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Sample records for activation utilizing auto-catalytic

  1. LASER INDUCED SELECTIVE ACTIVATION UTILIZING AUTO-CATALYTIC ELECTROLESS PLATING ON POLYMER SURFACE

    Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    . Characterization of the deposited copper layer was used to select and improve laser parameters. Several types of polymers with different melting points were used as substrate. Using the above mentioned laser treatment, standard grades of thermoplastic materials such as ABS, SAN, PE, PC and others have been......This paper presents a new method for selective micro metallization of polymers induced by laser. An Nd: YAG laser was employed to draw patterns on polymer surfaces using a special set-up. After subsequent activation and auto-catalytic electroless plating, copper only deposited on the laser tracks....... Induced by the laser, porous and rough structures are formed on the surface, which favours the palladium attachment during the activation step prior to the metallization. Laser focus detection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other instruments were used to analyze the topography of the laser track...

  2. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  3. The influence of platinum washing-out time on its recovery from used auto catalytic converters

    A. Fornalczyk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The used catalytic converters contain small amounts of precious metals. Recovery of these metals is essential for environmental and economic reasons. This work presents a method of Platinum Group Metals (PGM recovery from auto catalytic converters in which they are washed out by a liquid metal. The magneto-hydro-dynamic pump was used to force circulation of liquid metal under the influence of electromagnetic fields The influence of process time on platinum recovery was also carried out.

  4. Reliability Tests of Aluminium Wedge Wire Bonding on Auto-catalytic Silver Immersion Gold (ASIG) PCB Metallization

    Drozd, A; Kaufmann, S; Manolescu, F; McGill, I

    2011-01-01

    The Auto-catalytic Silver Immersion Gold (ASIG) PCB metallization is a new process that has clear advantages for PCB assembly especially with regard to lead-free soldering. As it may become a popular process in the future for electronics used in physics experiments, the quality of this metallization for aluminium wire bonding has been studied. Aluminium wedge wire bonding continues to be the interconnection method of choice for many physics detector sensors, for high density signal routing and for unpackaged die. Although advertised as having good quality for aluminium wire bonding, this study was performed to verify this claim as well as to test the longer term reliability of the wire bonds taking into consideration the environmental conditions and life-expectancy of devices, in particular for high energy physics detector applications. The tests were performed on PCBs made with the ASIG and ENIG (Electro-less Nickel Immersion Gold) processes at the same time in order to make a comparison with the current ind...

  5. Vapour Treatment Method Against Other Pyro- and Hydrometallurgical Processes Applied to Recover Platinum From Used Auto Catalytic Converters

    Agnieszka FORNALCZYK; Mariola SATERNUS

    2013-01-01

    Today more and more cars are produced every year.All of them have to be equipped with catalytic converters,the main role of which is to obtain substances harmless to the environment instead of exhausted gases.Catalytic converters contain platinum group metals (PGM) especially platinum,palladium and rhodium.The price of these metals and their increasing demand are the reasons why today it is necessary to recycle used auto catalytic converters.There are many available methods of recovering PGM metals from them,especially platinum.These methods used mainly hydrometallurgical processes; however pyrometallurgical ones become more and more popular.The article presents results of the research mainly concerning pyrometallurgical processes.Two groups of research were carried out.In the first one different metals such as lead,magnesium and copper were used as a metal collector.During the tests,platinum went to those metals forming an alloy.In other research metal vapours were blown through catalytic converter carrier (grinded or whole).In the tests metals such as calcium,magnesium,cadmium and zinc were applied.As a result white or grey powder (metal plus platinum) was obtained.The tables present results of the research.Processing parameters and conclusions are also shown.To compare efficiency of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods catalytic converter carrier and samples of copper with platinum obtained from pyrometallurgical method were solved in aqua regia,mixture of aqua regia and fluoric acid.

  6. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Phytate phosphorus utilization and intestinal phytase activity in laying hens

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to examine the effects of strain and age on phytate phosphorus (PP utilization and intestinal phytase activity (IPA in two strains of laying hens, Hy-line Brown (HB and Hy-line White W-36 (HW at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. A digestion trial was conducted using the indicator method and birds were sampled to measure IPA. The second aim was to examine the effect of feed grade exogenous phytase enzyme on total (TP, water soluble (WSP and phytate phosphorus (PP excretion in the HW strain fed varying levels of phosphorus. Hens were fed three concentrations of available P (AP: 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%. Each level of P was supplemented with three levels of commercial feed grade exogenous phytase enzyme (0, 300, and 600 FTU/kg and the amount of TP, WSP and PP in excreta per 100 g of feed consumed was calculated. The HB retained more PP as compared to HW. Intestinal phytase activity showed a significant (P<0.01 age effect with the highest activity occurring at 32 weeks. There were significant differences in the amount of TP and SP excreted between birds receiving the 3 levels of phosphorus with 300 units phytase (P<0.01. The results of this study showed that layers are capable of utilizing PP, and that utilization is regulated by IPA and varies with age. Exogenous phytase improved PP utilization but it increased the amount of TP and WSP in excreta.

  8. Early oxygen-utilization and brain activity in preterm infants.

    Maria Luisa Tataranno

    Full Text Available The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and quantitative aEEG/EEG parameters has not yet been investigated. Our aim was to study the association between oxygen utilization during the first 6 h after birth and simultaneously continuously monitored brain activity measured by aEEG/EEG. Forty-four hemodynamically stable babies with a GA < 28 weeks, with good quality NIRS and aEEG/EEG data available and who did not receive morphine were included in the study. aEEG and NIRS monitoring started at NICU admission. The relation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2 and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE, and quantitative measurements of brain activity such as number of spontaneous activity transients (SAT per minute (SAT rate, the interval in seconds (i.e. time between SATs (ISI and the minimum amplitude of the EEG in μV (min aEEG were evaluated. rScO2 was negatively associated with SAT rate (β=-3.45 [CI=-5.76- -1.15], p=0.004 and positively associated with ISI (β=1.45 [CI=0.44-2.45], p=0.006. cFTOE was positively associated with SAT rate (β=0.034 [CI=0.009-0.059], p=0.008 and negatively associated with ISI (β=-0.015 [CI=-0.026- -0.004], p=0.007. Oxygen delivery and utilization, as indicated by rScO2 and cFTOE, are directly related to functional brain activity, expressed by SAT rate and ISI during the first hours after birth, showing an increase in oxygen extraction in preterm infants with increased early electro-cerebral activity. NIRS monitored oxygenation may be a useful biomarker of brain vulnerability in high-risk infants.

  9. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): utility in assisted reproduction.

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2008-07-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have now been extensively incorporated in the management of infertile couples. But even after rapid methodological and technological advances the success rates of these procedures have been below expectations. This has led to development of many sperm preparation protocols to obtain an ideal semen sample for artificial reproduction. Sperm apoptosis has been heavily linked to failures in reproductive techniques. One of the earliest changes shown by apoptotic spermatozoa is externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a novel sperm preparation technique that separates apoptotic and non-apoptotic spermatozoa based on the expression of phosphatidylserine. This has led to the incorporation of MACS as a sperm preparation technique. The review highlights the principle and mechanism of this novel technique and enumerates its advantages as a sperm preparation technique. Its utility in ART as an efficient tool for sperm recovery and its application in cryopreservation of semen samples is also explained.

  10. Research activities to improve the utilization of antibiotics in Africa.

    Massele, Amos; Tiroyakgosi, Celda; Matome, Matshediso; Desta, Abayneh; Muller, Arno; Paramadhas, Bene D Anand; Malone, Brighid; Kurusa, Gobuiwang; Didimalang, Thatayaone; Moyo, Mosana; Godman, Brian

    2017-02-01

    There is a need to improve the rational use of antibiotics across continents including Africa. This has resulted in initiatives in Botswana including treatment guidelines and the instigation of Antibiotic Stewardship Programs (ASPs). The next steps involve a greater understanding of current antibiotic utilization and resistance patterns (AMR). This resulted in a 2-day meeting involving key stakeholders principally from Botswana to discuss key issues including AMR rates as well as ASPs in both the public and private sectors. Following this, the findings will be used to plan future studies across Africa including point prevalence studies. The findings will be presented in July 2016 at the next Medicines Utilization Research in Africa meeting will ideally serve as a basis for planning future pertinent interventional studies to enhance the rational use of antibiotics in Botswana and wider.

  11. Utilizing the Bicycle for Non-Traditional Activities

    Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Sebek, Ludek; Hoffmanova, Jana; Kane, Jennifer Jackson

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the bicycle as not simply a means of transportation or as an exercise device, but rather as a vehicle for teambuilding and problem solving activities within a physical education curriculum. The activities described in this article focus on bike-centered initiatives that foster creative problem solving. They have universal…

  12. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Juho Yliniemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  13. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  14. Early Oxygen-Utilization and Brain Activity in Preterm Infants

    Tataranno, ML; Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; Toet, MC; Lemmers, Petra M A; van de Vosse, R.; Van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J N L

    2015-01-01

    The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS) and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and qu

  15. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  16. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    Shangkun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL and genetic algorithm (GA. MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.

  17. Thermally activated retainer means utilizing shape memory alloy

    Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor); Hartz, Leslie S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A retainer member suitable for retaining a gap filler placed in gaps between adjacent tile members is presented. One edge of the retainer member may be attached to the gap filler and another edge may be provided with a plurality of tab members which in an intermediate position do not interfere with placement or removal of the gap filler between tile members. The retainer member may be fabricated from a shape memory alloy which when heated to a specified memory temperature will thermally activate the tab members to predetermined memory positions engaging the tile members to retain the gap filler in the gap. This invention has particular application to the thermal tiles on space vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  18. UTILITY OF MECHANISTIC MODELS FOR DIRECTING ADVANCED SEPARATIONS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES: Electrochemically Modulated Separation Example

    Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-06-01

    The objective for this work was to demonstrate the utility of mechanistic computer models designed to simulate actinide behavior for use in efficiently and effectively directing advanced laboratory R&D activities associated with developing advanced separations methods.

  19. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese Fiscal Year, 1999

    Toyoda, Masayuki [ed.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    This is the second issue of the activity report on the utilization of research reactors in the fields of neutron beam experiments, neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, etc., performed during Japanese Fiscal Year 1999 (April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000). All reports in this volume were described by users from JAERI and also users from the other organizations, i.e., universities, national research institutes and private companies, who have utilized our research reactor utilization facilities for the purpose of the above studies. (author)

  20. Activity report on the utilization of research reactors. Japanese Fiscal Year, 1998

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Koyama, Yoshimi [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    This is the second issue of the activity report on the utilization of research reactors in the fields of neutron beam experiments, neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production, etc., performed during Japanese Fiscal Year 1998 (April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999). All reports in this volume were described by users from JAERI and also users from the other organizations, i.e., universities, national research institutes and private companies, who have utilized our research reactor utilization facilities for the purpose of the above studies. (author)

  1. Electroless Plating on Plastic Induced by Selective Laser Activation

    Zhang, Yang; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for selective micro metallization of polymers. A Nd:YAG laser is employed to draw patterns on polymer surfaces that are submerged in a liquid (usually water). After subsequent activation with palladium chloride and followed by auto-catalytic electroless plating...... in width with 50μm between two tracks, but further optimization is expected in this field. Due to the porous and rough structure of the laser track, excellent adhesion between metallization and substrate is obtained. On top of the first copper layer, additional metal such as nickel, gold, palladium or tin...

  2. Research Activity in Computational Physics utilizing High Performance Computing: Co-authorship Network Analysis

    Ahn, Sul-Ah; Jung, Youngim

    2016-10-01

    The research activities of the computational physicists utilizing high performance computing are analyzed by bibliometirc approaches. This study aims at providing the computational physicists utilizing high-performance computing and policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of researchers for high-performance computational physics as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2004-2013. We extracted the author rank in the physics field utilizing high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2004. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 45 top-authors and their coauthors, and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.

  3. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  4. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  5. Changes in enzymes activity, substrate utilization pattern and diversity of soil microbial communities under cadmium pollution

    Muhammad Akmal; WANG Hai-zhen; WU Jian-jun; XU Jian-ming; XU De-fu

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has received increasing attention in recent years mainly because of the public awareness of environmental issues. In this study we have evaluated the effect of cadmium(Cd) on enzymes activity, substrate utilization pattern and diversity of microbial communities in soil spiked with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg Cd, during 60 d of incubation at 25℃. Enzyme activities determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 d after heavy metal application(DAA) showed marked declines for various Cd treatments, and up to 60 DAA, 100 mg/kg Cd resulted in 50.1%, 47.4%, and 39.8 % decreases in soil urease, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities,respectively to control. At 60 DAA, substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities determined by inoculating Biolog ECO plates indicated that Cd addition had markedly inhibited the functional activity of soil microbial communities and multivariate analysis of sole carbon source utilization showed significantly different utilization patterns for 80 and 100 mg/kg Cd treatments. The structural diversity of soil microbial communities assessed by PCR-DGGE method at 60 DAA, illustrated that DGGE patterns in soil simplified with increasing Cd concentration, and clustering of DGGE profiles for various Cd treatments revealed that they had more than 50% difference with that of control.

  6. Student Perceptions of University Physical Activity Instruction Courses Taught Utilizing Sport Education

    Mohr, Derek J.; Sibley, Benjamin A.; Townsend, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Limited research exists on effective teaching methods in university physical activity instruction (PAI) program courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAI courses taught utilizing a sport education curriculum and instructional model. The Individual Development and Educational Assessment (IDEA) teaching evaluation was administered to…

  7. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications.

  8. Active exercises utilizing a facilitating device in the treatment of lymphedema resulting from breast cancer therapy

    de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in volume of arm lymphedema secondary to breast cancer therapy utilizing an exercise facilitating device. Twenty-one women with arm lymphedema resulting from the surgical and radiotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer were randomly selected. Evaluation was made by water-displacement volumetry before and after each session. The patients were submitted to a series of active exercises using a facilitating device for four 12-minute sessions with intervals of 3 minutes between sessions in the sitting position with alignment of the spinal column. The lymphedematous arm was maintained under compression using a cotton-polyester sleeve. The active exercising device used was a mobile flexion bar fixed on a metal base at a height of 30 cm from the tabletop and at a distance of 10 cm from the patient’s body. The paired t-test was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (p-value ≤0.05 being considered significant. The initial mean volume of the arms was 2,089.9 and the final volume was 2,023.0 mL with a mean loss of 66.9 mL (p-value <0.001. In conclusion, active exercises utilizing facilitating devices can contribute to a reduction in size of lymphedematous limbs.

  9. A Kluyveromyces marxianus 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant with enhanced activity of xylose utilization.

    Suprayogi, Suprayogi; Nguyen, Minh T; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Rodrussamee, Nadchanok; Limtong, Savitree; Kosaka, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mamoru

    2015-12-01

    Thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of fermenting various sugars including xylose but glucose represses to hamper the utilization of other sugars. To acquire glucose repression-defective strains, 33 isolates as 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG)-resistant mutants were acquired from about 100 colonies grown on plates containing 2-DOG, which were derived from an efficient strain DMKU 3-1042. According to the characteristics of sugar consumption abilities and cell growth and ethanol accumulation along with cultivation time, they were classified into three groups. The first group (3 isolates) utilized glucose and xylose in similar patterns along with cultivation to those of the parental strain, presumably due to reduction of the uptake of 2-DOG or enhancement of its export. The second group (29 isolates) showed greatly delayed utilization of glucose, presumably by reduction of the uptake or initial catabolism of glucose. The last group, only one isolate, showed enhanced utilization ability of xylose in the presence of glucose. Further analysis revealed that the isolate had a single nucleotide mutation to cause amino acid substitution (G270S) in RAG5 encoding hexokinase and exhibited very low activity of the enzyme. The possible mechanism of defectiveness of glucose repression in the mutant is discussed in this paper. [Int Microbiol 18(4):235-244 (2015)].

  10. Gradient Descent Learning for Utility Current Compensation using Active Regenerative PWM Filter

    R. Balamurugan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Harmonic analysis is a primary matter of power quality assessment. Its main intention is to check the utility whether it is delivering the loads without any deviations in voltages and currents. The problem is due to proliferation of Electronic converters and power electronics which gave birth to numerous new applications, offering unmatched comfort to the customers. Approach: Harmonics should be maintained within the limits said in standards like IEEE 519 and others such as IEEE 1159 for safeguarding the utility. This was provided by many mitigation technologies like passive, shunt and series filtering, active conditioners, but they were lack of some demerits like huge cost, many controllers and circuit components. So for controlling the harmonic loads the converter with four quadrant characteristics was implemented and this converter act as shunt active filter as well as rectifier simultaneously without any additional circuitry. For having better harmonic reduction in addition, many controllers like p-q Theorem based controller, Fuzzy and gradient descent based neural network is also used. Results: The simulation results gives the compared source current wave forms for various controllers with individual harmonic mitigations. Conclusion: The pure utility current is obtained by using this intelligent neural filter without any additional components and without any extra controllers than the conventional methods.

  11. Development of a real time activity monitoring Android application utilizing SmartStep.

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Footwear based activity monitoring systems are becoming popular in academic research as well as consumer industry segments. In our previous work, we had presented developmental aspects of an insole based activity and gait monitoring system-SmartStep, which is a socially acceptable, fully wireless and versatile insole. The present work describes the development of an Android application that captures the SmartStep data wirelessly over Bluetooth Low energy (BLE), computes features on the received data, runs activity classification algorithms and provides real time feedback. The development of activity classification methods was based on the the data from a human study involving 4 participants. Participants were asked to perform activities of sitting, standing, walking, and cycling while they wore SmartStep insole system. Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) was utilized in the development of machine learning model for activity prediction. The resulting classification model was implemented in an Android Smartphone. The Android application was benchmarked for power consumption and CPU loading. Leave one out cross validation resulted in average accuracy of 96.9% during model training phase. The Android application for real time activity classification was tested on a human subject wearing SmartStep resulting in testing accuracy of 95.4%.

  12. Prebiotic galactooligosaccharides activate mucin and pectic galactan utilization pathways in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia; Mulder, Marieke; Leeuwen, Sander van; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2017-01-01

    Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways. We show that several pathways for targeting O-mucin glycans are activated in B. thetaiotaomicron by GOS, as well as the galactan utilization sytem. Characterization of the endo-galactanase from this system identified activity on various longer GOS substrates while a subset of GOS compounds were identified as potential activators of mucin glycan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron. Our results show that GOS functions as an inducer of mucin-glycan pathways while providing a nutrient source in the form of β-(1 → 4)-galactan. These metabolic features of GOS mixtures may serve to explain the beneficial effects that are seen for GOS supplemented infant formula. PMID:28091546

  13. Synthetic utility of sydnones to couple pharmacologically important heterocycles for antitubercular activity

    Tasneem Taj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we have utilized the 3-arylsydnones 1a–c to couple two biodynamic moieties in amide derivatives 7–10. The 3-arylsydnones were brominated to 4-bromo-3-arylsydnones 2a–c which further were reacted with benzotriazole/benzothiazolin-2-thione/morpholine/diphenylamine to the corresponding final compounds. The structures of the amide derivatives were confirmed by the spectral (IR, 1H NMR and Mass and analytical data. Further, these were subjected to the antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculae (H37Rv. The morpholine 7a–c and benzotriazole 8a–c derivatives have exhibited good inhibition.

  14. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  15. Phytochemical analysis and peripheral glucose utilization activity determination of Steblus asper

    Monjoy Kumar Choudhury; S Venkatraman; Lokesh Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-hyperglycemic and peripheral glucose utilization activity of petroleum ether extract of leafs of Streblus asper (SAPE) as well as to find out the hypoglycemic property of Apiol and its presence in the SAPE. Methods: The GCMS analysis was conducted to identify the Apiol present in the SAPE. Six groups of animals, containing six animals in each, were selected for this study. The first group served as control and provided only vehicle solution. Group second served as vehicle control and treated with 0.5% CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose) orally. Group third to sixth, were treated with glibemclamide (600 ug/kg bw) and SAPE 100 mg/kg bw, 250 mg/kg bw and 500 mg/kg bw respectively. In the second experiment, three groups of animals containing six animals in each were selected and were made diabetic as described earlier and simultaneously treated with pure Apiol at the dosages of 50 mg/kg bw, 75 mg/bw and 100 mg/kg bw respectively. Results: The GCMS analysis reviled the presence of Apiol molecules in the leaves of SAPE. Administration of SAPE and Apiol to the diabetic rats exhibited significant anti diabetic property (P<0.01). After 30 days of SAPE treatment, the fasting blood sugar levels of the diabetic rats were significantly reduced (P<0.001) along with restoration in their glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzyme activities, glycogen content and insulin level. Conclusions: The SAPE exhibited remarkable anti diabetic activity and excellent control over peripheral glucose utilization. Thus, it can be concluded that Apiol may be responsible for its anti-diabetic property.

  16. Substrate Utilization is Influenced by Acute Dietary Carbohydrate Intake in Active, Healthy Females.

    Gregory, Sara; Wood, Richard; Matthews, Tracey; Vanlangen, Deborah; Sawyer, Jason; Headley, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC) and low-fat (LF) meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER) measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP), and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G), insulin (IN), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein). The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein). No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (μU·mL(-1)) levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1) vs. 26.0 (21.0)]. Postexercise (PE) FFA (mEq·L(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3) vs. 0.5 (0.3)]. PE TG (mg·dL(-1)) levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1) vs. 114.4 (40.9)]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization. Key pointsThe relative carbohydrate content of a single meal has a significant impact on postprandial metabolism and substrate utilization in healthy, active females.A single bout of aerobic exercise performed within an hour of meal ingestion has the potential to modify the postprandial response.Interventions aimed at improving body composition and preventing chronic disease should focus on dietary

  17. Energy substrate utilization during nightly vocal activity in three species of Scinax (Anura/Hylidae).

    Carvalho, José Eduardo; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro; Navas, Carlos Arturo

    2008-05-01

    Anuran amphibians exhibit different patterns of energy substrate utilization that correlate with the intensity of vocal and locomotor activities. Given the remarkable differences among species in breeding and feeding strategies, and the different ways energy is used in the whole animal, the suggested correlations between calling and locomotor behavior and the level of energy substrates in the muscles responsible for such activities are more complex than previously reported. We explored the relationships between calling and locomotor behavior and energy supply to trunk and hindlimb muscles, respectively, within the ecologically diverse tree-frog genus Scinax. Specifically, we measured the relative amount of carbohydrates and lipids in these two groups of muscles, and in the liver of three species of Scinax that differ in vocal and locomotor performance, and compared our results with those of two other species for which comparable data are available. We also compared the contents of lipids and carbohydrates of conspecific males collected at the beginning and after 4 h of calling activity. The stomach content to potential feeding opportunities across species was also assessed in both groups of males. Scinax hiemalis and S. rizibilis exhibit comparatively low and episodic calling during long periods of activity whereas S. crospedospilus calls at higher rates over shorter periods. Male S. hiemalis had highest levels of trunk muscle glycogen followed by those of S. rizilbilis and S. crospedospilus, respectively. There was no correlation between total lipid content in trunk muscle and calling rate among different species, suggesting that other metabolic aspects may be responsible for the energetic support for vocal activity. The levels of lipids and carbohydrates in trunk and hindlimb muscles and liver of males collected at the beginning and 4 h into the calling period were similar across species, so the extent of energetic reserves does not appear to constrain vocal or

  18. Essentiality of respiratory activity for pentose utilization in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042.

    Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Suprayogi; Murata, Masayuki; Rodrussamee, Nadchanok; Limtong, Savitree; Kosaka, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mamoru

    2013-04-01

    By random integrative mutagenesis with a kanMX4 cassette in Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU 3-1042, we obtained three mutants of COX15, ATP25 and CYC3 encoding a cytochrome oxidase assembly factor (singleton), a transcription factor required for assembly of the Atp9p subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase and cytochrome c heme lyase, respectively, as mutants lacking growth capability on xylose and/or arabinose. They exhibited incapability of growth on non-fermentable carbon sources, such as acetate or glycerol, and thermosensitiveness. Their biomass formation in glucose medium was reduced, but ethanol yields were increased with a high ethanol level in the medium, compared to those of the parental strain. Experiments with respiratory inhibitors showed that cox15 and cyc3, but not atp25, were able to grow in glucose medium containing antimycin A and that the atp25 mutant was KCN-resistant. Activities of NADH and ubiquinol oxidases in membrane fractions of each mutant became a half of that of the parent and negligible, respectively, and their remaining NADH oxidase activities were found to be resistant to KCN. Absolute absorption spectral analysis revealed that the peak corresponding to a + a 3 was very small in atp25 and negligible in cox15 and cyc3. These findings suggest that the K. marxianus strain possesses an alternative KCN-resistant oxidase that is located between primary dehydrogenases and the ubiquinone pool and that the respiratory activity is essential for utilization of pentoses.

  19. SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION IS INFLUENCED BY ACUTE DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE IN ACTIVE, HEALTHY FEMALES

    Sara Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the metabolic responses between a single low-carbohydrate (LC and low-fat (LF meal followed by an aerobic exercise bout in females. Subjects included 8 active, premenopausal females. Subjects completed a LC and LF testing session. Respiratory gas exchange (RER measurements were taken for 20 min fasted, for 55 min postprandial (PP, and during 30 min of exercise. Blood was collected for assessment of glucose (G, insulin (IN, triglycerides (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA during the final 10 min of each time period. The LF meal provided 396 kcal (78% carbohydrate, 7% fat, and 15% protein. The LC meal provided 392 kcal (15% carbohydrate, 68% fat, and 18% protein. No significant differences existed between test meals for fasting blood measurements. PP IN (µU·mL-1 levels were significantly lower following LC compared to LF [10.7 (6.1 vs. 26.0 (21.0]. Postexercise (PE FFA (mEq·L-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [1.1 (0.3 vs. 0.5 (0.3]. PE TG (mg·dL-1 levels were significantly greater following LC [152.0 (53.1 vs. 114.4 (40.9]. RER was significantly lower at all time points following LC compared to LF. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal. Although macronutrient distribution appears to have dictated substrate utilization in the present study, more research is needed regarding the long-term effects of macronutrient redistribution with and without exercise on substrate utilization.

  20. Utility of in vitro test methods to assess the activity of xenoestrogens in fish.

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Hewitt, L Mark; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2006-12-01

    The results of the present study have demonstrated the utility of an estrogen receptor (ER) competitive ligand-binding assay, a hepatocyte vitellogenin (VTG) induction bioassay, and an ER reporter gene bioassay in characterizing the activity of model estrogen agonists (17beta-estradiol [E2], ethynylestradiol, and nonylphenol) and antagonists (tamoxifen and ZM 189154) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The in vitro results were validated against in vivo trout waterborne exposures to E2 and tamoxifen. The results showed that all three in vitro assays were capable of detecting the hormonal activities of the selected model compounds in a dose-dependent manner, with the exception of nonylphenol in the ER reporter gene bioassay. However, the relative potency rankings of the model compounds were not consistent between these assays, which suggests that the relative potencies obtained within assays may have limited predictive value between assays. Discrepancies in potencies most likely can be attributed to the different levels of cellular organization in each assay. In addition to model compounds, we also evaluated the responses of the ER-binding assay and the hepatocyte VTG induction bioassay to complex mixtures associated with endocrine effects in fish, specifically extracts of pulp mill effluent. Of the 14 pulp mill effluent extracts tested, only six showed activity in both assays, whereas the remaining eight samples showed activity in only one of the two assays. The hepatocyte VTG induction bioassay consistently showed that the pulp mill effluent extracts were antiestrogenic, which to our knowledge has not been reported in previous studies. Collectively, these results suggest that a combination of in vitro assays that depend on differing endpoints is required to identify potential xenoestrogens and to characterize their modes of action.

  1. COPD symptom burden: impact on health care resource utilization, and work and activity impairment

    Ding B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bo Ding,1 Mark Small,2 Gina Bergström,3 Ulf Holmgren3 1Medical Evidence and Observational Research, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; 2Real World Research (Respiratory, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK; 3Global Payer Evidence and Pricing, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD can greatly impact the quality of life by limiting patients’ activities. However, data on impact of symptomatic burden on the health care resource utilization (HCRU and employment in COPD are lacking. We examined the association between COPD Assessment Test (CAT score and direct/indirect costs associated with HCRU and work productivity.Methods: Data from >2,100 patients with COPD consulting for routine care were derived from respiratory disease-specific programs in Europe, the USA and China. Questionnaires, including CAT and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI, were used to collect the past and current disease status data and HCRU characteristics from physicians (general practitioners/specialists and patients. A regression approach was used to quantify the association of CAT with HCRU and WPAI variables. CAT score was modeled as a continuous independent variable (range: 0–40.Results: Ninety percent of patients with COPD had a CAT score ≥10. Short-acting therapy and maintenance bronchodilator monotherapy, respectively, were currently prescribed to patients with CAT scores of 10–19 (5.8% and 27.6%, 20–29 (5.1% and 13.1% and 30–40 (2.8% and 6.6%. Prescribing of maintenance bronchodilator dual therapy was low across the CAT score groups (0–9, 7.8%; 10–19, 6.4%; 20–29, 5.9%; 30–40, 4.4%, whereas maintenance triple combination therapy was prescribed more commonly in patients with higher CAT scores (0–9, 16.1%; 10–19, 23.2%; 20–29, 25.9%; 30–40, 35.5%. Increasing CAT scores were significantly associated with a higher frequency of primary care physician visits (P<0

  2. Two propanediol utilization-like proteins of Moorella thermoacetica with phosphotransacetylase activity.

    Breitkopf, Ronja; Uhlig, Ronny; Drenckhan, Tina; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Moorella thermoacetica is one of the model acetogenic bacteria for the resolution of the Wood-Ljungdahl (acetyl-CoA) pathway in which CO2 is autotrophically assimilated yielding acetyl-CoA as central intermediate. Its further conversion into acetate relies on subsequent phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase reactions. However, the genome of M. thermoacetica contains no pta homologous gene. It has been speculated that the moth_0864 and moth_1181 gene products sharing similarities with an evolutionarily distinct phosphotransacylase involved in 1,2-propanediol utilization (PDUL) of Salmonella enterica act as PTAs in M. thermoacetica. Here, we demonstrate specific PTA activities with acetyl-CoA as substrate of 9.05 and 2.03 U/mg for the recombinant enzymes PDUL1 (Moth_1181) and PDUL2 (Moth_0864), respectively. Both showed maximal activity at 65 °C and pH 7.6. Native proteins (90 kDa) are homotetramers composed of four subunits with apparent molecular masses of about 23 kDa. Thus, one or both PDULs of M. thermoacetica might act as PTAs in vivo catalyzing the penultimate step of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway toward the formation of acetate. In silico analysis underlined that up to now beside of M. thermoacetica, only Sporomusa ovata contains only PDUL like class(III)-PTAs but no other phosphotransacetylases or phosphotransbutyrylases (PTBs).

  3. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Bourdais, Anne; Bidard, Frederique; Zickler, Denise; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Silar, Philippe; Espagne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2)O(2) to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  4. Wood utilization is dependent on catalase activities in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Anne Bourdais

    Full Text Available Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2O(2 to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.

  5. Geospatial Relationships between Awareness and Utilization of Community Exercise Resources and Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults

    Christopher J. Dondzila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is unclear if community-based fitness resources (CBFR translate to heightened activity levels within neighboring areas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether awareness and utilization of fitness resources and physical activity differed depending on residential distance from CBFR. Methods. Four hundred and seventeen older adults (72.9±7.7 years were randomly recruited from three spatial tiers (≤1.6, >1.6 to ≤3.2, and >3.2 to 8.0 km surrounding seven senior centers, which housed CBFR. Participants completed questionnaires on health history, CBFR, and physical activity, gathering data on CBFR awareness, utilization, and barriers, overall levels, and predictors to engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Results. Across spatial tiers, there were no differences in positive awareness rates of CBFR or CBFR utilization. Engagement in MVPA differed across spatial tiers P3.2 to 8.0 km radius having the highest mean energy expenditure. Across all sites, age and income level P<0.05 were significant predictors of low and high amounts of MVPA, respectively, and current health status and lack of interest represented barriers to CBFR utilization P<0.05. Conclusion. Closer proximity to CBFR did not impact awareness or utilization rates and had an inverse relationship with physical activity.

  6. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  7. A wireless recording system that utilizes Bluetooth technology to transmit neural activity in freely moving animals.

    Hampson, Robert E; Collins, Vernell; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2009-09-15

    A new wireless transceiver is described for recording individual neuron firing from behaving rats utilizing Bluetooth transmission technology and a processor onboard for discrimination of neuronal waveforms and associated time stamps. This universal brain activity transmitter (UBAT) is attached to rodents via a backpack and amplifier headstage and can transmit 16 channels of captured neuronal firing data via a Bluetooth transceiver chip over very large and unconstrained distances. The onboard microprocessor of the UBAT allows flexible online control over waveform isolation criteria via transceiver instruction and the two-way communication capacity allows for closed-loop applications between neural events and behavioral or physiological processes which can be modified by transceiver instructions. A detailed description of the multiplexer processing of channel data as well as examples of neuronal recordings in different behavioral testing contexts is provided to demonstrate the capacity for robust transmission within almost any laboratory environment. A major advantage of the UBAT is the long transmission range and lack of object-based line of sight interference afforded by Bluetooth technology, allowing flexible recording capabilities within multiple experimental paradigms without interruption. Continuous recordings over very large distance separations from the monitor station are demonstrated providing experimenters with recording advantages not previously available with other telemetry devices.

  8. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Association between obesity, quality of life, physical activity and health service utilization in primary care patients with osteoarthritis.

