WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation radio

  1. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Jamrozy M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  2. Radio Bursts in the Active Period January 2005

    Bouratzis, K; Hillaris, A; Moussas, X; Caroubalos, C; Petoussis, V; Tsitsipis, P; Kontogeorgos, A; 10.1063/1.2347980

    2010-01-01

    We present complex radio bursts recorded by the radiospectrograph ARTEMIS-IV in the active period of January 2005. The wide spectral coverage of this recorder, in the 650-20 MHz range, permits an analysis of the radio bursts from the base of the Solar Corona to 2 Solar Radii; it thus facilitates the association of radio activity with other types of solar energetic phenomena. Furthermore the ARTEMIS-IV1, high time resolution (1/100 sec) in the 450-270 MHz range, makes possible the detection and analysis of the fine structure which most of the major radio events exhibit.

  3. The Radio Activity-Rotation Relation of Ultracool Dwarfs

    McLean, M; Reiners, A

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] We present a new radio survey of about 100 late-M and L dwarfs undertaken with the VLA. The sample was chosen to explore the role of rotation in the radio activity of ultracool dwarfs. Combining the new sample with results from our previous studies and from the literature, we compile the largest sample to date of ultracool dwarfs with radio observations and measured rotation velocities (167 objects). In the spectral type range M0-M6 we find a radio activity-rotation relation, with saturation at log(L_rad/L_bol) 10^(-7.5) above vsini~5 km/s, similar to the relation in H-alpha and X-rays. However, at spectral types >M7 the ratio of radio to bolometric luminosity increases regardless of rotation velocity, and the scatter in radio luminosity increases. In particular, while the most rapid rotators (vsini>20 km/s) exhibit "super-saturation" in X-rays and H-alpha, this effect is not seen in the radio. We also find that ultracool dwarfs with vsini>20 km/s have a higher radio detection fraction by about a f...

  4. Evidence for Infrared-faint Radio Sources as z > 1 Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 μm) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z >~ 1) active galactic nuclei.

  5. Optical-radio positional offsets for active galactic nuclei

    Orosz, G

    2013-01-01

    Context. It will soon become possible to directly link the most accurate radio reference frame with the Gaia optical reference frame using many common extragalactic objects. It is important to know the level of coincidence between the radio and optical positions of compact active galactic nuclei (AGN). Aims. Using the best catalogues available at present, we investigate how many AGN with significantly large optical-radio positional offsets exist as well as the possible causes of these offsets. Methods. We performed a case study by finding optical counterparts to the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) radio sources in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9). The ICRF2 catalogue was used as a reference because the radio positions determined by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are about two orders of magnitude more accurate than the optical positions. Results. We find 1297 objects in common for ICRF2 and SDSS DR9. Statistical analysis of the optical-radio differ...

  6. The jet-disc connection: evidence for a reinterpretation in radio loud and radio quiet active galactic nuclei

    Garofalo, David

    2013-01-01

    To constrain models of the jet-disc connection, we explore Eddington ratios reported in Foschini (2011) and interpret them in relation to the values in Sikora et al. across the active galactic nuclei population from radio loud quasars, their flat spectrum radio quasar subclass, the recently discovered gamma-ray loud narrow-line type 1 Seyfert galaxies, Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI) radio galaxies and radio quiet quasars of the Palomar Green survey. While appeal to disc truncation in radiatively inefficient flow appears to explain the observed inverse relation between radio loudness and Eddington ratio in radio loud and radio quiet quasars, FR I objects, scale invariance and recent data on powerful jets in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies offer compelling arguments in favour of a reinterpretaion of the jet-disc connection.

  7. PKS 0347+05: a radio-loud/radio-quiet double active galactic nucleus system triggered in a major galaxy merger

    Tadhunter, C. N.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Morganti, R.; Holt, J.; Rose, M.; Dicken, D.; Inskip, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present optical, infrared (IR) and radio observations of the powerful Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio source PKS 0347+05 (z = 0.3390), and demonstrate that it is a rare example of a radio-loud/radio-quiet double active galactic nucleus (AGN) system, comprising a weak-line radio galaxy (WLRG)

  8. Control of active reflector system for radio telescope

    Zhou, Guo-hua; Li, Guo-ping; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhen-chao

    2016-10-01

    According to the control requirements of the active reflector surface in the 110 m radio telescope at QiTai(QTT) Xinjiang, a new displacement actuator and a new displacement control system were designed and manufactured and then their characteristics were tested by a dual-frequency laser interferometer in the micro-displacement laboratory. The displacement actuator was designed by a scheme of high precision worm and roller screw structures, and the displacement control system was based on a ARM micro-processor. Finally, the S curve acceleration control methods were used to design the hardware platform and software algorithm for the active reflection surface of the control system. The test experiments were performed based on the laser metrology system on an active reflector close-loop antenna prototype for large radio telescope. Experimental results indicate that it achieves a 30 mm working stroke and 5 μm RMS motion resolution. The accuracy (standard deviation) is 3.67 mm, and the error between the determined and theoretical values is 0.04% when the rated load is 300 kg, the step is 2 mm and the stroke is 30mm. Furthermore, the active reflector integrated system was tested by the laser sensors with the accuracy of 0.25 μm RMS on 4-panel radio telescope prototype, the measurement results show that the integrated precision of the active reflector closed-loop control system is less than 5 μm RMS, and well satisfies the technical requirements of active reflector control system of the QTT radio telescope in 3 mm wavelength.

