, the exact nature of the biological responses to this therapy is not well understood. Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important local factors during growth and differentiation of several tissues, including cartilage. The aim of this study was to verify the mRNA and protein expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in the condylar cartilage of young male Wistar rats that used a mandibular propulsive appliance for 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 or 15 days. For this purpose, sagittal sections of decalcified and paraffin-embedded condyles were submitted to immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. IGF-I and IGF-II expression increased with developmental age in the control and treated rats. After 9 days of treatment the positivity for both peptides in the animals that wore the propulsive appliance increased even more, expressively different from the age-matched controls. The expression patterns of both IGFs were similar, although IGF-I labelling was stronger. Furthermore, the enhanced expression of both peptides was in parallel with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positivity, a proliferation cell marker. The modulation of IGF-I and IGF-II expression in the condylar cartilage in response to the propulsive appliance suggests that both peptides are involved in the mandibular adaptation during this therapy.

  4. Sexual function and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea : A randomized clinical trial evaluating the effects of oral-appliance and continuous positive airway pressure therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stel, Anna-Lucia; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van Driel, Mels F.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with sexual dysfunction. Although successful treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been demonstrated to improve sexual function, the effects of oral-appliance therapy are unknown. Aim. The aims

  5. 家用电器智能节能控制系统设计%Design of Intelligent Energy-saving Control System for Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵显伟

    2013-01-01

    The main part of residential area power load is household electrical appliances .The electric energy waste of household appliances power consumption in standby time is very serious .The paper designs a household appliances intelligent energy -saving control system that using the SCM as the core .The system can automatically detect whether the household electrical appliances is in standby state or not .If it is in standby state , the system can automatically cut off the power supply and completely isolate it without any power consumption .%住宅小区电力负荷主要部分是家用电器,而家用电器电能消耗的大部分在待机时间,电能浪费非常严重。针对此,以单片机为核心,设计了家用电器智能节能控制系统。该系统能自动检测家用电器是否处于待机状态,如处于待机状态,自动切断电源,与电源完全隔离,不消耗丝毫电能。

  6. Efficacy and comorbidity of oral appliances in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea : a systematic review and preliminary results of a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud

    2006-01-01

    The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive obstructions of the upper airway during sleep. The modification of pharyngeal patency by oral appliance therapy has been suggested as an alternative to various treatment mod

  7. A systematic review of the effects of shoes and other ankle or foot appliances on balance in older people and people with peripheral nervous system disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, J.M.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Postema, K.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify and review all publications on effects ankle and/or foot appliances (AFA) on balance in older people (> 60 years) and patients with peripheral nervous system disorders (PNSD). These two groups account for the majority of the population with deteriorated bal

  8. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Yong; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim Sunny, Seong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model.

  9. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Yong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithographic prototype and converted it into a cobalt-chrome alloy appliance as a way of combining traditional prosthetic investment and cast techniques. While the bonding procedure of the appliance could be reinforced, CAD technology simplified the fabrication process by eliminating the soldering phase. This report describes CAD/CAM fabrication of the complex anteroposterior lingual bonded retraction appliance for intrusive retraction of the maxillary anterior dentition. Furthermore, the CAD/CAM method eliminates the extra step of determining the lever arm on the lateral cephalograms and subsequent design modifications on the study model.

  10. Nonsurgical treatment of adult open bite using edgewise appliance combined with high-pull headgear and class III elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Isao; Yamaki, Masaki; Hanada, Kooji

    2005-03-01

    This case report describes the effect of a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics on the nonsurgical treatment of an adult open bite. The 19-year 1-month-old Japanese female presented with the anterior open bite of 4.0 mm and mild crowding. She had a skeletal Class II but a Class III molar relationship due to a severe proclination of the mandibular dental arch. Unilateral congenital missing premolars caused a discrepancy between the facial and dental midline. After extraction of two premolars and the impacted mandibular third molars, nonsurgical therapy was performed using the standard edgewise appliance combined with a high-pull headgear and Class III elastics. The successful treatment outcome and stability of the final occlusion indicates that a combination of high-pull headgear and Class III elastics is one of the effective devices in the nonsurgical treatment of open bite and, is especially helpful in uprighting the mandibular dental arch.

  11. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea: results of a randomised placebo controlled trial using parallel group design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, N.; Svanholt, P.; Solow, B.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non-adva...... is essential for the effect. MNA has no placebo effect. MAA may be a good alternative to CPAP in subsets of OSA patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...... beneficial effect on the vitality domain of SF-36. Four MAA patients (14.8%) and two MNA patients (8%) discontinued interventions because of adverse effects. Our conclusion is that MAA has significant beneficial effects on OSA, including cure in some cases of severe OSA. Protrusion of the mandible...

  12. Orchestrating utility supply and demand in real-time via the Internet, home networks, and smart appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, R.F. III [Power Networks, Big Indian, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a model to illustrate the efficient coordination between the supply-side and demand-side of household electricity use and the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real-time pricing. In real-time supply and demand side management, a variable price for service is sent via Internet from the supply-side to the demand-side. The 3 benefits to this type of demand-side management are that traditional fossil-fuelled electrical capacity can operate less of the time and more efficiently; renewable electrical capacity such as wind and solar power can be put to use more efficiently when it becomes available; and additional means are available to protect the transmission and distribution infrastructure of the utility. A critical requirement is that pricing should change frequently throughout the day so that budget conscious consumers do not have to wait too long for favourable pricing to use their appliances. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Effect of fixed space maintainers and removable appliances on oral microflora in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kundu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral habits and caries if left untreated may result in crowding and arch length discrepancy in developing dentition. Therefore, appliances are used to maintain the arch length and for proper relationship between dental arches. However, its insertion may cause an increase in bacterial concentration. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., and Candida albicans in saliva during the first 6 months of orthodontic therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty children in the age group of 6-15 years were selected with regard to indication of orthodontic treatment, and subsequently grouped as patients to be treated with fixed space maintainers or removable appliances. Unstimulated saliva was collected in a sterile container at baseline and at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month recalls for every selected child. Samples collected were processed for bacterial culture in different culture media at different time intervals. Statistical Analysis: SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 statistical software was carried for bacterial counts. Chi-square test and t-test were performed to know the effects of each variable and to reveal the statistical significance. Result: Bacterial counts of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus sp., and Candida albicans were found to be statistically significant (P 0≤ 0.001, (P < 0.05, and (P < 0.001, respectively in both the groups at all intervals. Conclusion: At different time intervals, the total numbers of bacterial count of Streptococcus mutans were comparatively higher, followed by Lactobacillus sp. and Candida albicans.

  14. Long-term treatment effects of the FR-2 appliance: a prospective evalution 7 years post-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Scanavini, Marco A.; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM To examine the long-term effects induced by treatment with the function regulator (FR-2) appliance 7 years post-treatment compared with untreated class II subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The FR-2 sample was collected prospectively and comprised 17 subjects (10 boys and 7 girls, mean age 10.8 years) who were treated with the FR-2 appliance for 1.7 years and re-evaluated 7.1 years after treatment. The step-by-step mandibular advancement was performed gradually (increments up to 3–4 mm), until a ‘super class I’ molar relationship was obtained. The control group consisted of 17 class II subjects (9 boys and 8 girls, mean age 11.3 years) with class II malocclusion, excessive overjet, and class II molar relationship, matched to the treated group as to ages at all times, gender distribution, and stages of skeletal maturity (evaluated by the cervical vertebral maturation method). The lateral cephalograms were analysed at T1 (initial), T2 (final), and T3 (7.1 years post-treatment). The compatibility between the groups and the comparisons of their changes at T1–T2, T2–T3, and T1–T3 intervals were examined by independent sample t-tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS FR-2 treatment provided a significant improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship due to an increase in mandibular length compared with controls, which remained stable over time. Also overjet, overbite, and molar relationship corrections demonstrated stability. Among dentoalveolar changes, only the increased mesial movement of the mandibular molars in the FR-2 group demonstrated stability. CONCLUSIONS Correction of class II malocclusion remained stable 7 years after FR-2 treatment mainly due to the stability of the skeletal changes. PMID:23736378

  15. Oral hygiene and gingival health in patients with fixed prosthodontic appliances--a 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolan, Sladana Milardović; Viskić, Josko; Stefancić, Sanja; Sitar, Ksenija Rener; Vojvodić, Denis; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and observe the oral hygiene and gingival condition in patients before and after fixed prosthodontic therapy through a 12-month period in combination with oral hygiene instructions. It was also analysed how factors, such as type of fixed prosthodontic appliance, constructive material, the position of a fixed partial denture (FPD) in the mouth, age and gender influenced oral hygiene. The dental arches were divided into three segments each and teeth and gingiva were examined using the Plaque and Gingiva Index by Silness and Löe, and for the mineralized deposits assessment the Calculus Index by Green and Vermillion was employed. The preliminary examination was conducted before the prosthodontic therapy, and the reexaminations were carried out 14 days, 1, 6 and 12 months after crown and/or FPD placement. A total of 93 subjects from the original study group of 146 patients attended all clinical examinations, while the rest was excluded. The sample consisted of 60 women, 33 men at age between 21 and 95 (average 51.8). A total of 39 patients had single crowns (C), 50 FPDs and 5 C+FPD. The frequency of plaque found during the preliminary visit was higher than that found in the other periods (p oral hygiene levels than patients with FPDs or C+FPDs (p = 0.001). Our results revealed no significant difference in oral hygiene status among patients with FPDs made of different materials (p = 0.083). The worst hygiene levels were found in patients with fixed prosthodontic appliances in both jaws (p = 0.012). Younger patients showed better hygiene levels than the older ones (p = 0.002). Our research showed that appropriate educational and motivational measures can lead to improved oral hygiene, even after FPD placement. Presumably, the oral health in a group of adult patients can be kept acceptable by providing a prophylactic oral hygiene program.

  16. 颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器临床应用中的生物学效应%Clinical bioeffects of buccal multiloop appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉楠; 侯录; 徐实谦

    2014-01-01

    背景:颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器在临床治疗安氏Ⅲ类错牙合畸形具有良好的效果,但在应用过程中也一些问题和不足。  目的:总结颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器在临床应用中出现的问题及相应的解决办法。  方法:以计算机检索2000至2013年万方数据库、中国知网数据库及PubMed数据库中关于颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器的文献,检索词为“颊侧多曲簧,安氏Ⅲ类错牙合,临床应用;Buccal Multiloop,ClassⅢ malocclusion, clinical application”。  结果与结论:与其他相应矫治器相比,颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器显示出一些独特的优势,颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器柔和的弹力作用,在促进上颌向前生长发育的同时,又抑制了下颌的过度生长发育,并使下颌功能性的后退,从而解除反牙合。因此颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器治疗乳、恒牙反牙合的临床效果是肯定的。针对患者的安氏Ⅲ类错牙合畸形,在临床中表现出良好的效果,但在临床矫治应用中会出现一些相应的问题和不足,临床中对出现的相应问题也一一相应予以解决,所以颊侧多曲簧活动矫治器对于反牙合患者的治疗具有高效性。%BACKGROUND:Buccal multiloop appliance in the clinical treatment of Class III malocclusion has good results, but also exhibits some problems and deficiencies in the application process. OBJECTIVE:To summarize the clinical problems and corresponding solutions of buccal multiloop appliance. METHODS:A computer-based search of Wanfang, CNKI and PubMed databases were performed for articles related to buccal multiloop appliance published from 2000 to 2013. The key words were "buccal multiloop, Class III malocclusion, clinical application" in Chinese and English. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with other appliances, the buccal multiloop appliance appears to have some unique advantages. The buccal multiloop appliance with

  17. Después de cien años de uso: ¿las férulas oclusales tienen algún efecto terapéutico? After a century of use: do the occlusal appliances have any therapeutic effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Santander

    2011-04-01

    relation and its determination as a starting point of treatment; the use of splints to deprogram; their effect on the oral motor behaviour known as bruxism are discussed. Their effect on EMG activity during resting, swallowing and maximal clenching in the masticatory and neck muscles; their effect on muscular eficiency; their effect decreasing the joint overload; and experimental evidence of the use of several appliances on speciic symptoms such as pain and joint noise, are also treated. The true challenge is to generate new knowledge about joint degenerative changes, the craniocervical relationships, tilt and curvature of the cervical spine. In conclusion, it's necessary to use an occlusal appliance designed for the specific condition of the patient, and its real therapeutic value is demonstrated by the improvement of some signs and symptoms in masticatory and cervical muscles. However, the action mechanisms of occlusal appliances are not fully understood. The lack of scientiic support contributes to the persistent controversy of the use of these appliances in the treatment of temporomandibular joint sounds and reversing degenerative changes. It is still a challenge to carry out new researches supporting the use of these appliances as an effective method to treat our patients using management protocols and periodic evaluations.