    Rosemann, T.J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Herman, K.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of obesity with quality of life, health service utilization and physical activity in a large sample of primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Data were retrieved from the PraxArt project, representing a cohort of 1021 primary care pati

  10. Mindfulness, health symptoms and healthcare utilization: Active facets and possible affective mediators.

    Consedine, Nathan S; Butler, Haley F

    2014-01-01

    Prior work has linked mindfulness with superior physical and psychological health outcomes. However, studies to date have infrequently tested the unique contributions of individual mindfulness facets, inadequately tested links between facets and healthcare utilization, and have not tested whether depression or anxiety may influence these links. In the current report, 40 young, middle aged and older adults (N = 121) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, health, healthcare utilization and depression/anxiety. As expected, global trait mindfulness did not predict outcomes while individual mindfulness facets predicted both objective and subjective health as well as healthcare utilization. Across models, observe scores - the tendency to attend to thoughts, sensations and feelings - predicted poorer, and non-reactivity scores better, outcomes even when controlling for demographic and health confounds. Depressed and anxious emotion reduced some but not all mindfulness-health links. Results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which greater mindfulness may facilitate better health and health behaviour.

  11. Discussion of impact of relics activation on protection and utilization approaches-take the old summer palace as an example

    Xiaoqi, J.

    2015-08-01

    As the popularization of cultural relics and the rapid development of cultural tourism industry, a large number of cultural relic tourism resources goes into public eyes. Activation of relics has became an important way for tourist to contact and understand culture relics. The way of how to properly interpret the historical sense and cultural uniqueness to the masses of tourists in order to achieve social service functions of relic resources has always been research focal point of site protection and utilization, so nowadays it has important significance to protection and utilization of heritage resources in our country. From the point of activation of relics and based on the analysis of resource characteristic, the paper in depth discuss ways of activation of relics of the Old Summer Palace, in order to provide reference for sustainable development of sites tourism in China.

  12. Alcohol Services for Mexican Americans: A Review of Utilization Patterns, Treatment Considerations and Prevention Activities.

    Gilbert, M. Jean; Cervantes, Richard C.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesizes available literature that addresses: (1) utilization patterns of alcohol-related services by Mexican Americans; (2) existing therapeutic approaches which take into account cultural factors; and (3) existing approaches to alcohol abuse education and prevention for this population. Discusses research needs and the need for…

  13. Recent progress in understanding activity cliffs and their utility in medicinal chemistry.

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-09

    The activity cliff concept is of high relevance for medicinal chemistry. Recent studies are discussed that have further refined our understanding of activity cliffs and suggested different ways of exploiting activity cliff information. These include alternative approaches to define and classify activity cliffs in two and three dimensions, data mining investigations to systematically detect all possible activity cliffs, the introduction of computational methods to predict activity cliffs, and studies designed to explore activity cliff progression in medicinal chemistry. The discussion of these studies is complemented with new findings revealing the frequency of activity cliff formation when different molecular representations are used and the distribution of activity cliffs across different targets. Taken together, the results have a number of implications for the practice of medicinal chemistry.

  14. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  15. THE GRONINGEN ACTIVITY RESTRICTION SCALE FOR MEASURING DISABILITY - ITS UTILITY IN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

    SUURMEIJER, TPBM; DOEGLAS, DM; MOUM, T; BRIANCON, S; KROL, B; SANDERMAN, R; GUILLEMIN, F; BJELLE, A; VAMDENHEUVEL, WJA

    1994-01-01

    Objectives. The Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS) is a non-disease-specific instrument to measure disability in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). It was developed in studies of Dutch samples consisting of elderly or chronically ill people.

  16. The Construction of Metal-Organic Framework with Active Backbones by the Utilization of Reticular Chemistry

    Choi, Eunwoo

    With the principles of reticular chemistry, metal-organic frameworks with ultra-high porosity, chiral-recognition unit as a chiral stationary phase, metalloporhyrins for enhanced hydrogen adsorption and an intrinsic conductivity to form porous conductors, have been prepared. This dissertation presents how the principles of reticular chemistry were utilized to achieve in the preparations of metal-organic frameworks with a large surface area and active backbones. Through the simple isoreticular (having the same framework topology) expansion from MOF-177 composed with 1,3,5-tris(4'-carboxyphenyl-)benzene (BTB3-) as the strut; MOF-200 was prepared with 4,4',4"-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(benzene-4,1-diy1))tribenzoic acid an extension from BTB3- by a phenylene unit to yield one of the most porous MOFs with a Langmuir surface area of 10,400 m2. and the lowest density of 0.22 cm3.g-1. A successful thermal polymerization reaction at 325 °C inside of the pores of highly porous MOF, MOF-177, was performed and verified the integrity of the MOF structure even after the thermal reaction. 1,4-Diphenylbutadiyne that is known to polymerize upon heating to form a conjugated backbone was impregnated via solution-diffusion into MOF-177 and then subsequently polymerized by heat to form polymer impregnated MOF-177. Characterization was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction and volumetric sorption analyzer. MOF-1020 with a linear quaterphenyl dicarboxylate-based strut was designed to contain a chiral bisbinaphthyl crown-ether moiety for alkyl ammonium resolution was precisely placed into a Zn4O(CO2)6-based cubic MOF structure. Unfortunately, the chiral resolution was not achieved due to the sensitivity and the pore environment of MOF-1020. However, an interesting phenomenon was observed, where the loss of crystallinity occurs upon solvent removal while the crystallites remain shiny and crystalline, but it readily is restored upon re-solvation of the crystallites. This rare

  17. Utilization of Human Urine as Fertilizer with Magnesium Oxide (MgO, Zeolite and Activated Carbon as Absorbent

    Hijrah Purnama Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine is residual fluid excreted by kidneys through urinary tract to outside of the human body, to maintain homeostasis of fluid in the body. Normally urine still contains high amount of nitrogen, which is 87%, phosphor 50%, potassium 54% and low bacterial content. With these contents urine potentially becomes organic fertilizer rich with nitrogen, phosphor and potassium contents and is beneficial to plants. However, until today the utilization or urine in Indonesia is very low. The urine produced is dispose with feces in toilets. This study aimed to utilize urine as solid organic fertilizer using magnesium oxide (MgO, zeolite, and actived carbon as absorbents of ammonium and phosphor. The study started with collecting urine, time variations of urine storage were 24; 48 and 72 hours, and urine was mixed with water as an assumption that urine mixes with water when flushed in urinals. The result showed effectiveness of optimum urine absorption in urine stored for 48 hours by adding 8 gram MgO, producing ammonium and phosphor contents 56.100 ppm and 3.610 ppm, respectively. From environmental perspective, utilization of urine as organic fertilizer was applicable because it satisfied the ecological principle of sanitation to prevent soil pollution, ground and surface water pollution and its utilization as agricultural resources.

  18. COMPARISON OF LIPOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF Sporothrix schenckii STRAINS UTILIZING OLIVE OIL-RHODAMINE B AND TWEEN 80

    Mariana Carissimi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the lipase activity of Sporothrix schenckii strains using Rhodamine B as an indicator oftriglyceride hydrolysis (triolein from olive oil and to compare these results with the use of Tween 80 as substrate. Free fatty acidsreleased from lipase activity were detected on agar plate complexed with Rhodamine B, when exposed to UVA light, through orangefluorescence and by precipitation haloes on Tween 80 agar. There were differences in lipolytic activity among strains and between themedia utilized. The highest lipase activity (orange fluorescence was observed on the biomass of 10 strains, with no fluorescent haloesaround the colonies, whereas only six strains showed large precipitation haloes. These plate assays are suitable for the detection oflipase-producing strains of S. schenckii in the yeast phase, but it is still unknown whether different enzymes act upon the substrates orwhether there are variations of the same enzyme with different specificities.

  19. COMPARISON OF LIPOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF Sporothrix schenckii STRAINS UTILIZING OLIVE OIL-RHODAMINE B AND TWEEN 80

    Mariana Carissimi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the lipase activity of Sporothrix schenckii strains using Rhodamine B as an indicator of triglyceride hydrolysis (triolein from olive oil and to compare these results with the use of Tween 80 as substrate. Free fatty acids released from lipase activity were detected on agar plate complexed with Rhodamine B, when exposed to UVA light, through orange fluorescence and by precipitation haloes on Tween 80 agar. There were differences in lipolytic activity among strains and between the media utilized. The highest lipase activity (orange fluorescence was observed on the biomass of 10 strains, with no fluorescent haloes around the colonies, whereas only six strains showed large precipitation haloes. These plate assays are suitable for the detection of lipase-producing strains of S. schenckii in the yeast phase, but it is still unknown whether different enzymes act upon the substrates or whether there are variations of the same enzyme with different specificities.

  20. Staphylococcal SplB serine protease utilizes a novel molecular mechanism of activation.

    Pustelny, Katarzyna; Zdzalik, Michal; Stach, Natalia; Stec-Niemczyk, Justyna; Cichon, Przemyslaw; Czarna, Anna; Popowicz, Grzegorz; Mak, Pawel; Drag, Marcin; Salvesen, Guy S; Wladyka, Benedykt; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Adam; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2014-05-30

    Staphylococcal SplB protease belongs to the chymotrypsin family. Chymotrypsin zymogen is activated by proteolytic processing at the N terminus, resulting in significant structural rearrangement at the active site. Here, we demonstrate that the molecular mechanism of SplB protease activation differs significantly and we characterize the novel mechanism in detail. Using peptide and protein substrates we show that the native signal peptide, or any N-terminal extension, has an inhibitory effect on SplB. Only precise N-terminal processing releases the full proteolytic activity of the wild type analogously to chymotrypsin. However, comparison of the crystal structures of mature SplB and a zymogen mimic show no rearrangement at the active site whatsoever. Instead, only the formation of a unique hydrogen bond network, distant form the active site, by the new N-terminal glutamic acid of mature SplB is observed. The importance of this network and influence of particular hydrogen bond interactions at the N terminus on the catalytic process is demonstrated by evaluating the kinetics of a series of mutants. The results allow us to propose a consistent model where changes in the overall protein dynamics rather than structural rearrangement of the active site are involved in the activation process.

  1. Utility of Acculturation in Physical Activity Research in Latina Adults: An Integrative Review of Literature

    Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…

  2. Cost utility of behavioural activation delivered by the non-specialist.

    Ekers, David; Godfrey, Christine; Gilbody, Simon; Parrott, Steve; Richards, David A; Hammond, Danielle; Hayes, Adele

    2011-12-01

    Behavioural activation by non-specialists appears effective in the treatment of depression. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness of behavioural activation (n = 24) v. treatment as usual (n = 23) in a randomised controlled trial. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) difference in favour of behavioural activation of 0.20 (95% CI 0.01-0.39, P = 0.042), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £5756 per QALY and a 97% probability that behavioural activation is more cost-effective at a threshold value of £20,000. Results are promising for dissemination of behavioural activation but require replication in a larger study.

  3. Utilization of spent activated carbon to enhance the combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel.

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Chang-Wen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Jhong-Lin

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the heating value and combustion efficiency of organic sludge derived fuel, spent activated carbon derived fuel, and derived fuel from a mixture of organic sludge and spent activated carbon. Spent activated carbon was sampled from an air pollution control device of an incinerator and characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA, and SEM. The spent activated carbon was washed with deionized water and solvent (1N sulfuric acid) and then processed by the organic sludge derived fuel manufacturing process. After washing, the salt (chloride) and sulfide content could be reduced to 99% and 97%, respectively; in addition the carbon content and heating value were increased. Different ratios of spent activated carbon have been applied to the organic sludge derived fuel to reduce the NO(x) emission of the combustion.

  4. Utilizing laser interference lithography to fabricate hierarchical optical active nanostructures inspired by the blue Morpho butterfly

    Siddique, Radwanul H.; Faisal, Abrar; Hünig, Ruben; Bartels, Carolin; Wacker, Irene; Lemmer, Uli; Hoelscher, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    The famous non-iridescent blue of the Morpho butter by is caused by a `Christmas tree' like nanostructure which is a challenge for common fabrication techniques. Here, we introduce a method to fabricate this complex morphology utilizing dual beam interference lithography. We add a reflective coating below the photoresist to create a second interference pattern in vertical direction by exploiting the back reflection from the substrate. This vertical pattern exposes the lamella structure into the photosensitive polymer while the horizontal interference pattern determines the distance of the ridges. The photosensitive polymer is chosen accordingly to create the Christmas tree' like tapered shape. The resulting artificial Morpho replica shows brilliant non-iridescent blue up to an incident angle of 40. Its optical properties are close to the original Morpho structure because the refractive index of the polymer is close to chitin. Moreover, the biomimetic surface is water repellent with a contact angle of 110.

  5. Human Platelets Utilize Cycloxygenase-1 to Generate Dioxolane A3, a Neutrophil-activating Eicosanoid.

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Uhlson, Charis; Marnett, Lawrence J; Longhurst, Hilary J; Warner, Timothy D; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David A; Lauder, Sarah N; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter W; Murphy, Robert C; Thomas, Christopher P; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2016-06-24

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lipid is generated in nanogram amounts by platelets from endogenous arachidonate during physiological activation, with inhibition by aspirin in vitro or in vivo, implicating cyclooxygenase-1 (COX). Pharmacological and genetic studies on human/murine platelets revealed that DXA3 formation requires protease-activated receptors 1 and 4, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), Src tyrosine kinases, p38 MAPK, phospholipase C, and intracellular calcium. From data generated by purified COX isoforms and chemical oxidation, we propose that DXA3 is generated by release of an intermediate from the active site followed by oxygenation at C8. In summary, a new neutrophil-activating platelet-derived lipid generated by COX-1 is presented that can activate or prime human neutrophils, suggesting a role in innate immunity and acute inflammation.

  6. Human Platelets Utilize Cycloxygenase-1 to Generate Dioxolane A3, a Neutrophil-activating Eicosanoid*

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Uhlson, Charis; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Longhurst, Hilary J.; Warner, Timothy D.; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David A.; Lauder, Sarah N.; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter W.; Murphy, Robert C.; Thomas, Christopher P.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lipid is generated in nanogram amounts by platelets from endogenous arachidonate during physiological activation, with inhibition by aspirin in vitro or in vivo, implicating cyclooxygenase-1 (COX). Pharmacological and genetic studies on human/murine platelets revealed that DXA3 formation requires protease-activated receptors 1 and 4, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), Src tyrosine kinases, p38 MAPK, phospholipase C, and intracellular calcium. From data generated by purified COX isoforms and chemical oxidation, we propose that DXA3 is generated by release of an intermediate from the active site followed by oxygenation at C8. In summary, a new neutrophil-activating platelet-derived lipid generated by COX-1 is presented that can activate or prime human neutrophils, suggesting a role in innate immunity and acute inflammation. PMID:27129261

  7. Utilizing avidity to improve antifreeze protein activity: a type III antifreeze protein trimer exhibits increased thermal hysteresis activity.

    Can, Özge; Holland, Nolan B

    2013-12-03

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice growth inhibitors that allow the survival of several species living at temperatures colder than the freezing point of their bodily fluids. AFP activity is commonly defined in terms of thermal hysteresis, which is the difference observed for the solution freezing and melting temperatures. Increasing the thermal hysteresis activity of these proteins, particularly at low concentrations, is of great interest because of their wide range of potential applications. In this study, we have designed and expressed one-, two-, and three-domain antifreeze proteins to improve thermal hysteresis activity through increased binding avidity. The three-domain type III AFP yielded significantly greater activity than the one- and two-domain proteins, reaching a thermal hysteresis of >1.6 °C at a concentration of hysteresis activity.

  8. PERK Utilizes Intrinsic Lipid Kinase Activity To Generate Phosphatidic Acid, Mediate Akt Activation, and Promote Adipocyte Differentiation

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J.; Vaites, Laura Pontano; Singh, Nickpreet; Koretzky, Gary A.; Witze, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident PKR-like kinase (PERK) is necessary for Akt activation in response to ER stress. We demonstrate that PERK harbors intrinsic lipid kinase, favoring diacylglycerol (DAG) as a substrate and generating phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity of PERK correlates with activation of mTOR and phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. PERK lipid kinase activity is regulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α-dependent manner. Moreover, PERK activity is essential during adipocyte differentiation. Because PA and Akt regulate many cellular functions, including cellular survival, proliferation, migratory responses, and metabolic adaptation, our findings suggest that PERK has a more extensive role in insulin signaling, insulin resistance, obesity, and tumorigenesis than previously thought. PMID:22493067

  9. PERK utilizes intrinsic lipid kinase activity to generate phosphatidic acid, mediate Akt activation, and promote adipocyte differentiation.

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J; Vaites, Laura Pontano; Singh, Nickpreet; Koretzky, Gary A; Witze, Eric S; Diehl, J Alan

    2012-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident PKR-like kinase (PERK) is necessary for Akt activation in response to ER stress. We demonstrate that PERK harbors intrinsic lipid kinase, favoring diacylglycerol (DAG) as a substrate and generating phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity of PERK correlates with activation of mTOR and phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. PERK lipid kinase activity is regulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α-dependent manner. Moreover, PERK activity is essential during adipocyte differentiation. Because PA and Akt regulate many cellular functions, including cellular survival, proliferation, migratory responses, and metabolic adaptation, our findings suggest that PERK has a more extensive role in insulin signaling, insulin resistance, obesity, and tumorigenesis than previously thought.

  10. Estimation of Viable Biomass In Wastewater And Activated Sludge By Determination of ATP, Oxygen Utilization Rate And FDA Hydrolysis

    Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Eriksen, T.; Jensen, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    ATP content, oxygen utilization rate (OUR) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were tested for the ability to express the amount of viable biomass in wastewater and activated sludge. The relationship between biomass and these activity parameters was established in growth cultures made...... with biomass, while FDA hydrolysis in the sludge failed to show any such correlation. Conversion factors of 3 mg ATP/g dw, 300 mg O2/h g dw and 0.4 A/h (mg dw/ml) for ATP, OUR and FDA methods, respectively, were calculated. When the methods were applied for in situ determinations in four different wastewater...... plants, it was found that ATP content and respiration rate estimated viable biomass to range from 81 to 293 mg dw/g SS for raw wastewater and from 67 to 187 mg dw/g SS for activated sludge with a rather weak correlation between ATP and respiration measurements. The FDA hydrolysis estimated viable biomass...

  11. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program. Biocatalysis Research Activity annual report, FY 1983

    1984-04-15

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity during FY 1983 were organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the biocatalysis work element, progress was made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that have been genetically engineered, identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for biocatalyzed processes, and determining molecular level conditions for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes was developed. Also, a preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes was completed. As part of the Activity's supporting planning and analysis efforts, contact with industry and universities was made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the Activity. Additionally, analyses were conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding by the Activity. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Utility of Accelerometers to Measure Physical Activity in Children Attending an Obesity Treatment Intervention

    Wendy Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the use of accelerometers to monitor change in physical activity in a childhood obesity treatment intervention. Methods. 28 children aged 7–13 taking part in “Families for Health” were asked to wear an accelerometer (Actigraph for 7-days, and complete an accompanying activity diary, at baseline, 3-months and 9-months. Interviews with 12 parents asked about research measurements. Results. Over 90% of children provided 4 days of accelerometer data, and around half of children provided 7 days. Adequately completed diaries were collected from 60% of children. Children partake in a wide range of physical activity which uniaxial monitors may undermonitor (cycling, nonmotorised scootering or overmonitor (trampolining. Two different cutoffs (4 METS or 3200 counts⋅min-1 for minutes spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA yielded very different results, although reached the same conclusion regarding a lack of change in MVPA after the intervention. Some children were unwilling to wear accelerometers at school and during sport because they felt they put them at risk of stigma and bullying. Conclusion. Accelerometers are acceptable to a majority of children, although their use at school is problematic for some, but they may underestimate children's physical activity.

  13. Green Urban Space Utilization for Mild ICT-Based Touristic Activities: The Case of Pafsilipo Park in Greece

    Stefanos KARAGIANNIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of mild touristic activities in green urban landscapes. More specifically, it uses the case of Pasfilipo Park in the city of Karditsa, Greece, where a green urban landscape has been utilized for local life improvement and illustrates existing touristic activities in this area. For the purposes of strengthening landscape’s role, various touristic activities are proposed accompanied by Information and Communications Technologies (ICT. Moreover, this paper queries scientific issues with regard to the capitalization of green urban spaces for small scale touristic and ecological activities, which support local life and local economic growth. This study addresses the above modern requirements for urban development with respect to existing natural and human resources. It attempts to answer the following question: can green open spaces in cities be capitalized for touristic activities that support sustainable growth? In this order, green spaces in cities are recognized as areas for smart growth, where mild touristic activities can be undertaken without ecologic damages and can result in simultaneous economic activities that can lead to local development.

  14. The reported clinical utility of taurine in ischemic disorders may reflect a down-regulation of neutrophil activation and adhesion.

    McCarty, M F

    1999-10-01

    The first publications regarding clinical use of taurine were Italian reports claiming therapeutic efficacy in angina, intermittent claudication and symptomatic cerebral arteriosclerosis. A down-regulation of neutrophil activation and endothelial adhesion might plausibly account for these observations. Endothelial platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a crucial stimulus to neutrophil adhesion and activation, whereas endothelial nitric oxide (NO) suppresses PAF production and acts in various other ways to antagonize binding and activation of neutrophils. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a neutrophil product which avidly oxidizes many sulfhydryl-dependent proteins, can be expected to inhibit NO synthase while up-regulating PAF generation; thus, a vicious circle can be postulated whereby HOCl released by marginating neutrophils acts on capillary or venular endothelium to promote further neutrophil adhesion and activation. Taurine is the natural detoxicant of HOCl, and thus has the potential to intervene in this vicious circle, promoting a less adhesive endothelium and restraining excessive neutrophil activation. Agents which inhibit the action of PAF on neutrophils, such as ginkgolides and pentoxifylline, have documented utility in ischemic disorders and presumably would complement the efficacy of taurine in this regard. Fish oil, which inhibits endothelial expression of various adhesion factors and probably PAF as well, and which suppresses neutrophil leukotriene production, may likewise be useful in ischemia. These agents may additionally constitute a non-toxic strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in which activated neutrophils play a prominent pathogenic role. Double-blind studies to confirm the efficacy of taurine in symptomatic chronic ischemia are needed.

  15. Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on substrate containing anaerobic digester solids.

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvilli, Nona A

    2009-11-01

    Solid waste from anaerobic digestion of litter from the commercial production of broiler chickens has limited use as fertilizer. Its disposal is a major problem for digester operators who are seeking alternative use for anaerobic digester solids, also referred to as solid waste (SW). The use of SW as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus strain MBFBL400 was investigated. Lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield were evaluated in ten different substrate combinations (SCs) containing varying amounts of solid waste, wheat straw, and millet. Nutritional content of mushrooms produced on the different substrates was also determined. Substrates containing 70-80% wheat straw, 10-20% SW, and 10-20% millet were found to produce the highest mushroom yield (874.8-958.3 g/kg). Loss of organic matter in all SCs tested varied from 45.8% to 56.2%, which had positive correlation with the biological efficiency. Laccase, peroxidase, and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activities were higher before fruiting, whereas xylanase showed higher activities after mushroom fruiting. SW increased the nutritional content in mushrooms harvested, and the combination of wheat straw and SW with millet significantly improved mushroom yield. Our findings demonstrated the possibility of utilizing anaerobic digester solids in mushroom cultivation. The application of SW as such could improve the financial gains in the overall economy of anaerobic digester plants.

  16. The Utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 in Air Quality Decision-Making Activities

    Duncan, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss a novel and practical application of the OMI HCHU and NO2 data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. In addition, the observed OMI HCHO/NO2 may be used to define new emission control strategies as the photochemical environments of urban areas evolve over time. I will demonstrate the utility of the OMI HCHO/NO2 over the U.S. for air quality applications with support from simulations with both a regional model and a photochemical box model. These results support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. However, I'm attending the meeting as the Aura Deputy Project Scientist, so I don't technically need to present anything to justify the travel.

  17. Utilization of Enzyme-Immobilized Mesoporous Silica Nanocontainers (IBN-4 in Prodrug-Activated Cancer Theranostics

    Bau-Yen Hung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To develop a carrier for use in enzyme prodrug therapy, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (IBN-4: Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, where the nanoparticle surfaces were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and further conjugated with glutaraldehyde. Consequently, the enzymes could be stabilized in nanochannels through the formation of covalent imine bonds. This strategy was used to protect HRP from immune exclusion, degradation and denaturation under biological conditions. Furthermore, immobilization of HRP in the nanochannels of IBN-4 nanomaterials exhibited good functional stability upon repetitive use and long-term storage (60 days at 4 °C. The generation of functionalized and HRP-immobilized nanomaterials was further verified using various characterization techniques. The possibility of using HRP-encapsulated IBN-4 materials in prodrug cancer therapy was also demonstrated by evaluating their ability to convert a prodrug (indole-3- acetic acid (IAA into cytotoxic radicals, which triggered tumor cell apoptosis in human colon carcinoma (HT-29 cell line cells. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay revealed that cells could be exposed to the IBN-4 nanocomposites without damaging their membranes, confirming apoptotic cell death. In summary, we demonstrated the potential of utilizing large porous mesoporous silica nanomaterials (IBN-4 as enzyme carriers for prodrug therapy.

  18. Utilizing Technology to Improve the Administration of Instructional Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education

    Melton, Bridget; Burdette, Trey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide examples of how technology is being used in one university to increase the organization and effectiveness of instructional physical activity programs (IPAPs). The article outlines ways in which technology can organize materials for students, instructors, and programs. Additionally, the article describes…

  19. Enzyme Activities in Oleaginous Yeasts Accumulating and Utilizing Exogenous or Endogenous Lipids

    Holdsworth, Jane E.; Veenhuis, Marten; Ratledge, Colin

    1988-01-01

    The activities of ATP:citrate lyase (ACL; EC 4.1.3.8), carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT; EC 2.3.1.7), NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42), isocitrate lyase (ICL; EC 4.1.3.1) and malic enzyme (malate dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.40) were measured in four oleaginous yeasts, Candida

  20. Utilizing the Active and Collaborative Learning Model in the Introductory Physics Course

    Nam, Nguyen Hoai

    2014-01-01

    Model of active and collaborative learning (ACLM) applied in training specific subject makes clear advantage due to the goals of knowledge, skills that students got to develop successful future job. The author exploits the learning management system (LMS) of Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) to establish a learning environment in the…

  1. Utilizing Generalization Tactics to Promote Leisure-Time Physical Activity for Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Haegele, Justin A.; Park, Seung Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that school-aged individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to be less physically active than their typically developing peers (e.g., Shields, King, Corbett, & Imms, 2014). While these students can be successful in acquiring motor and sport-related skills during physical education, they tend not to use those skills…

  2. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  3. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  4. Human platelets utilize cycloxygenase-1 to generate dioxolane A3, a neutrophil activating eicosanoid

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, MacEler; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David; Lauder, Sarah Nicol; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter William; Thomas, Christopher P.; O'Donnell, Valerie Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lip...

  5. Maximizing semi-active vibration isolation utilizing a magnetorheological damper with an inner bypass configuration

    Bai, Xian-Xu, E-mail: bai@hfut.edu.cn [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Wereley, Norman M.; Hu, Wei [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) semi-active vibration control system based on a magnetorheological (MR) damper with an inner bypass is investigated in this paper. The MR damper employing a pair of concentric tubes, between which the key structure, i.e., the inner bypass, is formed and MR fluids are energized, is designed to provide large dynamic range (i.e., ratio of field-on damping force to field-off damping force) and damping force range. The damping force performance of the MR damper is modeled using phenomenological model and verified by the experimental tests. In order to assess its feasibility and capability in vibration control systems, the mathematical model of a SDOF semi-active vibration control system based on the MR damper and skyhook control strategy is established. Using an MTS 244 hydraulic vibration exciter system and a dSPACE DS1103 real-time simulation system, experimental study for the SDOF semi-active vibration control system is also conducted. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements.

  6. Synthesis of 6,8-dichloroquinolones utilizing new method and evaluation of their antibacterial activities

    2007-01-01

    Several 6,8-dichloroquinolone analogues were synthesized from the key intermediate compound of 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene carbonyl chloride, which was obtained from the starting material of tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were evaluated. As a result of this study, compounds 21c and 21d were twofold more potent than ciprofloxacin (CPFX)and norfloxacin (NFLX) against Staphylococcus aureus-9, and with the same potent as CPFX and NFLX while against Escherichia coli-2, but were less potent than references in against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-17.

  7. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  8. The Utilization of Waste Date Seed as Bio-Oil and Activated Carbon by Pyrolysis Process

    Mohammad Uzzal Hossain Joardder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The renovation of biomass waste in the form of date seed waste into activated carbon and biofuel by fixed bed pyrolysis reactor has been focused in this study to obtain gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The date seed in particle form is pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The reactor is heated from 400°C to 600°C. A maximum liquid yield of 50 wt.% and char of 30 wt.% are obtained at a reactor bed temperature of 500°C with a running time of 120 minutes. The oil is found to possess favorable flash point and reasonable density and viscosity. The higher calorific value is found to be 28.636 MJ/kg which is significantly higher than other biomass derived. Decolonization of 85–97% is recorded for the textile effluent and 75–90% for the tannery effluent, in all cases decreasing with temperature increase. Good adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon in case of diluted textile and tannery effluent was found.

  9. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  10. Utilization of granular activated carbon adsorber for nitrates removal from groundwater of the Cluj region.

    Moşneag, Silvia C; Popescu, Violeta; Dinescu, Adrian; Borodi, George

    2013-01-01

    The level of nitrates from groundwater from Cluj County and other areas from Romania have increased values, exceeding or getting close to the allowed limit values, putting in danger human and animal heath. In this study we used granular activated carbon adsorbent (GAC) for nitrate (NO(-)3) removal for the production of drinking water from groundwater of the Cluj county. The influences of the contact time, nitrate initial concentration, and adsorbent concentration have been studied. We determined the equilibrium adsorption capacity of GAC, used for NO(-)3 removal and we applied the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for process characterization. We also determined: pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness. The GAC adsorbents have excellent capacities of removing nitrate from groundwater from Cluj County areas.

  11. Utilization of activated carbon for the removal of basic dyes in fixed-bed microcolumn

    El Qada, Emad N. [Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu, P.O. Box 30346 (Saudi Arabia); Abdelghany, Emad A.; Magdy, Yehia H. [Chemical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Minia University, Minia, P.O. Box 61519 (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption processes were performed using basic dyes (methylene blue (MB), basic red (BR) and basic yellow (BY)) in an activated carbon microcolumn. The effects of initial dye concentration, column diameter and particle size were investigated. The performance of the fixed-bed adsorber was evaluated through the concept of breakthrough curves. The Thomas model was employed to predict the breakthrough curves and compared with the experimental breakthrough curves. Furthermore, the Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) has been applied to the data to determine the minimum residence time and the minimum adsorbent exhaustion rate. Column studies showed effective use of adsorbents. The results reflected the significance of the experimental parameters on the efficient removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. The Thomas model predicts the experimental data well.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  13. Trends in resource utilization and prescription of anticonvulsants for patients with active epilepsy in Germany.

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Haag, Anja; Reese, Jens P; Nickolay, Tanja; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Dodel, Richard; Knake, Susanne; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated trends in the resource use of patients with active epilepsy over a 5-year period at an outpatient clinic of a German epilepsy center. Two cross-sectional cohorts of consecutive adults with active epilepsy were evaluated over a 3-month period in 2003 and 2008. Data on socioeconomic status, course of epilepsy, as well as direct and indirect costs were recorded using validated patient questionnaires. We enrolled 101 patients in 2003 and 151 patients in 2008. In both cohorts, 76% of the patients suffered from focal epilepsy, and the majority was on antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy (mean AED number: 1.7 (2003), 1.8 (2008)). We calculated epilepsy-specific costs of € 2955 in 2003 and € 3532 in 2008 per 3 months per patient. Direct medical costs were mainly due to anticonvulsants in 2003 (59.4% of total direct costs, 34.0% in 2008) and to hospitalization in 2008 (46.9% of total direct costs, 27.7% in 2003). The proportion of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants and 'old' AEDs decreased between 2003 and 2008. Indirect costs of € 1689 and € 1847 were mainly due to early retirement (48.4%; 46.0% of total indirect costs in 2003; 2008), unemployment (26.1%; 24.2%), and days off due to seizures (25.5%; 29.8%). This study showed a shift in distribution of direct cost components with increased hospital costs as well as a cost-neutral increase in the prescription of 'newer' AEDs. The amount and distribution of indirect cost components remained unchanged.

  14. Improved drug targeting of cancer cells by utilizing actively targetable folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres.

    Shen, Zheyu; Li, Yan; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Oneill, Brian; Bi, Jingxiu

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres (FA-AN) have been developed to provide an actively targetable drug delivery system for improved drug targeting of cancer cells with reduced side effects. The nanospheres were prepared by conjugating folic acid onto the surface of albumin nanospheres using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a catalyst. To test the efficacy of these nanospheres as a potential delivery platform, doxorubicin-loaded albumin nanospheres (DOX-AN) and doxorubicin-loaded FA-AN (FA-DOX-AN) were prepared by entrapping DOX (an anthracycline, antibiotic drug widely used in cancer chemotherapy that works by intercalating DNA) into AN and FA-AN nanoparticles. Cell uptake of the DOX was then measured. The results show that FA-AN was incorporated into HeLa cells (tumor cells) only after 2.0h incubation, whereas HeLa cells failed to incorporate albumin nanospheres without conjugated folic acid after 4.0h incubation. When HeLa cells were treated with the DOX-AN, FA-DOX-AN nanoparticles or free DOX, cell viability decreased with increasing culture time (i.e. cell death increases with time) over a 70h period. Cell viability was always the lowest for free DOX followed by FA-DOX-AN4 and then DOX-AN. In a second set of experiments, HeLa cells washed to remove excess DOX after an initial incubation for 2h were incubated for 70h. The corresponding cell viability was slightly higher when the cells were treated with FA-DOX-AN or free DOX whilst cells treated with DOX-AN nanoparticles remained viable. The above experiments were repeated for non-cancerous, aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC). As expected, cell viability of the HeLa cells (with FA receptor alpha, FRα) and AoSMC cells (without FRα) decreased rapidly with time in the presence of free DOX, but treatment with FA-DOX-AN resulted in selective killing of the tumor cells. These results indicated that FA-AN may be used as a promising actively targetable drug delivery system to improve drug

  15. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a renewable resource for activated carbon. Application to environmental problems

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)

  16. A Novel Colorimetric Immunoassay Utilizing the Peroxidase Mimicking Activity of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Hyun Gyu Park

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple colorimetric immunoassay system, based on the peroxidase mimicking activity of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs, has been developed to detect clinically important antigenic molecules. MNPs with ca. 10 nm in diameter were synthesized and conjugated with specific antibodies against target molecules, such as rotaviruses and breast cancer cells. Conjugation of the MNPs with antibodies (MNP-Abs enabled specific recognition of the corresponding target antigenic molecules through the generation of color signals arising from the colorimetric reaction between the selected peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB and H2O2. Based on the MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction, the target molecules were detected and quantified by measuring absorbance intensities corresponding to the oxidized form of TMB. Owing to the higher stabilities and economic feasibilities of MNPs as compared to horseradish peroxidase (HRP, the new colorimetric system employing MNP-Abs has the potential of serving as a potent immunoassay that should substitute for conventional HRP-based immunoassays. The strategy employed to develop the new methodology has the potential of being extended to the construction of simple diagnostic systems for a variety of biomolecules related to human cancers and infectious diseases, particularly in the realm of point-of-care applications.