  9. Ultrafast outflows in radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    Tombesi, F.; Tazaki, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Cappi, M.; Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent X-ray observations show absorbing winds with velocities up to mildly relativistic values of the order of ˜0.1c in a limited sample of six broad-line radio galaxies. They are observed as blueshifted Fe XXV-XXVI K-shell absorption lines, similarly to the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) reported in Seyferts and quasars. In this work we extend the search for such Fe K absorption lines to a larger sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The sample is drawn from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58-month catalogue and blazars are excluded. X-ray bright Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxies constitute the majority of the sources. Combining the results of this analysis with those in the literature we find that UFOs are detected in >27 per cent of the sources. However, correcting for the number of spectra with insufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we can estimate that the incidence of UFOs is this sample of radio-loud AGN is likely in the range f ≃ (50 ± 20) per cent. A photoionization modelling of the absorption lines with XSTAR allows us to estimate the distribution of their main parameters. The observed outflow velocities are broadly distributed between vout ≲ 1000 km s-1 and vout ≃ 0.4c, with mean and median values of vout ≃ 0.133c and vout ≃ 0.117c, respectively. The material is highly ionized, with an average ionization parameter of logξ ≃ 4.5 erg s-1 cm, and the column densities are larger than NH > 1022 cm-2. Overall, these characteristics are consistent with the presence of complex accretion disc winds in a significant fraction of radio-loud AGN and demonstrate that the presence of relativistic jets does not preclude the existence of winds, in accordance with several theoretical models.

  10. The Energetics and Lifetimes of Local Radio Active Galactic Nuclei

    Turner, Ross J

    2015-01-01

    We present a model describing the evolution of Fanaroff-Riley type I and II radio AGN, and the transition between these classes. We quantify galaxy environments using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model, and apply our model to a volume-limited low redshift ($0.03 \\leqslant z \\leqslant 0.1$) sample of observed AGN to determine the distribution of jet powers and active lifetimes at the present epoch. Radio sources in massive galaxies are found to remain active for longer, spend less time in the quiescent phase, and inject more energy into their hosts than their less massive counterparts. The jet power is independent of the host stellar mass within uncertainties, consistent with maintenance-mode AGN feedback paradigm. The environments of these AGN are in or close to long-term heating-cooling balance. We also examine the properties of high- and low-excitation radio galaxy sub-populations. The HERGs are younger than LERGs by an order of magnitude, whilst their jet powers are greater by a factor of four. The Edd...

  11. Discovery of ultra-steep spectrum giant radio galaxy with recurrent radio jet activity in Abell 449

    Hunik, D

    2016-01-01

    We report a discovery of a 1.3 Mpc diffuse radio source with extremely steep spectrum fading radio structures in the vicinity of the Abell 449 cluster of galaxies. Its extended diffuse lobes are bright only at low radio frequencies and their synchrotron age is about 160 Myr. The parent galaxy of the extended relic structure, which is the dominant galaxy within the cluster, is starting a new jet activity. There are three weak X-rays sources in the vicinity of the cluster as found in the ROSAT survey, however it is not known if they are connected with this cluster of galaxies. Just a few radio galaxy relics are currently known in the literature, as finding them requires sensitive and high angular resolution low-frequency radio observations. Objects of this kind, which also are starting a new jet activity, are important for understanding the life cycle and evolution of active galactic nuclei. A new 613 MHz map as well as the archival radio data pertaining to this object are presented and analyzed.

  12. DISCOVERY OF ULTRA-STEEP SPECTRUM GIANT RADIO GALAXY WITH RECURRENT RADIO JET ACTIVITY IN ABELL 449

    Hunik, Dominika; Jamrozy, Marek, E-mail: dominika.hunik@uj.edu.pl [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-01-20

    We report a discovery of a 1.3 Mpc diffuse radio source with extremely steep spectrum fading radio structures in the vicinity of the Abell 449 cluster of galaxies. Its extended diffuse lobes are bright only at low radio frequencies and their synchrotron age is about 160 Myr. The parent galaxy of the extended relic structure, which is the dominant galaxy within the cluster, is starting a new jet activity. There are three weak X-rays sources in the vicinity of the cluster as found in the ROSAT survey, however it is not known if they are connected with this cluster of galaxies. Just a few radio galaxy relics are currently known in the literature, as finding them requires sensitive and high angular resolution low-frequency radio observations. Objects of this kind, which also are starting a new jet activity, are important for understanding the life cycle and evolution of active galactic nuclei. A new 613 MHz map as well as the archival radio data pertaining to this object are presented and analyzed.

  13. On the Radio Dichotomy of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Cao, Xinwu

    2016-12-01

    It is still a mystery why only a small fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain relativistic jets. A strong magnetic field is a necessary ingredient for jet formation, however, the advection of the external field in a geometrically thin disk is inefficient. Gas with a small angular velocity may fall from the Bondi radius {R}{{B}} nearly freely to the circularization radius {R}{{c}}, and a thin accretion disk is formed within {R}{{c}}. We suggest that the external magnetic field is substantially enhanced in this region, and the magnetic field at {R}{{c}} can be sufficiently strong to drive outflows from the disk if the angular velocity of the gas is low at {R}{{B}}. The magnetic field is efficiently dragged in the disk, because most angular momentum of the disk is removed by the outflows that lead to a significantly high radial velocity. The strong magnetic field formed in this way may accelerate jets in the region near the black hole, either by the Blandford-Payne or/and Blandford-Znajek mechanisms. We suggest that the radio dichotomy of AGNs predominantly originates from the angular velocity of the circumnuclear gas. An AGN will appear as a radio-loud (RL) one if the angular velocity of the circumnuclear gas is lower than a critical value at the Bondi radius, otherwise, it will appear as a radio-quiet (RQ) AGN. This is supported by the observations that RL nuclei are invariably hosted by core galaxies. Our model suggests that the mass growth of the black holes in RL quasars is much faster than that in RQ quasars with the same luminosity, which is consistent with the fact that the massive black holes in RL quasars are systematically a few times heavier than those in their RQ counterparts.