  18. The Hybrid Hyrax Distalizer, a new all-in-one appliance for rapid palatal expansion, early class III treatment and upper molar distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Benedict; Ludwig, Björn; Katyal, Vandana; Nienkemper, Manuel; Rein, Anna; Drescher, Dieter

    2014-09-01

    Growing class III patients with maxillary deficiency may be treated with a maxillary protraction facemask. Because the force generated by this appliance is applied to the teeth, the inevitable mesial migration of the dentition can result in anterior crowding, incisor proclination and a possible need for subsequent extraction therapy. The Hybrid Hyrax appliance, anchored on mini-implants in the anterior palate, can be used to overcome these side-effects during the facemask therapy. In some class III cases, there is also a need for subsequent distalization after the orthopaedic treatment. In this paper, clinical application of the Hybrid Hyrax Distalizer is described, facilitating both orthopaedic advancement of the maxilla and simultaneous orthodontic distalization of the maxillary molars.

  19. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  20. Three-dimensional treatment outcomes in Class II patients treated with the Herbst appliance: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCornu, Megan; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Zhu, Hongtu; Wu, Chih-Da; Larson, Brent; Nguyen, Tung

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to analyze 3-dimensional skeletal changes in subjects with Class II malocclusion treated with the Herbst appliance and to compare these changes with treated Class II controls using 3-dimensional superimposition techniques. Methods Seven consecutive Herbst patients and 7 Class II controls treated with Class II elastics who met the inclusion criteria had cone-beam computed tomographs taken before treatment, and either after Herbst removal or at posttreatment for the control subjects. Three-dimensional models were generated from the cone-beam computed tomography images, registered on the anterior cranial bases, and analyzed using color maps and point-to-point measurements. Results The Herbst patients demonstrated anterior translation of the glenoid fossae and condyles (right anterior fossa, 1.69 ± 0.62 mm; left anterior fossa, 1.43 ± 0.71 mm; right anterior condyle, 1.20 ± 0.41 mm; left anterior condyle, 1.29 ± 0.57 mm), whereas posterior displacement predominated in the controls (right anterior fossa, −1.51 ± 0.68 mm; left anterior fossa, −1.31 ± 0.61 mm; right anterior condyle, −1.20 ± 0.41 mm; left anterior condyle, −1.29 ± 0.57 mm; P <0.001). There was more anterior projection of B-point in the Herbst patients (2.62 ± 1.08 mm vs 1.49 ± 0.79 mm; P <0.05). Anterior displacement of A-point was more predominant in the controls when compared with the Herbst patients (1.20 ± 0.53 mm vs −1.22 ± 0.43 mm; P <0.001). Conclusions Class II patients treated with the Herbst appliance demonstrated anterior displacement of the condyles and glenoid fossae along with maxillary restraint when compared with the treated Class II controls; this might result in more anterior mandibular projection. PMID:24286905

  1. Impacts of fixed orthodontic appliance and clear-aligner on daily performance in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Feiou Lin,1 Linjie Yao,2 Chandradev Bhikoo,1 Jing Guo3 1Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Pedodontics, School of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods: The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0, 6 months after bonding (T1, and 12 months after bonding (T2. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA. Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results: There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01. However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusion: Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. Keywords: clear-aligner, fixed orthodontic appliance, OIDP, quality of life, oral health

  2. Householders’ Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people’s energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders’ perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally ‘went together’,...

  3. Study on Partner Selection of the Supply Chain for Gome Electrical Appliances%国美电器供应链合作伙伴选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安伟; 叶金福; 蔡建峰

    2012-01-01

    Gome, one of the home appliance chain retail enterprise with the strongest influence power in China, is a national chain enterprise which runs the retail of the electrical appliances and the consumption electronic products, and its main businesses are the retail of the electrical appliances and the consumption electronic products. Although Gome maintains a close, friendly and mutual strategic partnership with world-renowned home appliance manufacturers, there are still certain problems in its partner selection process. This article focuses on the analysis of the partner selection of the supply chain for Gome by means of SWOT, points out its existing problem in the partner selection and puts forward improvement strategy in the partner selection.%国美电器是一家以经营电器及消费电子产品零售为主的全国性连锁企业,主营业务是电器及消费类电子产品零售,目前是中国最具影响力的家电连锁零售企业之一.国美电器与全球知名家电制造企业保持着紧密、友好、互助的战略合作伙伴关系,但在其合作伙伴选择过程中仍存在一定的问题.文章主要对国美电器的供应链合作伙伴选择现状运用SWOT进行分析,指出其在合作伙伴选择中存在的问题,并提出改善国美电器供应链合作伙伴选择的策略.

  4. In vitro quantification of white spot enamel lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances using quantitative light-induced fluorescence and DIAGNOdent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljehani, Abdulaziz; Tranaeus, Sofia; Forsberg, Carl-Magnus; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit; Shi, Xie-Qi

    2004-12-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were 2-fold: 1) to evaluate two fluorescence methods (DIAGNOdent and QLF (quantitative light-induced fluorescence)) for quantification of white spot lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances; and 2) to determine the inter-observer agreement of the DIAGNOdent and QLF methods for quantification of incipient enamel lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances. Forty-one premolar teeth with visually sound smooth surfaces or visually white spot enamel lesions were included in the study. Orthodontic brackets were fixed adjacent to the lesions, thus simulating the position of fixed appliances during orthodontic treatment. All teeth were measured using both the DIAGNOdent and QLF methods. Of the 41 teeth, 20 smooth surfaces were randomly selected and analyzed by 4 operators using both DIAGNOdent and QLF. The teeth were sectioned into 300-microm-thick slices using a water-cooled diamond saw and the slices manually ground to 80-100 microm thickness. Histopathology and transverse microradiography were performed to provide the gold standards for verification of lesion depth and mineral loss, respectively. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients between lesion depth determined by histopathology and the DIAGNOdent and QLF were 0.76 and 0.82, respectively, whereas the Pearson correlation coefficients between mineral loss and the two methods were 0.64 and 0.84, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was found to be 0.80 and 0.93 for DIAGNOdent and QLF, respectively. In conclusion, QLF may be a suitable method for quantifying incipient carious lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.

  5. Research and Implementation on Interconnection Protocol for White Appliance%白色家电互联协议的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏真; 谢云

    2011-01-01

    为了实现白色家电互联硬件成本最小化,本文研究和开发了简单、易于实现的白色家电互联协议,MCU作为控制中心,CC1101模块作为无线收发模块,2051作为终端节点处理器,建立了一个小型控制网络,从而实现白色家电的互联。实验结果表明:该系统能够满足互联的功能,并且出错率较低。%In order to carry out interconnection of white home appliances and cut down the hardware costs, intercormection protocol of white home appliances is designed and implemented, which is composed of control core by MCU, wireless transceiver module CC 1101 and terminal node processor by 2051. The small control network is established to complete interconnection of white home appliances. The results of experiment is that interoperability is satisfied and error rate is low.

  6. 家电产品逆向物流回收的OEMT模式研究%Household electrical appliances reverse logistics OEMT mode research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫星; 汪浪

    2012-01-01

    由环境问题引发的家电逆向物流处于不断发展阶段,而家电逆向物流的发展离不开回收处理体系和回收模式的支撑。本文从生产商角度探讨家电产品逆向物流回收的自营模式(OEMT)利润量化问题,经过比较并得出。有助于我国废旧家电回收处理体系的进一步完善。%nvironmental problems caused by home appliance reverse logistics in the development stage, and home appliance reverse logistics development is inseparable from the recycling system and the recycling mode support.This article from the perspective of household electrical appliances manufacturers reverse logistics self-supporting mode (OEMT) profit quantify a problem, through comparison and conclusion. Contribute to China~s electronics waste recycling system further improved.

  7. 家用电器电磁辐射污染危害及防护%Hazard and Prevention of Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution of Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经纬

    2012-01-01

    科技的发展使得家庭中使用的电器和电子产品越来越多,给我们的日常生活带来了很大的方便。然而,科学研究表明,家用电器和电子产品在使用过程中产生一定的电磁辐射,对人体健康不利。本文对家用电器电磁辐射对人身体的危害性进行分析,提出日常生活中防护电磁辐射的一些具体做法。%There are more and more household appliances and electronic products due to the development of science and technology, which brings great convenience to our daily life. However, a scientific research shows that household appliances and electronic products in use may produce certain electromagnetic radiation harmful to hu- man body. This paper analyzes the degree of the electromagnetic radiation harm of different household appliances and proposes some concrete practices to prevent electromagnetic radiation in daily life.

  8. 谈家电产品电磁骚扰测试的重要性%Talk about the importance of electromagnetic disturbance testing for household appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少启; 武洪强; 薛福星; 孙永波; 陈琛; 代玉; 金异

    2015-01-01

    结合家电产品市场抽检和委托检验的测试情况,列举了部分家电产品在电源端子骚扰电压、骚扰功率、辐射骚扰未通过的测试结果。这些电磁骚扰主要来源于日益复杂的电子器件或PCB布置,尤其是数字电路和模拟电路的综合效应。电磁骚扰测试项目不能通过的家电产品可能会对电网或人体造成不良影响。%Combining with testing cases of household appliances of market sampling and entrusted inspection,listing failed testing results parts of household appliances in disturbance voltage at the mains terminals、disturbance power、radiated disturbance. The electromagnetic disturbance mainly comes from the increasingly sophisticated electronic devices or PCB layout,especially the combined effect of digital circuit and analog circuit. The household appliances with failed electromagnetic disturbance testing items have a bad effect on the grid or the human body.

  9. 中餐燃气炒菜灶热效率的提高%Increasing Thermal Efficiency of Chinese Cooking Gas Appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 段常贵; 侯根富

    2001-01-01

    现有中餐燃气炒菜灶绝大多数是采用大气式或鼓风式燃烧,其热效率较低,一般仅为20%左右,能源浪费严重。单纯从灶具的结构方面改进,很难取得突破性进展。采用以辐射传热为主的燃烧方式,是提高中餐燃气炒菜灶热效率的有效途径。%Most of Chinese cooking gas appliances in existence adoptpartially-aerated combustion or blast combustion. Its thermal efficiency is low, only about 20% commonly, wasting energy seriously. It is very difficult to improve it only from the structure of appliances. Adopting the combustion method mainly with radiation heat transfer is the effective avenue of increasing the thermal efficiency of Chinese cooking gas appliance.

  10. [Individual response to treatments using Teuscher activator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, I L; Lagerström, L O

    1991-12-01

    Variations in facial growth and dentoalveolar development were studied in a group of 40 patients treated with the Teuscher appliance, a functional appliance which is a combination of an activator and a high-pull headgear. Patients were selected for this study on the basis of an initial Class II Division 1 malocclusion and on being consecutively treated with this appliance. The results showed that in 80% of the patients the maxilla either remained unchanged in it's relationship to the anterior cranial base (NSL) or became more retrusive during the treatment period. The mandible in 70% of the patients became more prognathic, only in four cases did the mandible become slightly more retrognathic. The analysis further showed that no statistically significant change occurred in the inclination of the mandible during treatment. Correlation analysis of the association between pretreatment mandibular plane angle and the changes during treatment showed no association. The dentoalveolar changes were characterized by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90% of the patients which occurred in spite of the torque springs, intended to maintain the inclination of these teeth. In contrast, the mandibular incisors on average showed no statistically significant change during treatment. This may be attributed to the capping of these teeth. Analysis of the association between the pretreatment inclination and the change during treatment of the mandibular incisors showed an inverse relationship. Mandibular incisors, that initially were proclined, tended to become more upright which is in contrast to previous studies indicating that functional appliance treatment generally increases the inclination of these teeth. The results of this study suggest that the correction of the skeletal component of the Class II malocclusion with the Teuscher appliance in most instances takes place by restriction of forward development of the maxilla in combination with downward-forward growth of the

  11. Using a Google Search Appliance (GSA to search digital library collections: a case study of the INIS Collection Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrica Savic

    2014-05-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS hosts one of the world’s largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. It offers online access to a unique collection of 3.6 million bibliographic records and 320,000 full-texts of non-conventional (grey literature. This large digital library collection suffered from most of the well-known shortcomings of the classic library catalogue. Searching was complex and complicated, required some training in using Boolean logic, full-text searching was not an option, and the response time was slow. An opportune moment came with the retirement of the previous catalogue software and with the adoption of Google Search Appliance (GSA as an organization-wide search engine standard. INIS was quick to realize a great potential in using such a well-known application as a replacement for its online catalogue and this paper presents the advantages and disadvantages encountered during three years of GSA use. Based on specific INIS-based practice and experience, this paper also offers some guidelines on ways to improve classic collections of millions of bibliographic and full-text documents, while achieving multiple benefits such as increased use, accessibility, usability, expandability and improving the user search and retrieval experience.