  17. Utilization of activated CO2-neutralized red mud for removal of arsenate from aqueous solutions.

    Sahu, Ramesh Chandra; Patel, Rajkishore; Ray, Bankim Chandra

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the ability of activated CO(2)-neutralized red mud (ANRM) for the removal of arsenate from the aqueous solutions. The batch adsorption experiments were conducted with respect to adsorbent dose, equilibrium pH, contact time, initial arsenate concentration, kinetics, Langmuir isotherms. The mechanisms involved in adsorption of arsenate ions on ANRM were characterized by using XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, SEM/EDX, and chemical methods. The percentage removal was found to increase gradually with decrease of pH and maximum removal was achieved at pH approximately 4. Adsorption kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and equilibrates within 24 h. FT-IR spectra of ANRM before and after adsorption reveals the binding of arsenate to the adsorbent. The adsorption data were fitted to linearly transformed Langmuir isotherm with R(2) (correlation coefficient)>0.99. Arsenate adsorbed ANRM can be regenerated using NaOH solution at pH 12.0.

  18. Utilization of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in risk assessment: Alkylphenols

    Beck, B.D.; Toole, A.P.; Callahan, B.G.; Siddhanti, S.K. (Gradient Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Alkylphenols are a class of environmentally pervasive compounds, found both in natural (e.g., crude oils) and in anthropogenic (e.g., wood tar, coal gasification waste) materials. Despite the frequent environmental occurrence of these chemicals, there is a limited toxicity database on alkylphenols. The authors have therefore developed a 'toxicity equivalence approach' for alkylphenols which is based on their ability to inhibit, in a specific manner, the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Enzyme-inhibiting ability for individual alkylphenols can be estimated based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship developed by Dewhirst (1980) and is a function of the free hydroxyl group, electron-donating ring substituents, and hydrophobic aromatic ring substituents. The authors evaluated the toxicological significance of cyclooxygenase inhibition by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of alkylphenols with the inhibitory capacity of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, a compound whose low-level effects are due to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Since nearly complete absorption for alkylphenols and aspirin is predicted, based on estimates of hydrophobicity and fraction of charged molecules at gastrointestinal pHs, risks from alkylphenols can be expressed directly in terms of 'milligram aspirin equivalence,' without correction for absorption differences. They recommend this method for assessing risks of mixtures of alkylphenols, especially for those compounds with no chronic toxicity data.38 references.

  19. Utilization of Activated Carbon for the Removal of Ni Metal from Industrial Liquid Waste

    *1H. Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by toxic metals seems to occur globally. Metal intoxicated wastewater can be challenging to health safety. The high concentration of pollutants is required to be removed before the discharge of wastewater into open waste streams. The present study relates the monitoring of heavy metals in the industrial waste coming from Shairshah, Lyari SITE industrial area and control sites selected from Clifton beach of Karachi (Pakistan. Concentrations of selected trace metals, Cr, Fe, Hg, Na, K, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mo, Mn and Cu were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Flame Photometer and 200 Multi parameter Ion Specific Meter under standard analytical conditions. Statistical methods of relevance were applied to check the accuracy of the system. Selective removal of Ni metal from waste water was carried out by adsorption process using activated carbon prepared from agricultural waste. The effectiveness of the adsorption process has been tested under the optimized conditions of temperature, concentration, stay time and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption isotherm models like Freundlich and Langmuir were applied to determine the feasibility of process by finding the values oftheir respective constants. The R2 values show that Langmuir model was the best fitted adsorption model. The feasibility of adsorption process was determined by RL factor. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG˚, enthalpy (ΔH˚ and entropy (ΔS˚ of the system were calculated. The sorption free energy (Es was also estimated. The pHpzc of adsorbent was also estimated by adopting pH drift method. The percentage removal and distribution coefficient (KD values for Ni removal were also determined. The present system represents that Ni and other metals can be effectively removed by employing adsorption method using low cost natural adsorbents.

  20. PPARd activation in human myotubes increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative capacity and reduces glucose utilization by a switch in substrate preference

    Feng, Y.; Nikolic, N.; Bakke, S.S.; Kersten, A.H.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor d (PPARd) activation on global gene expression and mitochondrial fuel utilization were investigated in human myotubes. Only 21 genes were up-regulated and 3 genes were down-regulated after activation by the PPARd agonist GW501516. Pathway analys

  1. Near Real-Time Nondestructive Active Inspection Technologies Utilizing Delayed γ-Rays and Neutrons for Advanced Safeguards

    Hunt, Alan [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Idaho Accelerator Center, Dept. of Physics; Reedy, E. T.E. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Dept. of Phyics, Idaho Accelerator Center; Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tobin, S. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Nonproliferation

    2015-02-12

    In this two year project, the research team investigated how delayed γ-rays from short-lived fission fragments detected in the short interval between irradiating pulses can be exploited for advanced safeguards technologies. This program contained experimental and modeling efforts. The experimental effort measured the emitted spectra, time histories and correlations of the delayed γ-rays from aqueous solutions and solid targets containing fissionable isotopes. The modeling effort first developed and benchmarked a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation technique based on these experiments. The benchmarked simulations were then extended to other safeguards scenarios, allowing comparisons to other advanced safeguards technologies and to investigate combined techniques. Ultimately, the experiments demonstrated the possible utility of actively induced delayed γ-ray spectroscopy for fissionable material assay.

  2. Hydrogen Recombination Rates of Plate-type Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hong [Kyungwon E-C Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The hydrogen mitigation system may include igniters, passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR), and venting or dilution system. Recently PAR is commonly used as a main component of HMS in a NPP containment because of its passive nature. PARs are categorized by the shape and material of catalytic surface. Catalytic surface coated by platinum is mostly used for the hydrogen recombiners. The shapes of the catalytic surface can be grouped into plate type, honeycomb type and porous media type. Among them, the plate-type PAR is well tested by many experiments. PAR performance analysis can be approached by a multi-scale method which is composed of micro, meso and macro scales. The criterion of the scaling is the ratio of thickness of boundary layer developed on a catalytic surface to representative length of a computational domain. Mass diffusion in the boundary layer must be resolved in the micro scale analysis. In a lumped parameter (LP) analysis using a system code such as MAAP or MELCOR, the chamber of the PAR is much smaller than a computational node. The hydrogen depletion by a PAR is modeled as a source of mass and energy conservation equations. Te catalytic surface reaction of hydrogen must be modeled by a volume-averaged correlation. In this study, a micro scale analysis method is developed using libraries in OpenFOAM to evaluate a hydrogen depletion rate depending on parameters such as size and number of plates and plate arrangement. The analysis code is validated by simulating REKO-3 experiment. And hydrogen depletion analysis is conducted by changing the plate arrangement as a trial of the performance enhancement of a PAR. In this study, a numerical code for an analysis of a PAR performance in a micro scale has been developed by using OpenFOAM libraries. The physical and numerical models were validated by simulating the REKO-3 experiment. As a try to enhance the performance of the plate-type PAR, it was proposed to apply a staggered two-layer arrangement of the catalytic plates. The hydrogen concentration at PAR exit was calculated using the developed numerical method.

  3. Analysis of Platinum Content in Used Auto Catalytic Converter Carriers and the Possibility of its Recovery

    Saternus M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obecnie każdy wyprodukowany samochód musi być wyposażony w katalizator, w którym metale szlachetne takie jak platyna, pallad czy rod pełnią funkcje katalityczne. Czas życia katalizatorów jest ograniczony, zatem zostają one zastąpione nowymi, a stare stanowią ważne źródło platynowców. Zużyte katalizatory samochodowe przerabiane są hydrometalurgicznie lub pirometalurgicznie. Jednakże pierwszym etapem takiego przerobu powinna być analiza chemiczna. W pracy analizie na zawartość platyny poddano kilka różnych nośników katalitycznych pochodzących z różnych samochodów. Do tego celu posłużył elektronowy mikroskop skaningowy. Przedstawiono strukturę analizowanych nośników katalitycznych, ich analizę chemiczną jak również wykresy EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrum. Przeprowadzono dyskusję wyników i możliwych metod odzysku platyny.

  4. Utilization of actinide as cell active materials. Effective utilization of uranium as battery active material. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-034-2. Contract research

    Yamana, Hajimu; Moriyama, Hirotake; Asano, Hideki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Institute; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Yamamura, Asao; Hasegawa, Kazuki; Kimura, Akihiro; Umekita, Satoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2002-03-01

    As a part of the research to explore the advantageous utilization of actinide elements as battery active materials, the concept of the uranium battery using molten salts was studied. As a result of the comparative evaluation on the redox-flow-battery and other secondary battery, U(Bi)-Cl{sub 2} battery using molten chloride was selected. As the substitute of UCl{sub 3}, LaCl{sub 3} was tested for analyzing its properties of electrochemical reduction. By Electro-motive-force measurement, the activity coefficient of some lanthanide metals in liquid bismuth was determined. By cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical properties, such as electro-deposition characteristics, reductive dissolution of La metal into liquid Bi, co-deposition of La and Bi by forming binary intermetallic compounds, were investigated. For the purpose of developing a technique to analyze the chemical status of U in molten salt, high temperature UV-Visible Spectrophotometry device was developed, and it was tested with NdCl{sub 3}. (author)

  5. Association between oral 5-ASA adherence and health care utilization and costs among patients with active ulcerative colitis

    Mitra Debanjali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational cohort study to assess the association between adherence to oral 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASAs and all-cause costs and health care utilization among patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC in the United States. Methods Retrospective analysis of insurance claims from June 1997 to August 2006 in the LifeLink Database. Patient criteria: aged 18 or older with one or more claim(s between June 1997 and August 2005 for a UC diagnosis and at least one oral 5-ASA prescription on or after the first observed UC diagnosis; continuous enrollment for at least 6 months prior to and 12 months following 5-ASA initiation (index date. As a proxy for active disease, patients needed to have at least two UC-specific non-pharmacy claims, at least 30 days of 5-ASA treatment and at least one corticosteroid prescription within the 12-month post-index period. Cumulative exposure to oral 5-ASAs over the 12-month period was calculated using the medication possession ratio (MPR. Patients with an MPR of at least 0.80 were classified as adherent. All-cause medical and pharmacy resource utilization and costs were computed over the 12-month post-index period and compared between adherent and nonadherent patients. Results 1,693 UC patients met study inclusion criteria: 72% were nonadherent to 5-ASA treatment (n = 1,217 and 28% were adherent (n = 476 in the 12-month study period. Compared with nonadherent patients, adherent patients had 31% fewer hospitalizations (P = 0.0025 and 34% fewer emergency department admissions (P = 0.0016. Adherent patients had 25% more pharmacy prescriptions overall (P P P = 0.0002. After adjusting for covariates, total all-cause costs were 29% higher for nonadherent patients than for adherent patients (mean [95% confidence interval]: $13,465 [$13,094, $13,835] vs $17,339 [$17,033, $17,645]. Conclusions Approximately three-quarters of patients with active UC were not adherent with their

  6. A microfluidic chip for formation and collection of emulsion droplets utilizing active pneumatic micro-choppers and micro-switches.

    Lai, Chia-Wei; Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2008-10-01

    The formation of emulsification droplets is crucial for many industrial applications. This paper reports a new microfluidic chip capable of formation and collection of micro-droplets in liquids for emulsion applications. This microfluidic chip comprising microchannels, a micro-chopper and a micro-switch was fabricated by using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology. The microfluidic chip can generate uniform droplets with tunable sizes by using combination of flow-focusing and liquid-chopping techniques. The droplet size can be actively fine-tuned by controlling either the relative sheath/sample flow velocity ratios or the chopping frequency. The generated droplets can be then sorted to a specific collection area utilizing an active pneumatic micro-switch formed with three micro-valves. Experimental data showed that the olive oil and sodium-alginate (Na-alginate) droplets with diameters ranging from 3 mum to 70 mum with a variation less than 14% is successfully generated and collected. The development of this microfluidic system can be promising for emulsion, drug delivery and nano-medicine applications.

  7. High-Performance Harmonic Isolation and Load Voltage Regulation of the Three-Phase Series Active Filter Utilizing the Waveform Reconstruction Method

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2009-01-01

    . The SAF-compensated system utilizing WRM provides highperformance load harmonic voltage isolation and load voltage regulation at steady-state and during transients compared to the system utilizing the synchronous reference-frame-based signal decomposition. In addition, reducing the line current sampling......This paper develops a waveform reconstruction method (WRM) for high accuracy and bandwidth signal decomposition of voltage-harmonic-type three-phase diode rectifier load voltage into its harmonic and fundamental components, which are utilized in the series active filter (SAF) control algorithms...

  8. Effect of plate preparation on active-material utilization and cycleability of positive plates in automotive lead/acid batteries

    Ozgun, H.; Lam, L. T.; Rand, D. A. J.; Bhargava, S. K.

    The power demands from automotive lead/acid batteries are rising steadily with the increasing number of electronic accessories that are being fitted to modern vehicles. In order to meet new levels of performance, automotive batteries have been redesigned to use low-ohmic microporous separators, as well as thinner plates (to increase the number of plates per cell) that are made with a low paste density. This approach, however, has led to a separate problem, namely, an appreciable reduction in battery service life. To redress this situation, a research programme has been implemented in our laboratories to examine, in detail, the effect of plate preparation on the active-material utilization and cycleability of automotive positive plates with grids made from low-antimony alloy. The cycleability is evaluated in terms of repetitive reserve-capacity. The results suggest that a paste formula with a combination of high density and low acid-to-oxide ratio is the most appropriate technology for the production of the thin positive plates that are required in advanced designs of automotive batteries.

  9. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  10. Enhanced hydrogen production from waste activated sludge by cascade utilization of organic matter in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Liu, Bingfeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-03-15

    Fermentative hydrogen production from waste activated sludge (WAS) has low H2 yield because WAS contains limited amounts of carbohydrate suitable for use by hydrogen-producing bacteria. Here, augmentation of hydrogen production from WAS by microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) was implemented. H2 yields of 3.89±0.39 mg-H2/g-DS (5.67±0.61 mg-H2/g-VSS) from raw WAS and 6.78±0.94 mg-H2/g-DS (15.08±1.41 mg-H2/g-VSS) from alkaline-pretreated WAS were obtained in the two-chamber MECs (TMECs). This was several times higher than yields obtained previously by fermentation. Single-chamber MECs (SMECs) with low internal resistance showed a H2 production rate that 13 times that of TMECs with similar H2 yield when alkaline-pretreated WAS was used. However, methanogenesis was detected after several batch cycles. A yield balance calculation revealed that carbohydrates were not the only substrates for electrohydrogenesis. Protein and its acidification products, such as volatile fatty acids are also responsible for a portion of H2 generation in MEC. Characterization of WAS in TMECs by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis indicated that electrohydrogenesis reacted on the extracellular polymeric substances and intracellular substances of WAS. Cascade utilization of organic matter in MECs increased hydrogen production from WAS. MECs showed high hydrogen yield from WAS, fewer H2 sinks, and insensitivity to temperature. Optimizing MEC configurations and operation conditions and improving the pretreatment processes of WAS are necessary before practical application can take place on a large scale.

  11. Burr Utility

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This note proposes the Burr utility function. Burr utility is a flexible two-parameter family that behaves approximately power-like (CRRA) remote from the origin, while exhibiting exponential-like (CARA) features near the origin. It thus avoids the extreme behavior of the power family near the origi

  12. Estimating Utility

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones....

  13. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ohta, Akinori, E-mail: aaohta@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  14. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  15. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program. Industry, university and research interest in the US Department of Energy ECUT biocatalysis research activity

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Research Opportunity Notice (RON) disseminated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program's Biocatalysis Research Activity are presented. The RON was issued in late April of 1983 and solicited expressions of interest from petrochemical and chemical companies, bioengineering firms, biochemical engineering consultants, private research laboratories, and universities for participating in a federal research program to investigate potential applications of biotechnology in producing chemicals. The RON results indicate that broad interest exists within the nation's industry, universities, and research institutes for the Activity and its planned research and development program.

  16. Utilization of zinc chloride for surface modification of activated carbon derived from Jatropha curcas L. for absorbent material.

    Pratumpong, P; Toommee, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this research is to produce the low-cost activated carbon from Jatropha curcas L. by chemical activation using zinc chloride ZnCl2. The effects of the impregnation ratio on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon were investigated. The impregnation ratio was selected at the range of 1:1-10:1 for investigation. The optimum conditions resulted in an activated carbon with a carbon content of 80% wt, while the specific surface area evaluated using nitrogen adsorption isotherm corresponds to 600 m(2)/g.

  17. Utility of Self-Made Crossword Puzzles as an Active Learning Method to Study Biochemistry in Undergraduate Education

    Coticone, Sulekha Rao

    2013-01-01

    To incorporate an active learning component in a one-semester biochemistry course, students were asked to create crossword puzzles using key concepts. Student observations on the use of self-made crossword puzzles as an active-learning instructional tool were collected using a 5-point Likert survey at the end of the semester. A majority of the…

  18. Analyzing salvia divinorum and its active ingredient salvinorin a utilizing thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Jermain, John D; Evans, Hiram K

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, Salvia divinorum has become a major focus by state legislatures throughout the United States looking to prohibit the sale of the psychoactive plant. After researching testing procedures presented in the literature and those employed by crime laboratories throughout the country, it was decided that thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were the methods to use to analyze plant material for salvinorin A. With TLC, salvinorin A was detected from extracted plant material and was easily distinguishable from 13 other Salvia species as well as Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana). When using GC/MS, salvinorin A was best extracted from plant material with chloroform at ambient temperature when using a nonpolar solvent and acetone at ambient temperature when using a polar solvent. By utilizing these techniques, criminalists are now able to confirm the presence of salvinorin A in a submitted plant material suspected to be Salvia divinorum.

  19. Perception and possible utilization of moonlight intensity for reproductive activities in a lunar-synchronized spawner, the golden rabbitfish.

    Takemura, Akihiro; Susilo, Endang Sri; Rahman, M D Saydur; Morita, Masaya

    2004-10-01

    Rabbitfishes are known to spawn synchronously around the species-specific lunar phase. It is considered that they perceive and utilize cues from the moon in order to be synchronized gonadal development and spawning with the lunar cycle. Using the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, which spawns synchronously around the first quarter moon during the reproductive season, we measured the fluctuation of melatonin levels and examined the response of the fish to moonlight intensity. Daily fluctuation of melatonin concentration in the blood of golden rabbitfish showed low levels during daytime and high levels during night-time, suggesting that melatonin functions in the perception and utilization of photoperiod. Plasma melatonin concentration at the new moon was higher than that at the full moon. When the fish were exposed to moonlight at midnight of the both moon phases, the melatonin concentrations decreased to the control levels. These results show that the fish possibly perceive moonlight intensity and plasma melatonin fluctuates according to 'lightness' at a point of night. At the first spawning period (experiment was started one month before the spawning), the fish reared under natural conditions spawned at the expected spawning dates, whereas the fish reared under the constant darkness and lightness of night did not spawn. At the second spawning period (experiment was started 2 weeks before the spawning), the fish reared under the conditions of natural and constant darkness of night spawned but not that of constant lightness of night. It is possible that night conditions are related to synchronous gonadal development and spawning in the golden rabbitfish.

  20. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    A.M. Stiggelbout; P.P. Wakker

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  1. Utilization of activated carbon produced from fruit juice industry solid waste for the adsorption of Yellow 18 from aqueous solutions.

    Angin, Dilek

    2014-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) stones for the removal of a basic textile dye, which is Yellow 18, from aqueous solutions at different contact times, pH values and solution temperatures was investigated. The surface area and micropore volume of chemically modified activated carbon were 1704 m(2) g(-1) and 0.984 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation and the calculated adsorption capacity was 75.76 mg g(-1) at 318 K. The adsorption kinetic of Yellow 18 obeys the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 0.71-2.36 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal of Yellow 18 from wastewater.

  2. A Case of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura Associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Diagnostic Utility of ADAMTS-13 Activity

    Risa Yamada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP caused by a deficiency in ADAMTS-13 activity is considered to involve a subset of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA. Although concept of TTP is included under the umbrella of TMA, discrimination of TTP from TMA is occasionally difficult in an autoimmune disorder. Herein, we report a case with TTP associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. In this case, it was difficult to discriminate TTP from TMA and the measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity was useful for obtaining an accurate diagnosis. SLE patients having thrombocytopenia in complication with anemia should be considered a monitoring of ADAMTS-13 activity even though the patients lacked symptoms of TTP related to the microvascular coagulation.

  3. Measurements of the Backstreaming Proton IONS in the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) Diode Utilizing Copper Activation Technique

    Mazarakis, Michael; Cuneo, Michael; Fournier, Sean; Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Simpson, Sean; Renk, Timothy; Webb, Timothy; Bennett, Nichelle

    2016-10-01

    The results presented here were obtained with an SMP diode mounted at the front high voltage end of the 8-10-MV RITS Self-Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL) voltage adder. Our experiments had two objectives: first, to measure the contribution of the back-streaming proton currents emitted from the anode target, and second, to evaluate the energy of those ions and hence the actual Anode-Cathode (A-K) gap voltage. The accelerating voltage quoted in the literature is estimated utilizing para-potential flow theories. Thus, it is interesting to have another independent measurement of the A-K voltage. We have measured the back-streaming protons emitted from the anode and propagating through a hollow cathode tip for various diode configurations and different techniques of target cleaning treatment, namely, heating at very high temperatures with DC and pulsed current, with RF plasma cleaning, and with both plasma cleaning and heating. We have also evaluated the A-K gap voltage by energy filtering techniques. Sandia is operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of In-Home Tele-Behavioral Health Care Utilizing Behavioral Activation for Depression

    2016-05-01

    Behavioral Activation for Depression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Gregory Gahm, PhD, PI CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Geneva Foundation Tacoma, WA 98402...DATES COVERED 28 Feb 2011 - 27 Feb 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Randomized Controlled Trial of In-Home Tele- behavioral 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Health

  5. Ferulic acid-coupled chitosan: thermal stability and utilization as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film.

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-22

    The aim of the present research was to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after coupling onto chitosan, and the possibility of using ferulic acid-coupled chitosan (FA-CTS) as an antioxidant for biodegradable active packaging film. FA-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperatures up to 150°C followed by blown film extrusion at temperatures up to 175°C. Although incorporation of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the biodegradable films possessed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of film containing FA-CTS were higher than those of film containing naked ferulic acid, by about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by the addition of FA-CTS with a content of 0.02-0.08% (w/w). The above results suggested that FA-CTS could potentially be used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

  6. One-Two Punch: Utilizing Teacher Research Experiences and Related Classroom Activities to Increase Student Interest in STEM

    Wold-Brennon, R.; Cooper, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Through collaborations between scientists and educators, the Consortium for Ocean Leadership developed a series of marine geosciences classroom activities and lesson plans -- including the Adopt-a-Microbe project, a collection of hands-on science lessons that use the sub-seafloor microbiology topics to provide engaging pathways for K-12 students to learn about the world around them. The goal of these activities has been to introduce youth to deep ocean exploration, inspire interest in microbial oceanography, and foster higher education goals and career paths in related sciences for our youth. From the beginning, these lessons were developed in close working relationships between scientists and educators, and the lessons geared towards middle school have been recently piloted with the intent to maximize sustained student interest in STEM topics. While teaching these units, educators used surveys, polls, group discussions, and interviews to shed light on correlations between student interest in STEM and their close proximity to exemplary and enthusiastic educators and student leaders who are active in STEM activities such as research projects and expeditions. Educators continue to use Adopt-a-Microbe and related expedition science-based lessons to explore the broader impacts of their professional development in the Geosciences on their students' professed interest in STEM.

  7. Achromobactor denitrificans SP1 produces pharmaceutically active 25C prodigiosin upon utilizing hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    Achromobacter denitrificans SP1 isolated from soil sludge heavily contaminated with plastic waste produced a novel pharmaceutically-active 25C prodigiosin analog during growth in a simple mineral salt medium supplemented with hazardous di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended PVC plastics (in situ) ...

  8. Efficient utilization of Eucheuma denticulatum hydrolysates using an activated carbon adsorption process for ethanol production in a 5-L fermentor.

    Ra, Chae Hun; Kim, Min Ji; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2017-03-01

    A total monosaccharide concentration of 37.8 g/L and 85.9% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 44.0 g/L from 110 g dw/L Eucheuma denticulatum slurry were obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. Subsequent adsorption treatment to remove 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using 5% activated carbon and an adsorption time of 10 min were used to prevent a prolonged lag phase, reduced cell growth, and low ethanol production. The equilibrium adsorption capacity (q e) of HMF (58.183 mg/g) showed high affinity to activated carbon comparing to those of galactose (2.466 mg/g) and glucose (2.474 mg/g). The efficiency of cell growth and ethanol production with activated carbon treatment was higher than that without activated carbon treatment. Fermentation using S. stipitis KCTC7228 produced a cell concentration of 3.58 g dw/L with Y X/S of 0.107, and an ethanol concentration of 15.8 g/L with Y P/S of 0.48 in 96 h.

  9. Inserting CO2 into Aryl C-H Bonds of Metal-Organic Frameworks: CO2 Utilization for Direct Heterogeneous C-H Activation.

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Wu, Haifan; Leng, Kunyue; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-04-25

    Described for the first time is that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) can be successfully inserted into aryl C-H bonds of the backbone of a metal-organic framework (MOF) to generate free carboxylate groups, which serve as Brønsted acid sites for efficiently catalyzing the methanolysis of epoxides. The work delineates the very first example of utilizing CO2 for heterogeneous C-H activation and carboxylation reactions on MOFs, and opens a new avenue for CO2 chemical transformations under mild reaction conditions.

  10. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Sowd, Gregory A; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  11. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  12. Daily Activity Patterns and Perch Height Utilization in Pre-Breeding Season by Forest Calotes, Calotes rouxii (Sauria: Agamidae in the Sacred Grove of the Northern Western Ghats

    Sameer Bajru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, the Forest Calotes Calotes rouxii is the most common and endemic species of lizard inhabiting the Western Ghats, information on its ecology is remain scarce. In order to better understanding of life history of C. rouxii, we investigated its pre breeding activity patterns and microhabitat utilization in a small sacred grove (~0.65 ha of the northern Western Ghats. Calotes rouxii showed a unimodal activity pattern, peak activity period was observed at late morning (11.00-12.30 h and afternoon (13.00-15.45 h. The activity patterns of lizards involved basking and resting at early morning period. Once they attained optimum body temperature at peak period activities such as moving, social displays and foraging were performed. In late afternoon all activities were decreased and they retreat to their refuge sites. Sex specific microhabitat segregation was detected; males occupied higher perches than females. The males encounter during study period were positively correlated with temperature while negatively correlated with humidity, however females encountered were not correlated with humidity and temperature.

  13. Earthworm extracts utilized in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles capable of reinforcing the anticoagulant activities of heparin

    Kim, Hee Kyeong; Choi, Myung-Jin; Cha, Song-Hyun; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Jun, Sang Hui; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2013-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles were obtained using a green synthesis approach with aqueous earthworm extracts without any additional reducing or capping agents. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The anticoagulant activity of the gold nanoparticles was assessed using the activated partial thromboplastin time and was mildly enhanced by combining the gold nanoparticles with heparin. In addition to the generation of spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 6.13 ± 2.13 nm, cubic and block-shaped nanoparticles with an average aspect ratio, defined as the length divided by width, of 1.47 were also observed.

  14. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates.

  15. Detection of specific polymerase chain reaction product by utilizing the 5'----3' exonuclease activity of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase.

    1991-01-01

    The 5'----3' exonuclease activity of the thermostable enzyme Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase may be employed in a polymerase chain reaction product detection system to generate a specific detectable signal concomitantly with amplification. An oligonucleotide probe, nonextendable at the 3' end, labeled at the 5' end, and designed to hybridize within the target sequence, is introduced into the polymerase chain reaction assay. Annealing of probe to one of the polymerase chain reaction product s...

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of In-Home Tele-behavioral Health Care Utilizing Behavioral Activation for Depression

    2015-03-01

    secured at the JBLM site. MOVI /Jabber licenses obtained for this study are still active, but due to lack of use (since the treatment phase is complete... violence are documented by study clinicians via a treatment session checklist. Our telehealth treatment session checklist was developed in part to...excluded) (h) History of violence or poor impulse control (i) Significant ongoing stressors that require urgent crisis intervention (j) Have a living

  17. Effects of Different Substrates on Lignocellulosic Enzyme Expression, Enzyme Activity, Substrate Utilization and Biological Efficiency of Pleurotus Eryngii

    Chunliang Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most valued and delicious mushrooms which are commercially cultivated on various agro-wastes. How different substrates affect lignocellulosic biomass degradation, lignocellulosic enzyme production and biological efficiency in Pleurotus eryngii was unclear. Methods and Results: In this report, Pleurotus eryngii was cultivated in substrates including ramie stalks, kenaf stalks, cottonseed hulls and bulrush stalks. The results showed that ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were found to best suitable to cultivate Pleurotus eryngii with the biological efficiency achieved at 55% and 57%, respectively. In order to establish correlations between different substrates and lignocellulosic enzymes expression, the extracellular proteins from four substrates were profiled with high throughput TMT-based quantitative proteomic approach. 241 non-redundant proteins were identified and 74 high confidence lignocellulosic enzymes were quantified. Most of the cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were highly up-regulated when ramie stalks and kenaf stalks were used as carbon sources. The enzyme activities results suggested cellulases, hemicellulases and lignin depolymerization enzymes were significantly induced by ramie stalks and kenaf stalks. Conclusion: The lignocelluloses degradation, most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities of Pleurotus eryngii had positive correlation with the biological efficiency, which depend on the nature of lignocellulosic substrates. In addition, the lignocellulosic enzymes expression profiles during Pleurotus eryngii growth in different substrates were obtained. The present study suggested that most of the lignocellulosic enzymes expressions and activities can be used as tools for selecting better performing substrates for commercial mushroom cultivation.

  18. A call for the better utilization of physical activity and exercise training in the defense against cardiovascular disease.

    Murlasits, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    Statins, also known as 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, effectively reduce elevated levels of serum LDL-C concentration and in turn lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regular exercise and physical activity also have significant preventive effects against cardiovascular diseases by simultaneously reducing multiple risk factors. However, statins also produce a number of adverse events, including muscle pain, which increases dramatically in statin users who also exercise, likely limiting the cardiovascular benefits. Most importantly, reduced physical activity participation due to statin-related side effects can cancel out the benefits of the pharmacological treatment. Although exercise training offers more modest benefits compared to pharmacological therapy against traditional risk factors, considering the total impact of exercise on cardiovascular health, it is now evident that this intervention may offer a greater reduction of risks compared to statin therapy alone. However, primary recommendations regarding cardiovascular therapy still center around pharmacological approaches. Thus a new outlook is called for in clinical practice that provides room for physical activity and exercise training, thus lipid targets can be reached by a combined intervention along with improvements in other cardiovascular parameters, such as endothelial function and low-grade inflammation. Databases such as Pubmed and Google Scholar as well as the reference list of the relevant articles were searched to collect information for this opinion article.

  19. [Proposition and evaluation of the educational activities for effective utilization of opioids performed by pharmacists in palliative home care].

    Akai, Namika; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomoko; Miyake, Keiichi; Hamabe-Fujita, Wakako; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2010-04-01

    Recently, it is required that community pharmacists participate in palliative home care. In this study, we designed educational activities for palliative home care to local residents as a new approach performed by community pharmacists. In addition, we proposed this approach to community pharmacists and discussed its roles to promote palliative home care in the future. We designed and held an educational seminar on palliative home care focusing on safe use of opioids in local residents. After this seminar, we conducted a questionnaire survey of the participants. Then, we made a proposition of this new approach by presentation of a seminar to community pharmacists (members of "Heartfulcare INC"). After the proposition, a questionnaire survey of the seminar on palliative home care was performed. In total, 79 people participated in the educational seminar. Most (87.3%) participants thought that it was informative. Furthermore, about 40% of participants answered "misunderstanding of opioids" or "anxiety regarding side effects of opioids" were removed following the seminar. All participating pharmacists evaluated the seminar as useful. The educational activity in the present study seemed effective to local residents on their misunderstanding of opioids. Furthermore, this approach was appreciated as an important role of community pharmacists in the palliative home care not only by local residents but also by pharmacists themselves. Therefore it seems important to continue such activities so as to improve palliative home care in the future.

  20. Marketing active transportation to school to improve children's health: Utilizing parental perspectives from an inner-city environment.

    Royne, Marla B; Ivey, Stephanie S; Levy, Marian; Fox, Alexa K; Roakes, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, nearly half of the children in the United States walked or rode their bikes to school. Today, less than 15% of children actively commute to school. With the growing obesity epidemic, encouraging children to walk or bike to school has become a national priority. This research examines factors that influence parental decisions allowing their children to walk to school in an urban environment to identify effective marketing and communication strategies to reach those parents. Results indicate differences in parental perspectives across populations; suggestions for effectively marketing the Safe Routes to School program to minority populations are provided.