  14. Cosmic evolution of radio selected active galactic nuclei in the COSMOS field

    Smolcic, V; Schinnerer, E; Bardelli, S; Bondi, M; Birzan, L; Carilli, C L; Ciliegi, P; Ilbert, O; Koekemoer, A M; Merloni, A; Paglione, T; Salvato, M; Scodeggio, M; Scoville, N

    2009-01-01

    We explore the cosmic evolution of radio AGN with low radio powers (L_1.4GHz 5\\times10^25 W/Hz) radio AGN over the same cosmic time interval, constrained using the 3CRR, 6CE, and 7CRS radio surveys by Willott et al. (2001). We demonstrate that this can be explained through differences in black hole fueling and triggering mechanisms, and a dichotomy in host galaxy properties of weak and powerful AGN. Our findings suggest that high and low radio-power AGN activity is triggered in different stages during the formation of massive red galaxies. We show that weak radio AGN occur in the most massive galaxies already at z~1, and they may significantly contribute to the heating of their surrounding medium and thus inhibit gas accretion onto their host galaxies, as recently suggested for the `radio mode' in cosmological models.

  15. Radio Properties of Low Redshift Broad Line Active Galactic Nuclei Including Multiple Component Radio Sources

    Rafter, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the radio properties of a low redshift (z FRIIs. From these data we find an FRI/FRII luminosity dividing line like that found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974), where we use our core-only sources as proxies for FRIs, and our multi-component sources for the FRIIs. We find a bimodal distribution for the radio loudness (R = L(radio)/L(opt)) where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the multi-component extended sources, compared with no evidence for bimodality when just the core-only sources are used. We also find that a log(R) value of 1.75 is well suited to separate the FRIs from the FRIIs, and that the R bimodality seen here is really a manifestation of the FRI/FRII break originally found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974). We find modest trends in the radio loud fraction as a function of Eddington ratio and black hole mass, where the fraction of RL AGNs decreases with increasing Eddington ratio, and increases when the black hole mass is above 2 x 108 solar masses.

  16. Jet reorientation in active galactic nuclei : two winged radio galaxies

    Dennett-Thorpe, J; Scheuer, PAG; Laing, RA; Bridle, AH; Pooley, GG; Reich, W

    2002-01-01

    Winged, or X-shaped, radio sources form a small class of morphologically peculiar extragalactic sources. We present multifrequency radio observations of two such sources. We derive maximum ages since any re-injection of fresh particles of 34 and 17 Myr for the wings of 3C 223.1 and 3C 403 respective

  17. Accretion/Jet Activity and Narrow [O III] Kinematics in Young Radio Galaxies

    Wu, Qingwen; Humphrey, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios for a sample of 81 young radio galaxies (42 CSS +39 GPS). We find that the average black hole (BH) mass of these young radio galaxies is ~8.3, which is less than that of radio loud QSOs and low redshift radio galaxies. The CSS/GPS sources have relatively high Eddington ratios, with an average value of =-0.75, which are similar to those of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). This suggests that young radio galaxies may not only be in the early stages of their radio activity, but also in the early stage of their accretion activity. We find that the young radio galaxies as a class deviate systematically from M_bh-\\sigma relation defined by nearby inactive galaxies, when using [O III] as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion, \\sigma_* . We also find that the deviation of the [O III] line width is correlated with the Eddington ratio and sources with Lbol/LEdd~1 have the largest deviations, which are similar to those of radio quiet QSOs/NLS1s (radio jets i...

  18. Type II and IV radio bursts in the active period October-November 2003

    Petoussis, V; Kontogeorgos, A; Moussas, X; Preka-Papadema, P; Hillaris, A; Caroubalos, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Bougeret, J -L; Dumas, G; 10.1063/1.2347978

    2010-01-01

    In this report we present the Type II and IV radio bursts observed and analyzed by the radio spectrograph ARTEMIS IV1, in the 650-20MHz frequency range, during the active period October-November 2003. These bursts exhibit very rich fine structures such fibers, pulsations and zebra patterns which is associated with certain characteristics of the associated solar flares and CMEs.

  19. $\\textit{Herschel}$-ATLAS:The connection between star formation and AGN activity in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galaxies

    Gurkan, G; Jarvis, M J; Smith, D J B; Bourne, N; Dunne, L; Maddox, S; Ivison, R J; Fritz, J

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationship between star formation and AGN activity by constructing matched samples of local ($0radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN in the $\\textit{Herschel}$-ATLAS fields. Radio-loud AGN are classified as high-excitation and low-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs, LERGs) using their emission lines and $\\textit{WISE}$ 22-$\\mu$m luminosity. AGN accretion and jet powers in these active galaxies are traced by [OIII] emission-line and radio luminosity, respectively. Star formation rates (SFRs) and specific star formation rates (SSFRs) were derived using $\\textit{Herschel}$ 250-$\\mu$m luminosity and stellar mass measurements from the SDSS$-$MPA-JHU catalogue. In the past, star formation studies of AGN have mostly focused on high-redshift sources to observe the thermal dust emission that peaks in the far-infrared, which limited the samples to powerful objects. However, with $\\textit{Herschel}$ we can expand this to low redshifts. Our stacking analyses show that SFRs and SSFRs of both radio-l...