  12. The Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Appliances and Fluoride Mouthwash on the Oral Microbiome of Adolescents - A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Koopman

    Full Text Available While the aesthetic effect of orthodontic treatment is clear, the knowledge on how it influences the oral microbiota and the consequential effects on oral health are limited. In this randomized controlled clinical trial we investigated the changes introduced in the oral ecosystem, during and after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in combination with or without a fluoride mouthwash, of 10-16.8 year old individuals (N = 91. We followed several clinical parameters in time, in combination with microbiome changes using next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. During the course of our study, the oral microbial community displayed remarkable resilience towards the disturbances it was presented with. The effects of the fluoride mouthwash on the microbial composition were trivial. More pronounced microbial changes were related to gingival health status, orthodontic treatment and time. Periodontal pathogens (e.g. Selenomonas and Porphyromonas were highest in abundance during the orthodontic treatment, while the health associated Streptococcus, Rothia and Haemophilus gained abundance towards the end and after the orthodontic treatment. Only minor compositional changes remained in the oral microbiome after the end of treatment. We conclude that, provided proper oral hygiene is maintained, changes in the oral microbiome composition resulting from orthodontic treatment are minimal and do not negatively affect oral health.

  13. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (PFOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (PFOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. PMID:27616881

  14. Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs.

  15. Economics of End-of-Life Materials Recovery: A Study of Small Appliances and Computer Devices in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patrick; Santos, Eduardo; Ferrão, Paulo; Margarido, Fernanda; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Olivetti, Elsa

    2016-05-01

    The challenges brought on by the increasing complexity of electronic products, and the criticality of the materials these devices contain, present an opportunity for maximizing the economic and societal benefits derived from recovery and recycling. Small appliances and computer devices (SACD), including mobile phones, contain significant amounts of precious metals including gold and platinum, the present value of which should serve as a key economic driver for many recycling decisions. However, a detailed analysis is required to estimate the economic value that is unrealized by incomplete recovery of these and other materials, and to ascertain how such value could be reinvested to improve recovery processes. We present a dynamic product flow analysis for SACD throughout Portugal, a European Union member, including annual data detailing product sales and industrial-scale preprocessing data for recovery of specific materials from devices. We employ preprocessing facility and metals pricing data to identify losses, and develop an economic framework around the value of recycling including uncertainty. We show that significant economic losses occur during preprocessing (over $70 M USD unrecovered in computers and mobile phones, 2006-2014) due to operations that fail to target high value materials, and characterize preprocessing operations according to material recovery and total costs.

  16. Evaluation of the Effective Factors on Customers' Satisfaction Using INDSAT Model; Case Study: Household Appliances' Customers of Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers and consumers are always looking for suppliers who offer better products or services to their clients. Lots of documents show that in today's competitive world, exploring and meeting customers' needs and and requirements before other competitors, is the essential condition for companies to be successful. vices provided by organizations is the assessment of customer satisfaction. this study deals with identification and investigation of factors affecting industrial customer's satisfaction at Mobarake Steel Company of Esfahan. Statistical population included 125 company of the Household Appliances' Customers of Mobarakeh Steel Company. Field methods and questionnaire were used to gather essential information. In this study, 161 questionnaires were randomly distributed to Customers. Eventually 117 questionnaires were returned. SPSS and Amos were used to analyze data descriptively, assess the credibility of the model and test hypotheses. Results indicated that all satisfaction factors (product- sales people- product-related information- order handling- technical services- interaction with supplier's internal staff- complaint handling as the aspects of have positive effects on overall customer satisfaction. Also, all of these factors are not of the same preference to the customers; sales staff and product satisfactions the scored highest and complaint handling the lowest.

  17. Device interoperability and authentication for telemedical appliance based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranguian, Luther Paul R; Pancho-Festin, Susan; Sison, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the interoperability and authentication of medical devices in the context of telemedical systems. A recent standard called the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (X73-PHD) Standards addresses the device interoperability problem by defining common protocols for agent (medical device) and manager (appliance) interface. The X73-PHD standard however has not addressed security and authentication of medical devices which is important in establishing integrity of a telemedical system. We have designed and implemented a security policy within the X73-PHD standards. The policy will enable device authentication using Asymmetric-Key Cryptography and the RSA algorithm as the digital signature scheme. We used two approaches for performing the digital signatures: direct software implementation and use of embedded security modules (ESM). The two approaches were evaluated and compared in terms of execution time and memory requirement. For the standard 2048-bit RSA, ESM calculates digital signatures only 12% of the total time for the direct implementation. Moreover, analysis shows that ESM offers more security advantage such as secure storage of keys compared to using direct implementation. Interoperability with other systems was verified by testing the system with LNI Healthlink, a manager software that implements the X73-PHD standard. Lastly, security analysis was done and the system's response to common attacks on authentication systems was analyzed and several measures were implemented to protect the system against them.

  18. Research on Coordination Scheme for Smart Household Appliances Participating Underfrequency Load Shedding%智能家电参与低频减载协调配合方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤奕; 邓克愚; 孙华东; 易俊; 贺庆

    2013-01-01

    智能电网环境下智能电表和智能家电等智能终端设备在用户侧的推广应用,为电力系统安全稳定控制提供了丰富的动态响应信息。文章将智能需求响应技术与第3道防线中的低频减载措施相结合,利用负荷侧的快速响应资源与第3道防线进行协调控制,提出一种考虑智能家电响应的新型低频减载方案。基于智能电表与电网之间可双向通信的特点,控制智能家电主动提前响应系统的调控需求,通过与传统低频减载方案的协调,可阻止系统频率的大幅度跌落并尽快恢复至额定值附近,提高了系统运行的灵活性和可靠性。时域仿真表明该低频减载方案能够适应电网复杂的运行环境,快速有效地抑制故障下的频率跌落,减少切负荷代价。%Dissemination and application of intelligent terminal equipments such as intelligent meters and smart household appliances at the consumer side under smart grid environment offer abundant dynamic response information for security and stability control of power grid. Combining smart demand response technology with underfrequency load shedding measures involved in the third line of defense specified in Technical Guide For Electric Power System Security And Stability Control, the coordinated control could be carried out by using quick response resources and the third line of defense, and a new underfrequency load shedding scheme considering the response of smart household appliances is proposed. In view of the feature that the two-way communication can be implemented between smart meters and power grid, the smart household appliances can be controlled to be actively responded to the control and regulation requirement of power grid in advance, and through coordinating with traditional underfrequency load shedding scheme the substantial drop of system frequency could be prevented and system frequency could be restored nearly to its rated value as

  19. Experimental Study on Removalbe Appliance in Early Treatment of Tooth Crossbite%活动性矫治器早期治疗牙齿反牙合的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳

    2015-01-01

    rate was 6.67%, which was related to the bad habits.Conclusion:The activity of appliance in the treatment of early tooth anti teeth has the obvious effect of orthodontic, but at the ame time, we should pay attention to correct the bad habits of children.

  20. Using a Google Search Appliance (GSA to search digital library collections: a case study of the INIS Collection Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrica Savic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are facing many challenges today. In addition to diminishing funding and increased user expectations, the use of classic library catalogues is becoming an additional challenge. Library users require fast and easy access to information resources regardless whether the format used is paper or electronic. Google search, with its speed and simplicity, set up a new standard for information retrieval which is hard to achieve with the previous generation of library search facilities. Put in a position of David versus Goliath, many small, and even larger libraries, are losing the battle with Google and letting many of its users use Google rather than library catalogues.The International Nuclear Information System (INIS hosts one of the world’s largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. It offers online access to a unique collection of 3.6 million bibliographic records and 320,000 full-texts of non-conventional (grey literature. This large digital library collection suffered from most of the well-known shortcomings of the classic library catalogue. Searching was complex and complicated, required some training in using Boolean logic, full-text searching was not an option, and the response time was slow. An opportune moment came with the retirement of the previous catalogue software and with the adoption of Google Search Appliance (GSA as an organization-wide search engine standard. INIS was quick to realize a great potential in using such a well-known application as a replacement for its online catalogue and this paper presents the advantages and disadvantages encountered during three years of GSA use. Based on specific INIS-based practice and experience, this paper also offers some guidelines on ways to improve classic collections of millions of bibliographic and full-text documents, while achieving multiple benefits such as increased use, accessibility, usability, expandability and

  1. Analysis and simulation of heat transfer in human tooth during the curing of orthodontic appliance and food ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Velazquez-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze and simulate the heat transfer in the human tooth undergoing fixed orthodontic appliances and food intake. An in vivo representative mathematic model of a layered thermographic profile was developed during the LED curing of Gemini bracket 0.022 in slot (conventional ligating system and Transbond XT adhesive. The characterization of the layered thermic response allowed to identify if during the LED curing process, according to manufacturer's specification (light curing unit, adhesive can induce pulpar necrosis. The profile's thermographic model was the simulation basis of many conditions such as food intake, due to in vivo metrology is affected by the impossibility of a correct apparatus position and the physiologic function of the oral cavity which is exposed to uncontrollable temperature changes. The metrology was carried out with a T-440 thermographic camera during LED curing bracket, using a LED curing light (Elipar S10 placed at 3 ± 1 mm for 5 s at each mesial and distal surface. The thermography outcomes were analyzed in the FLIR Tools Software, Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS 22. To adjust the mathematic model error, in vitro studies were performed on third molars for the purpose of realizing extreme exposition temperature condition tests caused by the LED curing unit without jeopardizing the human tooth vitality as would it be on in vivo experimentation. The bracket curing results according to manufacturer's conditions reached 39°C in vivo temperatures and 47°C on in vitro tests, which does not jeopardize human tooth vitality as said by previous researches, although, an LED curing precise protocol established by the manufacturer's LED curing light is sustained.

  2. Low-flow appliances and household water demand: an evaluation of demand-side management policy in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James I; Chermak, Janie M; Felardo, Jeff

    2014-01-15

    Residential rebate programs for low-flow water devices have become increasingly popular as a means of reducing urban water demand. Although program specifics vary, low-flow rebates are available in most U.S. metropolitan areas, as well as in many smaller municipalities. Despite their popularity, few statistical analyses have been conducted regarding the effects of low-flow rebates on household water use. In this paper, we consider the effects of rebates from the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA). Using panel regression techniques with a database of rebate recipients, we estimate the marginal effects of various low-flow devices on household water demand. Results indicate a negative correlation between household water use and the presence of most low-flow devices, after controlling for water price and weather conditions. Low-flow toilets have the greatest impact on water use, while low-flow washing machines, dishwashers, showerheads, and xeriscape have smaller but significant effects. In contrast, air conditioning systems, hot water recirculators, and rain barrels have no significant impact on water use. We also test for possible rebound effects (i.e. whether low-flow appliances become less-effective over time due to poor rates of retention or behavioral changes) and compare the cost effectiveness of each rebate using levelised-costs. We find no evidence of rebound effects and substantial variation in levelised-costs, with low-flow showerheads being the most cost-effective device under the current ABCWUA rebate program. The latter result suggests that water providers can improve the efficiency of rebate programs by targeting the most cost-effective devices.

  3. The orthodontic treatment of TMD patients: EMG effects of a functional appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, Tommaso; Titolo, Cristina; Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work was to test the effects of the Function Generator Bite (FGB) on the masticatory muscles of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) subjects. Two groups were selected for the study. A group of 20 TMD patients (group F) requiring orthodontic treatment and treated with FGB and a group of 10 healthy subjects (group H) were considered. Both groups were evaluated before the therapy began (TO) and then after 18 months of therapy (T1). An electromyographic analysis of the masseter and temporalis anterior muscles and a clinical evaluation according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) were performed. A statistical difference between the two groups was observed at TO with respect to the activity index. TMD subjects showed a lower value of the index. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the utility of this EMG index as a diagnostic indicator.

  4. Development of Regeneration Technology and Recycling Technology of Appliances Plastics%家电塑料再生技术和再生利用技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄军左; 刘熠纯

    2011-01-01

    家电塑料的再生利用技术与一般塑料再生利用技术并无本质上的区别,其特点在于回收家电塑料需要进行拆卸、分类等前处理.因此,家电再生利用技术是家电塑料回收技术的重要组成部分.本文介绍了当前一些先进的科学研究与回收再生手段,阐述了废旧家电再生技术和再生利用技术.%Recycling technology of appliances plastics and it of general there is no essential difference, Its characteristics is the need of pre - treatment of disassembly and dlassification etc. For plastic appliance recycling. Therefore, the recycling technology of appliances plastics is an important part for recovery technology of appliances plastics. This article describes some of the advanced scientific research and the current recycling methods, described regeneration technology and recycling technology of the waste home appliances.