  1. High-valued Utilization of China Fir Sawdust Extracted Essential Oil: Preparation of Granular Activated Carbons for n-Butane Adsorption

    ZHU Guang-zhen; DENG Xian-lun; LIU Xiao-min

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study on the high-valued utilization of China Fir sawdust extracted essential oil. [Method] In the field of fir essential oil extraction, the processed China fir sawdust was used to prepare low-valued products. The high-valued utilization of China fir sawdust extracted essential oil (CFSEEO), namely as a precursor to prepare granular activated carbons (GACs), was attempted. The materials were characterized by ultimate analysis, SEM and XRD. [Rusult] A butane working capacity (BWC) of 14.3 g/100 ml was obtained by using the GACs with apparent density of 0.25 g/ml. It was available to introduce the technology of extracting essential oil from the China fir sawdust (CFS) in the industrial production process of activated carbons with high BWC (12.0 -16.5 g/100 ml) and high surface area (2 000 -2 630m2/g) using phosphoric acid based on previous studies of the authors. [Conclusion] The resulting carbon prepared with the raw materials containing lower moisture exhibited a better property on n-butane adsorption.

  2. The Next Generation Non-competitive Active Polyester Nanosystems for Transferrin Receptor-mediated Peroral Transport Utilizing Gambogic Acid as a Ligand.

    Saini, P; Ganugula, R; Arora, M; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The current methods for targeted drug delivery utilize ligands that must out-compete endogenous ligands in order to bind to the active site facilitating the transport. To address this limitation, we present a non-competitive active transport strategy to overcome intestinal barriers in the form of tunable nanosystems (NS) for transferrin receptor (TfR) utilizing gambogic acid (GA), a xanthanoid, as its ligand. The NS made using GA conjugated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have shown non-competitive affinity to TfR evaluated in cell/cell-free systems. The fluorescent PLGA-GA NS exhibited significant intestinal transport and altered distribution profile compared to PLGA NS in vivo. The PLGA-GA NS loaded with cyclosporine A (CsA), a model peptide, upon peroral dosing to rodents led to maximum plasma concentration of CsA at 6 h as opposed to 24 h with PLGA-NS with at least 2-fold higher levels in brain at 72 h. The proposed approach offers new prospects for peroral drug delivery and beyond.

  3. Estrogen secreting adrenal adenocarcinoma in an 18-month-old boy: aromatase activity, protein expression, mRNA and utilization of gonadal type promoter.

    Watanabe, T; Yasuda, T; Noda, H; Wada, K; Kazukawa, I; Someya, T; Minamitani, K; Minagawa, M; Wataki, K; Matsunaga, T; Ohnuma, N; Kohno, Y; Harada, N

    2000-12-01

    We examined clinical, endocrinological and molecular biological aspects of an estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma in an 18-month-old male to clarify the pathogenesis of this condition. An 18-month-old boy was referred for evaluation of progressive bilateral gynecomastia and appearance of pubic hair. The patient had elevated plasma estradiol (349 pg/ml) and testosterone (260 ng/dl) levels that completely suppressed FSH and LH levels, and was subsequently diagnosed with an adrenal tumor on the right side. After removal of a 300-g adenocarcinoma, gynecomastia regressed and essentially normal hormone levels were restored. Aromatase activity in the tumor tissue determined by the 3H-water method was 71.0-104.4 pmol/min/mg protein. High levels of aromatase protein and mRNA in the tumor tissue were also demonstrated, while neither aromatase activity nor protein was detected in normal adrenal glands. To investigate the regulation of aromatase expression in the adrenal carcinoma, we examined the usage of alternate promoters responsible for aromatase gene transcription. In the present case, the amounts of aromatase mRNA utilizing gonadal types of exon 1c (1.3) and 1d (II) were significantly higher than those that using other exon 1s. This result suggested that the utilization of a gonadal-type exon 1 might be involved in the over-production of aromatase in estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma.

  4. Human Control Law and Brain Activity of Voluntary Motion by Utilizing a Balancing Task with an Inverted Pendulum

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human characteristics concerning voluntary motion control are investigated, because this motion is fundamental for the machine operation and human-computer system. Using a force feedback haptic device and a balancing task of a virtual inverted pendulum, participants were trained in the task, and hand motion/force was measured, and brain activity was monitored. First, through brain analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and motion analysis of the pendulum, we identified a participant who was the most expert. Next, control characteristics of the most expert were investigated by considering the operational force and delay factor of a human. As a result, it was found that predictive control based on velocity information was used predominantly although a perception feedback control against the pendulum posture worked. And it was shown that an on-off intermittency control, which was a strategy for the skilled balancing, can be described well by a liner model involving two types of time shifts for the position and velocity. In addition, it was confirmed that the cortex activity for observation in an ocular motor control area and visual processing area was strong to enhance above-mentioned control strategies.

  5. The Hansenula polymorpha MOX gene presents two alternative transcription start points differentially utilized and sensitive to respiratory activity.

    Genu, Victor; Gödecke, Stefanie; Hollenberg, Cornelis P; Pereira, Gonçalo G

    2003-06-01

    The peroxisomal methanol metabolism of Hansenula polymorpha depends on a group of genes that are coordinately regulated. Methanol oxidase (Mox) plays a key role in this pathway and its synthesis has been shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level. MOX expression is strongly repressed on glucose and activated on glycerol or methanol. In this study we have identified two MOX transcripts that are differentially expressed along MOX derepression. The first one, named l-MOX (for longer MOX), starts at position -425, is only weakly and transiently transcribed and is not translated into the Mox protein. The other is the true MOX mRNA, which initiates around position -25. Using a strain bearing multiple copies of MOX(Q1N) and a reporter gene fused to the MOX promoter, regulation of the two transcripts was investigated. Initiation of the true MOX correlates with repression of l-MOX and conditions that are repressive for MOX transcription, such as the inhibition of mitochondrial activity, lead to higher levels of l-MOX expression. This effect was first observed in a mox mutant (Q1N-M8) unable to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. No function was detected for l-MOX, but its regulation follows a pattern similar to that of catalase, which is essential for methanol metabolism. This suggests that, l-MOX, although precisely regulated, seems to be a remnant of the evolution of the methanol metabolism network.

  6. Utility of Activated Glassy Carbon and Pencil Graphite Electrodes for Voltammetric Determination of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical and Biological Fluids

    Hoda M. Elqudaby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work compares voltammetric response of nalbuphine hydrochloride (NP·HCl at both activated glassy carbon and pencil graphite electrodes. The electrochemical oxidation of the drug was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, and square wave voltammetry (SWV techniques. For analytical purpose a well-resolved irreversible diffusion controlled voltammetric peak was established in Britton-Robinson (B-R buffer solution of pH 6.00 using pencil graphite electrode (PGE. Using activated glassy carbon electrode (GCE a well-resolved irreversible diffusion controlled voltammetric peak was obtained at pH 7.00 using the same buffer solution. According to the linear relationship between the peak current and NP·HCl concentration, DPV and SWV methods were developed for their quantitative determination in pharmaceutical and human biological fluids. The linear response was obtained in the range from 1.6×10-5 to 1.5×10-4 mol L−1 using PGE and from 12.5×10-6 to 13.75×10-5 mol L−1 using a GC electrode, respectively. Precision and accuracy of the developed method were checked by recovery studies.

  7. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  8. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    of interaction, which have not been sufficiently studied so far. It is therefore important to understand how choosing operational parameters can influence reactor performances. The current study highlights the interaction offermentative bacteria and exoelectrogens in the integrated system....... in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities...... investigated the interaction of fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities in an integrated system of WAS fermentation and MEC for hydrogen recovery. A high energy recovery was achieved in the MECs feeding WAS fermentation liquid through alkaline pretreatment. Some anaerobes belonging...

  9. Map, Excite, Jump, and Measure: An Outreach Activity That Utilizes Seismology to Engage Students in Technology, Science, Engineering, and Mathematics

    van der Lee, S.; Tekverk, K.; Rooney, K.; Boxerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    We designed and will present a lesson plan to teach students STEM concepts through seismology. The plan addresses new generation science standards in the Framework for K-12 Science Education as well AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy. The plan can be executed at a facility with a seismometer in a research facility or university, on a field trip, but it can also be used in a school setting with a school seismometer. Within the lesson plan, the students first use technology to obtain earthquake location data and map them. Next, the students learn about the science of earthquakes, which is followed by an engineering activity in which the students design a hypothetical seismometer and interact with the actual seismometer and live data display. Lastly the students use mathematics to locate an earthquake through trilateration. The lesson plan has been fine-tuned through implementation with over 150 students from grades 3-12 from the Chicago area.

  10. Utility of a redox-active pyridine(diimine) chelate in facilitating two electron oxidative addition chemistry at uranium.

    Kiernicki, John J; Fanwick, Phillip E; Bart, Suzanne C

    2014-08-01

    Exposure of the uranium(IV) complex, Cp(P)U((Mes)PDI(Me)) (1) ((Mes)PDI(Me) = 2,6-((Mes)N=CMe)2–C5H3N; Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl; Cp(P) = 1-(7,7-dimethylbenzyl)cyclopentadienyl), which contains a [(Mes)PDI(Me)](3−) chelate, to I2, Cl2, PhSeCl, and PhEEPh (E = S, Se, Te) results in oxidative addition to form the uranium(IV) family, Cp(P)U(XX′)((Mes)PDI(Me)) (X = X′ = I, Cl, EPh; X = SePh, X′ = Cl). Spectroscopic and structural studies support products with [(Mes)PDI(Me)](1−), indicating the reducing equivalents derive from this redox-active chelate.

  11. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    Côrtes Rejane LM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6% were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2 and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7. Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required.

  12. Active induction balance method for metal detector sensing head utilizing transmitter-bucking and dual current source

    Ambruš, D.; Vasić, D.; Bilas, V.

    2013-06-01

    A central problem in a design of frequency domain electromagnetic induction sensors used in landmine detection is an effective suppression of a direct inductive coupling between the transmitter and the receiver coil (induction balance, IB). In sensing heads based on the transmitter-bucking configuration, IB is achieved by using two concentric transmitter coils with opposing exciter fields in order to create a central magnetic cavity for the receiver coil. This design has numerous advantages over other IB methods in terms of detection sensitivity, spatial resolution, sensor dimensions and suitability for model-based measurements. However, very careful design and precise sensing head geometry are required if a single excitation source is used for driving both transmitter coils. In this paper we analyze the IB sensitivity to small perturbations of geometrical properties of coils. We propose a sensor design with dual current source and active induction balance scheme which overcomes the limitations of geometry-based balancing and potentially provides more efficient compensation of soil effects.

  13. Impact of the Staphylococcus epidermidis LytSR two-component regulatory system on murein hydrolase activity, pyruvate utilization and global transcriptional profile

    Yu Fangyou

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, mainly because of its ability to colonize implanted biomaterials by forming a biofilm. Extensive studies are focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation. The LytSR two-component regulatory system regulates autolysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. However, the role of LytSR played in S. epidermidis remained unknown. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that lytSR knock-out in S. epidermidis did not alter susceptibility to Triton X-100 induced autolysis. Quantitative murein hydrolase assay indicated that disruption of lytSR in S. epidermidis resulted in decreased activities of extracellular murein hydrolases, although zymogram showed no apparent differences in murein hydrolase patterns between S. epidermidis strain 1457 and its lytSR mutant. Compared to the wild-type counterpart, 1457ΔlytSR produced slightly more biofilm, with significantly decreased dead cells inside. Microarray analysis showed that lytSR mutation affected the transcription of 164 genes (123 genes were upregulated and 41 genes were downregulated. Specifically, genes encoding proteins responsible for protein synthesis, energy metabolism were downregulated, while genes involved in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, amino acid transporters were upregulated. Impaired ability to utilize pyruvate and reduced activity of arginine deiminase was observed in 1457ΔlytSR, which is consistent with the microarray data. Conclusions The preliminary results suggest that in S. epidermidis LytSR two-component system regulates extracellular murein hydrolase activity, bacterial cell death and pyruvate utilization. Based on the microarray data, it appears that lytSR inactivation induces a stringent response. In addition, LytSR may indirectly enhance biofilm formation by altering the metabolic status of the bacteria.

  14. Is Self-Reported Physical Activity Participation Associated with Lower Health Services Utilization among Older Adults? Cross-Sectional Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Koren L. Fisher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA and health services utilization (H in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults. Methods. Cross-sectional data from 56,652 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged ≥ 50 years (48% M; 52% F; mean age 63.5 ± 10.2 years were stratified into three age groups and analysed using multivariate generalized linear modeling techniques. Participants were classified according to PA level based on self-reported daily energy expenditure. Nonleisure PA (NLPA was categorized into four levels ranging from mostly sitting to mostly lifting objects. Results. Active 50–65-year-old individuals were 27% less likely to report any GP consultations ORadj=0.73; P<0.001 and had 8% fewer GP consultations annually (IRRadj=0.92; P<0.01 than their inactive peers. Active persons aged 65–79 years were 18% less likely than inactive respondents to have been hospitalized overnight in the previous year (ORadj=0.82, P<0.05. Higher levels of NLPA were significantly associated with lower levels of HSU, across all age groups. Conclusion. Nonleisure PA appeared to be a stronger predictor of all types of HSU, particularly in the two oldest age groups. Considering strategies that focus on reducing time spent in sedentary activities may have a positive impact on reducing the demand for health services.

  15. The Utility of the OMI HCHO and NO2 Data Products in Air Quality Decision- Making Activities

    Duncan, Bryan N.

    2010-01-01

    We will present three related air quality applications of the OMI HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) data products, which we us to support mission planning of an OMI-like instrument for the proposed GEO-CAPE satellite that has as one of its objectives to study air quality from space. First, we will discuss a novel and practical application of the data products to the "weight of evidence" in the air quality decision-making process (e.g., State Implementation Plan (SIP)) for a city, region, or state to demonstrate that it is making progress toward attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Any trend, or lack thereof, in the observed OMI HCHO/NO2, which we use as an air quality indicator, may support that an emission control strategy implemented to reduce ozone is or is not occurring for a metropolitan area. Second, we will discuss how we use variations in the OMI HCHO product as a proxy for variability in the biogenic hydrocarbon, isoprene, which is an important player for the formation of high levels of ozone and the dominant source of HCHO in the eastern U.S. Third, we will discuss the variability of NO2 in the U.S. as indicated by the OMI NO2 product. In addition, we will show the impact of the 2005 hurricanes on pollutant emissions, including those associated with the intensive oil extraction and refining activities, in the Gulf of Mexico region using the OMI NO2 product. The variability of HCHO and NO2 as indicated by OMI helps us to understand changes in the OMI HCHO/NO2 and the implications for ozone formation.

  16. Utilizing an Extraterrestrial Analogue to Predict Sediment Migration on Frenchman Flat due to Convective Vortex (Dust Devil) Activity

    McGee, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    data from the NTS, and combining them with measurements of sediment loading and erosive strength in terrestrial dust devils, it is possible to both illustrate the potential significance of dust devils to currently-accepted radionuclide residence time on Frenchman Flat playa, as well as predict areas of unexpected radionuclide migration and/or attenuation due to dust devil activity.

  17. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon

    Dahdouh-Guebas Farid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. Results The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb. Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Conclusion Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60% reported that mangrove marketed wood

  18. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  19. Identifying Low pH Active and Lactate-Utilizing Taxa within Oral Microbiome Communities from Healthy Children Using Stable Isotope Probing Techniques

    McLean, Jeffrey S.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Majors, Paul D.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Allen, Lisa Z.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-03-05

    Many human microbial infectious diseases including dental caries are polymicrobial in nature and how these complex multi-species communities evolve from a healthy to a diseased state is not well understood. Although many health- or disease-associated oral microbes have been characterized in vitro, their physiology in vivo in the presence of the complex oral microbiome is difficult to determine with current approaches. In addition, about half of these oral species remain uncultivated to date and little is known except their 16S rRNA sequence. Lacking culture-based physiological analyses, the functional roles of uncultivated microorganisms will remain enigmatic despite their apparent disease correlation. To start addressing these knowledge gaps, we applied a novel combination of in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) with RNA and DNA based Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to oral plaque communities from healthy children for temporal monitoring of carbohydrate utilization, organic acid production and identification of metabolically active and inactive bacterial species.

  20. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  1. Gestão de custos florestais: um estudo de caso utilizando o Activity-Based Costing Forest management costs: a case study utilizing Activity-Based Costing

    Alcir Ribeiro Carneiro de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available No atual cenário de industrialização globalizada, tornou-se fundamental a eficácia no gerenciamento dos custos considerados inevitavelmente necessários. Programas convencionais de redução dos custos não consideram o grau de agregação de valor das atividades de rotina pela distorção dos sistemas contábeis atuais. No presente estudo, apresentam-se os principais motivos da falta de relevância das informações de custo, comenta-se sobre o problema da redução de desperdícios florestais e suas conseqüências. A partir de um estudo de caso em uma empresa do setor florestal, demonstra-se uma simulação do Activity Based Costing (ABC em uma determinada área da empresa, concluindo-se que a adoção de sistemas de custeio mais aprimorados, tal como o ABC, devem fazer parte de programas que busquem o aumento da competitividade do setor florestal.In the current view of globalized industrialization, it has become fundamental to manage essential costs effectively. Conventional programs for reducing costs, do no consider the value agregation grade of routine activities because of the distortion of current accounting systems. This study, presents the main reasons for the lack of relevance of the cost information, commenting on the problem of the reduction of forest waste and its consequences. Using a case study in a company from the forest sector, a simulation of Activity Based Costing (ABC is demonstrated in a determined area of the company it is concluded that the adoption of a more refined cost system, such as the ABC, should be included in programs, that seek to increase the competitiveness of the forest sector.

  2. The effect of priming exercise on O2 uptake kinetics, muscle O2 delivery and utilization, muscle activity, and exercise tolerance in boys.

    Barker, Alan R; Trebilcock, Emily; Breese, Brynmor; Jones, Andrew M; Armstrong, Neil

    2014-03-01

    This study used priming exercise in young boys to investigate (i) how muscle oxygen delivery and oxygen utilization, and muscle activity modulate oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise; and (ii) whether the accelerated oxygen uptake kinetics following priming exercise can improve exercise tolerance. Seven boys that were aged 11.3 ± 1.6 years completed either a single bout (bout 1) or repeated bouts with 6 min of recovery (bout 2) of very heavy-intensity cycling exercise. During the tests oxygen uptake, muscle oxygenation, muscle electrical activity and exercise tolerance were measured. Priming exercise most likely shortened the oxygen uptake mean response time (change, ±90% confidence limits; -8.0 s, ±3.0), possibly increased the phase II oxygen uptake amplitude (0.11 L·min(-1), ±0.09) and very likely reduced the oxygen uptake slow component amplitude (-0.08 L·min(-1), ±0.07). Priming resulted in a likely reduction in integrated electromyography (-24% baseline, ±21% and -25% baseline, ±19) and a very likely reduction in Δ deoxyhaemoglobin/Δoxygen uptake (-0.16, ±0.11 and -0.09, ±0.05) over the phase II and slow component portions of the oxygen uptake response, respectively. A correlation was present between the change in tissue oxygenation index during bout 2 and the change in the phase II (r = -0.72, likely negative) and slow component (r = 0.72, likely positive) oxygen uptake amplitudes following priming exercise, but not for muscle activity. Exercise tolerance was likely reduced (change -177 s, ±180) following priming exercise. The altered phase II and slow component oxygen uptake amplitudes in boys following priming exercise are linked to an improved localised matching of muscle oxygen delivery to oxygen uptake and not muscle electrical activity. Despite more rapid oxygen uptake kinetics following priming exercise, exercise tolerance was not enhanced.

  3. Utilization of actinide as cell active materials. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-034-1. Contract research

    Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Yamamura, Tomoo; Watanabe, Nobutaka; Umekita, Satoshi [Tohoku University, Institute for Materials Research, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The electrochemical properties of U, Np, Pu and Am were discussed from the viewpoint of cell active materials From the thermodynamic properties and the kinetics of electrode reactions, it is found that neptunium in the aqueous system and some uranium complexes in the polar aprotic solvents can be utilized as an active material of the redox flow battery for the electric power storage. Moreover, A new actinide redox battery is proposed in the present article: the galvanic cell is expressed by Electrode(-) |An{sup 3+}, An{sup 4+}| |AnO{sub 2}{sup +}, AnO{sub 2}{sup 2+}| Electrode(+). The actinide batteries are expected to have more excellent charge and discharge performance than the current vanadium battery because of the great similarity of chemical species in the each redox couple. The standard rate constants and formal potential of Np(VI)/Np(V) and Np(IV)/Np(III) couples were determined by the cyclic voltammetry and the neptunium battery was demonstrated. For the development of uranium redox flow battery, the redox reaction mechanisms and redox potentials of uranium -diketones including new -tetraketones were elucidated and it was found the open circuit voltage is increased with the acid dissociation constant of the ligand. (author)

  4. Evaluation of a Trapezoidal Predictive Controller for a Four-Wire Active Power Filter for Utility Equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations

    Sergio Salas-Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The realization of an improved predictive current controller based on a trapezoidal model is described, and the impact of this technique is assessed on the performance of a 2 kW, 21.6 kHz, four-wire, Active Power Filter for utility equipment of Metro Railway, Power-Land Substations. The operation of the trapezoidal predictive current controller is contrasted with that of a typical predictive control technique, based on a single Euler approximation, which has demonstrated generation of high-quality line currents, each using a 400 V DC link to improve the power quality of an unbalanced nonlinear load of Metro Railway. The results show that the supply current waveforms become virtually sinusoidal waves, reducing the current ripple by 50% and improving its power factor from 0.8 to 0.989 when the active filter is operated with a 1.6 kW load. The principle of operation of the trapezoidal predictive controller is analysed together with a description of its practical development, showing experimental results obtained with a 2 kW prototype.

  5. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology.

  6. [Clinical study using activity-based costing to assess cost-effectiveness of a wound management system utilizing modern dressings in comparison with traditional wound care].

    Ohura, Takehiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Mino, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of cost-effectiveness, including medical delivery and health service fee systems, has become widespread in Japanese health care. In the field of pressure ulcer management, the recent introduction of penalty subtraction in the care fee system emphasizes the need for prevention and cost-effective care of pressure ulcer. Previous cost-effectiveness research on pressure ulcer management tended to focus only on "hardware" costs such as those for pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, while neglecting other cost aspects, particularly those involving the cost of labor. Thus, cost-effectiveness in pressure ulcer care has not yet been fully established. To provide true cost effectiveness data, a comparative prospective study was initiated in patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers. Considering the potential impact of the pressure reduction mattress on clinical outcome, in particular, the same type of pressure reduction mattresses are utilized in all the cases in the study. The cost analysis method used was Activity-Based Costing, which measures material and labor cost aspects on a daily basis. A reduction in the Pressure Sore Status Tool (PSST) score was used to measure clinical effectiveness. Patients were divided into three groups based on the treatment method and on the use of a consistent algorithm of wound care: 1. MC/A group, modern dressings with a treatment algorithm (control cohort). 2. TC/A group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) with a treatment algorithm. 3. TC/NA group, traditional care (ointment and gauze) without a treatment algorithm. The results revealed that MC/A is more cost-effective than both TC/A and TC/NA. This suggests that appropriate utilization of modern dressing materials and a pressure ulcer care algorithm would contribute to reducing health care costs, improved clinical results, and, ultimately, greater cost-effectiveness.

  7. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  8. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute ut

  9. Maximizing the utilization of Laminaria japonica as biomass via improvement of alginate lyase activity in a two-phase fermentation system.

    Oh, Yuri; Xu, Xu; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-08-01

    Brown seaweed contains up to 67% of carbohydrates by dry weight and presents high potential as a polysaccharide feedstock for biofuel production. To effectively use brown seaweed as a biomass, degradation of alginate is the major challenge due to its complicated structure and low solubility in water. This study focuses on the isolation of alginate degrading bacteria, determining of the optimum fermentation conditions, as well as comparing the conventional single fermentation system with the two-phase fermentation system which is separately using alginate and mannitol extracted from Laminaria japonica. Maximum yield of organic acids production and volatile solids reduction obtained were 0.516 g/g and 79.7%, respectively, using the two-phase fermentation system in which alginate fermentation was carried out at pH 7 and mannitol fermentation at pH 8. The two-phase fermentation system increased the yield of organic acids production by 1.14 times and led to a 1.45-times reduction of VS when compared to the conventional single fermentation system at pH 8. The results show that the two-phase fermentation system improved the utilization of alginate by separating alginate from mannitol leading to enhanced alginate lyase activity.

  10. Distributed H2 Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  11. N-methylpyridinium, a degradation product of trigonelline upon coffee roasting, stimulates respiratory activity and promotes glucose utilization in HepG2 cells.

    Riedel, Annett; Hochkogler, Christina Maria; Lang, Roman; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    N-Methylpyridinium (NMP) is a thermal degradation product of trigonelline formed upon coffee roasting and hypothesized to exert several health benefits in humans. Since for trigonelline evidence for hypoglycemic effects exists, we examined whether NMP also affects mechanisms of glucose utilization and cellular energy formation. For this purpose, the impact of trigonelline and NMP on respiratory activity, extracellular acidification, cellular adenosine nucleotides, energy supply from fatty acids and glucose as well as thermogenesis in HepG2 cells was analyzed. A 24 hour incubation with nanomolar concentrations of NMP enhanced oxygen consumption rates, resulting in increased ATP levels. Glucose was identified as the prevalent energy substrate as its uptake was augmented up to 18.1% ± 7.44% by NMP at 0.09 μM, whereas the uptake of fatty acids decreased upon NMP treatment. Cellular glucose uptake was also stimulated by trigonelline administration; however, a shift to the anaerobic energy production pathway was monitored. Both pyridine derivatives induced thermogenesis, although trigonelline presumably promoted proton leaks, while NMP increased the concentration of the uncoupling protein-2. We provide evidence that both compounds appear to stimulate cellular energy metabolism in HepG2 cells. Human intervention studies are warranted to ensure these effects in vivo.

  12. Unexpected Activity of a Novel Kunitz-type Inhibitor

    Smith, David; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Jewhurst, Heather L.; Drysdale, Orla C.; Dvořák, Jan; Robinson, Mark W.; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Kunitz-type (KT) protease inhibitors are low molecular weight proteins classically defined as serine protease inhibitors. We identified a novel secreted KT inhibitor associated with the gut and parenchymal tissues of the infective juvenile stage of Fasciola hepatica, a helminth parasite of medical and veterinary importance. Unexpectedly, recombinant KT inhibitor (rFhKT1) exhibited no inhibitory activity toward serine proteases but was a potent inhibitor of the major secreted cathepsin L cysteine proteases of F. hepatica, FhCL1 and FhCL2, and of human cathepsins L and K (Ki = 0.4-27 nm). FhKT1 prevented the auto-catalytic activation of FhCL1 and FhCL2 and formed stable complexes with the mature enzymes. Pulldown experiments from adult parasite culture medium showed that rFhKT1 interacts specifically with native secreted FhCL1, FhCL2, and FhCL5. Substitution of the unusual P1 Leu15 within the exposed reactive loop of FhKT1 for the more commonly found Arg (FhKT1Leu15/Arg15) had modest adverse effects on the cysteine protease inhibition but conferred potent activity against the serine protease trypsin (Ki = 1.5 nm). Computational docking and sequence analysis provided hypotheses for the exclusive binding of FhKT1 to cysteine proteases, the importance of the Leu15 in anchoring the inhibitor into the S2 active site pocket, and the inhibitor's selectivity toward FhCL1, FhCL2, and human cathepsins L and K. FhKT1 represents a novel evolutionary adaptation of KT protease inhibitors by F. hepatica, with its prime purpose likely in the regulation of the major parasite-secreted proteases and/or cathepsin L-like proteases of its host. PMID:27422822

  13. Cost-utility analysis of certolizumab pegol versus alternative tumour necrosis factor inhibitors available for the treatment of moderate-to-severe active rheumatoid arthritis in Spain

    2015-01-01

    Background Certolizumab pegol, a PEGylated tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitor, improves the clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when used in combination with methotrexate or as monotherapy. This study evaluatedthe cost-utility of certolizumab pegol versusTNF-inhibitors plus methotrexate in the treatment of moderate-to-severe RA in Spain. Methods A Markov cohort health state transition model was developed to evaluate the cost-utility (costs and quality-adjusted life ye...

  14. Module Utilization Committee. Final report

    None

    1984-03-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the US Department of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules. The final report of that committee accounts for that disposition. The membership and activities of the committee are set forth and the results of its activities are reported.

  15. The role of extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity in inorganic carbon utilization of Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) : A comparison with other marine algae using the isotopic disequilibrium technique

    Elzenga, JTM; Prins, HBA; Stefels, J

    2000-01-01

    The utilization of inorganic carbon species by the marine microalga Phaeocystis globasa (Prymnesiophyceae) and several other algal species from different taxa, was investigated by determining the time course of C-14 incorporation in isotopic disequilibrium experiments. From these kinetic data, concl

  16. 北虫草的活性成分及开发利用研究%Study on the Active Components and Utilization of Cordyceps Militaris

    叶春苗

    2014-01-01

    Much research and attention have been devoted to Cordyceps militaris due to its medicinal and health functions. This article makes summary of the main bioactive components in Cordyceps militaris and its development and utilization, gives a description of the artificial cultivation method of Cordyceps militaris, and analyzes its exploitation and utilization prospect so as to provide reference for the further research and use of Cordyceps militaris.%北虫草因具有药用与保健功能,被广泛研究与关注。综述北虫草中主要生物活性成分及其开发利用情况,介绍北虫草的人工培育方法,分析、展望北虫草的开发利用前景,以期为北虫草的进一步研究、利用提供参考。

  17. The U.S. power industry's activities to expand coal ash utilization in face of lower ash quality

    Golden, D.M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The use of coal by electric power utilities results in more than 105 million tons of by products each year in the United States. More restrictive air quality emission limits have resulted in cleaner air, but this means the fly ash is more contaminated and cannot be used in its largest market, the concrete industry. For this reason, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a 5 year program at increasing ash utilization in the cement and concrete market in the United States. This initiative was in response to recent concerns regarding the impacts on ash quality due to more aggressive nitrogen oxide (NOx) controls. The EPRI program provides the technical basis for protecting the bulk sale of coal ash in high-volume applications in cement and concrete and other high volume civil engineering applications. Fly ash derived from NOx control systems has higher carbon levels and ammonia levels. Problems with ammoniated ash are a major concern for coal-fired power plants. It was shown that there are four ways to minimize the impact of NOx controls that reduce ash quality directly affecting ash utilization. These are: (1) prevention of carbon accumulation in fly ash for use in sensitive markets, (2) carbon removal, (3) concentration of reactive ash fractions by removal of coarse fractions, and (4) ammonia removal. It was concluded that more studies are needed to examine long-term durability and other properties before any of these options can be exploited on an industrial scale. 21 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Entrez Programming Utilities

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-alpha-Null Mice Have Increased White Adipose Tissue Glucose Utilization, GLUT4, and Fat Mass: Role in Liver and Brain

    Knauf, C.; Rieusset, J.; Foretz, M.; Cani, P.D.; Uldry, M.; Hosokawa, M.; Martinez, E.; Bringart, M.; Waget, A.; Kersten, A.H.; Desvergne, B.; Gremlich, S.; Wahli, W.; Seydoux, J.; Delzenne, N.M.; Thorens, B.; Burcelin, R.

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-¿ increases lipid catabolism and lowers the concentration of circulating lipid, but its role in the control of glucose metabolism is not as clearly established. Here we compared PPAR¿ knockout mice with wild type and confirmed that

  20. Nonexpected utility and coherence

    Diecidue, E.

    2001-01-01

    The descriptive power of expected utility has been challenged by behavioral evidence showing that people deviate systematically from the expected utility paradigm. Since the end of the 70's several alternatives to the classical expected utility paradigm have been proposed in order to accommodate the

  1. Utility of N-aryl 2-aroylhydrazono-propanehydrazonoyl chlorides as precursors for synthesis of new functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles with potential antimicrobial activity

    Abdou O. Abdelhamid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Starting from N-aryl 2-aroylhydrazono-propanehydrazonoyl chlorides, a series of new functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazoles were prepared. The structures of the compounds prepared were confirmed by both elemental and spectral analyses as well as by alternate synthesis. The mechanisms of the studied reactions are outlined. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds prepared were screened and the results showed that most of such compounds exhibit considerable activities.

  2. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  3. Optimization of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones as antimalarials utilizing structure-activity and structure-property relationships.

    Cross, R Matthew; Maignan, Jordany R; Mutka, Tina S; Luong, Lisa; Sargent, Justin; Kyle, Dennis E; Manetsch, Roman

    2011-07-14

    Antimalarial activity of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones (THAs) has been known since the 1940s and has garnered more attention with the development of the acridinedione floxacrine (1) in the 1970s and analogues thereof such as WR 243251 (2a) in the 1990s. These compounds failed just prior to clinical development because of suboptimal activity, poor solubility, and rapid induction of parasite resistance. Moreover, detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the THA core scaffold were lacking and SPR studies were nonexistent. To improve upon initial findings, several series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones were synthesized and tested in a systematic fashion, examining each compound for antimalarial activity, solubility, and permeability. Furthermore, a select set of compounds was chosen for microsomal stability testing to identify physicochemical liabilities of the THA scaffold. Several potent compounds (EC(50) < 100 nM) were identified to be active against the clinically relevant isolates W2 and TM90-C2B while possessing good physicochemical properties and little to no cross-resistance.

  4. Utilizing peroxide as precursor for the synthesis of CeO{sub 2}/ZnO composite oxide with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Lv, Zijian [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Nanjing AIREP Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210091 (China); Zhong, Qin, E-mail: zq304@mail.njust.edu.com.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Nanjing AIREP Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210091 (China); Ou, Man [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Nanjing AIREP Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210091 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The CeO2/ZnO composite oxide is synthesized with peroxide as a precursor. • The excellent photocatalytic activity is due to the synergistic effect of CeO2 and oxygen vacancy. • The hydroxyl radicals are confirmed to be the dominant active species. - Abstract: A facile synthesis method of CeO{sub 2}/ZnO composite oxides with higher oxygen vacancy concentration was developed by a two-step precipitation method, in which peroxide was used as precursor. The photocatalytic activity of the catalysts under UV irradiation was studied in degradation of methylene blue (MB). All CeO{sub 2}/ZnO photocatalysts exhibited higher photocatalytic performance than pure ZnO, and 1%CeO{sub 2}/ZnO showed highest photocatalytic activity among the prepared catalysts. It was confirmed that the synergistic effect of CeO{sub 2} and oxygen vacancy caused the improved photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the mechanism was investigated by introducing different additives, and it was found that the hydroxyl radicals played a crucial role in degradation process.