  20. Where the active galaxies live: a panchromatic view of radio-AGN in the AKARI-NEP field

    Karouzos, Marios; Trichas, Markos

    2013-01-01

    We study the host galaxy properties of radio sources in the AKARI-North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) field, using an ensemble of multi-wavelength datasets. We identify both radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN and study their host galaxy properties by means of SED fitting. We investigate the relative importance of nuclear and star-formation activity in radio-AGN and assess the role of radio-AGN as efficient quenchers of star-formation in their host galaxies.

  1. Accretion/jet activity and narrow [O III] kinematics in young radio galaxies

    Andrew; HUMPHREY

    2010-01-01

    We estimate black hole masses and Edenton ratios for a sample of 81 young radio galaxies,which includes 42 compact steep-spectrum(CSS) and 39 gigahertz-peaked spectrum(GPS) sources.We find that the average black hole(BH) mass of these young radio galaxies is〈log Mbh〉-8.3,which is less than that of radio loud QSOs and low redshift radio galaxies(〈 log Mbh〉-9.0).The CSS/GPS sources have relatively high Eddington ratios,with an average value of〈log Lbol/LEdd〉=-0.75,which are similar to those of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies(NLS1s).This suggests that young radio galaxies may not only be in the early stages of their radio activity,but also in the early stage of their accretion activity.We find that the young radio galaxies,as a class,systematically deviate from the Mbh-σ relation defined by nearby inactive galaxies,when using σ[O III] as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion σ.We also find that the deviation of the [O III] line width,Δσ =σ[O III]-σ[pred],is correlated with the Eddington ratio;sources with Lbol/LEdd-1 have the largest deviations,which are similar to those of radio quiet QSOs/NLS1s(i.e.,sources in which the radio jets are absent or weak),and where σ[pred] is calculated from the Tremaine et al.relation using our estimated BH masses.A similar result has been obtained for 9 linear radio Seyfert galaxies.On the basis of these results,we suggest that,in addition to the possible jet-gas interactions,accretion activities may also play an important role in shaping the kinematics of the narrow [O III] line in young radio galaxies.

  2. A New Perspective on the Radio Active Zone at The Galactic Center - Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W M

    2013-01-01

    Based on our deep image of Sgr A using broadband data observed with the Jansky VLA at 6 cm, we present a new perspective of the radio bright zone at the Galactic center. We further show the radio detection of the X-ray Cannonball, a candidate neutron star associated with the Galactic center SNR Sgr A East. The radio image is compared with the Chandra X-ray image to show the detailed structure of the radio counterparts of the bipolar X-ray lobes. The bipolar lobes are likely produced by the winds from the activities within Sgr A West, which could be collimated by the inertia of gas in the CND, or by the momentum driving of Sgr A*; and the poloidal magnetic fields likely play an important role in the collimation. The less-collimated SE lobe, in comparison to the NW one, is perhaps due to the fact that the Sgr A East SN might have locally reconfigured the magnetic field toward negative galactic latitudes. In agreement with the X-ray observations, the time-scale of ~ $1\\times10^4$ yr estimated for the outermost r...

  3. FeltRadio – Experiencing Community-generated WiFi Activities

    Fritsch, Jonas; Gronvall, Erik

    2016-01-01

    FeltRadio is a portable technology for sensing WiFi through sensorial augmentation and Electric Muscle Stimulation (EMS). The technology enables its wearer to sensorially engage with the radio waves and WiFi activities that have become an integrated part of our everyday lives. The sensorial...... engagement changes people’s experience of WiFi activities, and allows them to participate in wireless communication infrastructures in novel ways. This is both an immediately embodied activity as it is a new form of social awareness. In this paper, we briefly present the FeltRadio technology and show how...

  4. Restarting radio activity and dust emission in radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    Bruni, G; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Brienza, M; González-Serrano, J I

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) are objects showing absorption from relativistic outflows, with velocities up to 0.2c. These manifest, in about 15% of quasars, as absorption troughs on the blue side of UV emission lines, such as C iv and Mg ii. In this work, we complement the information collected in the cm band for our previously presented sample of radio loud BAL QSOs with new observations at m and mm bands. Our aim is to verify the presence of old, extended radio components in the MHz range, and probe the emission of dust (linked to star formation) in the mm domain. We observed 5 sources from our sample, already presenting hints of low-frequency emission, with the GMRT at 235 and 610 MHz. Other 17 sources (more than half the sample) were observed with bolometer cameras at IRAM-30m and APEX. All sources observed with the GMRT present extended emission at a scale of tens of kpc. In some cases these measurements allow us to identify a second component in the SED, at frequencies below 1.4 GHz, beyond ...

  5. NOS/NGS activities to support development of radio interferometric surveying techniques

    Carter, W. E.; Dracup, J. F.; Hothem, L. D.; Robertson, D. S.; Strange, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    National Geodetic Survey activities towards the development of operational geodetic survey systems based on radio interferometry are reviewed. Information about the field procedures, data reduction and analysis, and the results obtained to date is presented.

  6. CHANG-ES - VIII. Uncovering hidden AGN activity in radio polarization

    Irwin, Judith A.; Schmidt, Philip; Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, Rainer; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Rand, Richard J.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa; Kamieneski, Patrick; Paré, Dylan; Sullivan, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    We report on C-band (5-7 GHz) observations of the galaxy, NGC 2992, from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies - an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) sample. This galaxy displays an embedded nuclear double-lobed radio morphology within its spiral disc, as revealed in linearly polarized emission but not in total intensity emission. The radio lobes are kpc-sized, similar to what has been observed in the past for other Seyfert galaxies, and show ordered magnetic fields. NGC 2992 has shown previous evidence for AGN-related activity, but not the linearly polarized radio features that we present here. We draw attention to this galaxy as the first clear example (and prototype) of bipolar radio outflow that is revealed in linearly polarized emission only. Such polarization observations, which are unobscured by dust, provide a new tool for uncovering hidden weak active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity which may otherwise be masked by brighter unpolarized emission within which it is embedded. The radio lobes observed in NGC 2992 are interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and offer new opportunities to investigate the interactions between nuclear outflows and the ISM in nearby galaxies. We also compare the radio emission with a new CHANDRA X-ray image of this galaxy. A new CHANG-ES image of NGC 3079 is also briefly shown as another example as to how much more obvious radio lobes appear in linear polarization as opposed to total intensity.