  5. The effect of treatment with functional appliance on a pathologic growth pattern of the condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, B; Bjerregaard, J; Bundgaard, M

    1986-12-01

    Hemifacial microsomia causes asymmetry of the face frequently known to progress throughout the postnatal development if not submitted to any kind of treatment. According to the theoretic basis for treatment of hemifacial microsomia as presented by Harvold and associates, generation of the right muscle-bone interaction constitutes the necessary precondition for the bone apposition that produces facial symmetry. This theory was the basis for the treatment of three patients with abnormal condyles, one suffering from hemifacial microsomia, one patient with a unilateral condylar fracture followed by displacement and secondary resorption of the condyle, and one patient with bilateral loss of condylar cartilage as a result of trauma. The patients were treated with an activator a.m. Harvold, and the treatment results analyzed radiographically and clinically. The results demonstrated clearly that generation of an altered muscle balance is possible even though hemifacial microsomia patients suffer from absence of normal muscles--that is, normal functional matrix as well as absence of normal condyle--and that bone apposition required for establishment of symmetry can be achieved if the right microenvironment is established. It was, however, also obvious that treatment should be initiated as early as possible because the treatment result was dependent on both the timing and the cooperation of the patient.

  6. Avaliação tomográfica no tratamento com Herbst em adulto jovem Computed Tomographic evaluation of a young adult treated with the Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savana Maia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o aparelho de Herbst destaca-se por manter a mandíbula avançada de modo contínuo. OBJETIVO: analisar, durante 8 meses, o tratamento de um indivíduo com aparelho Herbst por meio de imagens da tomografia Cone-Beam, após o surto de crescimento pubertário (16 anos e 3 meses, portador de má oclusão de Classe II, divisão 1, associada a retrognatismo mandibular. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram imagens tomográficas das ATMs que sugerem remodelação do côndilo, fossa glenoide e aumento da via aérea após o tratamento com esse aparelho. CONCLUSÃO: o aparelho de Herbst é uma boa opção no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II em indivíduos adultos jovens, pois proporciona ao paciente a correção da má oclusão e melhora da estética do perfil.INTRODUCTION: The key feature of the Herbst appliance lies in keeping the mandible continuously advanced. OBJECTIVE: To monitor and study the treatment of a patient wearing a Herbst appliance by means of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT images for 8 months after pubertal growth spurt. The subject was aged 16 years and 3 months and presented with a Class II, Division 1 malocclusion associated with mandibular retrognathia. RESULTS: The CBCT images of the temporomandibular joints suggest that the treatment resulted in the remodeling of the condyle and glenoid fossa and widening of the airway. CONCLUSIONS: The Herbst appliance constitutes a good option for treating Class II malocclusion in young adults as it provides patients with malocclusion correction and improves their aesthetic profile.

  7. Effect of Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB and non-extraction fixed mechano-therapy on the pharyngeal dimensions of growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Narrow airway dimensions due to mandibular deficiency can predispose an individual to severe respiratory distress. Hence, treatment with mandibular advancement devices at an early age might help improving the pharyngeal passage and reduce the risk of respiratory difficulties. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the mean changes in the pharyngeal dimensions of children with mandibular deficiency treated with Clark's twin-block appliance (CTB followed by fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods: Orthodontic records of 42 children with mandibular deficiency were selected. Records comprised three lateral cephalograms taken at the start of CTB treatment, after CTB removal and at the end of fixed appliance treatment, and were compared with 32 controls from the Bolton-Brush study. Friedman test was used to compare pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment pharyngeal dimensions. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the airway between pre-treatment and post follow-up controls. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to compare the mean changes in pharyngeal dimensions between treatment group and controls from T2 to T0. Post-hoc Dunnet T3 test was used for multiple comparisons of treatment outcomes after CTB and fixed appliances, taking a p-value of ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Superior pharyngeal space (p < 0.001 and upper airway thickness (p = 0.035 were significantly increased after CTB, and the change in superior pharyngeal space remained stable after fixed mechano-therapy. Conclusion: CTB can have a positive effect in improving pharyngeal space and the resultant increase in airway remains stable on an average of two and a half years.

  8. Research on Sustainable Development of Haier Appliance Brand%海尔家电品牌的可持续发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞辉

    2012-01-01

    我国家电品牌建设了20多年,最成功也最有代表性的就是海尔。海尔先建名牌再创品牌、先难后易的品牌战略成为众多企业争相模仿的对象。然而,海尔品牌管理成功的背后也难免存在诸多失误和不足,其中既有品牌延伸方向的错乱,也有品牌延续的危机,更有企业文化深层与品牌定位的矛盾等。如何进行更有效的品牌管理,使海尔走上品牌的可持续发展之路,打造中国的家电百年品牌,对海尔自身和家电行业的纵深发展都具有重要意义。%Chinese appliance brand construction has over 20 years,the most successful and most representative is Haier.It's brand strategy,as build famous fame firstly before create a brand,difficult target in front of easy target make itself become the object imitated by many enterprises.However,behind the success of Haier's brand management also unavoidably exists many mistakes and the insufficiency,both brand extension direction in disorder,also has crisis of the brand continuation,what's more,deep corporate culture and brand positioning contradictions.For Haier itself and household electrical appliance industry's further development,it's significant how to manage brands more effectively,make Haier embarked on the road of sustainable development of the brand,and to build Chinese home appliance century-brand.

  9. 舌簧活动矫治器联合直丝弓矫治器治疗恒牙早期骨性Ⅲ错(牙合)的疗效评价%Treatment effects of double parabolic lingual springs appliance and straight wire appliance therapy in skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常忠福; 尹传卫

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价舌簧活动矫治器和直丝弓矫治器联合治疗恒牙早期骨性Ⅲ错(牙合)的疗效.方法 舌簧活动矫治器和直丝弓矫治器联合治疗恒牙早期骨性Ⅲ错(牙合)12例患者,在矫治前和矫治后拍摄并分析头颅定位侧位片,比较它们前后的变化.结果 X线片测量显示SNA增加2.80°,SNB减少1.39°,ANB减少4.88°.结论 舌簧活动矫治器和直丝弓矫治器联合治疗恒牙早期骨性Ⅲ错(牙合)的疗效明显,值得推广.%Objective To evaluate the treatment effects of double parabolic lingual springs appliance and straight wire appliance therapy in skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion. Methods 12 cases with skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion were treated by double parabolic lingual springs appliance and straight wire appliance, cephalometric tracing measurement were taken in analysis,compared between pretreatment and posttreatment in each case. Results The comparison of before and after orthodontic treatment showed angle SNA increased by 2.80°, angle SNB decreased 1.39°ANB decreased by 4.88°. Conclusion The above metioned technique could be a reliable way to treat mild and moderate skeletal class Ⅲ malocclusion.

  10. Comparison of effect of patients with malocclusion induced by adult periodontitis after treatment with bracket-less invisible appliance and straight wire appliance%无托槽隐形矫治器与直丝弓矫治器对成人牙周炎继发错牙合畸形矫治效果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 罗三莲; 郑纪伟; 韩建国; 赵俊杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effects of treatments on patients with malocclusion induced by adult periodon-titis using bracketless invisible appliance and straight wire appliance. Method:60 patients with malocclusion induced by adult periodontitis(ICON0.05). There are no differences in periodontal health status between two groups before orthodontic treatment. After orthodontic treatment,the pe-riodontal parameters of control group significantly increased, but only plaque index (PI) in experimental group significantly increased. Conclusion:To patients with mild malocclusion induced by adult periodontitis,there are no differences between the effects of treatment with bracketless invisible appliance and straight wire appliance,but the former has less disadvantages on periodontal health status.%目的:比较无托槽隐形矫治器与直丝弓矫治器对成人牙周炎伴有错牙合畸形的矫治效果.方法:选择60名牙周炎伴有错牙合畸形患者(ICON0.05).两组患者矫治开始前,各项牙周指数无统计学差异;矫治结束后,对照组各项牙周指数均显著升高(P<0.05),而实验组仅有菌斑指数升高.结论:对轻度牙周炎继发错牙合畸形患者,无托槽隐形矫治器和直丝弓矫治器都能取得良好的矫治效果,前者对患者牙周健康状况影响更小.

  11. Effects of QCC on improving the compliance of tooth brushing in adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance%品管圈提高青少年固定正畸患者刷牙依从性的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建凤; 李志菊; 汪星; 杜玉; 王芳云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the methodology and effects of quality control circle ( QCC ) on improving the compliance of tooth brushing in adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance. Methods A QCC activity conducted from February to August in 2014, focused on improving the compliance of tooth brushing in adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance. The study investigated 90 participants and compared their compliance of tooth brushing, plaque index ( PLI) and gingival index ( GI) before and after QCC. Results After the activity, the score of tooth brushing compliance was (10. 68 ± 2. 78), PLI (1. 29 ± 0. 41) and GI (0. 86 ± 0. 37). All the assessment indexes and the comprehensive quality were significantly improved after QCC (P<0. 05). Conclusions QCC is efficient to promote the compliance of tooth brushing and oral hygiene, and to improve the comprehensive ability of adolescent patients with orthodontic treatment of fixed appliance.%目的:探讨品管圈在提高青少年固定正畸患者刷牙依从性中的应用方法和效果。方法于2014年2—8月开展以“提高青少年固定正畸患者刷牙依从性”为主题的品管圈活动,选择佩戴固定矫治器的90例青少年口腔正畸患者,运用自身前后对照,对比品管圈活动开展前后患者刷牙依从性、菌斑指数、牙龈指数。结果品管圈活动后患者刷牙依从性得分为(10.68±2.78)分,菌斑指数为(1.29±0.41),牙龈指数为(0.86±0.37),均优于活动前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。圈成员综合素质得分高于活动前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论品管圈活动能提高青少年口腔正畸患者刷牙依从性,保持患者口腔清洁,同时有效提高圈员综合素质。

  12. Early orthodontic intervention followed by fixed appliance therapy in a patient with a severe Class III malocclusion and cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Deng, Feng; Wang, Huaqiao; Huang, Qianqian; Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a girl, age 11 years 10 months, with a cleft lip and palate and a postsurgical scar. The clinical examination showed a concave profile, a retrusive maxilla, an asymmetric face, severe dental crowding, a Class III dental relationship, and a complete dental crossbite. Maxillary expansion and distraction, chincap, and high-pull headgear were used to moderate the skeletal discrepancy. These approaches, combined with tooth extraction and fixed orthodontic appliances, finally established a functional and esthetic occlusal relationship, normal overjet and overbite, and a well-balanced facial appearance.

  13. 面向共享的家电领域知识表达方法研究%Study on Appliances Domain Knowledge Expression Method for Sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常万军; 杨亚楠; 郭祖华

    2013-01-01

    针对家电企业产品生命周期管理中产品设计存在着手工建档、查询困难和协同性差的状况,将本体理论引入家电领域。在研究家电领域顶层本体构建方法和本体语义扩展方法的基础上,提出功能语义扩展方法is-a,构建功能本体;采用OWL ( Ontology Web Language )语言对家电产品设计知识进行表达,构建以用户需求为导向的索引知识库;采用映射方法和相关度匹配方法对用户需求与本体知识索引进行转换,实现语义共享。最后以文中索引知识模型构建某家电企业设计知识共享平台,表明该模型是可行的。%To solve the manual file condition of product design of PLM in household electrical appliance enterprises , which is difficult for querying and cooperation , the Ontology theory is introduced into the field of home appliances .The functional semantic extending method is presented and used to construct a function body based on top -level ontology con-struction method of home appliances and extension method of ontology semantic .The index knowledge repository model of user demand-oriented is constructed .The home appliance product design knowledge is expressed by using OWL lan -guage.The user needs and ontology knowledge index are transformed by the method of ontology mapping and matching of similarity to realize the sharing of semantic .Finally, to verify the correct of the index knowledge model , the knowledge sha-ring platform is established by product design for refrigerator enterprise .