  5. Teacher Didactic Content Knowledge and its relation with the utilization of practical activities in chemistry classes: A study with expert teachers of the Angolan educational system

    Laurinda Baca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed within the Angolan educational system, with chemistry expert teachers who teach the 7th grade (12 years old. Aiming to characterize the didactic content knowledge and relate it with the quality of teaching and with the development of practical activities that ensure the active participation of students in the construction of knowledge, we observed and analyzed the classes of a group of expert teachers, specifically in the content of chemical reactions and chemical equations. In a quasi-experimental design methodology, the used technique was the observation from the capture of images in the classes. An element we paid particular attention in the analysis of the classes was the implementation of strategies that involve practical activities, since the didactic research has amply demonstrated that they are likely to generate active learning in science education, with particular emphasis in chemistry. The results revealed that the expert teachers often use practical activities in their classrooms, using group work procedures, work front and questions oral and written.

  6. Utilizing peroxide as precursor for the synthesis of CeO2/ZnO composite oxide with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Lv, Zijian; Zhong, Qin; Ou, Man

    2016-07-01

    A facile synthesis method of CeO2/ZnO composite oxides with higher oxygen vacancy concentration was developed by a two-step precipitation method, in which peroxide was used as precursor. The photocatalytic activity of the catalysts under UV irradiation was studied in degradation of methylene blue (MB). All CeO2/ZnO photocatalysts exhibited higher photocatalytic performance than pure ZnO, and 1%CeO2/ZnO showed highest photocatalytic activity among the prepared catalysts. It was confirmed that the synergistic effect of CeO2 and oxygen vacancy caused the improved photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the mechanism was investigated by introducing different additives, and it was found that the hydroxyl radicals played a crucial role in degradation process.

  7. Trm1p, a Zn(II)₂Cys₆-type transcription factor, is essential for the transcriptional activation of genes of methanol utilization pathway, in Pichia pastoris.

    Sahu, Umakant; Krishna Rao, Kamisetty; Rangarajan, Pundi N

    2014-08-15

    The zinc finger transcription factors Mxr1p and Rop are key regulators of methanol metabolism in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, while Trm1p and Trm2p regulate methanol metabolism in Candida boidinii. Here, we demonstrate that Trm1p is essential for the expression of genes of methanol utilization (mut) pathway in P. pastoris as well. Expression of AOXI and other genes of mut pathway is severely compromised in P. pastoris ΔTrm1 strain resulting in impaired growth on media containing methanol as the sole source of carbon. Trm1p localizes to the nucleus of cells cultured on glucose or methanol. The zinc finger domain of Mxr1p but not Trm1p binds to AOXI promoter sequences in vitro, indicating that these two positive regulators act by different mechanisms. We conclude that both Trm1p and Mxr1p are essential for the expression of genes of mut pathway in P. pastoris and the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of mut pathway may be similar in P. pastoris and C. boidinii.

  8. X-ray Structure and Enzymatic Activity Profile of a Core Papain-like Protease of MERS Coronavirus with utility for structure-based drug design

    Clasman, Jozlyn R.; Báez-Santos, Yahira M.; Mettelman, Robert C.; O’Brien, Amornrat; Baker, Susan C.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin-like domain 2 (Ubl2) is immediately adjacent to the N-terminus of the papain-like protease (PLpro) domain in coronavirus polyproteins, and it may play a critical role in protease regulation and stability as well as in viral infection. However, our recent cellular studies reveal that removing the Ubl2 domain from MERS PLpro has no effect on its ability to process the viral polyprotein or act as an interferon antagonist, which involves deubiquitinating and deISGylating cellular proteins. Here, we test the hypothesis that the Ubl2 domain is not required for the catalytic function of MERS PLpro in vitro. The X-ray structure of MERS PLpro-∆Ubl2 was determined to 1.9 Å and compared to PLpro containing the N-terminal Ubl2 domain. While the structures were nearly identical, the PLpro-∆Ubl2 enzyme revealed the intact structure of the substrate-binding loop. Moreover, PLpro-∆Ubl2 catalysis against different substrates and a purported inhibitor revealed no differences in catalytic efficiency, substrate specificity, and inhibition. Further, no changes in thermal stability were observed between enzymes. We conclude that the catalytic core of MERS PLpro, i.e. without the Ubl2 domain, is sufficient for catalysis and stability in vitro with utility to evaluate potential inhibitors as a platform for structure-based drug design. PMID:28079137

  9. An Analysis of Success Factors in the Utilization of Learning Activity Packages Employed as Vehicles for Individualizing Science Instruction at Nova High School.

    Campbell, Roy Franklin

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…

  10. Cost-utility of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing compared to conventional total hip replacement in young active patients with osteoarthritis

    Heintzbergen, S.; Kulin, N.A.; IJzerman, M.J.; Steuten, L.M.G.; Werle, J.; Khong, H.; Marshall, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoM HRA) has emerged as an alternative to total hip arthroplasty (THA) for younger active patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Birmingham hip resurfacing is the most common MoM HRA in Alberta, and is therefore compared with conventional THA. Obj

  11. Increased Na+/K(+)-pump activity and adenosine triphosphate utilization after compound 48/80-induced histamine secretion from rat mast cells

    Johansen, Torben; Praetorius, Birger Hans

    1994-01-01

    -production were measured by the bioluminescence technique (firefly lantern) and by measurement of the lactate production under anaerobic conditions (antimycin A, oligomycin), respectively. There was an increased requirement for ATP after the secretory response associated with an increased activity of the Na...

  12. Industrial design of enzymic processes catalysed by very active immobilized derivatives: utilization of diffusional limitations (gradients of pH) as a profitable tool in enzyme engineering.

    Guisán, J M; Alvaro, G; Rosell, C M; Fernandez-Lafuente, R

    1994-12-01

    We have developed integrated studies of enzyme reaction engineering for the hydrolysis of penicillin G catalysed by very active penicillin G acylase (PGA) derivatives. We have studied the distinct effect of a key variable (pH) on different industrial parameters (e.g. activity/stability parameters). In this way we have demonstrated, in contrast with that proposed by other authors, that the generation of gradients of pH inside the porous structure of very active enzyme derivatives may be not a problem but a 'very profitable tool' to improve the whole set of industrial parameters. In this way we can establish two distinct 'optimal pH values': (i) the one inside the particle of the biocatalyst and (ii) the one in the bulk solution. The use of an external pH of 8.0 associated with the promotion of a controlled decrease in internal pH (e.g. around a mean value of 5.5) was very useful to simultaneously obtain interesting values of all industrial parameters: (i) very high hydrolytic yields (higher than 97%); (ii) a very important increase on the stability of PGA derivatives (higher than a 50-fold factor); and (iii) a very small decrease in operational activity (approximately 15%) as compared with the one of soluble enzyme at pH 8.0 with no diffusional hindrances.

  13. Utilizing Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to engage middle school teachers and students in storm water management practices to mitigate human impacts of land development

    Tazaz, A.; Wilson, R. M.; Schoen, R.; Blumsack, S.; King, L.; Dyehouse, M.

    2013-12-01

    'The Integrating STEM Project' engaged 6-8 grade teachers through activities incorporating mathematics, science and technology incorporating both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and Common Core State Standards-Mathematics (CCSS-Math). A group of researchers from Oceanography, Mathematics, and Education set out to provide middle school teachers with a 2 year intensive STEM integration professional development with a focus on environmental topics and to monitor the achievement outcomes in their students. Over the course of 2 years the researchers created challenging professional development sessions to expand teacher knowledge and teachers were tasked to transform the information gained during the professional development sessions for classroom use. One lesson resource kit presented to the teachers, which was directly applicable to the classroom, included Model Eliciting Activities (MEA's) to explore the positive and negative effects land development has on climate and the environment, and how land development impacts storm water management. MEA's were developed to encourage students to create models to solve complex problems and to allow teachers to investigate students thinking. MEA's are a great curriculum technique used in engineering fields to help engage students by providing hands on activities using real world data and problems. We wish to present the Storm Water Management Resource toolkit including the MEA and present the outcomes observed from student engagement in this activity.

  14. Quantitative determination of biological activity of botulinum toxins utilizing compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), and comparison of neuromuscular transmission blockage and muscle flaccidity among toxins.

    Torii, Yasushi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Motohide; Ishida, Setsuji; Harakawa, Tetsuhiro; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kaji, Ryuji; Kozaki, Shunji; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2010-01-01

    The biological activity of various types of botulinum toxin has been evaluated using the mouse intraperitoneal LD(50) test (ip LD(50)). This method requires a large number of mice to precisely determine toxin activity, and so has posed a problem with regard to animal welfare. We have used a direct measure of neuromuscular transmission, the compound muscle action potential (CMAP), to evaluate the effect of different types of botulinum neurotoxin (NTX), and we compared the effects of these toxins to evaluate muscle relaxation by employing the digit abduction scoring (DAS) assay. This method can be used to measure a broad range of toxin activities the day after administration. Types A, C, C/D, and E NTX reduced the CMAP amplitude one day after administration at below 1 ip LD(50), an effect that cannot be detected using the mouse ip LD(50) assay. The method is useful not only for measuring toxin activity, but also for evaluating the characteristics of different types of NTX. The rat CMAP test is straightforward, highly reproducible, and can directly determine the efficacy of toxin preparations through their inhibition of neuromuscular transmission. Thus, this method may be suitable for pharmacology studies and the quality control of toxin preparations.

  15. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  16. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  17. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  18. The clinical utility of tuberculin skin test and interferon-γ release assay in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis among young adults: a prospective observational study

    Lee Sei Won

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of the tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube assay (QFT-IT in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB are not clear in young adults. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TST and QFT-IT in smear-negative TB among young adults with no underlying disease. Methods We prospectively enrolled 166 young participants 20-29 years of age with suspected active TB in a military hospital of South Korea. The TST and QFT-IT were performed for all participants. Results Of the 143 patients included in the analysis, active TB was diagnosed in 100 (69.9%. There were 141 male patients, none of whom had immunosuppressive disease. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of TST were 94% (95% CI, 87-98%, 88% (95% CI, 74-96%, 95% (95% CI, 88-98%, and 86% (95% CI, 72-94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the QFT-IT were 93% (95% CI, 86-97%, 95% (95% CI, 81-99%, 98% (95% CI, 92-99%, and 84% (95% CI, 69-93%, respectively. No significant differences were found between the TST and QFT-IT in any statistic. Conclusions Both the TST and QFT-IT showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating active TB from other diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of these two tests did not differ significantly when applied to this clinical population of young, immunocompetent adults in whom neonatal BCG vaccination was common, there was no history of previous TB and in whom suspicion of TB was high. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00982969

  19. Teaching retirement financial literacy in an undergraduate gerontology classroom: broadening the concept of the tripod or three-legged stool of retirement income utilizing active learning.

    Baker, Hallie E; Brown, Pamela Pitman

    2015-01-01

    The three-legged stool concept is widely used in gerontological and geriatric education as an explanation on how one should fiscally approach his or her retirement. Financial managers, planners, retirees, business owners, even the Social Security Administration uses this metaphor of fiscal soundness in retirement planning. Gerontologists are moving away from the "tripod of retirement income" and "three-legged stool" term, as more often market work is needed for financial security. This activity focuses on the tripod or three-legged stool concepts of retirement planning using active learning, allowing the students to work collaboratively in a group, reflect upon the activity, and most importantly have fun. The game also allows for an expansion of the tripod concepts into the four pillars of economic security, broaching the use of personal assets and the possible need for longer employment. Game scenarios also emphasize macro- and microlevel forces, such as race, gender, health status, education, or marital status, which can influence timing of retirement or the level of retirement income available. The authors include instructions on how to set up the learning experience including worksheets, as well as reflection questions posed throughout the process.

  20. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  1. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  2. The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Overview

    1994-11-01

    Utility battery energy storage allows a utility or customer to store electrical energy for dispatch at a time when its use is more economical, strategic, or efficient. The UBS program sponsors systems analyses, technology development of subsystems and systems integration, laboratory and field evaluation, and industry outreach. Achievements and planned activities in each area are discussed.

  3. 41 CFR 109-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Utilization guidelines... Management System Vehicles § 109-39.301 Utilization guidelines. DOE activities utilizing GSA IFMS motor... meeting DOE utilization guidelines or established local use objectives, as appropriate. Those vehicles...

  4. Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    Kadirvelu, K; Kavipriya, M; Karthika, C; Radhika, M; Vennilamani, N; Pattabhi, S

    2003-03-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from the agricultural solid wastes, silk cotton hull, coconut tree sawdust, sago waste, maize cob and banana pith and used to eliminate heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution. Adsorption of all dyes and metal ions required a very short time and gave quantitative removal. Experimental results show all carbons were effective for the removal of pollutants from water. Since all agricultural solid wastes used in this investigation are freely, abundantly and locally available, the resulting carbons are expected to be economically viable for wastewater treatment.

  5. Electroluminescence of a Multi-Layered Organic Light-Emitting Diode Utilizing Trans-4-[p-[Nmethyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-Methylphridinium Tetraphenylborate as the Active Layer

    FENG Xue-Yuan; ZHANG Jia-Yu; XU Chun-Xiang; QIAO Yi; GUI Yi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Employing an organic dye salt oftrans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT) as the active layer, 8-hydrocyquinoline aluminium (Alqa) as the electron transporting layer and N,Nt-diphenyl-N,Nl-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[l,l'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine (TPD) as the hole transporting layer, respectively, we fabricate a multi-layered organic light-emitting diode and observe the colour tunable electroluminescence (EL). The dependence of the EL spectra on the applied voltage is investigated in detail, and the recombination mechanism is discussed by considering the variation of the hole-electron recombination region.

  6. Non-noble metal Bi deposition by utilizing Bi2WO6 as the self-sacrificing template for enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity

    Yu, Shixin; Zhang, Yihe; Li, Min; Du, Xin; Huang, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    Bi metal deposited on Bi2WO6 composite photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized via a simple in-situ reduction method at room temperature with using Bi2WO6 as self-sacrificing template and NaBH4 as reducing agent. The reduction extent can be easily modulated by controlling the concentration of NaBH4 solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) and photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out to analyze the phase, morphology, optical property and photoelectrochemical property of the as-prepared samples. The photocatalytic activity is surveyed by degradation of phenol under visible light (λ > 420 nm), which showed that the BWO-0.2 photocatalyst exhibited the highest efficiency, which was over 3 times as high as pure Bi2WO6. The enhanced photocatalytic activity should be attributed to strengthened photoabsorption and charge separation efficiency derived from the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Bi metal.

  7. Utilization of activated carbon loaded with sulphur for sulphur fertilization in agriculture; Verwertung von mit Schwefel beladener Aktivkohle als Schwefelduenger in der Landwirtschaft

    Kirfel, Kristina; Hoffmann, Heide [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). AG Agraroekologie und Oekologischer Landbau

    2013-01-15

    Due to the decrease of atmospheric sulphur deposition, sulphur fertilization has gained significance for agriculture in recent years. Carbon-sulphur-pellets (CSP), activated carbon pellets loaded with sulphur, previously used for desulphurization in biogas plants, are up to now disposed of as waste. In this context the question arises if CSP could be of use for sulphur fertilization of agricultural crops. The objective of this study was to test sulphur release and plant availability from, and plant tolerance towards CSP. A pot experiment using Zea mays with different shares of CSP was carried out. Leaf green intensity of vital plants, indicating plants' current nutritional status, was measured and differences in plant development were documented regularly. At the end of the trial period biomass and elemental contents of the test plants, as well as electrical conductivity and pH-value of the substrate-CSP-mixtures were determined. Amendments of 0.2 m.-% to 1.0 m.-% had a positive effect on plants' dry mass yield; higher shares led to considerable yield losses. By addition of CSP, sulphur content in the plant dry mass increased compared to the control without sulphur fertilization. This result indicates that sulphur adsorbed to activated carbon becomes plant available when applicated to cultural substrate. (orig.)

  8. A mutation in the COX5 gene of the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis alters utilization of amino acids as carbon source, ethanol formation and activity of cyanide insensitive respiration.

    Freese, Stefan; Passoth, Volkmar; Klinner, Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    Scheffersomyces stipitis PJH was mutagenized by random integrative mutagenesis and the integrants were screened for lacking the ability to grow with glutamate as sole carbon source. One of the two isolated mutants was damaged in the COX5 gene, which encodes a subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase. BLAST searches in the genome of Sc. stipitis revealed that only one singular COX5 gene exists in Sc. stipitis, in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where two homologous genes are present. Mutant cells had lost the ability to grow with the amino acids glutamate, proline or aspartate and other non-fermentable carbon sources, such as acetic acid and ethanol, as sole carbon sources. Biomass formation of the mutant cells in medium containing glucose or xylose as carbon source was lower compared with the wild-type cells. However, yields and specific ethanol formation of the mutant were much higher, especially under conditions of higher aeration. The mutant cells lacked both cytochrome c oxidase activity and cyanide-sensitive respiration, whereas ADH and PDC activities were distinctly enhanced. SHAM-sensitive respiration was obviously essential for the fermentative metabolism, because SHAM completely abolished growth of the mutant cells with both glucose or xylose as carbon source.

  9. Brain Activity Stimulated by Prism Adaptation Tasks Utilized for the Treatment of Unilateral Spatial Neglect: A Study with fNIRS

    Hiroshi Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the neurological basis for efficacy of prism adaptation therapy, which is used for the treatment of poststroke unilateral spatial neglect (USN. Study subjects were 6 USN-positive (+, 6 USN-negative patients, and 6 healthy volunteer control subjects. USN was identified by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT. During the tasks, brain activity was assessed with fNIRS via changes in oxyHb concentration per unit length. There was no significant difference in the number of errors in the task between the 3 groups. However, in the USN(+ group there was a significantly greater reduction in oxyHb levels in the right parietal association cortex during the prism adaptation task than in the other 2 groups (<0.05. There was an immediate improvement in USN symptoms as well as a significant increase in oxyHb levels during the prism adaptation in the channels covering the right frontal and parietal lobes in 2 patients in the USN(+ group (<0.05. This result suggested that decreased activity in the right parietal association cortex, which is related to spatial perception, during the prism adaptation task and task-induced reorganization of the right frontal and parietal areas were involved in improvement in USN symptoms.

  10. Utilization of radioanalytical methods for the determination of isotopes of U, Pu and Am in activated charcoal from IEA-R1 reactor

    Geraldo, Bianca; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: bgeraldo@ipen.br, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a radioactive waste arising from the water purification system of the nuclear research reactor. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to identify and quantify the existing radionuclides, including those known as 'difficult-to-measure radionuclides' (RDM). The analysis of these RDM usually involves complex radiochemical costly and time consuming procedures for the purification and separation of them. The objective of this work was to define a methodology of sequential analysis of isotopes of U, Pu and Am, present in activated charcoal, evaluating chemical recovery, analysis time, quantity of radioactive waste generated and cost. Ion exchange and the chromatographic extraction methodologies were compared. Both methods showed high chemical recoveries, ranged from 74 and 100% for U, 76 and 100% for Pu and 87 and 100% for Am, demonstrating that these methods provide accurate and reliable results. However, chromatographic extraction method is more suitable for the determination of the radionuclides because it generates the smaller volume of waste and is more cost-effectively. (author)

  11. Super climate for Vodafone Italia. Utilization of active chilled beams for a monument protected sanitation; Prima Klima fuer Vodafone Italia. Einsatz aktiver Kuehlbalken fuer ein denkmalgeschuetztes Sanierungsprojekt

    Sefker, T.; Joneleit, R. [Trox GmbH, Neukirchen-Vluyn (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Vodafone Italia moved as a new user into the former Olivetti headquarter (ICO) at the Italian Ivrea. A total sanitation was done of the outer envelope and facility management of the monument protected building. To secure a best possible comfort in the as call-center used open-plan offices and in the single bureaus the responsibles decided for an active chilled beam system with fresh air inlet and secondary air cooling. Chilled beams can save energy by delivering sensible cooling directly to spaces, decoupling maximum air delivery from the cooling load and reducing ventilation fan energy consumption; meet standard ventilation requirements with less ventilation airflow; has lower temperature lift and operates at higher efficiency; and reduces the need for energy-consuming reheat of cooled air. (GL)

  12. Study on information utility

    2005-01-01

    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  13. 柚子全果综合利用及生物活性研究进展%Research Progress of Comprehensive Utilization and Biological Activity of Grapefruit Fruit

    杨宁

    2015-01-01

    Grapefruit is rutaceae citrus fruit, and grapefruit pulp not only contains rich glycosides substances, vitamins, minerals, and insulin composition, but also has important biological functions. Grapefruit peel accounts for 43% ~48% of the whole grapefruit, which contains flavonoids, natural pigment, dietary fiber, limonin, essential oil and else active ingredients. The medical research shows that the grapefruit peel extract has many physiological activities for strong antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and blood sugar fall and so on. The comprehensive utilization of grapefruit fruit and biological activity research were clarified in detail which can provide guidance for the comprehensive utilization and development of whole grapefruit fruit resources.%柚子是芸香料柑橘属水果,柚子肉不仅含有丰富的甙类物质、维生素、矿物质,类胰岛素等成分,而且还具有重要的生物学功能。柚皮占整个柚子的43%~48%,含有黄酮类化合物、天然色素、膳食纤维、柠檬苦素、香精油等活性成分。这些成分赋予柚皮提取物具有抗氧化、抗癌、抑菌和降血糖等生理活性。本文对柚子全果综合利用及生物活性研究详细阐述,可以为我国柚子全果资源的综合利用开发提供指导。

  14. Human recombinant macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and -beta and monocyte chemotactic and activating factor utilize common and unique receptors on human monocytes.

    Wang, J M; Sherry, B; Fivash, M J; Kelvin, D J; Oppenheim, J J

    1993-04-01

    The human macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha and -beta (MIP-1 alpha and -beta), which are also known as LD78 and ACT2, respectively, are distinct but highly related members of the chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) family. rMIP-1 alpha and -beta labeled with 125I specifically bind to human peripheral blood monocytes, the monocytic cell line THP-1, peripheral blood T cells, and the YT cell line. Steady state binding experiments revealed approximately 3000 high affinity binding sites/cell for MIP-1 alpha on human monocytes and on THP-1 cells, with Kd values of 383 pM and 450 pM, respectively. Human MIP-1 alpha and -beta had nearly identical affinities for the binding sites and each competed equally well for binding. Human monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF), a member of the same chemokine family, consistently displaced about 25% of human MIP-1 alpha and -beta binding on monocytes but not on YT cells, which did not bind MCAF. On the other hand, human rMIP-1 alpha and -beta partially inhibited binding of radiolabeled MCAF to monocytes. Both MIP-1 alpha and -beta were chemotactic for human monocytes. Preincubation of monocytes with human rMIP-1 alpha or -beta markedly reduced cell migration towards the other cytokine, whereas preincubation with human rMCAF only partially desensitized the monocyte chemotaxis response to human rMIP-1 alpha or -beta. These data suggest the existence of three subtypes of receptors, i.e., one unique receptor shared by MIP-1 alpha and -beta, a second unique receptor for MCAF, and a third species that recognizes both MCAF and MIP-1 peptides.

  15. Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-10-01

    rendering them less aggressive. Indeed, several published studies have concluded that parenteral DHA--sometimes in quite modest doses--can retard the growth of transplanted tumors in rodents. As an alternative or adjunctive strategy, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate, by normalizing the extracellular pH of tumors, has the potential to boost the activity of SCTV2 in tumor cells, thereby promoting increased ascorbate uptake. Indeed, the utility of oral sodium bicarbonate for suppressing metastasis formation in nude mice xenografted with a human breast cancer has been reported. Hence, oral sodium bicarbonate and intravenous DHA may have the potential to blunt the aggressiveness of certain cancers in which suboptimal intracellular ascorbate levels contribute to elevated HIF-1 activity.

  16. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  17. UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC data layer contains points which are intended to represent the location of telecommunications facilities (towers and/or antennas) in...

  18. Biotechnology of space utilization

    Matsumiya, Hiroyuki

    1989-10-05

    This paper introdued the practical results of biotechnological experiments utilizing features of space and the present Japanese plan. The electrophoresis and crystal growth of protein utilize the microgravity field and cell culture utilizes the influence of microgravity on organism. Of practical results in space experiments, the electrophoresis was made by US but others were carried out by Europian countries. It was thought that the electrophoresis utilizing space environment could be demonstrated to be promosing for the separating and refining techniques by the experiment on the basis of the Apolo Project. The crystal growth of protein was reported by Litke of Denmark as to the crystal of lyzozyme. The space experiment of cell culture was carried out by Cogoli of Switzerland as to the culture of lymphocyte in the Shattle. Japan is studying the primary material experiment project(FMPT) in the Space Shattle and unmanned experiment for electrophoresis. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. UtilityOther_ELCFRANCHISE

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate and should be used...

  20. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  1. Chemical Search Web Utility

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  2. Utilization of lignin

    Machihara, A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical structure of lignin, the composition of pulping spent liquors, conversion of lignin into fine chemicals, utilization of lignin products, and physical and chemical properties of lignin and and derivatives are reviewed. (Refs 29).

  3. 辣木的有效成分、保健功能和开发利用研究进展%Research Progress on Active Ingredients, Health Care Functions, Development and Utilization of Moringa oleifera

    孙丹; 管俊岭; 许玫; 李涛; 陈文品

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera belongs to Moringaceae Moringa Adans'hot tropical deciduous woody vegetables and oil crops, having a high nutritional value and unique biological activity, with great development potential. This article reviewed the extraction of moringa oil, protein, total flavonoids et al;and the function of anti-oxidation and protecting the liver, lowering blood sugar and blood fat, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory and other health functions,besides, the development and utilization were also reviewed, hoping to provide a reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of Moringa oleifera resources.%辣木(Moringa oleifera)是辣木科辣木属的热带落叶木本蔬菜及油料作物,有着丰富的营养价值和独特的生物活性,极具开发潜力。从辣木有效成分辣木油、蛋白质、总黄酮等的提取,抗氧化及保护肝脏、降血糖、降血脂、抗菌消炎等保健功能和开发利用等方面进行综述,为辣木资源的研究利用提供参考。

  4. Códigos de activación en urgencias y emergencias: La utilidad de priorizar Activation codes in urgency and emergency care: The utility of prioritising

    X. Jiménez Fàbrega

    2010-01-01

    , i.e. cardiac arrest, stroke, trauma, acute coronary syndrome or sepsis. The creation of systems of coordination between care levels involving different levels of complexity has made possible the implementation and, finally, the consolidation of certain procedures agreed upon amongst all health professionals involved in the care process. These procedures, in a spontaneous and generic way, have been defined as «activation codes». The appearance of these codes apparently seems simple, but represents a challenge. On an emergency being detected, the receiving centre appropriate for the patient is warned through an emergency coordinating centre and the patient is taken to that centre. What is sought with the codes is coordinated team work, based on scientific protocols recognised by those involved in care and the scientific community, and avoidance of duplicated actions and unnecessary delays in actions with the patient. In short, their single aim is joint work in the patient's benefit.

  5. Utility requirements for fusion

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  6. Health care utilization

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...... are important, but that economics cannot alone explain the differences in health care utilization....

  7. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and activ

  8. Module utilization committee

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  9. Electric utilities in Illinois

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  10. Report on promotion of utilization of radiation

    1987-09-01

    This report presents results of studies made by the Atomic Energy Commission concerning research and development activities to be carried out in future to promote the utilization of radiation. First, the current state of radiation utilization is described, centering on practical applications, research and development activities (for practical and advanced applications), and international cooperation (with developing and advanced nations). The second part deals with activities required in future to promote practical utilization of radiation, research and development of advanced techniques, and cooperation to be offered to developing countries. Third, specific measures to be carried out for effective radiation utilization are described. For ..gamma..-rays and electron beams, which are widely in use at present, there are some economic and social problems remaining to be solved. For advanced utilization of radiation beams, further efforts should be focused on basic research on ..pi..-meson and ..mu..-particle beams and their application to canser treatment and nuclear fusion; research on monochromatic neutron beams; application of RI beams to the development of new materials and new analysis techniques, application of epithermal neutron beams to elementary radiography and CT; etc. The utilization, application and development of tracers are also described. (Nogami, K.).

  11. Utility applications program. Annual report for 1981

    Doherty, T.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the Utility Applications Program is to provide information and assistance to interested utilities on central station energy storage systems. Compressed air and underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage are the primary technical focus. Smaller utilities are the primary targets of this program, as they may not have resources to track and utilize new energy conservation developments. The program, initiated during this year-long period, consists of a series of tasks integrating and supporting energy storage implementation. Program management and technical coordination activities monitor the wide range of research ongoing both under government support and in industry and provide a locus for dissemination of results. Recently completed DOE demonstration studies provide the central data base and the DOE CAES and UPH Technology Program activities provide another major resource. In addition a UPH preliminary feasibility study in coorination with Central Vermont Public Servie (CVPS), a Northeast utility, was carried out. The major program activity this period was a comprehensive technology assessment and environmental siting study, performed in coordination with the Soyland Power Cooperative in Decatur, Illinois. The reports from this work established solid siting precedents for CAES application in the US and jointly assisted the utility in assembling the required baseline information for ongoing technical and financial development of the first US compressed air energy storage facility.

  12. Utilities:Other:Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:utilpnt_other)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, not including water- and power-related utilities, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities...

  13. Industrial coal utilization

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  14. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  15. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-01-01

    After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  16. Windpower utilization possibilities

    Hoetzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities of windpower utilization for mechanical pumps, electric generators, mechanical water vortex pumps, and heat pumps are reviewed. Application possibilities can be realized by windpower systems of different size. It must however be determined for which purpose and for which power range they are used. The site and the concomitant wind potential is of utmost importance. Small units in the 10 kW power range are very interesting for autonomous or semiautonomous energy supply.

  17. Time functions as utilities

    Minguzzi, E

    2009-01-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed...

  18. The Acyl-CoA synthetases encoded within FAA1 and FAA4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as components of the fatty acid transport system linking import, activation, and intracellular Utilization

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Black, P N; Zhao, X D

    2001-01-01

    are essential for long-chain fatty acid import, suggesting that one or both of these enzymes are components of the fatty acid transport system, which also includes Fat1p. By monitoring the intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid analogue 4,4-difluoro-5-methyl-4-bora-3a,4a......-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoic acid, long-chain fatty acid transport was shown to be severely restricted in a faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strain. These data established for the first time a mechanistic linkage between the import and activation of exogenous fatty acids in yeast. To investigate this linkage further, oleoyl...... CoA levels were defined following incubation of wild type and mutant cells with limiting concentrations of exogenous oleate. These studies demonstrated oleoyl CoA levels were reduced to less than 10% wild-type levels in faa1 Delta and faa1 Delta faa4 Delta strains. Defects in metabolic utilization...

  19. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  20. Time Functions as Utilities

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  1. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  2. Social group utility maximization

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  3. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  5. Micrograin Superplasticity: Characteristics and Utilization

    Farghalli A. Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Micrograin Superplasticity refers to the ability of fine-grained materials (1 µm < d < 10 μm, where d is the grain size to exhibit extensive neck-free elongations during deformation at elevated temperatures. Over the past three decades, good progress has been made in rationalizing this phenomenon. The present paper provides a brief review on this progress in several areas that have been related to: (a the mechanical characteristics of micrograin superplasticity and their origin; (b the effect of impurity content and type on deformation behavior, boundary sliding, and cavitation during superplastic deformation; (c the formation of cavity stringers; (d dislocation activities and role during superplastic flow; and (e the utilization of superplasticity.

  6. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  7. A general classification of silicon utilizing organisms

    Das, P.; Das, S.

    2010-12-01

    Silicon utilizing organisms may be defined as organisms with high silicon content (≥ 1% dry weight) and they can metabolize silicon with or without demonstrable silicon transporter genes (SIT) in them(Das,2010). Silicon is the second most abundant element in the lithosphere (27.70%) and it is as important as phosphorus and magnesium (0.03%) in the biota. Hydrated silica represents the second most abundant biogenic mineral after carbonate minerals. Silicon is accumulated and metabolized by some prokaryotes, and Si compounds can stimulate the growth of a range of fungi. It is well known that Si is essential for diatoms. In mammals, Si is considered an essential trace element, required in bone, cartilage and connective tissue formation, enzymatic activities and other metabolic processes. Silicon was suggested to act as a phosphoprotein effector in bone. In mammals, Si is also reported to positively influence the immune system and to be required for lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous chemistry of Si is dominated by silicic acid at biological pH ranges. Monosilicic acid can form stable complexes with organic hydroxy-containing molecules . Biosilica also has been identified associated with various biomolecules including proteins and carbohydrates. There are main seven groups of silicon utilizing organisms belonging to Gram positive bacteria, algae, protozoa, sponges, fungi, lichens, and monocotyledon plants. In each group again all the members are not silicon utilizing organisms, thus selective members in each group are further classified depending their degree of silicon utilization. Important silicon utilizing bacteria are Mycobacteria, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Lactobacillus spp. etc., Important silicon utilizing algae are Centrobacillariophyceae, Pennatibacillariophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Many protozoa belonging to Heterokonta, Choanoflagellida, Actinopoda are well known silicon utilizing microorganisms. Hexactinellida ( glass sponges

  8. Utility-Based HTN Planning

    Georgievski, Ilche; Lazovik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We propose the use of HTN planning for risk-sensitive planning domains. We suggest utility functions that reflect the risk attitude of compound tasks, and adapt a best-first search algorithm to take such utilities into account.