  7. Geeks, meta-Geeks, and gender trouble: activism, identity, and low-power FM radio.

    Dunbar-Hester, Christina

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, I consider the activities of a group of individuals who tinker with and build radio hardware in an informal setting called 'Geek Group'. They conceive of Geek Group as a radical pedagogical activity, which constitutes an aspect of activism surrounding citizen access to low-power FM radio. They are also concerned with combating the gendered nature of hardware skills, yet in spite of their efforts men tend to have more skill and familiarity with radio hardware than women. Radio tinkering has a long history as a masculine undertaking and a site of masculine identity construction. I argue that this case represents an interplay between geek, activist, and gendered identities, all of which are salient for this group, but which do not occur together without some tension.

  8. Accretion Disk Model of Short-Timescale Intermittent Activity in Young Radio Sources

    Czerny, Bozena; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Nikiel-Wroczynski, Blazej; Stawarz, Lukasz

    2009-01-01

    We associate the existence of short-lived compact radio sources with the intermittent activity of the central engine caused by a radiation pressure instability within an accretion disk. Such objects may constitute a numerous sub-class of Giga-Hertz Peaked Spectrum sources, in accordance with the population studies of radio-loud active galaxies, as well as detailed investigations of their radio morphologies. We perform the model computations assuming the viscosity parametrization as proportional to a geometrical mean of the total and gas pressure. The implied timescales are consistent with the observed ages of the sources. The duration of an active phase for a moderate accretion rate is short enough (< 10^3-10^4 years) that the ejecta are confined within the host galaxy and thus these sources cannot evolve into large size radio galaxies unless they are close to the Eddington limit.

  9. Radio pulsar activity and the crustal Hall drift

    Geppert, U; Melikidze, G

    2013-01-01

    Models of pulsar radio emission that are based on an inner accelerating region require the existence of very strong and small scale surface magnetic field structures at or near the canonical polar cap. The aim of this paper is to identify a mechanism that creates such field structures and maintains them over a pulsar's lifetime. The likely physical process that can create the required 'magnetic spots' is the Hall drift occurring in the crust of a neutron star. It is demonstrated, that the Hall drift can produce small scale strong surface magnetic field anomalies (spots) on timescales of $10^4$ years by means of non-linear interaction between poloidal and toroidal components of the subsurface magnetic field. These anomalies are characterized by strengths of about $10^{14}$ G and curvature radii of field lines of about $10^6$ cm, both of which are fundamental for generation of observable radio emission.

  10. No radio pulsations detected from SGR 1627-41 following renewed X- ray activity

    Camilo, F.; Sarkissian, J.

    2008-06-01

    Starting on May 28, 2008, the SGR 1627-41 displayed X-ray bursting and enhanced flux after nearly 10 years of relative inactivity (ATEL #1548, #1549, #1555). Two magnetars are known to emit radio pulses (Camilo et al. 2007, ApJ, 666, L93), and in at least one case these are transient and have followed an X-ray outburst after many years in quiescence (Camilo et al. 2006, Nature, 442, 892). Therefore, although previous radio searches of SGR 1627-41 have been unsuccessful, we are searching for radio emission following its recent renewed burst of activity.

  11. A Study of the Fitting Accuracy of the Active Reflector for a Large Spherical Radio Telescope

    Xiao-Qiang Tang; Jin-Song Wang; Qi-Ming Wang

    2003-01-01

    We propose a spatial three-degree-of-freedom (DOF) parallel mechanism combining two degrees of rotations and one degree of translation to support the active reflector units of a large spherical radio telescope. The kinematics, workspace and accuracy of the mechanism are analyzed. One-dimensional and two-dimensional fitting errors to the working region of active reflector are investigated. Dimensional parameters of the mechanism and active reflector unit are examined with respect to the requirement of fitting accuracy. The result of accuracy analysis shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed mechanism, and gives a design rule to guarantee the highest working frequency required by large radio telescope.

  12. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA)

    2011-12-01

    grouped in the category of automatic identification technologies, along with barcodes, magnetic stripes, smart cards and biometrics. RFID uses...ANALYSIS OF RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION ( RFID ) IMPLEMENTATION AT THE DEFENSE MICROELECTRONICS ACTIVITY (DMEA) by James B. Gerber December...Identification ( RFID ) Implementation at the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James B. Gerber 7

  13. The radio-loud active nucleus in the "dark lens" galaxy J1218+2953

    Frey, S; Campbell, R M; Moor, A

    2010-01-01

    Context: There is a possibility that the optically unidentified radio source J1218+2953 may act as a gravitational lens, producing an optical arc ~4" away from the radio position. Until now, the nature of the lensing object has been uncertain since it is not detected in any waveband other than the radio. The estimated high mass-to-light ratio could even allow the total mass of this galaxy to be primarily in the form of dark matter. In this case, J1218+2953 could be the first known example of a "dark lens". Aims: We investigate the nature of J1218+2953 by means of high-resolution radio imaging observations to determine whether there is a radio-loud active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the position of the lensing object. Methods: We report on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 and 5 GHz. Results: Our images, having angular resolutions of ~1 to ~10 milli-arcseconds (mas), reveal a rich and complex radio structure extending to almost 1". Based on its radi...