  14. Occurrence and severity of enamel decalcification adjacent to bracket bases and sub-bracket lesions during orthodontic treatment with two different lingual appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Elisabeth; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: Using lingual enamel surfaces for bracket placement not only has esthetic advantages, but may also be suitable in terms of reducing frequencies of enamel decalcifications. Objective: To test the null-hypothesis that there is no significant difference in enamel decalcification or cavitation incidence adjacent to and beneath bracket bases between two lingual multi-bracket (MB) appliances that are different in terms of design, material composition, and manufacturing technology (group A: WIN, DW-LingualSystems; group B: Incognito, 3M-Unitek), taking into account patient- and treatment-related variables on white spot lesion (WSL) formation. Methods: Standardized, digital, top-view photographs of 630 consecutive subjects (16214 teeth; n Incognito = 237/6076 teeth; n WIN = 393/10138 teeth; mean age: 17.47±7.8; m/f 43.2/56.8%) with completed lingual MB treatment of the upper and lower permanent teeth 1–7 were screened for decalcification or cavitation adjacent to and beneath the bracket bases before and after treatment, scored from 0 to 7. Non-parametric ANOVA was used for main effects ‘appliance type’, ‘gender’, ‘treatment complexity’, ‘grouped age’ (≤16/>16 years), and ‘treatment duration’ as covariable, at an α-level of 5%. Results: About 2.57% [5.94%] of all teeth in group A [B] developed decalcifications. Subject-related incidence was 9.59% [16.17%] for upper incisors in group A [B], and 12.98% [25.74%] for all teeth 16–46. There were significant effects by gender, age, and treatment duration. Conclusion: The null-hypothesis was rejected: sub-bracket lesions were significantly less frequent in group A, while frequencies of WSL adjacent to brackets were not significantly affected by appliance type. In view of the overall low incidences of lingual post-orthodontic white-spot lesions, the use of lingual appliances is advocated as a valid strategy for a reduction of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. PMID

  15. Self-reported neurological symptoms in relation to CO emissions due to problem gas appliance installations in London: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreis Irene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR, Immediately Dangerous (ID or Not to Current Standards (NCS. Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15. Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration

  16. Research on intrinsic safety assessment method for lifting appliances based on LMNN%基于LM神经网络的起重机械本质安全评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱尼君; 程秋平; 刘志云

    2011-01-01

    The lifting appliances' special structure and movement are the source of frequent accidents of lifting appliances.In order to improve the lifting appliances' intrinsic safety, a set of essential safety assessment system for lifting appliances is proposed, where the lifting appliances safety evaluation is from three levels of four different aspects:in addition,to reduce the subjective factors in the evaluation process, the LM neural network is introduced into the evaluation model.The weight coefficient of each dangerous source for lifting appliances was obtained by the samples data training, and the test sample data' s simulation verified the validity of the method.%由于起重机械特殊的结构形式和运动形式,导致起重机械事故频发,为提高起重机械的本质安全,提出了一套起重机械本质安全评估体系,从本质安全的4个方面分3个层次对起重机械进行评估;为了改善在评估过程中,人为主观因素对起重机械状态评分的影响,引入LM神经网络对起重机械评价体系进行建模,通过对样本数据训练获得客观的起重机械各危险源的权重系数,测试样本的仿真结果验证了该方法的有效性.

  17. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes. PMID:28203569

  18. The Discrepancies Between the IEC Updated versions for Skin and Hair Care Appliances and the Current National Standards%IEC最新版皮肤及毛发护理器具标准与现行国标之间的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝艳莉

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces the newest IEC standard for the skin & hair care appliance, and then compares them with the standards of the national standard that is carrying at present. The author puts his emphasis on the discrepancies between the IEC updated versions for skin and hair care appliances and the current national standards.

  19. Research on CO2 Emissions Reduction with Application of Off-grid Household Photovoltaic Generating Appliance%离网式户用光伏发电装置减少二氧化碳排放的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏

    2014-01-01

    one kind of single-phase off-grid household photovoltaic ( PV) generating appliance was researched in this paper.An off-grid household photovoltaic generating appliance is a device that is connected to home electrical loads directly and provides elec-tric power supply for family.%介绍一种单相离网式交流户用光伏发电装置的功能、结构,能直接与户用负载联接,独立对负荷供电。

  20. 国内外智能家电标准化现状综述%Summarization of Status Quo of Standards About Intelligent Household Electrical Appliance at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文秀

    2015-01-01

    本文对国内外包括美国、澳大利亚、欧盟、国际电工委员会以及我国的智能家电定义以及标准化现状进行了综述,并对典型的智能家电标准进行了介绍.%This paper introduces the international electrotechnical commission, including America, Australia, Euro-pean Union, the definition of intelligent household electrical appliance in our country, and the status quo of relevant standards. At last, it introduces the typical standards for intelligent household electrical appliance.

  1. 家用电器标准中非自复位热断路器探讨%Discussion on the Non-self-resetting Thermal Cut-out in the Standard of Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祺; 华顺宝

    2015-01-01

    本文通过分析比较家用电器GB 4706系列标准第24.101条以及具体案例分析,对家用电器产品中非自复位热断路器的使用情况进行具体分析探讨.%This paper discusses the non-self-resetting thermal cut-out in the household appliances by analyzing the clause 24.101 of GB 4706 series of household appliances and the specific case analysis.

  2. Effects of amitriptyline and intra-oral device appliance on clinical and laser-evoked potentials features in chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, M; Shevel, E; Libro, G; Guido, M; Di Venere, D; Genco, S; Monetti, C; Serpino, C; Barile, G; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2005-05-01

    In the present study, we examined clinical and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) features in two groups of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients treated with two different approaches: intra-oral appliance of prosthesis, aiming to reduce muscular tenderness, and 10 mg daily amitriptyline. Eighteen patients suffering from CTTH (IHS, 2004) participated in the study. We performed a basal evaluation of clinical features and LEPs in all patients (T0) vs. 12 age- and sex-matched controls; successively, patients were randomly assigned to a two-month treatment by amitriptyline or intra-oral device appliance. The later LEPs, especially the P2 component, were significantly increased in amplitude in the CTTH group. Both the intra-oral prosthesis and amitriptyline significantly reduced headache frequency. Total Tenderness Score was significantly reduced in the group treated by the prosthesis. The amplitude of P2 response elicited by stimulation of pericranial zones showed a reduction after amitriptyline treatment. The results of this study may confirm that pericranial tenderness is primarily a phenomenon initiating a self-perpetuating circuit, favoured by central sensitisation at the level of the cortical nociceptive areas devoted to the attentive and emotive compounds of pain. Both the interventions at the peripheral and central levels may interrupt this reverberating circuit, improving the outcome of headache.

  3. Results of the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-2013: impact of natural gas appliances on air pollutant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, N A; Li, J; Russell, M L; Spears, M; Less, B D; Singer, B C

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the current impact of natural gas appliances on air quality in California homes. Data were collected via telephone interviews and measurements inside and outside of 352 homes. Passive samplers measured time-resolved CO and time-integrated NOX , NO2 , formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde over ~6-day periods in November 2011 - April 2012 and October 2012 - March 2013. The fraction of indoor NOX and NO2 attributable to indoor sources was estimated. NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO were higher in homes that cooked with gas and increased with amount of gas cooking. NOX and NO2 were higher in homes with cooktop pilot burners, relative to gas cooking without pilots. Homes with a pilot burner on a floor or wall furnace had higher kitchen and bedroom NOX and NO2 compared to homes without a furnace pilot. When scaled to account for varying home size and mixing volume, indoor-attributed bedroom and kitchen NOX and kitchen NO2 were not higher in homes with wall or floor furnace pilot burners, although bedroom NO2 was higher. In homes that cooked 4 h or more with gas, self-reported use of kitchen exhaust was associated with lower NOX , NO2 , and highest 1-h CO. Gas appliances were not associated with higher concentrations of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde.

  4. A Study of the Mediating Role of Product Management on Relationship between Market orientation and firm Performance (Case Study: Home appliances manufacturing companies in Esfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghorbani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, titled ‘A Study of the Effect of market orientation on SME firm performance the mediating role of product management’ Seek to answer the question Which aspects of product management how affect the firm performance Thus the product management literature, as well as market orieantation and performance in home appliances factories in Isfahan Province are examined. This research, in terms of its purpose, is an applied one; and in terms of implementation method, is a survey with a correlation approach. The statistical population include 84 managers (senior, marketing, manufacturing and R&D of the home appliances manufacturing companies in Esfahan Province. The data collection tool is a researcher-made questionnaire containing 30 items, of which the validity has been confirmed using the comments from advisors, professionals and experts; and the reliability, determined through Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 90% The questionnaire includes personal data and main, specialized items for examining the research hypotheses. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software programs through statistical tests at descriptive (frequency, percentage, accumulated percentage, average and standard deviation and inferential (regression modeling, variance analysis, non- parametric Kolmogorov and Smirnov test, and Freedman non-parametric test levels. According to the results obtained, all hypotheses were supported. Therefore, it was concluded that the product management as a mediator has a significant effect on the relationship between market orientation and performance.

  5. Research on Residential Users Load Control Strategy of Household Appliances%居民用户家用电器负荷控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊克卿; 李彬; 祁兵

    2015-01-01

    Under the support of smart power utilization and power demand response technologies, a research on the response mechanism of demand response in consumer-side is made, combining with the load characteristic of intelligent household appliances and electricity consumption behavior of residents. The method of shifting-peak operation and building load control strategy of typical household appliances to decrease residential customers’ energy consumption and improve the users’ energy-consuming efficiency is put forward. Then it will promote the bidirectional interaction between consumer side and grid side and encourage users to participate in the demand response programs.%在智能用电技术和电力需求响应技术的支撑下,结合智能家用电器负荷特性以及居民用户的用电行为,研究用户侧需求响应(demand response,DR)的响应机理,提出家用电器错峰运行方法,建立典型家用电器的负荷控制策略,实现居民用户用电量的削减,提高用户的用能效率,进而推动用户侧和电网侧的双向互动,鼓励用户参与需求响应项目的积极性。

  6. Burns and injuries from non-electric-appliance fires in low- and middle-income countries Part II. A strategy for intervention using the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D; Kruger, Gerebreg E; van der Merwe, Anna E; Godakumbura, Wijaya; Oen, Irma M M; Swart, Dehran; Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2008-05-01

    A large proportion of burns in developing countries are related to the nature of domestic appliances used for cooking, heating, and lighting. Our overview of the problem elucidated the need for better surveillance with epidemiologic studies, which will more accurately assess the true incidence in vulnerable populations. This paper will create a framework for envisaging new approaches to the problem and begin to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of proposed interventions. We used the Haddon Matrix to accumulate proposed interventions that encompass a pre-event, event, and post-event timeline. We propose an initial strategic outline plan for interventions based on values that are suited to the problem and the setting, are culturally appropriate, and can be employed in a reasonable period of time for a sustained period to ensure success. Recommended action steps include promoting the use of alternative energy sources, encouraging an integrated approach to finding interdisciplinary solutions, devising a better system of kerosene containerization, re-engineering appliance designs, legislating for enforcement of health and safety standards, taking a holistic approach through government inter-departmental collaboration, formally discouraging corruption, encouraging ventilation of cooking or living areas, implementing building codes, educating consumers, and training caregivers and health and emergency workers.

  7. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your symptoms, and your quality of life, can improve dramatically when you remain committed to your treatment and use it nightly. It is likely that you will sleep better, have more energy and feel sharper throughout the day. You ...

  8. Reducing Display Bottle Cooler Energy Consumption Using PCM As Active Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, Marcel van; de Jong, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study in reducing the energy consumption of a display bottle cooler using Phase Change Material (PCM) as an active thermal storage are presented. The objective of the study was to design and built a 350 dm3 glass door bottle cooler having an appliance energy consumption reduction of over 75% compared to state of the art bottle coolers (2010 figures). Calculation results show that active thermal storage using PCM can be effectively applied to...

  9. Correlation Analysis on the Aesthetic Psychology with the Appearance Style Design of Home Appliance%家电产品的外观造型设计与消费者审美心理的关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊

    2015-01-01

    随着物质的不断丰富,人民生活水平也不断提高,消费者对家电产品的外观造型设计也提出了更高的要求.设计出符合消费者审美心理的家电产品成为了评判家电产品外观造型设计的重要依据.本文从消费者审美心理对家电产品外观设计的重要性出发,分析家电产品的外观造型设计与消费者审美心理的关联性.%With much more abundant resources and improving living standard, consumers have much higher demand for appearance style design of home appliance. An important basis to evaluate appearance style design of home appliance is to conform to the aesthetic psychology of consumers. The paper focuses on the significance of aesthetic psychology of consumers to the appearance style design of home appliance and analyzes the correlation between appearance style design of home appliance and aesthetic psychology of consumers.