  9. Iranian nurses' constraint for research utilization

    Mehrdad Neda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.

  10. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  11. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  12. Gas utilization technologies

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-09-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

  13. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of thiamine utilization.

    Singleton, C K; Martin, P R

    2001-05-01

    Thiamine is required for all tissues and is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidneys and brain. A state of severe depletion is seen in patients on a strict thiamine-deficient diet in 18 days, but the most common cause of thiamine deficiency in affluent countries is alcoholism. Thiamine diphosphate is the active form of thiamine, and it serves as a cofactor for several enzymes involved primarily in carbohydrate catabolism. The enzymes are important in the biosynthesis of a number of cell constituents, including neurotransmitters, and for the production of reducing equivalents used in oxidant stress defenses and in biosyntheses and for synthesis of pentoses used as nucleic acid precursors. Because of the latter fact, thiamine utilization is increased in tumor cells. Thiamine uptake by the small intestines and by cells within various organs is mediated by a saturable, high affinity transport system. Alcohol affects thiamine uptake and other aspects of thiamine utilization, and these effects may contribute to the prevalence of thiamine deficiency in alcoholics. The major manifestations of thiamine deficiency in humans involve the cardiovascular (wet beriberi) and nervous (dry beriberi, or neuropathy and/or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) systems. A number of inborn errors of metabolism have been described in which clinical improvements can be documented following administration of pharmacological doses of thiamine, such as thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia. Substantial efforts are being made to understand the genetic and biochemical determinants of inter-individual differences in susceptibility to development of thiamine deficiency-related disorders and of the differential vulnerabilities of tissues and cell types to thiamine deficiency.

  15. Not utilized learning potentials

    Kragelund, Linda

      When the Danish Nursing Education in 2002 became a Bachelor Degree the clinical part of the education was reduced. Therefore, it was necessary to optimize learning in practice.       I made a qualitative investigation to describe student nurses' learning processes in non-routine situations where...... transformation from one type of disjuncture to another.      Students and mentors are not aware that students are in potential learning situations when they interact on their own with patients, and that it is non-routine for students to act with patients in pseudo-everyday life activities. It may be possible......-conscious disjuncture, in development of the concept pseudo-everyday life activities and in a categorizing mo­del for and a theory about student nurses' learning processes. The theory includes relations between 4 types of  disjuncture, 3 types of content in the learning processes, and factors that provoke...

  16. Facility Utilization Reports -  FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  17. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  18. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  19. Information security becoming a priority for utilities

    Nicolaides, S. [Numerex, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    As part of North America's national critical infrastructure, utilities are finding themselves at the forefront of a security issue. In October 2007, a leading security service provider reported a 90 per cent increase in the number of hackers attempting to attack its utility clients in just one year. Utilities are vulnerable to cyber attacks that could disrupt power production and the transmission system. This article discussed the need for intelligent technologies in securely enabling resource management and operational efficiency of the utilities market. It discussed the unique security challenges that utilities face at a time of greater regulatory activity, heightened environmental concerns, tighter data security requirements and an increasing need for remote monitoring and control. A new tool has emerged for cyber security in the form of an international standard that may offer a strong guideline to work toward 11 security domains. These include security policy; organization of information security; asset management; human resources security; physical and environmental security; communications and operations management; access control; information systems acquisition; development and maintenance; information security incident management; business continuity management; and compliance. 2 figs.

  20. Electric utility industry and planning

    Schiffman, Y. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the workshop reported in these proceedings was to bring together planners, public officials, and community leaders with members of the utility industry to learn about utilities and to permit a meaningful exchange of information. This workshop was held at the Annual Meeting of the American Planning Association and its Energy Planning Division. The workshop was designed to inform planners about the electric-utility industry. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 4 individual presentations.

  1. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  2. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  3. Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

    Vine, E.

    1996-08-01

    Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.

  4. Reflections on Improvement of Utility Model System in China

    2006-01-01

    Even since 1985 when the Patent Law was launched in China, the utility model patent has been playing a very important role. Over the two decades, the utility model system has played an active part in encouraging invention-creations, and promoting the progress and development of science and technology.

  5. Utility photovoltaic group: Status report

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Hester, Stephen L.; Wills, Bethany N.

    1996-01-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) was formed in October of 1992 with a mission to accelerate the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging grid-connected applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. The UPVG is now implementing a program to install up to 50 megawatts of photovoltaics in small-scale and grid-connected applications. This program, called TEAM-UP, is a partnership of the U.S. electric utility industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. TEAM-UP is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for TEAM-UP: (1) Small-Scale Applications (SSA)—an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications; and (2) Grid-Connected Applications (GCA)—an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of the TEAM-UP process.

  6. Utility supply portfolio diversity requirements

    Hanser, Philip; Graves, Frank

    2007-06-15

    In general, diversification for its own sake by utilities is likely to come at significant cost from ignoring or having to overcome engineering reasons for preferring a less diversified portfolio of resources. Integrated utilities, distcos and merchant gencos are likely to pursue widely divergent strategies in this regard. (author)

  7. The Evaluator's Responsibility for Utilization.

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1988-01-01

    The role of the evaluator in insuring utilization and quality of evaluation results is discussed. Topics covered include a utilization-focused vision of accountability, overcoming staff fears of evaluation, eliciting the right information from users, situational responsiveness, and advocacy. (TJH)

  8. Utilizing Fractal Time

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    Linear concepts of time plus the modern capacity to track history emerged out of circular conceptions characteristic of ancient and traditional cultures. A fractal concept of time lies implicitly within the analog clock, where each moment is treated as unique. With fractal geometry the best descriptor of nature, qualities of self-similarity and scale invariance easily model her endless variety and recursive patterning, both in time and across space. To better manage temporal aspects of our lives, a fractal concept of time is non-reductive, based more on the fullness of being than on fragments of doing. By using a fractal concept of time, each activity or dimension of life is multiply and vertically nested. Each nested cycle remains simultaneously present, operating according to intrinsic dynamics and time scales. By adding the vertical axis of simultaneity to the horizontal axis of length, time is already full and never needs to be filled. To attend to time's vertical dimension is to tap into the imaginary potential for infinite depth. To switch from linear to fractal time allows us to relax into each moment while keeping in mind the whole.

  9. Information-Seeking, Research Utilization, and Barriers to Research Utilization of Pediatric Nurse Educators.

    Barta, Kathleen M.

    1995-01-01

    Responses from 52% of 409 pediatric nurse educators identified 3 top information sources for updating instruction: nursing journals, professional education activities, and texts. Level of research utilization measured by Nursing Practice Questionnaire-Education for eight nursing practices was the implementation stage. Those using nursing journals…

  10. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("Lunar ATV") to assist extra-vehicular activities...

  11. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  12. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("LATUV") to assist extra-vehicular activities in...

  13. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  14. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  15. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  16. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  17. Politics of public utility regulation

    Gormley, W.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, energy and telecommunications policies have emerged as increasingly complex and conflictual issues in state government and have, consequently, brought about change in the politics of public utilities regulation. In this analysis, Gormley shows that state public utilities commissions, in determining the rates that can be charged by private utility companies, must confront elected government officials, members of the state bureaucracy, citizens' groups, and the regulated industries themselves in a very visible, highly technical, costly, and controversial process that pits investors against consumers, business groups against residential consumers, consumer groups against environmentalists, and low-income consumers against consumers as a whole.

  18. Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere

    Sen, M. M.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Diatoms are unicellular eukaryotic algae and an important member of the silicon utilizing organisms, that generate ~20% of the ~100 billion metric tons of organic carbon produced through photosynthesis on Earth each year. Fragilariopsis is a dominating psychrophilic diatom genus in polar sea ice. The two species Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis curta are able to grow and divide below freezing temperature. Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), involved in cold adaptation in several psychrophilic organisms, are widespread in this two polar species. Achanthes minutissima isolated as dominant diatom has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have antibacterial activity and the fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has been identified as one compound responsible for this activity. Other antibacterial compounds are monounsaturated fatty acid (9Z)-hexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid; C16:1 n-7) and the relatively unusual polyunsaturated fatty acid (6Z, 9Z, 12Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA; C16:3 n-4). Both are active against Gram-positive bacteria and many Gram-negative pathogen. Palmitoleic acid is active at micro-molar concentrations, kills bacteria rapidly, and is highly active against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Domoic acid -a neurotoxin produced by Pseudo-nitzschia accumulates in marine invertebrates. Evidences of sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and human poisoning following consumption of contaminated blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) is mainly due to this toxin. Among the most prominent features described in human beings was memory impairment which led to the name Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning [ASP]. Silicon utilizing organisms can act as a bioindicator of environmental contamination, thus a rapid change in phytochelatins to both the increase in and the withdrawal of environmental Cd stress was found in Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii. Some of them also can produce biofuels particularly diatoms have significant

  19. Cloud Computing Utility and Applications

    Pradeep Kumar Tiwari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Architecture provides services on demand basis via internet (WWW services. Application design in cloud computing environment or the applications which support cloud paradigm are on demand on the basis of user requirement. Those applications provide the support on various hardware, software and other resource requirement on demand. API used in the cloud computing provide the greater advantage to provide industrial strength, where the complex reliability and scalability logic of the underlying services remains implemented and hidden in the cloud environment. Cloud Computing provide the highest utilization in terms of utilization, resource sharing, requirement gathering and utility to the other needful resources. In this paper we discuss several utility and their applications. We provide a broad discussion which is useful for cloud computing research.

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. US Forest Service Land Utilization

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for conservation and utilization under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm...

  2. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  3. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2000

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2010

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. Industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy

    Underhill, Gary K; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy is currently limited by the limited knowledge of the resource's distribution. However, the resource assessment activity in the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, has identified a number of fairway or potential resource zones. These zones are located in Kenedy County; in and about Corpus Christi and Nueces Bays in Nueces, San Patricio, and Aransas Counties; in the coastal zones of Matagorda County; and in a crescent-shaped zone parallel to the coastline in Brazoria and Galveston Counties. The Kenedy and Matagorda County zones are situated in rural areas with little or no industrial activity. The Corpus Christi and Brazoria-Galveston zones are in and adjacent to highly industrialized and urbanized districts. The rural zones will require the establishment of new industries for geothermal fluid utilization while the industrial-urban zones will require either new industry, expansion to existing industry, or modification to existing plant and process. Proposed industries for geothermal fluid utilization can be considered with respect to fitting the industry to the available fluids; this has been the usual approach. An alternate approach is to fit the abailable fluids to the proposed industry. In order to follow the alternate approach requires consideration of ways to upgrade the quality of existing geothermal fluids or geothermal-derived or -energized fluids.

  10. Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?

    John List; Charles Mason

    2009-01-01

    Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...

  11. Burnout and health care utilization.

    Jackson, C N; Manning, M R

    1995-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between burnout and health care utilization of 238 employed adults. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and health care utilization by insurance company records regarding these employees' health care costs and number of times they accessed health care services over a one year period. ANOVAs were conducted using Golembiewski and Munzenrider's approach to define the burnout phase. Significant differences in health care costs were found.

  12. Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-00-1-0495 TITLE: Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mary Ann Kosir, M.D...NUMBER Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAM D1 7-00-1-0495 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...perioperative training for lymphedema assessment and protection. The hypothesis is that structured perioperative training in lymphedema protection will

  13. How expensive is link utilization?

    Stanojević, Rade; Shorten, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between queueing delays and link utilization for general traffic conditions is an important open problem in networking research. Difficulties in understanding this relationship stem from the fact that it depends on the complex nature of arriving traffic and the problems associated with modelling such traffic. Existing AQM schemes achieve a "low delay" and "high utilization" by responding early to congestion without considering the exact relationship betwee...

  14. PROBLEMS OF UTILIZATION MANUFACTURABILITY OF MACHINES

    Kokorev G. D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains analysis of consumption of the main natural resources and their use in the automotive industry. It is noted that during the manufacture of the car pollution is obtained in 2 times more than in exploitation. It defines the essence of recycling process (autorecycling and its ecological components. Activity on autorecycling was expressed through the index of recycling efficiency. We have analyzed the global car fleet and average annual amount of automotive waste, million tons per year. We point out that one of the economic components of recycling is the use of parts and mechanisms of machines ready for further use, by qualitative technical diagnostics with use of diagnostics devices. The problem of utilization technological effectiveness of cars as set of the properties characterizing fitness of a design to utilization at the minimum costs of time, work, means, providing the minimum negative impact on environment and the maximum involvement of components of the written-off equipment in processing or a reuse is considered. The main definitions and factors defining utilization technological effectiveness and its main indicators are given. The main ways of increasing of utilization technological effectiveness of cars are offered and the conclusion is drawn that simplifying dismantling of the car on automobile components, reducing dismantle time, time of draining of everything, the liquids and oils applied at operation, applying environmentally friendly materials, etc., the designer can increase technological effectiveness of the car at utilization. As a result of the solved task we have got ecological and economic effect of vehicle recycling

  15. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    Kan; ZHENG; Dong; LIANG; Xirui; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China,and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut.The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk,roots,withered coconut leaves,coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut,mainly used for biogas extraction,direct combustion and power generation,brewing,pharmacy,and processing of building materials;the wastes generated during processing include coconut water,coconut coat,coconut shell and coconut meal,mainly used for processing beverages,pharmaceutical products,activated carbon,medium and feed.This paper analyzes and explores some problems in the process of comprehensive utilization of coconut waste in China,such as insufficient understanding,inadequate development and lack of research efforts,and finally puts forth the corresponding development countermeasures.

  16. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    activity which converted cyanate (CNO-) to ammonia and CO2. On the other hand, cyanase activity either was absent or was present at very low levels in the autotrophic strains grown on thiocyanate as the sole energy and N source. As a result, large amounts of cyanate were found to accumulate in the media during utilization of thiocyanate at pH 10 in batch and thiocyanate-limited continuous cultures. This is a first direct proof of a "cyanate pathway" in pure cultures of thiocyanate-degrading bacteria. Since it is relatively stable under alkaline conditions, cyanate is likely to play a role as an N buffer that keeps the alkaliphilic bacteria safe from inhibition by free ammonia, which otherwise would reach toxic levels during dissimilatory degradation of thiocyanate.

  17. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 2-thiophen-5-yl-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogues as inhibitors of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation: Their possible utilization as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents.

    Giri, Rajan S; Thaker, Hardik M; Giordano, Tony; Williams, Jill; Rogers, Donna; Vasu, Kamala K; Sudarsanam, Vasudevan

    2010-04-01

    In an attempt to discover novel inhibitors of NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation utilizing the concept of chemical lead based medicinal chemistry and bioisosterism a series of 2-(2,3-disubstituted-thiophen-5-yl)-3H-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed. A facile and simple route for the synthesis of the designed molecules was developed. Synthesized molecules were evaluated for their activity as inhibitors towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation in a cell line report-based assay. This series provides us with a substantial number of compounds inhibiting the activity of NF-kappaB and/or AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. These compounds also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity in in vivo models of inflammation and cancer. The 4-pyridyl group is found to be the most important pharmacophore on the third position of thiophene ring for inhibiting NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation. The relationships between the activities shown by these compounds in the in vivo and in vitro models have been established by using FVB transgenic mice model. These results suggest the suitability of the designed molecular framework as a potential scaffold for the design of molecules with inhibitory activity towards NF-kappaB and AP-1 mediated transcriptional activation, which may also exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. This series of molecules warrants further study to explore their potential as therapies for use in chronic inflammatory conditions and cancer. Development of the synthetic protocol for the synthesis of this series of molecules, biological activities and a structure-activity relationship (SAR) have been discussed herein.

  18. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  19. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  20. Heat utilization (2); Netsuriyo (2)

    Akizawa, Jun [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Tecnology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-31

    (102) The application of the carbon dioxide separation and collection system using CPC to the thermal power plant. (103) The effect of the scattered light on collection of heat of solar pond. (104) The development of the Basin- multiple-effect compound type solar heat distiller. (Production and performance test of the small plant.) (105) On the plan of the new-model solar heat engine. (106) The performance prediction of solar power system using Stirling engine. (Part 2 The case in which the divided condenser was used.) (107) The trial manufacture of the sun cooker. It was announced and was made of 6 from various regions in this session on the heat utilization. On the multiple-effect compound type solar heat distiller, the comment that the feasibility could be expected from the simple structure was made. And, the question on system operation of allocation of the distillation quantity, etc. was actively made. On 2 of plan of the new-model solar heat engine and trial manufacture of the sun cooker, it was not possible that the publicator came for the aged to Okinawa, and instead, it became an announcement by tape and OHP blown in self. Though it was the form which there was no in the convention, it could be heard of that it is major field. It was thought, because there was some an announcement on the Stirling engine in the this session, place be able to. And, photograph and experimental result of the prototype are also included for the announcement of the sun cooker and want to desire the opportunities which hear the direct announcement. It wants to be thankful for hardship Mr.Naito the Science and Technology Agency National Aerospace Laboratory that it carried tape and OHP and assisted the announcement. The biomass. (108) The measurement approach of the environment resuscitation acceleration effect. (109) The basic research on the biogas storage by the clathration. The behavior of the carbon dioxide in the clathrate generation. (111) The solar thermal application

  1. Effective Utilization Of Tax Revenue In Nigeria

    Michael Baghebo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to examine the effective utilization of tax revenue vis-à-vis the impact of Government expenditure on economic growth and development of Nigeria. Government intervenes in the economy through a variety of policies, of these policies, two are most important. They are fiscal and monetary policy. This work is on the expenditure component of fiscal policy. Until recently, Nigeria has been one of the most disappointing development stories of the modern era-a cautionary tale of the risk of huge revenue from taxation in an environment of weak governance. In recent years, the most conspicuous fact about Nigeria’s economy is that corruption and mismanagement of its post- colonial government has prevented the channeling of the country’s resources from taxation and other sources into lasting improvements in infrastructure and the construction of a sound base for self sustaining economic development. Thus despite increasing revenue base, the rate of poverty, unemployment, high rate of inflation, low capacity utilization in industry, debt overhang, deterioration or stagnation of economic activities still prevail. From the foregoing, it should be clear what need to be done to improve the effective utilization of government fiscal (spending operations by: improving the quantity and quality of resources available to the government for its activities and improve the ways in which the resources available to the government are managed through the application of cost benefit analysis, expenditure analysis, transparency and accountability in the conduct of government business and also ensuring at all times that people of doubtful character are not elected into government or are not entrusted with the management of public resources. Avoiding actions that induce government officials to behave in corrupt ways and been genuinely interested in what government is doing. That is been critical in the activities of government.

  2. Back to Bentham? Explorations of experience utility

    Wakker, P.P.; Kahneman, D.; Sarin, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two core meanings of "utility" are distinguished. "Decision utility" is the weight of an outcome in a decision. "Experienced utility" is hedonic quality, as in Bentham's usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remem

  3. E-Commerce for utilities

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  4. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory to charac......An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  5. Utility launches computer information service

    Beaty, W. [ed.; Ordonez, B.

    1994-12-01

    Three employees at Lee County Electric Cooperative in North Fort Meyers, Fla., have developed InterLine, an on-line computer service designed specifically for the electric utility industry. Since introducing InterLine to the public, the development team has been looking at what areas of information would be most useful to subscribers. In the initial phase, system features include forums on electrical engineering, safety and health and transmission and distribution, a library of files and the Internet gateway. If InterLIne is embraced by the electric utility industry, long range plans are to take it internationls.

  6. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  7. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment; Estudo comparativo da utilizacao de aceleradores industriais de eletrons e adsorcao com carvao ativado para tratamento de efluentes industriais

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  8. The Library Space Utilization Methodology.

    Hall, Richard B.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Library Space Utilization (LSU) methodology, which demonstrates that significant information about the functional requirements of a library can be measured and displayed in a quantitative and graphic form. It measures "spatial" relationships between selected functional divisions; it also determines how many people--staff and…

  9. 1999 international ash utilization symposium

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    112 papers were presented covering various aspects of the utilization of coal and other combustion products. Topics included fundamental chemistry and mineralogy, new products, health and environmental aspects, economic development issues, agricultural and mine reclamation applications, concrete and cement, and fly ash beneficiation technologies. Selected papers will be published in the journal 'Fuel'.

  10. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-03-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  11. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  12. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  13. Active ingredients of olive oil processing wastes and their comprehensive utilization technique:a review%橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术研究进展

    2016-01-01

    在橄榄油的生产加工过程中产生了大量的富含生物活性物质的废弃物,这些废弃物均未得到有效的开发利用,造成了极大的资源浪费和环境污染.实现橄榄油加工废弃物的高值化综合开发利用是实现油橄榄产业可持续发展的重要保障之一.结合国内外研究报道,总结了橄榄油加工废弃物中的活性成分及其综合利用技术的研究现状,旨在为橄榄油加工废弃物的综合开发利用提供可行思路和技术参考.%Abundant wastes with bioactive compounds are produced during olive oil production. Those wastes are not utilized reasonably and lead to the problems of resource waste and environmental pollution. Comprehensive exploitation and utilization of olive oil processing wastes ( OPW) with high value is one of the most important strategies for olive industry achieving sustainable development. The active ingredients in OPW and their comprehensive utilization techniques were summarized so as to provide a feasible solu-tion and technical reference for OPW.

  14. Subjective ambiguity, expected utility and Choquet expected utility

    Jiankang Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Using the Savage set up, this paper provides a simple axiomatization of the Choquet Expected Utility model where the capacity is an inner measure. Two attractive features of the model are its specificity and the transparency of its axioms. The key axiom states that the decision-maker uses unambiguous acts to approximate ambiguous ones. In addition, the notion of `ambiguity' is subjective and derived from preferences.

  15. Effects of Phosphorus Supply Level on Phosphatase Activity and Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization Efficiency of Young Newhall Navel Orange Trees%供磷水平对纽荷尔脐橙幼树磷酸酶活性和磷素吸收利用效率的影响

    樊卫国; 王立新

    2013-01-01

    The experiment of young Newhall navel orange trees grafted on Poncirus trifoliate (L. ) Raf. in pots were conducted to study the effects of various phosphorus supply levels on the acid phosphatase (APase) activity and phosphorus absorption and utilization efficiency and to provide the scientific basis for soil nutrition diagnosis and determination of suitable phosphorus application quantity in Newhall navel orange garden. The results showed that the APase activity of roots, leaves and soil and SAPase activity of roots were negatively correlated to phosphorus supply levels among 7 phosphorus supply treatments range from 5 to 125 mg/kg. The APase activity of roots, leaves and soil and SAPase activity of roots were the highest and phosphorus utilization efficiency of the whole plant, above-ground part and roots was the maximum under 5 mg/kg phosphorus supply level but leaves displayed the symptoms of phosphorus deficiency. The biomass and phosphorus absorption efficiency of the whole plant, above-ground part and roots under 25 mg/kg phosphorus supply level reached the highest but its phosphorus utilization efficiency was lower than that under 5 mg/kg phosphorus supply level. The growth of young Newhall navel orange trees under above 65 mg/kg phosphorus supply level was inhibited obviously and the APase activity of roots, leaves and soil and SAPase activity of roots, as well as phosphorus absorption and utilization efficiency were reduced significantly. In conclusion,25 -45 mg/kg phosphorus supply level is beneficial to growth and phosphorus absorption and utilization of young Newhall navel orange trees.%为了探索柑橘对磷养分的吸收利用特性,为柑橘园土壤养分的诊断及施磷量的确定提供科学依据,以枳砧纽荷尔脐橙幼树为材料,采用盆栽试验研究了不同供磷水平对其磷酸酶活性和磷素吸收利用效率的影响.结果表明:在5~125 mg/kg 7个供磷水平处理中,纽荷尔脐橙幼树根系、叶片及土壤

  16. Workplace Stress, Organizational Factors and EAP Utilization

    Azzone, Vanessa; McCann, Bernard; Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Hiatt, Deirdre; Hodgkin, Dominic; Horgan, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relationships between workplace stress, organizational factors and use of EAP counseling services delivered by network providers in a large, privately-insured population. Claims data were linked to measures of workplace stress, focus on wellness/prevention, EAP promotion, and EAP activities for health care plan enrollees from 26 employers. The association of external environment and work organization variables with use of EAP counseling services was examined. Higher levels of EAP promotion and worksite activities were associated with greater likelihood of service use. Greater focus on wellness/prevention and unusual and significant stress were associated with lower likelihood of service use. Results provide stakeholders with insights on approaches to increasing utilization of EAP services. PMID:24058322

  17. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study to Investigate the Utility of a Picture Imagination Task in Investigating Neural Responses in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain to Daily Physical Activity Photographs.

    Ann M Taylor

    Full Text Available Pain-related anxiety and fear are associated with increased difficulties in attention, increased awareness of pain, impaired disengagement from pain, and can moderate the effects of attentional coping attempts. Accurately assessing the direct impact of pain-related anxiety and fear on pain behavior has proved difficult. Studies have demonstrated no or limited influence of pain-related fear and anxiety on behavior but this may be due to inherent problems with the scales used. Neuroimaging has improved the understanding of neural processes underlying the factors that influence pain perception. This study aimed to establish if a Picture and Imagination Task (PIT, largely developed from the Photographs of Daily Activity (PHODA assessment tool, could help explore how people living with chronic pain process information about daily activities. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to compare brain responses in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSKP (n = 15 and healthy controls (n = 15. Subjects were asked to imagine how they would feel mentally and physically if asked to perform daily activities illustrated in PIT. The results found that a number of regions involved in pain processing saw increased BOLD activation in patients compared with controls when undertaking the task and included the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus and inferior and superior parietal cortices. Similarly, increased BOLD responses in patients compared to controls in the frontal pole, paracingulate and the supplementary motor cortex may be suggestive of a memory component to the responses The amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, substantia nigra/ventral tegmentum, putamen, thalamus, pallidum, inferior parietal (supramarginal and angular gyrus and cingulate cortex were also seen to have greater differences in BOLD signal changes in patients compared with controls and many of these regions are also associated

  18. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  19. Fluid Substitution Modeling to Determine Sensitivity of 3D Vertical Seismic Profile Data to Injected CO­2­ at an active Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project, Farnsworth field, TX.

    Haar, K. K.; Balch, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration monitors a CO2 capture, utilization and storage project at Farnsworth field, TX. The reservoir interval is a Morrowan age fluvial sand deposited in an incised valley. The sands are between 10 to 25m thick and located about 2800m below the surface. Primary oil recovery began in 1958 and by the late 1960's secondary recovery through waterflooding was underway. In 2009, Chaparral Energy began tertiary recovery using 100% anthropogenic CO2 sourced from an ethanol and a fertilizer plant. This constitutes carbon sequestration and fulfills the DOE's initiative to determine the best approach to permanent carbon storage. One purpose of the study is to understand CO­2 migration from injection wells. CO2­ plume spatial distribution for this project is analyzed with the use of time-lapse 3D vertical seismic profiles centered on CO2 injection wells. They monitor raypaths traveling in a single direction compared to surface seismic surveys with raypaths traveling in both directions. 3D VSP surveys can image up to 1.5km away from the well of interest, exceeding regulatory requirements for maximum plume extent by a factor of two. To optimize the timing of repeat VSP acquisition, the sensitivity of the 3D VSP surveys to CO2 injection was analyzed to determine at what injection volumes a seismic response to the injected CO­2 will be observable. Static geologic models were generated for pre-CO2 and post-CO2 reservoir states through construction of fine scale seismic based geologic models, which were then history matched via flow simulations. These generated static states of the model, where CO2­ replaces oil and brine in pore spaces, allow for generation of impedance volumes which when convolved with a representative wavelet generate synthetic seismic volumes used in the sensitivity analysis. Funding for the project is provided by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  20. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  1. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  2. Comprehensive utilization of digested residue

    Reizhi Shen [Soil and Fertilizer Inst. of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China)

    2000-07-01

    The application history of biogas technology in China covers almost one century. Until the 1980's, people's attention not only focused on the benefit of biogas as people's daily fuel, but also on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues. People are more and more interested in these methods of comprehensive utilization, which has led to many research projects on, among others, ''digested effluent as feed additive for pigs'', ''digested sludge for growing mushroom'', and ''digested effluent as pesticide''. Not only are biogas fermentation, organic waste such as animal manure, crop straw, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses converted to biogas, but also digested residues are very useful with a lot of ''potential value'' and ''special functions'', which will bring far more benefits than biogas alone. Some progress on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues in the past ten years is summarized below. (orig.)

  3. Electroluminescence of a Multi-Layered Organic Light-Emitting Diode Utilizing Trans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-Methylphridinium Tetraphenylborate as the Active Layer

    Feng, Xue-Yuan; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Xu, Chun-Xiang; Qiao, Yi; Cui, Yi-Ping

    2006-06-01

    Employing an organic dye salt of trans-4-[p-[N-methyl-N-(hydroxymethyl)amino]styryl]-N-methylphridinium tetraphenylborate (ASPT) as the active layer, 8-hydrocyquinoline aluminium (Alq3) as the electron transporting layer and N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diamine (TPD) as the hole transporting layer, respectively, we fabricate a multi-layered organic light-emitting diode and observe the colour tunable electroluminescence (EL). The dependence of the EL spectra on the applied voltage is investigated in detail, and the recombination mechanism is discussed by considering the variation of the hole-electron recombination region.

  4. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The

  5. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The

  6. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  7. Aproveitamento da casca de citros na perspectiva de alimentos: prospecção da atividade antibacteriana Utilization of citrus by-products in food perspective: screening of antibacterial activity

    Carin Gerhardt

    2012-05-01

    export of orange juice. The State of Rio Grande Do Sul is an important producer of citrus. During farming and processing of citrus, tons of residues are generated, with low commercial value and great potential for use in the field of food production. These residues possess many nutrients, pigments and bioactive compounds, as well as low toxicity and cost. There is evidence that the peel of citrus have antibacterial and antifungal activity. In this work, we aim to determine the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of citrus peels in the perspective of disinfection and preservation of food, presenting sustainable and natural alternatives directed at consumers concerned with health. Ethanolic extracts of crude peel of ripe ponkan tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco, pomelo (Citrus maxima (Burm. Merr. and rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck were obtained from ecological family farms. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated regarding Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC against five different bacterial strains. The rangpur lime extract presented the best antibacterial activity, with about 24 mg.mL-1 MIC and 42 mg.mL-1 MBC for the most resistant strain. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive strain. All ethanolic extracts inhibited or inactivated all tested strains, indicating they could be used as natural alternatives in food disinfection and preservation.

  8. A humanitarian mission in southern Iraq: utilization of the 7th Field Hospital of the Army of the Czech Republic--a report on its medical activities and working conditions.

    Chmátal, Petr; Bohonĕk, Milos; Dobiásová, Martina; Hasek, Robert; Cernohous, Miroslav

    2005-06-01

    Between April 24 and September 18, 2003, a total of 7,099 outpatient treatments were performed. Between June 3 and September 18, 2003, a total of 124 patients were surgically treated and 209 patients were hospitalized; the hospital recorded 1,239 bed-days, 137 of them in the intensive care unit. A total of 924 X-ray and ultrasound examinations were performed, as well as 10,014 laboratory tests. Local inhabitants accounted for 90.5% of the patients. In their practice, the doctors encountered a very wide spectrum of surgical and nonsurgical diagnoses. Part of the work was to support humanitarian activities, with supplies of humanitarian material, selection of children for specialized cardiosurgical treatment in the Czech Republic, and blood donations. Work in that unstable region was significantly complicated by the extreme climate and the high security risk.

  9. Physics Instruction Utilizing Culture-Based Pedagogy

    Nerrie E. Malaluan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research assessed topics in physics where culture-based pedagogy may be utilized and the applicability of Batangueño culture to these topics. It also determined the visual presentations which canbe prepared by teachers to incorporate Batangueñoculture in physics instruction. The end purpose of the study was to develop a teaching guide using culture-based pedagogy to reinforce the student’s learning, and help them achieve high academic performance. Descriptive method was adopted with questionnaire as tool in gathering data. Interviews and focus group discussions were also conducted. Thirty physics teachers in public secondary schools of the Division of Batangas City served as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied in determining the respondents. Frequency, percentage, ranking and weighted mean were statistical tools applied. Findings revealed that the culture-based pedagogy that could be utilized in teaching physics was on topics: Constant and Uniformly Acceleration; Work, Power and Energy; Laws of Motion; Projectile Motion; Heat and Light. Batangueño culture was found applicable in teaching physics. The visual presentations which could be used were pictures, powerpoint and video clips. Moreover, the proposed teaching guide utilizing culture-based pedagogy may be used by teachersto heighten students’ interest and motivation and to attain active participation and high achievement. It may be a reference of employing Batangueño culture in teaching the topics. It was recommended that the output be presented to the school heads and supervisors for their comments and suggestions for enrichment of content and application of culture-based pedagogy not only in science but in other learning areas.

  10. Vision 2021. The utilities future

    Liere, J. van [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    The electricity industry is gradually making the transition to a free market economy characterized by competition. With the arrival of a more market-oriented structure, the electricity companies have taken measures to reduce costs while retaining reliability and safety of the production and distribution. Today the majority of these efforts are oriented towards optimizing the scope and the structure of the organizations and towards streamlining internal processes in order to improve productivity. Throughout the world, the increasing competition among utilities is accompanied by the unbundling of production, transport, distribution and customer service functions. There is a remarkable similarity between the transitions in the computer industry some years ago (from main frame to personal PC`s) and in the electric utility industry today. The new structure is expected to be less centralized and more dispersed. In the dispersed generation concept the locally deployed power plant must become smaller, more flexible, more efficient and less expensive than today`s power plants. Power generation is gradually changing from a steam cycle (Rankine cycle) via the combined cycle to the gas cycle (Brayton cycle). The fuel used to power the gas turbine is expected to change in the future from high calorific to low calorific gas, generated from biomass, waste, oil residues, blast furnaces, coal, etc. Five new areas to be addressed have been identified that can be characterized as follows: (a) improved utilization of capital-intensive production resources to reduce costs, (b) electrification and the supply of heat to increase sales and market share, (c) sustainable developments to broaden our future resource base, (d) improved efficiency based on the Brayton cycle to increase flexibility, (e) development of energy services with new secondary services to stay in the market. (EG) 10 refs.