  14. A Multi-parameter Model for Radio Dichotomy of Active Galactic Nuclei and Jets

    2006-01-01

    Based on the coexistence of the Blandford-Znajek and magnetic coupling processes in black hole (BH)accretion disc, a multi-parameter model for jet powers and radio loudness of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is studied. It turns out that radio-loudness of AGNs could be governed by five parameters: (i) the BH spin, (ii) a power-law index of the variation of the magnetic field on the disc; (iii) a parameter determining the position of the inner edge of the disc, (iv)the ratio of the pressure of the magnetic field on the horizon to the ram pressure of the innermost parts of an accretion flow, and (v) the ratio of the angular velocity of the open field lines to that of the horizon. The observed dichotomy between radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs is well interpreted by the effects of the above parameters. Furthermore, we discuss the derivative of radio loudness of AGNs with respect to each parameter separately. In addition, the effect of the screw instability on radio loudness of A GNs is discussed.

  15. HerMES: Disentangling active galactic nuclei and star formation in the radio source population

    Rawlings, J I; Symeonidis, M; Bock, J; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Guo, K; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Oliver, S J; Roseboom, I G; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Vaccari, M; Wardlow, J L

    2015-01-01

    We separate the extragalactic radio source population above ~50 uJy into active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming sources. The primary method of our approach is to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed using Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS and Herschel/SPIRE photometry, of 380 radio sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. From the fitted SEDs, we determine the relative AGN and star-forming contributions to their infrared emission. With the inclusion of other AGN diagnostics such as X-ray luminosity, Spitzer/IRAC colours, radio spectral index and the ratio of star-forming total infrared flux to k-corrected 1.4 GHz flux density, qIR, we determine whether the radio emission in these sources is powered by star formation or by an AGN. The majority of these radio sources (60 per cent) show the signature of an AGN at some wavelength. Of the sources with AGN signatures, 58 per cent are hybrid systems for which the radio emission is being powered by star formation. This implies that r...

  16. Study of the magnetospheres of active regions on the sun by radio astronomy techniques

    Bogod, V. M.; Kal'tman, T. I.; Peterova, N. G.; Yasnov, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1990s, based on detailed studies of the structure of active regions (AR), the concept of the magnetosphere of the active region was proposed. This includes almost all known structures presented in the active region, ranging from the radio granulation up to noise storms, the radiation of which manifests on the radio waves. The magnetosphere concept, which, from a common point of view, considers the manifestations of the radio emission of the active region as a single active complex, allows one to shed light on the relation between stable and active processes and their interrelations. It is especially important to identify the basic ways of transforming nonthermal energy into thermal energy. A dominant role in all processes is attributed to the magnetic field, the measurement of which on the coronal levels can be performed by radio-astronomical techniques. The extension of the wavelength range and the introduction of new tools and advanced modeling capabilities makes it possible to analyze the physical properties of plasma structures in the AR magnetosphere and to evaluate the coronal magnetic fields at the levels of the chromosphere-corona transition zone and the lower corona. The features and characteristics of the transition region from the S component to the B component have been estimated.

  17. CHANG-ES VIII: Uncovering Hidden AGN Activity in Radio Polarization

    Irwin, Judith A; Damas-Segovia, A; Beck, Rainer; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Rand, Richard J; Wang, Q Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa; Kamieneski, Patrick; Paré, Dylan; Sullivan, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    We report on C-band (5 - 7 GHz) observations of the galaxy, NGC~2992, from the CHANG-ES sample. This galaxy displays an embedded nuclear double-lobed radio morphology within its spiral disk, as revealed in linearly polarized emission but {\\it not} in total intensity emission. The radio lobes are kpc-sized, similar to what has been observed in the past for other Seyfert galaxies, and show ordered magnetic fields. NGC~2992 has shown previous evidence for AGN-related activity, but not the linearly polarized radio features that we present here. We draw attention to this galaxy as the first clear example (and prototype) of bipolar radio outflow that is revealed in linearly polarized emission only. Such polarization observations, which are unobscured by dust, provide a new tool for uncovering hidden weak AGN activity which may otherwise be masked by brighter unpolarized emission within which it is embedded. The radio lobes observed in NGC~2992 are interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium and offer new o...

  18. Study of Correlations Between Radio Jet Velocity and Supermassive Black Hole Mass in Active Galaxies

    Timothy Pennucci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that numerous characteristics of many host galaxies, such as stellar velocity dispersion and bulge luminosity, are governed by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH. This same SMBH is also thought to be the origin of radio jets propagating outward from the nucleus of these galaxies. It was then hypothesized that the mass of a SMBH influences and correlates with the initial radio jet velocity in active galaxies. Mass and velocity data were collected for 48 radio galaxies but as a result from projection effects due to the nature of active galaxies, apparent transverse velocity replaced intrinsic velocity in this study as the dependent variable. From these transverse velocities, the minimum intrinsic velocities of the radio jets were calculated for further investigation. Three apparent transverse velocity groups arise in the results that may be weakly correlated to SMBH mass. The calculated minimum intrinsic velocity data supports this correlation. These results are qualitative in nature and need to be tested on additional samples. While no direct conclusion can be made, the positive trends produced in this research between SMBH mass and radio jet velocity may later aid in further studies and galactic evolutionary research.