  10. Twin block 矫治器矫治恒牙初期Ⅱ类错牙合的研究%Treatment of class Ⅱ malocclusion with Twin block appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张漫; 程祥荣; 彭友俭

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察Twin block 矫治器矫治恒牙初期安氏Ⅱ类错牙合的效果。方法:在临床随机选择20 名安氏Ⅱ类错牙合用Twin block 矫治器进行矫治,以X 线头影测量分析法评价疗效。结果:Twin block 矫治器可促进下颌生长;同时引起上切牙舌倾,下切牙唇倾。结论:Twin block 矫治器可产生明显的生长改良效果。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of of twin block appliance in the early treatment of class Ⅱ malocclusion.Methods:20 cases with class Ⅱ malocclusion were treated with Twin block appliance.Cephalometric analysis was used to evaluate the effects.Results:The twin block appliance could stimulate the growth of mandible and lead to retrocline of the upper incisors and procline of the lower incisors.Conclusion:The twin block appliance can achieve remarkable effects of growth modification of dentognathic system.

  11. Blending of hydrogen in natural gas distribution systems. Volume II. Combustion tests of blends in burners and appliances. Final report, June 1, 1976--August 30, 1977. [8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31% hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    The emerging ''hydrogen economy'' is a strong contender as one method to supplement or extend the domestic natural gas supply. This volume of the subject study ''Blending Hydrogen in Natural Gas Distribution Systems'' describes combustion studies to determine the maximum amount of hydrogen that can be blended in natural gas and utilized satisfactorily in typical appliances with no adjustment or conversion. Eleven pilot burners and twenty-three main burners typical of those in current use were operated on hydrogen-natural gas mixtures containing approximately 8, 11, 14, 20, 22, 25, and 31 percent, by volume, hydrogen. The eleven pilot burners and thirteen main burners were tested outside the appliance they were a part of. Ten main burners were tested in their respective appliances. Performance of the various burners tested are as follows: (1) Gas blends containing more than 6 to 11% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for target type pilot burners. (2) Gas blends containing more than 20 to 22% hyrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners operating in the open. (3) Gas blends containing more than 22 to 25% hydrogen are the limiting mixtures for main burners tested in appliances. (4) Modification of the orifice in target pilots or increasing the supply pressure to a minimum of 7 inches water column will permit the use of gas blends with 20% hydrogen.

  12. Design of Constant Temperature and Pressure Appliance Used in Antarctic Low Temperature and Pressure Environment%用于南极低温低压环境下的恒温恒压装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余冬冬; 魏海坤; 张侃健

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic Dome A area is under low temperature and pressure where the Chinese Antarctic observatory works. The mass storage system used to store the astronomical observation data can’t work normally in the bad environment. In order to provide a stable working environment for the mass storage system, a constant temperature and pressure appliance which adapts to the low temperature and pressure environment was designed .The appliance includes the heat preservation and hermetic sealing box with special structure , the temperature and pressure control system which was designed according to the special structure. Redundancy control scheme for hardware and software was used to enhance the reliability of the appliance and to ensure that the appliance can work long in the unattended mode. Finally, the appliance can protect the mass storage system from the interference of environmental factors.%中国南极天文台所在的南极Dome A地区属于低温低气压环境,用于存储天文观测数据的海量存储系统在此环境下很难正常工作。为给海量存储系统提供稳定的工作环境,设计了一套适应低温低压的恒温恒压装置,包括具有特殊结构的保温密封箱,以及针对此特殊结构设计的温度控制系统和气压控制系统。为适于装置的长期无人值守运行,增强装置的可靠性,系统硬件和软件均采用了冗余控制方案,从而免受环境因素干扰。

  13. 废旧电器电子产品回收物流体系建设探讨%Research on the Construction of Recycling Logisties System of Waste Electrical and Electronic Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学斌; 蔡欣

    2014-01-01

    随着经济的快速发展,我国已成为电器电子生产大国和消费大国,废旧电器电子产品的数量逐年上升。由于废旧电器电子产品中含有大量的有毒有害物质及希贵金属,一旦处理不当,必然造成环境污染及资源浪费。加快废旧电器电子产品回收物流体系建设已经刻不容缓。文中分析了当前我国废旧电器电子产品回收物流存在的问题,阐述了废旧电器电子产品回收物流体系建设的重要性,提出了构建完善的废旧电器电子产品回收物流体系的策略。%With the rapid development of economy ,China has become a bigger producer and a consumer .the number of waste electrical and electronic appliances has been increasing year by year .There are many poisonous and harmful materials and rare metal in waste electrical and electronic appliances .If not handled properly ,they will make environment pollution and resource waste.It cannot wait to Speed up construction on recycling logistics system of waste electrical and electronic appliances .This paper analyzed the problems in the return reverse , State the importance of waste electrical and electronic appliances recycling logistics system construction ,and brought forward constructing waste electrical and electronic appliances recycling logistics system strategies.

  14. 网购对家电企业渠道的影响分析及发展建议%Analysis and development proposals of channels for household electrical appliance enterprises by online shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋良骏

    2012-01-01

    随着我国网络购物的快速发展,越来越多的消费者纷纷通过网络来购买家电,网络即将成为家电市场的第三大渠道形态。网购对于家电企业的渠道而言具有拓展销售渠道、增强渠道控制力、降低渠道成本、加剧渠道冲突等影响。为此,家电企业可以采取密切与网络渠道的合作、加强对网络渠道的管控、在城镇及农村市场构建多元化的渠道体系、拓展新兴渠道举措来应对,最终使家电企业渠道得到更好的发展。%With the rapid development of online shopping in China,more and more consumers buy electrical appliances through internet,thus network appliances market will soon become the third largest channel.Online shopping influences channels for household electrical appliance enterprises so as to expand sales channels,enhance channel control,reduce costs of distribution and exacerbate channel conflict.To this end,the household electrical appliance enterprises can take close cooperation with the network channels,strengthen the management and control of network channels,build a wide range of channels system in urban and rural markets,develop new channel initiatives,and ultimately make channels for household electrical appliance enterprises be stronger.

  15. The Electrostatic Hazard and Electrostatic Prevention of Household Appliance%家用电器中的静电危害及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云青

    2014-01-01

    本文讨论了几种家用电器产品中可能出现的静电放电(ESD)等静电危害,并提出相关的静电预防措施,论述总结了家电产品的防静电设计方法,静电限值标准,以及实际应用注意点。%This paper discusses some electrostatic hazards like electrostatic discharge (ESD) that might be happened in several kinds of household appliances, and puts forward some precaution. This discussion summarizes the design method of electrostatic prevention, electrostatic limiting value standard and some points of practice in order to instruct the designer to electrostatic prevention design in a better way.

  16. The clinical application of Frog molar distalization appliance%Frog磨牙远移器的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司新芹; 李湘琳; 张彩娣; 卢蓁

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价Frog磨牙远移器在治疗安氏Ⅱ类1分类牙源性错牙畸形时的临床疗效.方法:对15例安氏Ⅱ类1分类错(牙合)伴上颌牙列轻中度拥挤的病例,用Frog磨牙远移器推磨牙向远中,并配合直丝弓固定矫治器进行不拔牙矫治,结合X线头影测量,评价Frog磨牙远移器的治疗效果.采用SPSS13.0统计学软件进行配对t检验.结果:U6-Ptm(mm)、U6-PTV(mm)分别平均减少2.20mm(P<0.01),2.81mm(P<0.01),具有显著性差异,表明上颌第一磨牙明显向远中移动,同时U6-SN(°)减少2.53°(P>0.05),无显著性差异,表明上颌第一磨牙无远中向倾斜.即上颌第一磨牙发生了远中向的整体移动.结论:Frog磨牙远移器可实现磨牙整体远移,是不拔牙矫治安氏Ⅱ类1分类错(牙合)伴上颌牙列轻中度拥挤的有效方法之一,简便、有效且不受患者依从性的影响.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of Frog Molar Distalization Appliance on Angle class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion treatment.Methods 15 cases of Angle class Ⅱ division 1 malocclusion whose maxillary dentitions were mild or moderate crowded were treated with Frog Molar Distalization Appliance and straight wire fixed appliance to achieve non-extraction treatment.Cephalometric radiographs were taken and analyzed before and after the treatment.SPSS 13.0software package was used for paired-samples t test.Results The average reductions of U6-Ptm (mm) and U6-PTV (mm) were 2.20mm (P<0.01),2.81 mm (P<0.01)with significant differences,indicating that the maxillary first molars had moved to the distal obviously.While the reduction of U6-SN (°) was 2.53 °(P> 0.05) with no significant difference,indicating that the maxillary first molars had no distal tilt.That was the maxillary first molars moved to the distal as a whole.Conclusion The Application of Frog Molar Distalization Appliance for maxillary molar distalization is one of the good methods to correct Angle class

  17. Modificaciones en la articulación de fones en pacientes con aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual Speech changes in lingual orthodontic appliances patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Villanueva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: el presente trabajo pretende evaluar el efecto de los aparatos ortodóncicos fijos linguales en la articulación de los fones, en pacientes que hablen español chileno, y la adaptación a estos efectos dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos. MÉTODOS: la muestra consistió en 13 pacientes que acudieron para instalación de aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual. Se realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio en condiciones estandarizadas, en 5 momentos diferentes: previo a la instalación de los aparatos fijos (E0, inmediatamente después de realizada esta (E1, a las 24 horas posteriores (E2, a los 7 días (E3 y un mes después de la instalación (E4. Se determinaron los fones afectados en los distintos momentos de examen respecto a la línea base dada por el examen previo, y se analizó su resolución. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios significativos en el punto de articulación de los fones [d], [s] y [r] Los fones [d] y [s] mostraron una resolución favorable dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos. El fone vibrante múltiple [r] no mostró una recuperación de la alteración una vez cumplido un mes de uso de los aparatos ortodóncicos. CONCLUSIONES: la instalación de aparato ortodóncico fijo lingual produce modificaciones en el punto de articulación de los fones consonánticos, las cuales tienden a mejorar dentro del primer mes de uso de los aparatos, con excepción del fone vibrante múltiple [r].PURPOSE: this study evaluated the effect of lingual orthodontics appliances on speech performance in native Chilean spanish speakers, and their adaptation to these effects during the first month. METHODS: phone production was recorded in a standardized test, in 13 patients with lingual orthodontic brackets, in 5 different times: before (E0, immediately after (E1, within 24 hours after (E2, within 7 days after (E3 and 1 month after (E4 the placement of fixed orthodontic lingual appliances, for assessment by speech professionals. RESULTS

  18. Penurunan jumlah Streptococcus mutans pada saliva anak dengan ortodonti cekat setelah konsumsi yoghurt (Reduction of salivary Mutans Streptococci in children with fixed orthodontic appliance after yoghurt consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggreani Bibi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances in children increases with the case of malocclusion in Indonesia. The patients with fixed orthodontics have higher risks of caries. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the influences short term daily consumption fruit-flavored yoghurt on salivary mutans Streptococci in pediatric patients during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: This was an experimental laboratory study with a double-blind randomized crossover design. The subjects were 26 children in range of age 11 to 15 years old who were under orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances. Subjects were divided into 2 (two groups which consist of 13 children each. Group A were asked to consumed a 150 ml of yoghurt Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus once a day for 2 weeks, while group B were asked to consumed milk once a day for the same period of time. After “washout” period for 2 weeks, the subjects of group A and B crossed over the drink, group A was asked to consumed milk and group B was asked to consumed yoghurt for another 2 weeks. Before and after consuming yoghurt or milk, the subject’s saliva samples were taken and the colonies of mutans Streptococci were counted on TYC media. Results: Statistical analysis showed that on subjects who consumed yoghurt the colony number of mutans Streptococci reduced significantly (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Short-term daily consumption of the probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium bifidum bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus could reduce the number of salivary mutans streptococci in pediatric patient during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.Latar belakang: Kebutuhan perawatan ortodonti menggunakan alat cekat pada anak-anak meningkat seiring bertambahnya jumlah kasus maloklusi di Indonesia. Namun faktanya penggunaan piranti ortodonti cekat berisiko terjadinya karies disekitar bracket. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti pengaruh

  19. Optimization of Marketing Channels of Household Appliance Enterprises:An ERP Perspective%ERP视角下的家电企业营销渠道优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚洁

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the current status of the marketing channels of household appliance enterprises, we studied the problems therein from an ERP perspective and explored the path for the optimization of the current marketing channels of these enterprises to improve the competitivity advantage of the whole channel.%针对家电企业营销渠道现状,分析了ERP视角下家电企业营销渠道发展中存在的问题,通过ERP和营销渠道两个核心要素整合的研究,探索了适合现有的家电企业营销渠道优化的途径,从而提高整条营销渠道的竞争优势.