  11. Saving and Utilizing on Water Resources from Steel Making

    HuLiguang

    2005-01-01

    In this espy, the author gives some presentation of the water saving practices in Baosteel for years. Relying on water saving research program and by means of water utilization analysis, water consumption distribution balance test water from every sequence of production activities, Baosteel promotes the waste saving projects including waster water comprehensive utilization and water loss reduction.At the same time, the water utilization technology analysis work and management work have considerably strengthened and operation of saving on fresh water sources and waster water utilization has been put into practice with the purpose to decrease water loss per ton of steel making, while the quality of water is placed under guarantee, a number of new records of water consumption ratio comes into being constantly.

  12. Consulting report on the NASA technology utilization network system

    Hlava, Marjorie M. K.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of this consulting effort are: (1) to evaluate the existing management and production procedures and workflow as they each relate to the successful development, utilization, and implementation of the NASA Technology Utilization Network System (TUNS) database; (2) to identify, as requested by the NASA Project Monitor, the strengths, weaknesses, areas of bottlenecking, and previously unaddressed problem areas affecting TUNS; (3) to recommend changes or modifications of existing procedures as necessary in order to effect corrections for the overall benefit of NASA TUNS database production, implementation, and utilization; and (4) to recommend the addition of alternative procedures, routines, and activities that will consolidate and facilitate the production, implementation, and utilization of the NASA TUNS database.

  13. Optical Isolator Utilizing Surface Plasmons

    Shinji Yuasa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of optical loss for surface plasmons propagating in opposite directions. Utilizing this structure, it is feasible to fabricate a competitive plasmonic isolator, which benefits from a broad wavelength operational bandwidth and a good technological compatibility for integration into the Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC. The linear dispersion relation was derived for plasmons propagating in a multilayer magneto-optical slab.

  14. Utilization of Fatliquors by Fungi

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available wenty five fungi isolated from deteriorated finished leathers have been tested to know their relative capacity to utilize the fatliquors viz., raw fish oil, castor oil, fish oil (sulphated, spindle oil turkey red oil and coconut oil. All these fatty substances supported the growth of all the fungi except a few species of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Drechslera which showed moderate growth. The studies support the contention that fatliquors initially provide a substrate for the growth of fungi on finished leather and its products.

  15. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  16. Asymptotics of robust utility maximization

    Knispel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.

  17. European utilities. What are the advantages, limits and perspectives of the multi-utilities model?; Les utilities europeennes. Quels sont les atouts, les limites et les perspectives du modele multi-utilities?

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Since several years, the European utilities (public service companies) have started a movement of broadening of their offer. They now encompass the overall domain of collective services (mainly electricity, natural gas, wastes and water) to propose global offers. The European utilities also go deeper in their range of offers with the management of fluxes (fluid supplies), of services (energy) and the externalization of infrastructures (cogeneration unit, waste water treatment plants, etc..). The multi-utilities model (association of at least 2 collective services inside a same portfolio of activities) has become a standard. This strategic evolution, implemented since several years in Europe, has been possible thanks to regulation changes: opening of gas and electricity markets to competition, increase of environmental standard requirements, delegation of services. If the multi-utilities concept appears as attractive, several questions remain unanswered: what are the real synergies between collective service activities? Is the multi-utilities model viable? How to finance such a model? How to construct and commercialize global offers? What are the commercial and financial results of the multi-utilities model? What are the alternatives to this model? Which strategic future to the European utilities? This study makes a precise status of the European markets of collective services. It analyzes the strategy of the European groups which have adopted the multi-utilities model and shows the advantages and limits of this strategic model. The study includes an analysis of the financial performances of the 20 main European groups which allows to foresee two scenarios of mid-term evolution for this sector. (J.S.)

  18. Development and validation of reversed phase liquid chromatographic method utilizing ultraviolet detection for quantification of irinotecan (CPT-11) and its active metabolite, SN-38, in rat plasma and bile samples: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Bansal, Tripta; Awasthi, Anshumali; Jaggi, Manu; Khar, Roop K; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2008-09-15

    A new, simple, sensitive and specific reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using ultraviolet detection was developed and validated for the analysis of CPT-11 (lambda(max)=254 nm, 365 nm) and its major active metabolite, SN-38 (lambda(max)=380 nm) in rat plasma and bile. The sample pre-treatment from plasma involved a single protein precipitation step with cold acetonitrile. In case of bile, liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane: tert-butyl methyl ether (3:7) was carried out. Topotecan, a structurally related camptothecin, was used as an internal standard. An aliquot of 50 microL was injected onto a C-18 column. The chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution consisting of acetonitrile and water (pH 3.0 adjusted with 20% o-phosphoric acid) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Total run time for each sample was 30 min. All the analytes viz. topotecan, CPT-11, SN-38 were well separated with retention times of 11.4, 13.4 and 15.5 min, respectively. Method was found to be selective, linear (R(2) approximately 0.999), accurate (recovery+/-15%) and precise (<5% C.V.) in the selected concentration ranges for both the analytes. The quantification limit for CPT-11 was 40 ngml(-1) and for SN-38 was 25 ngml(-1). The percent extraction efficiency was approximately 97% for CPT-11 and SN-38 from plasma while extraction recovery of CPT-11 and SN-38 from bile was approximately 70% and approximately 60%, respectively. The method was successfully used to determine plasma and biliary excretion time profiles of CPT-11 and SN-38, following oral and intravenous CPT-11 administration in rats. In the present study, irinotecan showed an absolute bioavailability of 30% as calculated from the pharmacokinetic data.

  19. Assessment of individual dose utilization vs. physician prescribing recommendations for recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in paediatric and adult patients with congenital haemophilia and alloantibody inhibitors (CHwI): the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia (DOSE).

    Gruppo, R A; Kessler, C M; Neufeld, E J; Cooper, D L

    2013-07-01

    Recent data from the Dosing Observational Study in Hemophilia diary study has described home treatment with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in congenital haemophilia with inhibitors (CHwI). The current analysis compares prescribed and patient/caregiver-reported rFVIIa administration in paediatric and adult CHwI patients in this study. Patients with ≥ 4 bleeding episodes within a 3-month period prescribed rFVIIa as first-line therapy for bleeding episodes were eligible. Patients/caregivers completed a diary for ≥ 90 days or until the patient experienced four bleeds. Initial, total and mean rFVIIa doses reported for each bleeding episode were calculated and compared with the physician-prescribed doses. Of 52 enrolled patients (25 children; 27 adults), 39 (75%) completed the study. Children and adults had similar mean durations of bleeding episodes. Both patient groups were administered higher initial rFVIIa doses for joint bleeds than prescribed: median (range) 215.2 (74.1-400.0) mcg kg(-1) vs. 200.0 (61.0-270.0) mcg kg(-1) for children, and 231.3 (59.3-379.7) mcg kg(-1) vs. 123.0 (81.0-289.0) mcg kg(-1) for adults. The median infused dose for joint bleeds was higher in adults than children (175.2 vs. 148.0 mcg kg(-1) ), but children received significantly more doses per joint bleed than adults (median 6.5 vs. 3.0). The median total dose per joint bleed was higher in children than adults (1248.7 vs. 441.6). For children and adults, both initial and additional doses administered for bleeds were higher than prescribed. Children received higher total doses per bleed due to an increased number of infusions per bleed.

  20. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  1. Hypertext Cross-Reference Utilities

    Warren-Smith, R. F.; Draper, P. W.

    This document describes a set of ``Hypertext Cross-Reference Utilities'' (HTX) which are designed to help maintain large documentation sets whose constituent documents are written using the Hypertext Markup Languagee (HTML). The central part of HTX is a hypertext linker, hlink. This allows hyper-links (or cross-references) to be established between related documents in such a way that it is easy to maintain their integrity as individual documents are updated. Information produced by this linking process is also used by other HTX utilities to provide document search facilities and the ability to randomly access any part of a documentation set. This latter capability forms a basis for constructing hypertext help systems for use by other software. The expected readership of this document includes those who read hypertext documentation, those who write it, and those who maintain it, especially those who write and maintain Starlink documentation. Software developers may also be interested in the possibilities for hypertext help that HTX provides.

  2. High-utilizing Crohn's disease patients under psychosomatic therapy*

    Jantschek Günther

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few studies have been published on health care utilization in Crohn's disease and the influence of psychological treatment on high utilizers. Methods The present sub study of a prospective multi center investigation conducted in 87 of 488 consecutive Crohn's disease (CD patients was designed to investigate the influence of the course of Crohn's disease on health care utilization (hospital days (HD and sick leave days (SLD collected by German insurance companies and to examine the conditions of high-utilizing patients. Predictors of health care utilization should be selected. Based on a standardized somatic treatment, high health care utilizing patients of the psychotherapy and control groups should be compared before and after a one-year treatment. Results Multivariate regression analysis identified disease activity at randomization as an important predictor of the clinical course (r2 = 0.28, p 2 = 0.15, p = 0.09. The patients' level of anxiety, depression and lack of control at randomization predicted their health-related quality of life at the end of the study (r2 = 0.51, p 2 = 0.22, p Among high utilizers, a significantly greater drop in HD (p Conclusion The course of Crohn's disease is influenced by psychological as well as somatic factors; especially depression seems important here. A significant drop of health care utilization demonstrates the benefit of psychological treatment in the subgroup of high-utilizing CD patients. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of the clinical outcome in this CD subgroup.

  3. TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Utility Demonstration

    1989-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/ou desip unit to fire 2.5 sulfur coal. The slogging combustor process will provide NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Envirommental Standards. TRW-CBU scope of work includes the engineering, design and supply of the slogging combustors, coal and limestone feed systems and a control system for these components. During this report period, the design activities for all systems progressed to permit the release of specifications and requests for proposals. Award of contracts for long-delivery items and major equipment are being placed to meet the revised program schedule.

  4. TALEN utilization in rice genome modifications.

    Li, Ting; Liu, Bo; Chen, Chih Ying; Yang, Bing

    2014-08-15

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the newly developed and powerful genetic tools for precise genome editing, are fusion proteins of TAL effectors as DNA binding domains and the cleavage domain of FokI endonuclease. As a pair, the central repeat regions of TALENs determine the DNA binding specificity for the two sub-target sites; and the dimeric non-specific FokI cleavage domains cause a DNA double strand break (DSB) between the bound sequences. In vivo, cells repair the DSBs through either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway or homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Various methods have been developed for easy and fast assembly of TALEN genes for their utilization in a variety of eukaryotic cells or organisms. Here we present a TALEN-based rice genome modification protocol including constructing modularly assembled TALENs, rice transformation, and mutant screening.

  5. ADVANCED GASIFICATION BY-PRODUCT UTILIZATION

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2005-04-01

    The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2003 to August 31, 2004. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  6. 76 FR 17379 - Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    2011-03-29

    ... Rural Utilities Service Information Collection Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... collection and recordkeeping activities (see 5 CFR 1320.8(d)). This notice identifies an information.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development Utilities Programs, invites comments on this...

  7. Utilities:Power:Power-Related Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Power:utilpnt_power)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents power-related utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System...

  8. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Harold Schobert

    2006-02-01

    With the recent passing of new legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported for the period September 1, 2004 to August 31, 2005. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involves the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers.

  9. Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization

    Omae, Iwao [Omae Research Laboratories, 335-23 Mizuno, Sayama, Saitama 350-1317 (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon-carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially, the productions of formic acid, formic acid methyl ester and dimethylformamide with a ruthenium catalyst; dimethyl carbonate and urethanes with a dialkyltin catalyst; 2-pyrone with a nickel-phosphine catalyst; diphenyl carbonate with a lead phenoxide catalyst; the alternating copolymerization of carbon dioxide and epoxides with a zinc catalyst has attracted attentions as the industrial utilizations of carbon dioxide. The further development of these production processes is expected. (author)

  10. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  11. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  12. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  13. Differential Availability and Utilization of Agricultural Publications (Haringhata Study).

    Dey, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    A study of rural Indian villages was undertaken to determine the availability of agricultural publications and the extent of use by farmers. Low utilization was related to illiteracy, inaccessibility of villages, and lack of government and university extension activity. Recommendations included increasing the publication and distribution of farm…

  14. The Utilization of Home Help in Sweden: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Thorslund, Mats; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Estimated effect of variety of factors on the utilization of home help among the elderly in Sweden using a sample (n=421) of people 75 years and older. Results indicated physical functioning (instrumental activities of daily living) and living alone were most important. (Author/ABL)

  15. Fuel utilization during exercise after 7 days of bed rest

    Barrows, Linda H.; Harris, Bernard A.; Moore, Alan D.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Energy yield from carbohydrate, fat, and protein during physical activity is partially dependent on an individual's fitness level. Prolonged exposure to microgravity causes musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning; these adaptations may alter fuel utilization during space flight. Carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise were analyzed before and after 7 days of horizontal bed rest.

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  17. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  18. Health utilities of hypertensive patients in Vietnam

    Nguyen, T.P.; Postma, M.J.; Veninga, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With a lack of an essential evidence on utilities to support cost-effectiveness analysis of hypertension management in Vietnam, we aimed to gather data on health utilities for hypertensive patients and identify predictors of utility. Methods: Hypertensive patients, from 40 to 80 years ol

  19. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  20. 25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility charges. 700.105 Section 700.105 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for...

  1. 49 CFR 218.22 - Utility employee.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility employee. 218.22 Section 218.22... employee. (a) A utility employee shall be subject to the Hours of Service Act, and the requirements for... parts 217, 219, and 228 of this chapter. (b) A utility employee shall perform service as a member...

  2. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  3. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  4. Research Utilization in Social Work Education.

    Briar, Scott, Ed.; And Others

    The Project on Research Utilization in Social Work Education established in 1976 is described. There are eight chapters to the report. Chapter 1 describes the project. The broad goals of the project were to: (1) analyze the dynamics of research utilization in social work; (2) identify the obstacles to research utilization, especially those that…

  5. Active magnetic regenerator

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  6. Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Research Activities and Utilization: A Turkish Sample

    Nurcan Ertu\\u011F

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las actividades de investigación y la utilización de los resultados de la investi - gación por parte los estudiantes de enfermería de pregrado. Método: un diseño descriptivo fue utilizado en el estudio que se desarrolló con estudiantes de pregrado de enfermería en dos universidades en Turquía durante el semestre de primavera de 2012. La población estuvo conformada por 216 participantes. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un cuestionario elaborado por el autor en base a la literatura. Las pruebas de porcentaje, chi-cuadrado y la prueba exacta de Fisher fueron utilizados para evaluar los datos recogidos. Resultados: aproximadamente la mitad de los estudiantes (49,5 % sabían cómo acceder a las publicaciones científicas, pero ninguno de los estudiantes siguen o leen publicaciones científicas. Solo unos pocos estudiantes (4,2 % habían participado en una actividad de investigación científica. Se encontró que el 87,0 % de los estudiantes no utilizan los resultados de la investigación en la práctica clínica. De 216 estudiantes, el 34,4 % no sabe cómo utilizar los resultados de la investigación científica. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los estudiantes no utilizan los resultados de la investigación en la práctica clínica. Falta de conocimiento sobre el uso de la investigación fue la razón más importante para que los estudiantes no utilizaran los resultados de la investigación. Se sugiere que los estudiantes deben ser alentados y apoyados para utilizar los resultados de investigación y realizar investigaciones.

  7. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    None

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  8. Fuel Utilization and Environment Pollution

    B. S. Soroka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of utilization of various fuel types on the environment pollution has been analyzed taking into account the state and forecast of changes in consumption structure of primary energy in the world.The regional peculiarities of the environment impact have been studied methodically (regarding the Ukraine as an example: distribution of the harmful effluents has been considered in various regions of the country and inter-relations of some branches of national economy and industry with the atmosphere pollution have been examined.The CO2 effluent distribution within the European regions has been considered as the main greenhouse gas. It has been stated that the difference of the specific CO2 effluent yield per unit of GDP makes more than an order by value between some European countries.This index becomes higher if specific GDP of the country concerned is lower and portion of extractive industries, metallurgical and fuel-power complexes is higher in the country’s economy.

  9. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    NONE

    1995-12-26

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  10. Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide with polyethylene glycol

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian

    2012-01-01

    In this volume, Professor He and his coworkers summarize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted CO2 chemistry on the basis of understanding about phase behavior of PEG/CO2 system and reaction mechanism at molecular level. As PEG could be utilized as a green replacement for organic solvents, phase-transfer catalyst, surfactant, support in various reaction systems, significantly promoting catalytic activity and recovering expensive metal catalysts, particularly regarded as a CO2-philic material, the authors focus on special applications of PEG in CO2 capture and utilization, including PEG-functional

  11. Review of evaluations of utility home-energy-audit programs

    Berry, L.; Soderstrom, J.; Hirst, E.; Newman, B.; Weaver, R.

    1981-03-01

    Evaluation efforts of utilities with active home energy audit programs are reviewed to suggest methodologies, issues, and data that can contribute to the development of a comprehensive Residential Conservation Service evaluation plan. On the basis mainly of written reports received from the utilities, findings about customer response to programs are summarized. The topics discussed include: correlates of program penetration rates; use of financing; attitudes toward programs; actions taken; characteristics of participants; and energy savings due to programs. Particular attention is given to three studies (Tennessee Valley Authority, Seattle City Light, and Pacific Gas and Electric) that analyze fuel consumption records as part of the evaluation.

  12. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. [Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].

    Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach.

  15. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, space access and air/space technology superiority were within the purview of the U.S. and former Soviet Union's respective space agencies, both vying for global leadership in space exploitation. In more recent years, with the emergence of the European Space Agency (ESA) member countries and Asian countries joining the family of space-faring nations, it is truer now more than ever that space access and utilization has become a truly global enterprise. In fact, according to the Space Report 2007, this enterprise is a $251-billion economy. It is possible to gauge the vitality of worldwide efforts from open sources in today's transparent, media-based society. In particular, print and web broadcasters regularly report and catalog global space activities for defense and civil purposes. For the purposes of this paper, a representative catalog of missions is used to illustrate the nature of the emerging "globalization." This paper highlights global trends in terms of not only the providers of space access, but also the end-users for the various recently accomplished missions. With well over 50 launches per year, in recent years, the launch-log reveals a surprising percentage of "cooperative or co-dependent missions" where different agencies, countries, and/or commercial entities are so engaged presumably to the benefit of all who participate. Statistics are cited and used to show that recently over d0% of the 50-plus missions involved multiple nations working collectively to deliver payloads to orbit. Observers, space policy professionals, and space agency leaders have eloquently proposed that it might require the combined resources and talents of multiple nations to advance human exploration goals beyond low earth orbit. This paper does not intend to offer new information with respect to whether international collaboration is necessary but to observe that, in continuing to monitor global trends, the results seem to support the thesis that a

  16. An anatomy of old-age disability: Time use, affect and experienced utility.

    Flores, Gabriela; Ingenhaag, Michael; Maurer, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Complementing the commonly used concepts of evaluative wellbeing and decision utility, emotional wellbeing and experienced utility are important welfare criteria to assess individuals' subjective wellbeing, especially for valuing health and disability. Yet, almost all empirical evidences on the link between disability and experienced wellbeing come from developed countries. This paper studies the relationship between old-age disability and experienced utility in five low- and middle-income countries. Using data on individual time use and activity-specific affective experiences from an abbreviated version of the Day Reconstruction Method, we document a strong negative association between disability and experienced utility. These differences in experienced utility by disability status are exclusively due to worse activity-specific affective experiences among persons with disabilities. By contrast, disability-related differences in time use provide small compensating effects. Interventions or technologies that facilitate daily life hold most promise to improve experienced utility among persons with disabilities in the developing world.

  17. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  18. THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL OPERATIONS OF UTILITY COMPANIES ON THE FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE CITY

    Milan Stanić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main topic will be the financing of utility companies and the financial impact on the budget of the local business units. A special emphasis will be placed on the financing of utility companies in Slavonski Brod. The paper defines each area of utility services and presents the utilities as services of public interest as well their privatization in general. The paper reports on the financing of these services and on the European Union regulations and directives concerning them. In addition, the paper includes an overview of the sources of funding of utility companies and loan opportunities. Guarantees and subsidies are included as financing measures of the activities of communal companies. The practical part presents an interview with key individuals of the city of Slavonski Brod with regard to the impact of the budget on the financing of utility services of the utility company in this city – “Komunalac Ltd.”.

  19. Development and utilization strategies for recovery and utilization of coal mine methane

    Byrer, C.W.; Layne, A.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been involved in natural gas research since the 1970`s. DOE has assessed the potential of gas in coals throughout the U.S. and promoted research and development for recovery and use of methane found in minable and unminable coalbeds. DOE efforts have focused on the use of coal mine methane for regional economic gas self-sufficiency, energy parks, self-help initiatives, and small-power generation. This paper focuses on DOE`s past and present efforts to more effectively and efficiently recover and use this valuable domestic energy source. The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) (1) lists a series of 50 voluntary initiatives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane from mining operations, to their 1990 levels. Action No. 36 of the CCAP expands the DOE research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts to broaden the range of cost-effective technologies and practices for recovering methane associated with coal mining operations. The major thrust of Action No. 36 is to reduce methane emissions associated with coal mining operations from target year 2000 levels by 1.5 MMT of carbon equivalent. Crosscutting activities in the DOE Natural Gas Program supply the utilization sectors will address RD&D to reduce methane emissions released from various mining operations, focusing on recovery and end use technology systems to effectively drain, capture, and utilize the emitted gas. Pilot projects with industry partners will develop and test the most effective methods and technology systems for economic recovery and utilization of coal mine gas emissions in regions where industry considers efforts to be presently non-economic. These existing RD&D programs focus on near-term gas recovery and gathering systems, gas upgrading, and power generation.

  20. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  1. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  2. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission's main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission's function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  3. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission`s main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission`s function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  4. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries

    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  5. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  6. Utilization-focused evaluation for agricultural innovation

    Patton, Michael Quinn; Horton, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Utilization-focused evaluation (UFE) is based on the principle that an evaluation should be judged by its utility. So no matter how technically sound and methodologically elegant, an evaluation is not truly a good evaluation unless the findings are used. UFE is a framework for enhancing the likelihood that evaluation findings will be used and lessons will be learnt from the evaluation process. This Brief, based on the book Utilization-focused evaluation, introduces this approach to evaluation...

  7. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction...... maker’s discordant goals at the different decision nodes. Relative to the computations involved in the standard expected utility evaluation of a decision problem, the main computational increase is due to the identification of non-dominated strategies by linear programming. A simulation, using the rank...

  8. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  9. Mining High Utility Itemsets with Regular Occurrence

    Komate Amphawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High utility itemset mining (HUIM plays an important role in the data mining community and in a wide range of applications. For example, in retail business it is used for finding sets of sold products that give high profit, low cost, etc. These itemsets can help improve marketing strategies, make promotions/ advertisements, etc. However, since HUIM only considers utility values of items/itemsets, it may not be sufficient to observe product-buying behavior of customers such as information related to “regular purchases of sets of products having a high profit margin”. To address this issue, the occurrence behavior of itemsets (in the term of regularity simultaneously with their utility values was investigated. Then, the problem of mining high utility itemsets with regular occurrence (MHUIR to find sets of co-occurrence items with high utility values and regular occurrence in a database was considered. An efficient single-pass algorithm, called MHUIRA, was introduced. A new modified utility-list structure, called NUL, was designed to efficiently maintain utility values and occurrence information and to increase the efficiency of computing the utility of itemsets. Experimental studies on real and synthetic datasets and complexity analyses are provided to show the efficiency of MHUIRA combined with NUL in terms of time and space usage for mining interesting itemsets based on regularity and utility constraints.

  10. Eficiência na absorção e utilização de nitrogênio e atividade enzimática em genótipos de milho Nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency and enzymatic activity in maize genotypes

    Lucimar Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o emprego dos componentes da eficiência no uso de nitrogênio e das atividades das enzimas nitrato redutase e glutamina sintetase na seleção de genótipos de milho eficientes no uso de nitrogênio (N. Foram avaliados 10 genótipos de milho em estádio de V4 em condições de alto e baixo N. O experimento foi composto por um fatorial 2 x 10 (dois níveis de N e 10 genótipos de milho em delineamento inteiramente casualizados com três repetições. Os seguintes caracteres foram avaliados: as eficiências na absorção (EAbN, na utilização (EUtN e no uso de N (EUsN e as atividades das enzimas glutamina sintetase (GS e nitrato redutase (NR. Para os caracteres que o efeito de genótipos foi significativo (pThe aim of this study was to investigate the employment of components of the nitrogen efficiency use (NUE, and of the activities of the nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase enzymes in the selection of nitrogen use efficient maize genotypes of maize. Ten maize genotypes at V4 stage were evaluated under high and low N. The experiment consisted of a 2 x 10 factorial (two levels of N and ten maize genotypes, in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The following traits were evaluated: N uptake efficiency (NUpE, N utilization efficiency (NUtE and N use efficiency (NUE, and activities of the glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrate reductase (NR enzymes. For traits which the effect of genotype was significant (p<0.05 in the variance analysis for level of N, the mean were compared using the t test (p<0.05. The indirect gains in NUE and their components with selection over the activities of the enzymes NR and GS were estimated under low N. We conclude that: under high N, NupE is efficient to differentiate nitrogen use efficient maize genotypes; under low N, NupE and NUtE efficient to differentiate nitrogen use efficient maize genotypes, the activity of NR enzyme is not a good physiological

  11. Effects of low-available phosphorus diet supplemented with phytase on laying performance,digestive enzymes activities and nutrient utilization in laying hens%低磷日粮中添加植酸酶对蛋鸡产蛋性能、内源消化酶及养分消化率的影响

    邱梅平; 温超; 张旭晖; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of low-available phosphorus (AP) diet supplemented with phytase on the laying performance, the activity of digestive enzyme and nutrient utilization in laying hens, 18-week-old laying hens (n = 840)were randomly allocated into 7 groups.Group Ⅰ , as the positive control, was fed with the basal diet.Group Ⅱ, as the negative control, was fed with low-AP diet.Groups Ⅲ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ were fed with low-AP diet adding coated dosage-form phytase at three levels (300 U/kg, 1 000 U/kg and 10 000 U/kg, respectively).Groups Ⅵ and Ⅶ were supplemented with 300 U/kg phytase of powdery dosage-form and granular dosage-form, respectively.The results indicated that compared with the negative control, the addition of phytase to the low-AP diet did not significantly affect egg weight, broken eggshell rate, the indexes of egg quality,the activity of amylase, the activity of disaccharidase and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, ash and energy (P>0.05), but significantly enhanced the egg preduction, laying rate, the activity of trypsin in group Ⅳ and the apparent digestibility of Ca, P and protein ( P<0.05 ).It was concluded that low-AP diet supplemented with phytase could increase laying performance, the activity of digestive enzyme and nutrient utilization in laying hens.The 300 U/kg coated phytase was enough to meet the nutrient requirement of laying hens for growth and production.%为探明在低磷的玉米一豆粕型日粮中添加植酸酶对蛋鸡产蛋性能、内源消化酶及养分消化率的影响,该研究选用18周龄体重、产蛋周龄相近的伊莎褐蛋鸡840羽,随机分成7组:对照1( Ⅰ组,基础日粮,未添加植酸酶)、对照2(Ⅱ组,有效磷水平降低0.12个百分点)及在对照2基础上分别添加300 U/kg、1 000 U/kg和10 000U/kg的包衣状植酸酶、300 U/kg的粉状植酸酶及300 U/kg的微丸状植酸酶(试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ和Ⅶ组).结果表明:与对照2相比,除Ⅴ组外,各试验

  12. Utilizing MATPOWER in optimal power flow

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2003-07-01

    This paper shows how MATPOWER, a MATLAB Power System Simulation Package can be used for optimal power flow (OPF) simulations. MATPOWER is a package of MATLAB files for solving power flow and optimal power flow problems. It is a simulation tool for researchers and educators which is easy to use and modify. An OPF simulation gives the active/reactive power generated and purchased at each bus and the nodal prices. The nodal prices are of special interest because they reflect the marginal generation and load at each bus (node). These prices are also called locational prices and are found to be the optimal prices, maximizing social welfare and taking transmission constraints into account. They can provide the right incentives to market players and to society. When transmission congestion is present this creates market inefficiency since cheap distant generation may be replaced with more expensive local generation. We are especially interested in OPF as utilized by a centralized dispatcher and we also describe the features relevant for the Norwegian and Nordic markets. We optimize three cases and analyze the economic consequences of different network topologies and transmission congestion. (Author)

  13. Utilizing MATPOWER in Optimal Power Flow

    Tarjei Kristiansen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how MATPOWER, a MATLAB Power System Simulation Package can be used for optimal power flow (OPF simulations. MATPOWER is a package of MATLAB files for solving power flow and optimal power flow problems. It is a simulation tool for researchers and educators which is easy to use and modify. An OPF simulation gives the active/reactive power generated and purchased at each bus and the nodal prices. The nodal prices are of special interest because they reflect the marginal generation and load at each bus (node. These prices are also called locational prices and are found to be the optimal prices, maximizing social welfare and taking transmission constraints into account. They can provide the right incentives to market players and to society. When transmission congestion is present this creates market inefficiency, since cheap distant generation may be replaced with more expensive local generation. We are especially interested in OPF as utilized by a centralized dispatcher, and we also describe the features relevant for the Norwegian and Nordic markets. We optimize three cases and analyze the economic consequences of different network topologies and transmission congestion.

  14. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. Annual report, 1991

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 & 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP`s proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  15. Utilizing Technology to Encourage Healthy Lifestyles

    Cynthia Shuster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our fast paced world, using technology allows us to connect with people and assist them in developing healthier lifestyles within their time limits due to families, work, and other responsibilities. The goal of our project was the development of online, technology-based, nutrition, health, and fitness education challenges using social media as a means of helping consumers develop healthy lifestyle changes. Participants completed preassessments and postassessments to determine overall program impact and to self-report perceptions of knowledge gained and practice/behavior change. Results from the challenges indicated participants gained knowledge on nutrition, health and fitness topics while making strides towards lifestyle changes and adoption of healthy habits. Results revealed healthier eating habits were developed and physical activity was increased with many participants losing weight. Ease of participating was the most reported reason for participating in the challenges. To determine “best practice,” varying lengths of time for the challenges from four, seven, and thirteen weeks allowed the educators to derive implications for future programming, including branding, length of the challenge, frequency, and participant behavior change. To remain relevant and reach a greater diversity of populations, educators need to continue to explore and utilize various social media tools.

  16. Overview and Utilization of the NCI Thesaurus

    Larry Wright

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The NCI Thesaurus is a reference terminology covering areas of basic and clinical science, built with the goal of facilitating translational research in cancer. It contains nearly 110 000 terms in approximately 36000 concepts, partitioned in 20 subdomains, which include diseases, drugs, anatomy, genes, gene products, techniques, and biological processes, among others, all with a cancer-centric focus in content, and originally designed to support coding activities across the National Cancer Institute. Each concept represents a unit of meaning and contains a number of annotations, such as synonyms and preferred name, as well as annotations such as textual definitions and optional references to external authorities. In addition, concepts are modelled with description logic (DL and defined by their relationships to other concepts; there are currently approximately 90 types of named relations declared in the terminology. The NCI Thesaurus is produced by the Enterprise Vocabulary Services project, a collaborative effort between the NCI Center for Bioinformatics and the NCI Office of Communications, and is part of the caCORE infrastructure stack (http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/NCICB/core. It can be accessed programmatically through the open caBIO API and browsed via the web (http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov. A history of editing changes is also accessible through the API. In addition, the Thesaurus is available for download in various file formats, including OWL, the web ontology language, to facilitate its utilization by others.

  17. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health.

  18. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects.

  19. Lasers utilizing CO2 isotopes

    Pechenin, Iu. V.; Domanov, M. S.

    1980-08-01

    The emission spectra and power characteristics of CW (C-12)(O-16)2, (C-13)(O-16)2, (C-12)(O-16)(O-18)2 and (C-12)(O-18) lasers are investigated. Laser output power is found to depend equally on the proportion of carbon and oxygen isotopes in the active medium for all isotopes except the asymmetrical (C-12)(O-16)(O-18), in which maximum output power is four to five times less due to the doubling of emission lines and limited enrichment caused by recombination into (C-12)(O-16)2 and (C-12)(O-18)2 molecules during discharge. The unsaturated gain is observed to increase linearly with enrichment, with that of nonsymmetrical molecules half that of the symmetrical molecules, while the maximum power output is independent of enrichment.

  20. Energy Utilization Technology Curriculum Materials FY 91. Illinois Plan for Industrial Technology Education.

    Gallo, Dennis; Welty, Kenneth

    This document contains technology-based learning activities for the Illinois energy utilization technology course at the orientation level (grades 9 and 10). This packet includes a course rationale, course mission statement, course description, course outline, suggested learning objectives for each of the energy utilization areas, and suggested…

  1. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Glombitza, Clemens; Nickel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico) with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product, or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen...

  2. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    D. Kahneman (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.K. Sarin (Rakesh)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past epi

  3. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and facilit

  4. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility reimbursements. 5.632... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This...); (2) A public housing family paying an income-based rent (see § 960.253 of this title)....

  5. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    which is a more general construction than a state space. We retain preference axioms similar in spirit to the Savage axioms and obtain, without abandoning linearity of expectations, a subjective expected utility theory which allows for an intuitive distinction between risk and uncertainty. We also...... obtain separation of subjective probability and utility as in the state space models....

  6. Working memory management and predicted utility.

    Chatham, Christopher H; Badre, David

    2013-01-01

    Given the limited capacity of working memory (WM), its resources should be allocated strategically. One strategy is filtering, whereby access to WM is granted preferentially to items with the greatest utility. However, reallocation of WM resources might be required if the utility of maintained information subsequently declines. Here, we present behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging evidence that human participants track changes in the predicted utility of information in WM. First, participants demonstrated behavioral costs when the utility of items already maintained in WM declined and resources should be reallocated. An adapted Q-learning model indicated that these costs scaled with the historical utility of individual items. Finally, model-based neuroimaging demonstrated that frontal cortex tracked the utility of items to be maintained in WM, whereas ventral striatum tracked changes in the utility of items maintained in WM to the degree that these items are no longer useful. Our findings suggest that frontostriatal mechanisms track the utility of information in WM, and that these dynamics may predict delays in the removal of information from WM.