  19. The Evolution of Radio Loud Active Galactic Nuclei as a Function of Black Hole Spin

    Garofalo, David; Sambruna, Rita M

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the engines of active galactic nuclei jets suggests their power depends strongly and perhaps counter-intuitively on black hole spin. We explore the consequences of this on the radio-loud population of active galactic nuclei and find that the time evolution of the most powerful radio galaxies and radio-loud quasars fits into a picture in which black hole spin varies from retrograde to prograde with respect to the accreting material. Unlike the current view, according to which jet powers decrease in tandem with a global downsizing effect, we argue for a drop in jet power resulting directly from the paucity of retrograde accretion systems at lower redshift $z$ caused by a continuous history of accretion dating back to higher $z$. In addition, the model provides simple interpretations for the basic spectral features differentiating radio-loud and radio-quiet objects, such as the presence or absence of disk reflection, broadened iron lines and signatures of disk winds. We also briefly describe our m...

  20. Commercial Radio Broadcasts of Propaganda: An Activity for Teaching about World War II.

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1983-01-01

    By using propaganda commercial radio broadcasts which occurred during the Second World War as the basis for classroom activities, teachers can help students capture the emotional drama of various topics of the war, as well as certain themes still applicable in contemporary society, and stimulate student curiosity about the past. (RM)

  1. First Radio Astronomy Examination of the Low-Frequency Broadband Active Antenna Subarray

    A. A. Stanislavsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the 25-element active antenna array and its remote control in the framework of the GURT project, the Ukrainian Radio Telescope of a new age. To implement beamforming, the array is phased with the help of discrete cable delay lines in analog manner. The remote control of the array is carried out through the paired encoder and decoder that can transmit parallel data about antenna codes serially. The microcontroller provides the online interaction between personal computer and beamformers with the help of the encoder-decoder system through wires or wireless. The antenna pattern has been measured by radio astronomy methods.

  2. Determining the solar wind speed above active regions using remote radio-wave observations.

    Bougeret, J L; Fainberg, J; Stone, R G

    1983-11-04

    A new technique has made it possible to measure the velocity of portions of the solar wind during its flow outward from the sun. This analysis utilizes spacecraft (ISEE-3) observations of radio emission generated in regions of the solar wind associated with solar active regions. By tracking the source of these radio waves over periods of days, it is possible to measure the motion of the emission regions. Evidence of solar wind acceleration during this outward flow, consistent with theoretical models, has also been obtained.

  3. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

    Shulevski, A; Barthel, P D; Murgia, M; van Weeren, R J; White, G J; Brüggen, M; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Jamrozy, M; Best, P N; Röttgering, H J A; Chyzy, K T; de Gasperin, F; Bîrzan, L; Brunetti, G; Brienza, M; Rafferty, D A; Anderson, J; Beck, R; Deller, A; Zarka, P; Schwarz, D; Mahony, E; Orrú, E; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; van der Horst, A J; Intema, H; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Meulman, H; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Serylak, M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O

    2015-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~4"), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~30"), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it ...

  4. NGC5252: a pair of radio-emitting active galactic nuclei?

    Yang, Xiaolong; Paragi, Zsolt; Liu, Xiang; An, Tao; Bianchi, Stefano; Ho, Luis C; Cui, Lang; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Xiaocong

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray source CXO J133815.6+043255 has counterparts in the UV, optical, and radio bands. Based on the multi-band investigations, it has been recently proposed by Kim et al. (2015) as a rarely-seen off-nucleus ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source with a black hole mass of >= 10^4 solar mass in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252. To explore its radio properties at very high angular resolution, we performed very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 GHz. We find that the radio counterpart is remarkably compact among the known ULXs. It does not show a resolved structure with a resolution of a few milliarcsecond (mas), and the total recovered flux density is comparable to that measured in earlier sub-arcsecond-resolution images. The compact radio structure, the relatively flat spectrum, and the high radio luminosity are consistent with a weakly accreting supermassive black hole in a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. The nucleus of NGC 5252 itself has simi...

  5. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning

    Doran, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (< 1 ms) across a broad range of frequencies, and can be confused with signals from sources of interest such as pulsars. With ever-increasing volumes of data being produced by observatories, automated strategies are required to detect, classify, and characterize these short "transient" RFI events. We investigate an active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  6. Energy Storage and Release through the Solar Activity Cycle Models Meet Radio Observations

    Nindos, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    For nearly sixty years, radio observations have provided a unique insight into the physics of the active and quiescent solar atmosphere. Thanks to the variety of emission mechanisms and to the large altitude range available to observations, fundamental plasma parameters have been measured from the low chromosphere to the upper corona and interplanetary medium. This book presents current research in solar radio astronomy and shows how well it fits in the exceptional scientific context brought by the current space solar observatories. It essentially contains contributed research and review papers presented during the 2010 Community of European Solar Radio Astronomers (CESRA) meeting, which took place in Belgium in June 2010. This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in solar physics and space science. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 273/2, 2011.

  7. Radar activities of the DFVLR Institute for Radio Frequency Technology

    Keydel, W.

    1983-01-01

    Aerospace research and the respective applications microwave tasks with respect to remote sensing, position finding and communication are discussed. The radar activities are directed at point targets, area targets and volume targets; they center around signature research for earth and ocean remote sensing, target recognition, reconnaissance and camouflage and imaging and area observation radar techniques (SAR and SLAR). The radar activities cover a frequency range from 1 GHz up to 94 GHz. The radar program is oriented to four possible application levels: ground, air, shuttle orbits and satellite orbits. Ground based studies and measurements, airborne scatterometers and imaging radars, a space shuttle radar, the MRSE, and follow on experiments are considered.