  20. IE在家电制造业供应链系统研究案例%Case Study of Applying IE to Household Appliance Manufacturing Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泉伟; 廖加发

    2012-01-01

    随着全球范围内市场竞争的加剧与市场需求的多元化,家电企业竞争的焦点将是如何以更低的成本和更快的市场响应速度赢得市场.C公司作为传统家电制造企业,市场覆盖遍及全球,供应链范围涉及面广;本文利用IE流程改善的思想,结合C公司的供应链现状,对供应链系统中的销售需求预测、采购管理、生产计划、仓储物流管理进行全面系统的改善,实现供应链系统的闭环无缝衔接,提升供应链效率,对市场需求作出快速响应,降低成本.%With global market competition and market demand diversification, the focus of competition of home appliance enterprises has become how to response the market change with lower cost and faster speed. As a traditional home appliance manufacturer, C Company's market has spread across the whole world, and its supply chain has a wide range. By IE process improvement, combining with its situation, the article makes a improvement for sales demanding forecast, purchasing management, production planning, and warehousing and logistics management of supply chain systems, realizing the closed-loop supply chain system and improving supply chain efficiency, responding quickly to market demands and reducing costs.

  1. Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards: Where do we stand, how far can we go and how do we get there? An analysis across several economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Kalavase, Puneeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Fan, Allison Hua [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Dreyfus, Gabrielle [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.

    2013-05-01

    This paper analyses several potential savings scenarios for minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) and comparable programs for governments participating i n the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, of the Clean Energy Ministerial, which represent over 60% of primary energy consumption in the world. We compare projected energy savings from the main end uses in the residential sector using three energy efficiency scenarios: (1) recent achievements, (2) cost-effective saving potential, and (3) energy efficiency technical potential. The recent achievement scenario (1) evaluates the future impact of MEPS enacted or under development between 2010 and 2012. The cost-effective potential scenario (2) identifies the maximum potential for energy efficiency that results in net benefits to the consumer. The best available technology scenario (3) re presents the full potential of energy efficiency considering best available technologies as candidates for MEPS and incentive programs. We use the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with the Collaborative Labelling and Appliances Standards Program (CLASP), to provide a consistent methodology to com pare the different scenarios. This paper focuses on the main end uses in the residential sector. The comparison of the three scenarios for each economy provides possible opportunities for scaling up current policies or implementing additional policies. This comparison across economies reveals country best practices as well as end uses that present the greatest additional potential savings. The paper describes areas where methodologies and additional policy instruments can increase penetration of energy efficient technologies. First , we summarize the barriers and provide remedial policy tools/best practices, such as techno-economic analysis, in response to each barriers that prevent economies from capturing the full cost

  2. RSC-MAC Protocol for Smart Home Networks of Electric Appliances%智能家居电器网络的 RSC-MAC协议设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治元; 雷超阳

    2015-01-01

    家居电器网络由以太网、无线局域网或无线蜂窝等通信介质连接,通过发送控制消息对家用电器实现有效管理。在研究家居电器网络的基础上,提出了一种具有可靠传感和控制操作的混合M AC协议(RSC‐M AC ),并设计了支持RSC‐M AC协议的QoS(服务质量)方法,有效地保证家居电器网络中任何控制消息的延迟,提高了传感数据采集的灵活性。仿真结果表明,在规定的延迟时间内,RSC‐M AC成功交付所有的控制数据包,并在交付传感数据包时表现出良好的性能。%In smart home networks ,electric appliances are connected by communication media such as Ethernet ,WLAN ,or ZigBee .This paper introduces RSC‐MAC (reliable sensing and control‐MAC) for home appliance networks and designs a QoS (quality of service) supported MAC protocol ,which provides delay guarantee for arbitrary control messages in home networks and keeps the flexibility of sensing data collection .The simulation result shows that RSC‐MAC successfully delivers all control packets within the tolerant delay ,and has a good performance in delivering sensing packets .

  3. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, E.P.; Stabile, A.C.; Ervolino, E.; Stuani, M.B.S.; Iyomasa, M.M.; Rocha, M.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400–420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethyl-cellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance:32.2±2.49 vs sham: 4.8±1.79, P<0.05) and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0±1.45 vs sham: 4.6±1.82, P<0.05). The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib can indeed be

  4. Celecoxib treatment does not alter recruitment and activation of osteoclasts in the initial phase of experimental tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Carvalho-Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported that the short-term treatment with celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID attenuates the activation of brain structures related to nociception and does not interfere with orthodontic incisor separation in rats. The conclusion was that celecoxib could possibly be prescribed for pain in orthodontic patients. However, we did not analyze the effects of this drug in periodontium. The aim of this follow-up study was to analyze effects of celecoxib treatment on recruitment and activation of osteoclasts and alveolar bone resorption after inserting an activated orthodontic appliance between the incisors in our rat model. Twenty rats (400-420 g were pretreated through oral gavage with celecoxib (50 mg/kg or vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose 0.4%. After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g orthodontic appliance, set not to cause any palate disjunction. In sham animals, the appliance was immediately removed after introduction. All animals received ground food and, every 12 h, celecoxib or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized and transcardiacally perfused through the aorta with 4% formaldehyde. Subsequently, maxillae were removed, post-fixed and processed for histomorphometry or immunohistochemical analyses. As expected, incisor distalization induced an inflammatory response with certain histological changes, including an increase in the number of active osteoclasts at the compression side in group treated with vehicle (appliance: 32.2±2.49 vs sham: 4.8 ± 1.79, P<0.05 and celecoxib (appliance: 31.0±1.45 vs sham: 4.6±1.82, P<0.05. The treatment with celecoxib did not modify substantially the histological alterations and the number of active osteoclasts after activation of orthodontic appliance. Moreover, we did not see any difference between the groups with respect to percentage of bone resorption area. Taken together with our previous results we conclude that short-term treatment with celecoxib

  5. Twin-block Appliance Orthodontics Mandible Recession%双垫矫治器矫治下颌后缩的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江美媛; 聂建芳; 李漠泉

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究双垫矫治器对下颌后缩的矫治效果,探讨双垫矫治器在安氏Ⅱ类远中错(表现为下颌后缩的侧面貌)矫治中的作用。方法:选择2012年4月-2013年12月来口腔科门诊就诊的下颌后缩患者60例,按矫治方法的不同分为研究组和对照组,研究组用双垫矫治器矫治下颌后缩;对照组又按拔牙位的不同分为对照组一和对照组二,对照组一采取上颌拔除两个第二双尖牙而下颌不拔牙的固定矫治,对照组二采取上颌拔除两个第一双尖牙而下颌拔除两个第二双尖牙的固定矫治。结果:双垫矫治器有效前移下颌,使下颌功能性改建,获得良好的侧面貌。而对照组一拔除上颌两个第二双尖牙下颌不拔牙,经固定矫治后,下颌位置无改变,上颌因拔牙矫治而朝后缩一部分,彰显平直脸型,且面下三分之一短。对照组二拔除上颌两个第一双尖牙和下颌两个第二双尖牙,经固定矫治后,上下颌皆因拔牙矫治而略朝后缩,更加重了下颌后缩的面型,呈现衰老消瘦的面容。结论:双垫矫治器的应用,使下颌前伸,纠正下颌后缩,极大地矫正了面貌,重塑了颜面美观。%To study the effect of Twin-block appliance Orthodontics mandible recession,discuss the effect of Twin-block appliance orthodontics Class Ⅱdistoclusion(appeal that the profile of mandible recession). Method:60 patients with mandible recession in our hospital’s oral cavity department,from April 2012 to November 2013,were selected,and they were divided into treatment group and contrast group. According to the difference method of Orthodontics,the treatment group was treated with Twin-block appliance orthodontics mandible recession. The contrast group was proceed to divided into contrast group one and two,according to the different teeth’s extraction. The contrast group one was treated with extracted two maxillary second

  6. Biomechanical difference between Twin-Block appliance and straight wire appliance in the early treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion%Twin-Block与直丝弓矫治器早期矫治骨性安氏Ⅱ类1分类错牙合:生物力学差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋朝晖; 刘文慧

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Class II malocclusion is commonly observed in clinics, with the main manifestation of skeletal malocclusion, and mandibular retrusion is the main reason. Class II malocclusion should be treated early to correct skeletal malformation and improve facial appearance. OBJECTIVE:To compare the biomechanics change in early treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion with Twin-Block appliance and straight wire appliance combined with face-bow and Class II drawing. METHODS: Thirty patients with malocclusion who were at peak velocity on the growth curve were randomly divided into two groups, with 15 cases in each group. Patients in each group were treated with Twin-Block appliance and straight wire appliance combined face-bow and Class II drawing, respectively. The cephalometric records of al patients were examined before and after the treatments. The acquired data were processed by statistical analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After treatment, al molars and cuspid teeth achieved or reached Class I, and ANB angle decreased to normal range. The bone effect of Twin-Block appliance was more significant than straight wire appliance. Using Twin-Block appliance, the length of mandible body and lower face height increased significantly. Experimental findings indicate that, Twin-Block appliance has significant therapeutic effects in treatment of early skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion patients, who are at peak velocity on the growth curve. With the biomechanical effects, this treatment corrects asymmetrical jaw relation, reconstructs the tissue, and obtains satisfactory lateral facial profile of soft tissues. The therapeutic effect is more obvious for patients with obvious mandibular retrusion, flared upper incisors and upright lower incisors.%背景:安氏Ⅱ类错牙合是临床上常见的错牙合畸形,主要表现为骨性错牙合,其主要因素是下颌后缩,对于此类患者,多进行早期矫治,以纠正骨性畸形,明显改善

  7. 基于专利计量的中国家电产业技术追赶研究%Research on the Technological Catching Up of China's Household Appliance Industry through the Perspective of Patent Bibliometrics Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锦铖; 张越; 余江

    2016-01-01

    后发国家产业技术创新能力的提升可以有效推动技术追赶进程,论文从专利计量的视角深入剖析了全球化背景下中国家电产业技术追赶的机制。通过对中国和日本代表性白色家电企业专利数量及质量的分析发现:日本家电企业的专利数量近年基本维持稳定,中国家电企业的专利数量快速增长,并超越了日本家电企业;整体上中国家电企业重点布局成熟技术,日本家电企业则更加注重产业前沿性技术的研发。对于专利质量的一系列评价指标表明,中国家电企业日趋注重研发水平的提升,专利质量快速上升,与国外领先企业的差距不断缩小。%This paper analyzes the technological catching up of China's household appliance industry from the per-spective of patent bibliometrics. By examining the patent quantity and quality of China's and Japan's white goods Appliance Company, we find the patent quantity of Japan's household appliance company remains stable in recent years. However, the patent quantity of China's household appliance company grows fast and exceeds Japan's. Chi-na's household appliance company mainly layout on fundamental technology heavily, while the Japan's company pay more attention on the R&D of the cutting-edge technology. Through the evaluation of patent quality index, we find the patents from Japan's companies have better quality and are appliedearlier than China's patents. Howe-ver, since the beginning of 21st century, China's household appliance companies have pay more attention on R&D. The patent quality of China's companies' quality are raised rapidly and the quality gap between China's and Japan's patent are narrowed continuously.

  8. Assessment of the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 in 11-14 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cl II malocclusion is one of the most common abnormalities in human societies and using a simple, affordable and accessible treatment that can be provided by general practitioners or specialists, to prevent future malocclusion complications is vital. Cl II malocclusion treatment using functional appliances such as twin block and anterior inclined bite plan have less cost, side effects and complications compared to fixed orthodontic or orthosurgery. Until now, the dentoskeletal changes resulting from the application of twin block and anterior inclined bite plan in patients with Class II malocclusion has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 during mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort trial, 60 patients with the definitive diagnosis of Class II div. 1 malocclusion having ANB>2 and FMA angel between 20 and 30 and without any previous treatment or syndrome who were treated with twin-block or inclined anterior bite plan appliance were selected and their lateral cephalometries were traced before and after treatment. Selected distance and angular landmarks were measured on the cephalograms with the good reliability (ICC=0.953 and the changes occurred in the landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Due to the increased mandibular growth, most of the landmarks experienced significant changes following the treatment with twin-block and inclined bite plan (P0.05, however, SNA (P=0.04, overjet (P=0.007 and wits appraisal (P=0.004 changed differently after using the appliances. Conclusion: Despite with most similarities of both twin-block and anterior inclined bite plan to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion, Due to the advantages of anterior inclined bite plan such as less size, good

  9. The difference between the old standard version and the new one for electric flatiron and the hair care appliance%电熨斗与皮肤及毛发护理器具新旧版标准的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢军

    2004-01-01

    In order to make amends for lack in the knowledge about the new Standard version for electric flatiron and the hair care appliance existed in the enterprises, the paper listed the difference between these two standard version.