  7. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  8. Continuous expected utility for arbitrary state spaces

    Wakker, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    Subjective expected utility maximization with continuous utility is characterized, extending the result of Wakker (1984, Journal of Mathematical Psychology) to infinite state spaces. In Savage (1954, The Foundations of Statistics) the main restriction, P6, requires structure for the state space, e.g

  9. Clinical Utility and "DSM-V"

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual has been guided primarily by concerns of construct validity rather than of clinical utility, despite claims by its authors that the highest priority has in fact been clinical utility. The purpose of this article was to further articulate the concept and importance of…

  10. Towards Utility in Reviews of Multivocal Literatures.

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1991-01-01

    In program evaluation and policy analyses, utility supplants rigor as the first and most important criterion in judging literature reviews. Although R. T. Ogawa and B. Malen emphasize rigor, a utilization-focused evaluation emphasizes purpose and audience, both of which affect the conduct of a multivocal literature review. (SLD)

  11. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    de Jaegher, K.

    2007-01-01

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price elasticit

  12. Marginal Utility and Convex Indifference Curves.

    Jackson, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews discussion of the relationship between marginal utility and indifference curves which has been presented in recent issues of "Economics." Concludes that indifference analysis does not embody the assumptions of marginal utility theory and that there is no simple relationship between these concepts that does not entail unacceptable…

  13. (Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)

    Wolf, W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

  14. Photovoltaic utility/customer interface study

    Eichler, C. H.; Hayes, T. P.; Matthews, M. M.; Wilraker, V. F.

    1980-12-01

    The technical, economic, and legal and regulatory issues of interconnecting small, privately-owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems to an electric utility are addressed. Baseline residential, commercial and industrial class photovoltaic systems were developed. Technical issues of concern affecting this interconnection were identified and included fault protection, undervoltage protection, lamp flicker, revenue metering, loss of synchromism, electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized utility feeder, effects of on-site generation on utility relaying schemes, effects of power conditioner harmonic distortion on the electric utility, system isolation, electromagnetic interference and site power factor as seen by the utility. Typical interconnection wiring diagrams were developed for interconnecting each class of baseline photovoltaic generating system.

  15. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaiser, Marshall [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  16. Photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization in Porphyra haitanensis Bangiales,Rhodophyta

    2002-01-01

    The activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and photosynthesis of Porphyra haitanensis were investigated in order to see its photosynthetic utilization of inorganic carbon source. Both intra- and extra-cellular CA activities existed in the thallus. CA inhibitors, acetazolamide (AZ) and ethoxyzolamide (EZ), remarkably depressed the photosynthetic oxygen evolution in seawater of pH 8.2 and 10.0, and EZ showed stronger inhibition than AZ. The observed net photosynthetic rate in seawater of pH 8.2 was much higher than that of CO2 supply theoretically derived from spontaneous dehydration of HCO3-. P. haitanensis also showed a rather high pH compensation point (9.9). The results demonstrated that P. haitanensis could utilize bicarbonate as the external inorganic carbon source for photosynthesis. The bicarbonate utilization was closely associated with dehydration catalyzed by extracellular CA activity. The inorganic carbon composition in seawater could well saturate the photosynthesis of P. haitanensis. The low Km value and compensation points for inorganic carbon reflected the existence of CO2- concentrating mechanism in this alga.

  17. A Unified Derivation of Classical Subjective Expected Utility Models through Cardinal Utility

    Zank, H.; Wakker, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Classical foundations of expected utility were provided by Ramsey, de Finetti, von Neumann & Morgenstern, Anscombe & Aumann, and others. These foundations describe preference conditions to capture the empirical content of expected utility. The assumed preference conditions, however, vary among the m

  18. Sleep Supports Selective Retention of Associative Memories Based on Relevance for Future Utilization

    Dongen, E.V. van; Thielen, J.W.; Takashima, A.; Barth, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding question is whether memory consolidation occurs passively or involves active processes that selectively stabilize memories based on future utility. Here, we differentially modulated the expected future relevance of two sets of picture-location associations after learning. Participants

  19. Sleep supports selective retention of associative memories based on relevance for future utilization

    Dongen, E.V. van; Thielen, J.W.; Takashima, A.; Barth, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding question is whether memory consolidation occurs passively or involves active processes that selectively stabilize memories based on future utility. Here, we differentially modulated the expected future relevance of two sets of picture-location associations after learning. Participants

  20. NEUTRALIZING WASTEWATER FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES ON RURAL AREAS

    Piotr Bugajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at determining a potential use of domestic sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge for the disposal of wastes drained from schools in rural areas. Selected pollutant indicators, such as: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and phosphates were the basis for determining the composition of raw sewage discharged by public utility objects and the quality of treated sewage considering the days when lessons were taking place at school and days free from classes. The analysis of the results revealed that household sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge may be used for waste disposal from public facilities, such as schools.

  1. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  2. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  3. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  4. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  5. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  6. Utility of action checklists as a consensus building tool.

    Kim, Yeon-Ha; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Yoshikawa, Toru; Kogi, Kazutaka; Jung, Moon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The present study's objective was to determine the mechanisms for enhancing the utility of action checklists applied in participatory approach programs for workplace improvements, to identify the benefits of building consensus and to compare their applicability in Asian countries to find the most appropriate configuration for action checklists. Data were collected from eight trainees and 43 trainers with experience in Participatory Action-Oriented Training. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS using the package PASW, version 19.0. The difference in the mean score for the degree of the utility of action checklists between countries was analyzed using ANOVA methods. Factor analysis was performed to validate the action checklists' utility. Pearson Correlation Coefficients were then calculated to determine the direction and strength of the relationship between these factors. Using responses obtained from trainees' in-depth interviews, we identified 33 key statements that were then classified into 11 thematic clusters. Five factors were extracted, namely "ease of application", "practical solutions", "group interaction", "multifaceted perspective" and "active involvement". The action checklist was useful for facilitating a participatory process among trainees and trainers for improving working conditions. Action checklists showed similar patterns of utility in various Asian countries; particularly when adjusted to local conditions.

  7. The Service Utility Model in Service Management

    LI Yan; ZHOU Wen-an; SONG Jun-de

    2005-01-01

    Aiming to provide a measurable service Quality of Service (QoS) evaluating method for service inventory management, this paper proposes a new mobile Service Utility Model (SUM), considers the service and business layer elements into the service utility influence profile, and proposes an self-adaptive service inventory management algorithm as a QoS control scheme based on SUM. It can be concluded from the simulation result that the service inventory utility can be fully reflected by SUM and the whole system efficiency is greatly increased by using SUM as the adaptive rule.

  8. Utility Tax Avoidance Program in Germany

    2010-09-29

    Statistical Projections - Utility Costs And Taxes (Values Presented in Euros and Dollars) Electric Point Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros...Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Iolal Utility Cost E1,464,848 $2, 101,526 E1,094,587 $1,570,335 E1,835,109...298,367 348,671 500,216 Water Point Estimate Lower Bound U pper Bound Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Euros Dollars Iolal Utility Cost E166,296 $238,574

  9. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  10. Light duty utility arm walkdown report

    Smalley, J.L.

    1998-09-25

    This document is a report of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) drawing walkdown. The purpose of this walkdown was to validate the essential configuration of the LDUA in preparation of deploying the equipment in a Hanford waste tank. The LDUA system has, over the course of its development, caused the generation of a considerable number of design drawings. The number of drawings is estimated to be well over 1,000. A large number consist of vendor type drawings, furnished by both Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and SPAR Aerospace Limited (SPAR). A smaller number, approximately 200, are H-6 type drawing sheets in the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) document control system. A preliminary inspection of the drawings showed that the physical configuration of the LDUA did not match the documented configuration. As a result of these findings, a scoping walkdown of 20 critical drawing sheets was performed to determine if a problem existed in configuration management of the LDUA system. The results of this activity showed that 18 of the 20 drawing sheets were found to contain errors or omissions of varying concern. Given this, Characterization Engineering determined that a walkdown of the drawings necessary and sufficient to enable safe operation and maintenance of the LDUA should be performed. A review team was assembled to perform a review of all of the drawings and determine the set which would need to be verified through an engineering walkdown. The team determined that approximately 150 H-6 type drawing sheets would need to be verified, 12 SPAR/PNNL drawing sheets would need to be verified and converted to H-6 drawings, and three to six new drawings would be created (see Appendix A). This report documents the results of that walkdown.

  11. 利用校园文化交流活动构建跨文化交际平台--关于开展校园文化交流活动的反思与设计%On the Construction of Intercultural Communication Platform by Utilizing Campus Cultural Communication Activities--Reflection and Design of Campus Cultural Communication Activities

    董琳莉

    2015-01-01

    要使校园文化交流活动成为跨文化交际的主要平台,需要对校园文化交流活动进行准确的定位。跨文化交际是建立在不同文化背景的人相互理解的基础上的。交流应该建立在平等的层面,其目的是为了相互了解、减少误解、求同存异。因此,开展校园文化交流活动,必须注重中外学生人与人的交流,以互动性的活动为主,把语言交流摆在首位,注重思想方面的交流,加强国情文化知识方面的交流,利用才艺展示等方面,将文化上的输入与输出有效地结合起来,调动留学生参加这种文化交流活动的积极性。%To enable the Campus cultural communication activities to be the main platform of intercultur⁃al communication, accurate orientation for campus cultural communication activities is to be set. Intercultural communication is based on mutual understanding for the people with different cultural backgrounds. The com⁃munication should be based on equal terms on both sides, whose purpose is to obtain mutual understanding, re⁃duce misunderstanding, seek common ground while reserving differences. So, to better carry out campus cultur⁃al communication activities, we must focus on the face-to-face communication between Chinese and foreign students, combine the input and output of the culture effectively based on the interactive activities, mobilize the enthusiasm of students to participate in the cultural exchange activities.

  12. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  13. Recent development of vibration utilization engineering

    Bangchun WEN

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of vibration and wave, which was developed during the latter half of the 20th century, is one of the most valueable technology applications and has been rapidly developing recently [1-10]. Because the technique is closely associated with industry and agricul-ture, it can create huge social and economical benefits and provide excellent services for society. Thus, due to its necessity in industry and daily life, extensive research has been devoted to vibration utillization engineering. In this paper, vibration utilization is classified into linear or non-linear vibrations, waves, and electric-magnetic oscilla-tions. Their phenomena, patterns, and applications in nature and society are introduced. Some research results about vibration utilization engineering are described.

  14. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, systems designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  15. Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and..

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive analyses reported in Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and Resource Use, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  16. Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies

    Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  17. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    S. Goodin

    1999-07-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches.

  18. ARC Code TI: CFD Utility Software Library

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CFD Utility Software Library consists of nearly 30 libraries of Fortran 90 and 77 subroutines and almost 100 applications built on those libraries. Many of the...

  19. Industrial low temperature utilization of geothermal resources

    Howard, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    This brief presentation on industrial utilization of low temperature geothermal resources first considers an overview of what has been achieved in using geothermal resources in this way and, second, considers potential, future industrial applications.

  20. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile rockfish habitat utilization

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile rockfish were observed amongst coral, sponge, cobble, and gravel habitats. Rockfish utilized coral habitats more than any other, while gravel was the least...

  1. Utility FGD survey, Janurary--December 1988

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW. 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released a series of publicly available data files that summarize the utilization and payments for procedures, services, and prescription drugs provided to...

  3. Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Renewing and replacing the nation's public water infrastructure is an ongoing task. Asset management can help a utility maximize the value of its capital as well as its operations and maintenance dollars.

  4. Racing to be an indispensable utility

    2003-01-01

    "Every major IT supplier is rushing to be involved in the global computing grid, eager to take advantage of the developments and experience they will gain. Why? Because the race is on to become an IT utility" (1 page).

  5. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  6. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)

    The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  7. What utilities should expect from competitive intelligence

    Fuld, L.M.; Borska, D.L. [Fuld & Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Electric utilities are informationally dysfunctional. In a survey of electric utility managers, we found that while employees may possess the necessary information for decision-making, they may not understand how the information is used, why it is important, or who needs to know it. Utility managers feel that their organizations suffer from intelligence deficits in the following areas: (1) Customer Retention-Customer (rather than competitor) intelligence is desparately needed, (2) Competitor Costs-As prices drive markets, utilities must learn how competitors use the technology to gain a cost advantage, and (3) Market Savvy-Recognizing threats means more that just crunching the numbers. It means converting raw data into a strategy that will expose a competitor`s weakness. The complex economics will require companies to apply all types of intelligence to solve competitive problems. This coherent approach requires changes in the way both management and the organization handle vital intelligence.

  8. Knee System Utilizing Personalized Solutions Instrumentation

    ATTUNE® Knee System utilizing the TRUMATCH® Personalized Solutions Instrumentation Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic Engineering for Substrate Co-utilization

    Gawand, Pratish

    Production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals is being increasingly pursued by chemical industry to reduce its dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an abundant source of sugars that can be used for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals using fermentation. Hydrolysis of LCB results in a mixture of sugars mainly composed of glucose and xylose. Fermentation of such a sugar mixture presents multiple technical challenges at industrial scale. Most industrial microorganisms utilize sugars in a sequential manner due to the regulatory phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Due to sequential utilization of sugars, the LCB-based fermentation processes suffer low productivities and complicated operation. Performance of fermentation processes can be improved by metabolic engineering of microorganisms to obtain superior characteristics such as high product yield. With increased computational power and availability of complete genomes of microorganisms, use of model-based metabolic engineering is now a common practice. The problem of sequential sugar utilization, however, is a regulatory problem, and metabolic models have never been used to solve such regulatory problems. The focus of this thesis is to use model-guided metabolic engineering to construct industrial strains capable of co-utilizing sugars. First, we develop a novel bilevel optimization algorithm SimUp, that uses metabolic models to identify reaction deletion strategies to force co-utilization of two sugars. We then use SimUp to identify reaction deletion strategies to force glucose-xylose co-utilization in Escherichia coli. To validate SimUp predictions, we construct three mutants with multiple gene knockouts and test them for glucose-xylose utilization characteristics. Two mutants, designated as LMSE2 and LMSE5, are shown to co-utilize glucose and xylose in agreement with SimUp predictions. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in glucose-xylose co-utilization of the

  10. Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

    Meeks, J.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Coll. of Law

    1996-04-01

    Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society`s primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy.

  11. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  12. Has branding failed the utility industry?

    Brew, A. [Addison, New York, NY (United States)]|[Addison, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Addison, Chicago, IL (United States); Phelps, L. [Phelps Consulting Group (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Some flawed, and now discredited, experiments have thrown a shadow over the value of branding in the utility industry. But brands do have power in the energy industry, if they are well conceived and their execution is well supported. Branding has been enthusiastically embraced by those industries that are bearing the brunt of regulatory and technological changes. At the forefront of these are the telecommunications, airlines, financial services, and power utilities industries.

  13. A Sustainability Assessment Protocol for Geothermal Utilization

    Shortall, Ruth, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development calls for the use of sustainable energy systems. However, the way in which a geothermal resource is utilized will ultimately determine whether or not it is sustainable. Sustainable utilization of geothermal energy means that it is produced and used in such a way that is compatible with the well-being of future generations and the environment (UNDP, 2000). A measurement and assessment framework is needed for a sustainable energy development strategy, as it can prov...

  14. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacterial sheet

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-01

    The terrestrial nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, is living ranging from polar to desert. N. commune makes visible colonies composed extracellular polymeric substances. N. commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. To exhibit the potential abilities, the N. commune sheet is made to use convenient and evaluated by plant growth and radioactive accumulation. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment.

  15. Utility interconnection issues for wind power generation

    Herrera, J. I.; Lawler, J. S.; Reddoch, T. W.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    This document organizes the total range of utility related issues, reviews wind turbine control and dynamic characteristics, identifies the interaction of wind turbines to electric utility systems, and identifies areas for future research. The material is organized at three levels: the wind turbine, its controls and characteristics; connection strategies as dispersed or WPSs; and the composite issue of planning and operating the electric power system with wind generated electricity.

  16. Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default

    Lim, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

  17. Evaluation of energy roof direct utilization

    Lazzarin, R.; Rossetto, L.; Viero, L.

    1984-04-01

    Energy roofs are roofing systems equipped with channels which allow both solar and atmospheric energy collection. They were conceived as cold source for heat pump systems. The behavious of an energy roof in DHW direct heating was studied; this might extend energy roof utilization all year long. The estimates were performed through more reliable recently proposed correlations for wind convection heat transfer coefficients. The advantage of annual energy roof utilization in DHW direct heating is predictable.

  18. Optical fibre cable selection for electricity utilities

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The report provides an assessment of the range of optical fibre cable solutions available, by type e.g. OPGW, ADSS, rather than by design. it also examines the key issues which will influence an electricity utilities decisions and proposes a method of evaluating the options to identify the one which most closely matches the utility's critical needs, with measurements against time, cost and quality targets. (author)

  19. Analyzing Distributed Processing For Electric Utilities

    Klein, Stanley A.; Kirkham, Harold; Beardmore, Julie A.

    1990-01-01

    Distributed Processing Trade-Off Model for Electric Utility Operation computer program based upon study performed at California Institute of Technology for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Study presented technique addressing question of tradeoffs between expanding communications network or expanding capacity of distributed computers in energy-management systems (EMS) of electric utility. Gives EMS planners macroscopic tool for evaluation of architectures of distributed-processing systems and major technical and economic tradeoffs as well as interactions within systems.

  20. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  1. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 600 utilities—or about 20% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals more than 130. Through these programs, more than 50 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  2. Factors responsible for a stable biosphere of silicon utilizing organisms

    Mitra, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Silicon utilizing microorganisms are defined as micro-organisms with high silicon content (≥ 1% dry weight) and the capability to metabolize silicon with or without demonstrable silicon transporter genes (SIT). Important characteristics found in these microorganisms, on account of having high silicon concentration in their body, include increased autotrophic activity, ability to encounter metal toxicities (including iron toxicity), increased mechanical strength, ability to prevent infections, capacity to survive in nutritionally compromised states and in high and low pressure zones, higher light transmission and reduced salinity stress. They can also grow in the dark for at least three months even in the absence of any organic substrate. In living cells, silicon helps in cell wall formation, regulates citric acid cycle (acting on an isoenzyme of isocitrate dehydrogenase), synthesizes special proteins for chromosomes and chloroplasts, and regulates chlorophyll synthesis. Silicon metabolism also requires 30% less energy than carbon and that might be one of the reasons why it was not abandoned in over 100 million years of evolution; even in the presence of a well advanced and dominating carbon world. Additionally, silicon utilizing organisms have undergone resistance and capacity adaptations during their long existence on the Earth. Their inherent ability to tolerate a wide variety of stress was manifested by their exceptional survival during periods of extinction on Earth. The phenomenon of 'selective survival' of the biosphere shaped by these organisms across major extinction boundaries in the geologic past is very prominent. Approximately 46% of diatom species, the most important silicon utilizing organisms, survived the transition from the Cretaceous to the Upper Paleocene period, suggesting their significant turnover across the K-Pg boundary. Another important silicon utilizing organism, radiolarian, also showed no evidence of mass extinction across the K

  3. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail.

  4. Universally Utility-Maximizing Privacy Mechanisms

    Ghosh, Arpita; Sundararajan, Mukund

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for releasing information about a statistical database with sensitive data must resolve a trade-off between utility and privacy. Privacy can be rigorously quantified using the framework of {\\em differential privacy}, which requires that a mechanism's output distribution is nearly the same (in a strong sense) whether or not a given database row is included or excluded. In this paper, we pursue much strong and general utility guarantees. We seek a mechanism that guarantees near-optimal utility to every potential user, independent of its side information. Formally, we model the side information of a potential user as a prior distribution over query results. An interaction between a user and a mechanism induces a posterior distribution, and we define the utility of the mechanism for this user as the accuracy of this posterior, as quantified via a user-specific loss function. A differentially private mechanism $M$ is (near-)optimal for a given user $u$ if $u$ derives (almost) as much utility from $M$ a...

  5. A bayesian approach to laboratory utilization management

    Ronald G Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory utilization management describes a process designed to increase healthcare value by altering requests for laboratory services. A typical approach to monitor and prioritize interventions involves audits of laboratory orders against specific criteria, defined as rule-based laboratory utilization management. This approach has inherent limitations. First, rules are inflexible. They adapt poorly to the ambiguity of medical decision-making. Second, rules judge the context of a decision instead of the patient outcome allowing an order to simultaneously save a life and break a rule. Third, rules can threaten physician autonomy when used in a performance evaluation. Methods: We developed an alternative to rule-based laboratory utilization. The core idea comes from a formula used in epidemiology to estimate disease prevalence. The equation relates four terms: the prevalence of disease, the proportion of positive tests, test sensitivity and test specificity. When applied to a laboratory utilization audit, the formula estimates the prevalence of disease (pretest probability [PTP] in the patients tested. The comparison of PTPs among different providers, provider groups, or patient cohorts produces an objective evaluation of laboratory requests. We demonstrate the model in a review of tests for enterovirus (EV meningitis. Results: The model identified subpopulations within the cohort with a low prevalence of disease. These low prevalence groups shared demographic and seasonal factors known to protect against EV meningitis. This suggests too many orders occurred from patients at low risk for EV. Conclusion: We introduce a new method for laboratory utilization management programs to audit laboratory services.

  6. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, Y.K.; Song, T.Y. [and others

    1999-05-01

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized forindustries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs.

  7. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    be increased during peak hours. DATA AND METHODOLOGYData is collected by observation of activities during two weeks on for example whether halls are used or not; the amount of playing field used; and number of participants (Iversen, 2012). Data on 1.331 activities in 36 sport halls across 4 municipalities have...... been collected. RESULTS The number of participants per activity is higher during peak hours, which is expected when demand is high. However, the usage of sport floor only differs slightly between peak and low hours. Both during peak and low hours on average 80-100 per cent of floor space is used......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...

  8. Utilization of biodiesel by-products for mosquito control.

    Pant, Megha; Sharma, Satyawati; Dubey, Saurabh; Naik, Satya Narayan; Patanjali, Phool Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The current paper has elaborated the efficient utilization of non-edible oil seed cakes (NEOC), by-products of the bio-diesel extraction process to develop a herbal and novel mosquitocidal composition against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The composition consisted of botanical active ingredients, inerts, burning agents and preservatives; where the botanical active ingredients were karanja (Pongamia glabra) cake powder and jatropha (Jatropha curcas) cake powder, products left after the extraction of oil from karanja and jatropha seed. The percentage mortality value recorded for the combination with concentration, karanja cake powder (20%) and jatropha cake powder (20%), 1:1 was 96%. The coil formulations developed from these biodiesel by-products are of low cost, environmentally friendly and are less toxic than the synthetic active ingredients.

  9. Industrial co-generation: Its utilization by the electric utility business

    Basu, S. [ComEd, Chicago, IL (United States); Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-11-01

    Industrial Co-Generation has not only an adverse impact on electric utility earnings, but also a positive impact, in that it permits a reduction in capital expenditures related to construction of new generation plants as a means of meeting future load growth. A utility can benefit economically by persuading companies considering industrial co-generation to use their generators for peak load shaving only. This would reduce their maximum demand cost, and also allows the utility to normalize its maximum system demand.

  10. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Jay R. Gunderson; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-09-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has completed a project to examine fundamental issues that could limit the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC attempted to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience problematic fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive coal-biomass blends. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause increased clinkering or slagging at the grate due to higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start much earlier for biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates, various chlorides, and phosphates. These species in combination with different flue gas temperatures, because of changes in fuel heating value, can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project was to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project were: (1) Modification of an existing pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system. (2) Verification testing of the simulator. (3) Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to

  11. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash

  12. Biotinylated recombinant human erythropoietins: Bioactivity and utility as receptor ligand

    Wojchowski, D.M.; Caslake, L. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1989-08-15

    Recombinant human erythropoietin labeled covalently with biotin at sialic acid moieties has been prepared, and has been shown to possess high biological activity plus utility as a receptor ligand. Initially, the effects on biological activity of covalently attaching biotin to erythropoietin alternatively at carboxylate, amino, or sialic acid groups were compared. Biotinylation of erythropoietin at carboxylate groups using biotin-amidocaproyl hydrazide plus 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide led to substantial biological inactivation, although biotinylated molecules retained detectable activity when prepared at low stoichiometries. Biotinylation at amino groups using sulfosuccinimidyl 6-(biotinamido) hexanoate resulted in a high level of biological inactivation with little, if any, retention of biological activity, regardless of labeling stoichiometries. Biotinylation at sialic acid moieties using periodate and biotinamidocaproyl hydrazide proceeded efficiently (greater than 95% and 80% labeling efficiencies for human urinary and recombinant erythropoietin, respectively) and yielded stably biotinylated erythropoietin molecules possessing comparably high biological activity (ie, 45% of the activity of unmodified hormone). Utility of recombinant biotin-(sialyl)-erythropoietin (in combination with 125I-streptavidin) in the assay of cell surface receptors was demonstrated using two distinct murine erythroleukemia cell lines, Friend 745 and Rauscher Red 1. The densities and affinities of specific hormone binding sites were 116 +/- 4 sites, 3.3 +/- 0.4 nmol/L kd and 164 +/- 5 sites, 2.7 +/- 0.4 nmol/L kd, respectively. It is predicted that the present development of biotin-(sialyl)-erythropoietin as a chemically and biologically stable, bioactive ligand will assist in advancing an understanding of the regulated expression and physicochemistry of the human and murine erythropoietin receptors.

  13. Time management problems and discounted utility.

    König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

    2007-05-01

    The lens of behavioral decision theory offers a new perspective for research on time management. The basic idea of this approach is that people discount future consequences of their time management decisions, meaning that they work on tasks with smaller but sooner outcomes rather than on tasks with larger but later outcomes. The authors performed 2 experimental studies to test whether people are sensitive to differences in the discounted utility of time management decisions. In Experiment 1, they used vignettes of typical time management situations; Experiment 2 was a laboratory simulation (an in-basket task that was part of a training assessment). Participants in both studies were German students. As expected, manipulating the discounted utility of options resulted in different time management decisions. In Experiment 1, reactions to time management situations were judged as less likely if the reactions had lower discounted utilities. In Experiment 2, people spent less time on an interruption.

  14. Sustainable Virtual Utilities Based on Microgrids

    Rune Gustavsson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Next generation of energy systems, being dependant on Renewable Energy Resources (RES and Distributed Generation (DG, will typically be based on flexible virtual cells of cells of balanced power consumption – generation, that is microgrids, rather than present day vertical hierarchical grid systems. Furthermore, the supporting information infrastructure and nonlinear dependencies will pose new dependability challenges to the systems involved. As a consequence, we have to decouple present day proprietary hierarchical SCADA systems into sets of services that allow for horizontal as well as vertical integration supporting operations and business models of future virtual utilities. The virtual utilities are integrating two critical infrastructures; power grids and cyber networks. To allow for this flexibility and assuring dependability we argue that the underlying infrastructures should be modelled as Service Oriented Architectures (SOA. We propose in this paper a methodology towards ensuring quality of service in virtual utilities based on microgrids.

  15. Marketing to utility customers with multimedia

    Bernstein, S.; Tidball, R. [Energy International Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The rapid growth in both the power and availability of personal computers has created an opportunity for the utility industry to enhance the effectiveness of communication, training, and marketing tools through the use of multimedia programs. Multimedia communication and marketing packages can be created to promote specific technologies or to address the needs of specific business segments. In either case, multimedia programs can be structured to include a variety of technical, economic, and market data relevant to the subject matter. Multimedia programs allow this information to be presented on demand in a graphics-rich environment using a mix of text, graphics, animation, sound, and interactive calculation routines. Utility marketing personnel can use these multimedia packages to quickly and early present the information of most interest to customers. Possible uses for multimedia in the utility industry are described and examples of programs that have been developed are presented. (author)

  16. Construction utilization of foamed waste glass

    Jiang LU; Katsutada ONITSUKA

    2004-01-01

    Foamed waste glass(FWG) material is newly developed for the purpose to utilize the waste glassware andother waste glass. FWG has a multi-porous structure that consists of continuous or discontinuous voids. Hencelightweight but considerable stiffness can be achieved. In the present study, the manufacture and engineeringproperties of FWG are introduced first. Then, the utilizations of FWG are investigated in laboratory tests and fieldtests. Some case studies on design and construction work are also reported here. Through these studies we knowthat the discontinuous void material can be utilized as a lightweight fill material, ground improvement material andlightweight aggregate for concrete. On the other hand, the continuous void material can be used as water holdingmaterial for the greening of ground slope and rooftop, and as clarification material for water.

  17. 抗菌药物专项整治对某三甲医院特殊使用级抗菌药物应用的影响与分析%Impact and analysis of the utilization of antibacterial drugs for special use in a first-class hospital with special rectification activities of antibacterials

    陈集志; 王浈; 李刚; 徐江红

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the implementation effect of special rectification activities on use of special level antibacterial drugs in a ifrst-class hospital from 2011 to the ifrst quarter of 2013. Methods:The application of antibacterials and special level antibacterial drugs and relevant indicators were statistically analyzed by the method of defined daily dose (DDD). Results:Through special rectiifcation activities, the rate of consumption of special level antibacterial drugs in antibacterials amount fell from 39.76%in the ifrst quarter of 2011 to 24.56%in the ifrst quarter of 2013. After the second quarter of 2012, the utilization rate of antibacterials was not more than 60.00%, and the rate of use of special level antibacterial drugs was controlled below 5.40%. The use intensity of antibacterial drugs was 39.8 DDDs per 100 patients in the fourth quarter of 2012. The use of special antibacterial drugs in this hospital was basically rational. Conclusion:Through the special rectiifcation activities, the rational use of special level antibacterial drugs was normalized.%目的::探讨抗菌药物专项整治对某三甲医院2011-2013年一季度特殊使用级抗菌药物临床应用情况的影响。方法:采用限定日剂量为指标的分析方法,对抗菌药物及特殊使用级抗菌药物的应用数据及相关指标按季度进行统计分析。结果:专项整治后,特殊使用级抗菌药物金额占抗菌药物金额比例从2011年一季度39.76%下降到2013年一季度24.56%,2012年二季度之后抗菌药物使用率均低于60.00%,特殊使用级抗菌药物使用率控制5.40%以下,2012年四季度该院抗菌药物使用强度为每百人天39.8 DDDs,该院特殊使用级抗菌药物使用基本合理。结论:抗菌药物专项整治活动取得一定的成效,对该院特殊使用级抗菌药物的合理使用起到了一定的规范作用。

  18. Distributed generation the next frontier for utilities

    Whitehead, K. [Whitby Hydro Electric Commission, ON (Canada)

    2001-09-01

    Fluctuating energy costs, fewer resources and ever-increasing end-user demand are some of the challenges facing electric utilities today. At the same time, advances in technology allow for improved service and reduced capital costs by means of innovative and cost-effective solutions. It is expected that deregulation of energy markets will result in energy being considered as a mere commodity to be freely sold or bought. Also, based on the assets of the utility, the regulators will determine what the utility is allowed to sell power for, which is called Performance-Based Rates. In turn, the rates determine the staffing requirements of the utility and the degree to which it can be maintained. Less reliable power delivery to the user could be the consequence as the utility is compelled to cut costs. Demand exceeding the supply for the next few years only makes the problem worse. Meeting the additional demand means adding feeders and transformer stations at the cost of 12 to 20 million dollars for a new transformer station. A possible solution is on-site power generation through distributed generation. For example, industrial users equipped with an existing generator, would parallel the grid to handle peak volumes through on-site generation. Some of the new technologies being considered are micro-turbines which have the advantage of built-in communications capabilities, and fuel cells which should become available in the next five years and offer environmentally friendly options. At the moment, for the utilities to benefit from on-site generation in the short term, they must look to small gas turbines and reciprocating engines. Distributed generation offers improved system reliability and quality, as well as the ability to defer capital costs required for a new transformer station. The major hurdle to be overcome is communication with the host site for monitoring and control. Connectivity issues are now being addressed with open systems (protection, monitoring and

  19. Handbook of evaluation of utility DSM programs

    Hirst, E.; Reed, J. [eds.; Bronfman, B.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Hicks, E.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, M.; Keating, K.; Michaels, H.; Nadel, S.; Peters, J.; Reed, J.; Saxonis, W.; Schoen, A.; Violette, D.

    1991-12-01

    Program evaluation has become a central issue in the world of utility integrated resource planning. The DSM programs that utilities were operating to meet federal requirements or to improve customer relations are now becoming big business. DSM is being considered an important resource in a utility`s portfolio of options. In the last five years, the amount of money that utilities have invested in DSM has grown exponentially in most regulatory jurisdictions. Market analysts are now talking about DSM being a $30 billion industry by the end of the decade. If the large volume of DSM-program investments was not enough to highlight the importance of evaluation, then the introduction of regulatory incentives has really focused the spotlight. This handbook was developed through a process that involved many of those people who represent the diverse constituencies of DSM-program evaluation. We have come to recognize the many technical disciplines that must be employed to evaluate DSM programs. An analysis might start out based on the principles of utility load research to find out what happened, but a combination of engineering and statistical methods must be used to ``triangulate`` an estimate of what would have happened without the program. The difference, of course, is that elusive but prized result of evaluation: what happened as the direct result of the DSM program. Technical performance of DSM measures is not the sole determinant of the answer, either. We also recognize the importance of such behavioral attributes of DSM as persistence and free ridership. Finally, DSM evaluation is meaningless without attention to planning an approach, communicating results to relevant decision-makers, and focusing as much on the process as the impacts of the program. These topics are all covered in this handbook.

  20. Independence properties Vis-A-Vis several utility representations

    Marley, AAJ; Luce, RD

    2005-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of what five utility representations - subjective expected utility (SEU), rank-dependent (cumulative or Choquet) utility (RDU), gains decomposition utility (GDU), rank weighted utility (RWU), and a configural-weight model (TAX) that we show to be equivale