  10. 输变电设施与家用电器对居室工频磁场的影响%Effect of Power Transmission and Transformation Facilities and Domestic Appliances on Indoor Power Frequency Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解居民居室内磁场强度大于0.4 μT的情况.方法 采用德国Narda公司生产的EFA-300低频电磁场分析仪对输变电设施和居民家用电器的工频磁场强度进行监测.结果 距户外110 kV输变电设施15 m以上、距220 kV输变电设施65 m以上居室内工频磁场强度低于0.4 μT,而地埋式110 kV输变电设施在地面处的磁场强度基本都小于0.4 μT,故对居室内的磁场强度基本无影响;根据对家用电器周边工频磁场强度的监测结果,由于其功率、种类等的不同,相同距离处磁场强度数值不同,但离开其1 m位置处的磁场强度基本都小于0.4 μT.结论 叠加家用电器和输变电设施的工频磁场强度,在开启家用电器的工况下,居室内的工频磁场强度要高于关闭家用电器的工况.因此,为了避免室内磁场强度超过0.4 μT,应及时关闭家用电器,或远离开启中的家用电器,以减少磁场强度对人体的影响.%[ Objective ] To investigate the indoor power frequency magnetic fields intension that may exceed 0.4 μT. [ Methods ] The power frequency magnetic fields intension of power transmission and transformation facilities and domestic appliances was monitored with EFA-300 produced by Narda company in Germany. [ Results] According to the monitoring results, away from the outdoor 110kV power transmission and transformer facilities above 15m and away from the 220kV power transmission and transformer facilities above 65m, the indoor power frequency magnetic fields intension were all below 0.4 μT, while the underground 110 kV power transmission and transformer facilities caused no influence on indoor power frequency magnetic fields intension which were all below 0.4 μT at surface monitor spots. According to the monitoring results of the power frequency magnetic fields intension of domestic appliances,for the different power and type of the domestic appliances, the power frequency magnetic fields intension were

  11. Optimization of Waste Household Appliance Recycling Logistics System Based on Community Recycling Outlets%基于社区回收网点的废旧家电回收物流系统优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we summarized the methods and experience in the recycling and disposal of waste electronic products and electrical appliances in advanced countries and regions, analyzed the advantages of the current recycling channels in China, pointed out their shortcomings and proposed the measures to build the waste household appliance recycling logistics system on the basis of community recycling outlets.%归纳了发达国家和地区废旧电子电器产品回收处理的方法与经验,分析了我国现有各种废旧家电回收渠道的优势,指出其存在的主要问题,提出了基于社区回收网点的废旧家电回收物流系统的建设措施。

  12. Research on the Competitive Situation of Chain Industry of Domestic Appliance Based on the Five Forces Model%基于五力模型的家电连锁行业竞争态势研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宝山

    2013-01-01

    Chain store has become the major channel of domestic appliance retail.Applying Porter's Five Forces Model,the paper analyzes the competitive situation of chain industry of domestic appliance,brings up the major problems which domestic chain enterprises are facing,and presents a series of strategic pro-posals about the problems to promote the healthy development of domestic chain enterprises.%家电连锁渠道已经成为当前主要的家电零售渠道。采用波特的五力模型分析了当前家电连锁行业的竞争态势及家电连锁企业面临的主要问题,并针对这些问题提出了一系列促进家电连锁企业健康发展的策略建议。

  13. 改良Pendulum与改良Jones远移磨牙的对比分析%A comparative analysis on molar distalization with modified pendulum appliance and modified Jones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳林; 吴杨; 邹林洪; 张定铭; 李欣; 戴红卫

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨改良Pendulum矫治器、改良Jones装置推磨牙向远中的疗效.方法:选择22例轻中度前牙拥挤的安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)病例,介于拔牙和不拔牙矫治的边缘,所有病例被平均随机分配在2个组,分别采用2种装置推磨牙向远中,在治疗前后进行X线头影测量和模型测量分析,采用SPSS软件对数据进行分析.结果:2组远中移动效果均比较明显,但在移动速度、磨牙中央窝宽度差、前牙覆胎差、上颌第二前磨牙以及第一磨牙的倾斜度的统计分析上差异有统计学意义.结论:改良Pendulum矫治器、Jones装置均可有效地推上颌磨牙向远中移动,但改良Jones组磨牙向远中更少发生倾斜移动,矫治时间短,移动速度更快,对前牙支抗消耗相对较低.%Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of modified pendulum appliance and modified Jones on distalization of maxillary first molars. Methods: Twenty-two moderate anterior crowding of class Ⅱ malocclusion patients , between extraction and non-extraction treatment were chosen. The 22 patients were divided into two equal groups randomly. This study measured the changes in distance, velocity and position of maxillary first molars. The effects were evaluated by cephalometric radiographs and dental models analysis before and after distalization treatment. SPSS was used to determine if there were any significant differences. Results: Two effects of distal movement were obvious. However, there were significant differences between group A and group B in the travel speed, molar central fossa width , overbite , the inclination of maxillary second premolar and first molar. Conclusion: The results indicate that both modified pendulum appliance and modified Jones candistalize maxillary molars effectively. But the molars of Modified Jones Group have less distal tilting, and with short treatment time, faster movement, and consume lower anterior teeth anchorage.

  14. Sagittal analysis ofthe pendulum appliance on distalization of maxillary molars%摆形矫治器远移磨牙的矢状方向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文波; 王光护; 张帆; 温友红

    2000-01-01

    Objective The prupose of this study was to analyse sagittallly the effects of the pendulum appli-ance on distalization of maxillary molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchor maxillary premolar and incisors. Meth-od pendulum appliances were applied on 14 subjects who had class Ⅱ malocclusion, Ⅰ-Ⅱ ° crowded dentition inupper dental arch for distalization of maxillary molars, pretreatment and postteatment cephalometric radiographs wereobtained and evaluated. Results The maxillary molar distalization was 3.18 + 1.62mm, the reciprocal mesial move-ment of the second premolar was 1.42 + 1.16mm, the incisor was 0.97 + 0.45mm. Both the distalization and the me-sial movement were drifting pretreatment and posttreatment in every measurement. Conclusion Pendulum appliancewas a simple molar distalization equipment that relied less on patient' s coorperation, and should be applied widely inclinic.%目的本研究在矢状方向上分析摆形矫治器远移上磨牙的效果及对支抗前磨牙、切牙的交互作用。方法选择14例安氏Ⅱ类错 、上牙弓I-Ⅱ°拥挤患者,应用摆形矫治器远移上颌第一磨牙,每一病例治疗前后进行头影测量分析比较。结果14例患者在17.5±7周内上第一磨牙远移3.18±1.62mm,伴有前磨牙1.42±1.16mm、切牙0.97±0.45mm的近中移动,同时注意到上磨牙的远移、第二前磨牙与切牙的近移均是倾斜移动,统计分析显示各评估对象在治疗前后具有显著性差异。结论摆形矫治器是一种简便、对患者依赖少的上磨牙远移装置,可在临床中广泛应用。

  15. 固定矫正器矫治与活动矫治器联合治疗骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)对硬软组织的影响%Fixed appliance orthodontic treatment and combined treatment of skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion orthodontic appliance (occlusion) on hard and soft tissue effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕

    2012-01-01

    (Department of Stomatology,Hubei province Huangshi city Daye City the People Hospital Huangshi 435100 Hubei China) Objective to application of fixed appliance on skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion ( occlusion ) in patients with the clinical therapeutic effect analysis. Methods selected 76 cases with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion ( occlusion ) the patient case, will be divided into control group and treatment group, 38 cases in each group the average. Control group was treated with routine clinical methods of treatment; treatment group were treated by fixed appliance therapy. Results of treatment of patients with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion ( occlusion ) symptomatic treatment is superior to the control group; before and after treatment on the lower lip and incisor position magnitude of improvement was greater than that in the control group; the incidence of adverse reactions were significantly lower than the control group; Conclusion the application of fixed appliance on skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion ( occlusion ) patients were treatment clinical effect is very obvious.%目的:对应用矫正器对骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)患者进行治疗的临床效果进行研究分析.方法:抽取76例患有骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)的患者病例,将其分为对照组和治疗组,平均每组38例.对照组患者采用活动矫治器方法(牙合)垫舌簧进行治疗;治疗组患者采用固定矫正器加活动矫治进行治疗.结果:治疗组患者骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)症状治疗效果明显优于对照组;治疗前后上下唇和切牙位置的改善幅度明显大于对照组;不良反应发生率明显低于对照组.结论:应用固定矫正器与活动矫治器联合运用对骨性Ⅲ类错(牙合)患者进行治疗的临床效果非常明显.

  16. 三四级家电市场物流服务存在问题与对策研究%The problems and countermeasures of logistics service of third and fourth level home appliance markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晔

    2012-01-01

    分析国内三四级家电市场的物流服务现状及存在问题,并提出改进三四级家电市场物流服务的对策。%This paper analyses the problems of logistics service of third and fourth level home appliance markets and puts forward coun- termeasures.

  17. Web interactive non intrusive load disaggregation system for active demand in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Smart Grid combines the use of traditional technology with innovative digital solutions, making the management of the electricity grid more flexible. It allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost, and maximize the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. The optimization of energy consumption in Smart Grids is possible by using an innovative system based on Non Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring (NIALM algorithms, in which individual appliance power consumption information is disaggregated from single-point measurements, that provide a feedback in such a way to make energy more visible and more amenable to understanding and control. We contribute with an approach for monitoring consumption of electric power in households based on both a NILM algorithm, that uses a simple load signatures, and a web interactive systems that allows an active role played by users.

  18. 家电行业绿色供应链的政企博弈模型%Game Model between Governments and Enterprises in the Green Supply Chain of the Home Appliance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱; 胡祥培; 高树风

    2012-01-01

    Green supply chain management is an effective management approach for the home appliance industry to pursue the strategy of sustainable development and improve product international competitiveness. In this paper, a game model is proposed to study the relationship and game status between governments and enterprises in the green supply chain of the home appliance industry. Through the equilibrium analysis of the game model, some countermeasures are put forward, which can be adopted by the government to improve the construction of the green supply chain in the home appliance industry.%绿色供应链管理是家电行业推行可持续发展战略、提高产品国际竞争力的一种有效管理模式.文章构建了一个博弈模型以研究家电行业绿色供应链中政府与家电企业之间的关系以及博弈状态.通过对博弈模型的均衡分析,给出了一些政府可以采取的措施以推进家电行业绿色供应链的建设.

  19. The effect of fixed appliance and jaw pad for correction of permanent anterior teeth and maxillofacial region%固定矫治器加颌垫矫治恒前牙反颌的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨固定矫治器加颌垫矫治恒前牙反颌的疗效。方法:收治恒前牙反颌患者29例,以固定矫治器联合后牙颌垫矫治器治疗,观察疗效。结果:解除反颌平均时间2~3个月,完成矫治12个月。结论:颌垫加固定矫正器在接触反颌的同时可排齐牙列,提高了治疗效果,缩短了疗程。%Objective:To explore the effect of fixed appliance and jaw pad for correction of permanent anterior teeth and maxillofacial region.Methods:29 patients with permanent anterior teeth and maxillofacial region were selected,and they were treated with fixed appliance and jaw pad.Observed the curative effect.Results:The average time of removing reverse jaw was 2 to 3 months,and the time of completing treatment was 12 months.Conclusion:Fixed appliance and jaw pad can contact the reverse jaw, at the same time,it can adjust the teeth to neat,so it improves the therapeutic effect and shortens the course of treatment.

  20. Research on Perceived Risk Dimensions by Consumer in Home Appliances' Online Shopping%消费者家电网购感知风险维度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔鹏举; 周水银

    2012-01-01

    Based on questionnaire survey, focus group, depth interview and factor analysis, the study identifies six perceived risk dimensions of consumer' s home appliances' online shopping. The web shop risk, product risk, payment risk, distribution risk, after - sale risk and private risk can explain 71. 65% of the overall risk. The distribution risk, after - sale risk are rarely mentioned in extant literature, the paper explains 43. 65% of the overall risk.%通过文献回顾、焦点小组和深度访谈,提出消费者家电网购感知风险量表.在问卷调查的基础上,采用因子分析方法,得出网店风险、产品风险、支付风险、配送风险、售后风险、隐私风险等六个消费者家电网购感知风险维度,累计解释总体风险71.65%的方差.其中,解释总体风险43.65%的方差.