  8. Do Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei really follow the same MBH-σ* Relation as Normal Galaxies?

    Yi Liu; Dong-Rong Jiang

    2006-01-01

    In an examination of the relationship between the black hole mass MBH and stellar velocity dispersion σ* in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we studied two effects which may cause uncertainties in the black hole mass estimates of radio-loud AGNs: the relativistic beaming effect on the observed optical continuum radiation and the orientation effect on the broad emission line width. After correcting these two effects, we re-examined the MBH-σ[OⅢ] relation for a sample of radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs, and found the relation for radio-loud AGNs still deviated from that for nearby normal galaxies and radio-quiet AGNs. We also found there is no significant correlation between radio jet power and narrow [OⅢ] line width, indicating absence of strong interaction between radio jet and narrow line region. It may be that the deviation of the MBH- σ* relation of radio-loud AGNs is intrinsic,or that the [OⅢ] line width is not a good indicator of σ* for radio-loud AGNs.

  9. Delayed triggering of radio Active Galactic Nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    Shabala, S. S.; Deller, A.; Kaviraj, S.; Middelberg, E.; Turner, R. J.; Ting, Y. S.; Allison, J. R.; Davis, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low redshift (z 107 K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or LINERs in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of Hα star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same starburst age. Conventional and VLBI radio imaging shows these AGN to be compact on arcsecond scales. Our modeling suggests that the actual sizes of AGN-inflated radio lobes may be much larger than this, but these are too faint to be detected in existing observations. Deep radio imaging is required to map out the true extent of the AGN, and to determine whether the low star formation rates in radio AGN hosts are a result of the special conditions required for radio jet triggering, or the effect of AGN feedback.

  10. Delayed triggering of radio active galactic nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    Shabala, S. S.; Deller, A.; Kaviraj, S.; Middelberg, E.; Turner, R. J.; Ting, Y. S.; Allison, J. R.; Davis, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low-redshift (z 107 K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of Hα star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same starburst age. Conventional and VLBI radio imaging shows these AGN to be compact on arcsecond scales. Our modelling suggests that the actual sizes of AGN-inflated radio lobes may be much larger than this, but these are too faint to be detected in existing observations. Deep radio imaging is required to map out the true extent of the AGN, and to determine whether the low star formation rates in radio AGN hosts are a result of the special conditions required for radio jet triggering, or the effect of AGN feedback.

  11. Disentangling star formation and AGN activity in powerful infrared luminous radio galaxies at 1 < z < 4

    Drouart, G.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; De Breuck, C.; Fioc, M.; Lehnert, M.; Seymour, N.; Stern, D.; Vernet, J.

    2016-09-01

    High-redshift radio galaxies present signs of both star formation and AGN activity, making them ideal candidates to investigate the connection and coevolution of AGN and star formation in the progenitors of present-day massive galaxies. We make use of a sample of 11 powerful radio galaxies spanning 1 relative contribution of the AGN and star formation by combining the galaxy evolution code PÉGASE.3 with an AGN torus model. We find that three components are necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs: an evolved and massive stellar component, a submm bright young starburst, and an AGN torus. We find that powerful radio galaxies form at very high-redshift, but experience episodic and important growth at 1 mass of the associated starburst varies from 5 to 50% of the total mass of the system. The properties of star formation differ from source to source, indicating no general trend of the star formation properties in the most infrared luminous high-redshift radio galaxies and no correlation with the AGN bolometric luminosity. Moreover, we find that AGN scattered light have a very limited impact on broad-band SED fitting on our sample. Finally, our analysis also suggests a wide range in origins for the observed star formation,which we partially constrain for some sources.

  12. Discovery of Millimeter-Wave Excess Emission in Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei

    Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Horesh, Assaf; Stevens, Jamie; Tzioumis, Tasso

    2015-01-01

    The physical origin of radio emission in Radio Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (RQ AGN) remains unclear, whether it is a downscaled version of the relativistic jets typical of Radio Loud (RL) AGN, or whether it originates from the accretion disk. The correlation between 5 GHz and X-ray luminosities of RQ AGN, which follows $L_R = 10^{-5}L_X$ observed also in stellar coronae, suggests an association of both X-ray and radio sources with the accretion disk corona. Observing RQ AGN at higher (mm-wave) frequencies, where synchrotron self absorption is diminished, and smaller regions can be probed, is key to exploring this association. Eight RQ AGN, selected based on their high X-ray brightness and variability, were observed at 95 GHz with the CARMA and ATCA telescopes. All targets were detected at the $1-10$ mJy level. Emission excess at 95~GHz of up to $\\times 7$ is found with respect to archival low-frequency steep spectra, suggesting a compact, optically-thick core superimposed on the more extended structures that...

  13. On the radio dichotomy of active galactic nuclei

    Cao, Xinwu

    2016-01-01

    It is still a mystery why only a small fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain relativistic jets. Strong magnetic field is a necessary ingredient for jet formation, however, the advection of the external field in a geometrically thin disk is inefficient. The gas with a small angular velocity may fall from the Bondi radius $R_{\\rm B}$ nearly freely to the circularization radius $R_{\\rm c}$, and a thin accretion disk is formed within $R_{\\rm c}$. We suggest that the external magnetic field is substantially enhanced in this region, and the magnetic field at $R_{\\rm c}$ can be sufficiently strong to drive outflows from the disk if the angular velocity of the gas is low at $R_{\\rm B}$. The magnetic field is efficiently dragged in the disk, because most angular momentum of the disk is removed by the outflows that leads to a significantly high radial velocity. The strong magnetic field formed in this way may accelerate jets in the region near the black hole either by the Blandford-Payne or/and Blandford-Zn...

  14. Error analysis and distribution of the driving mechanism for large spherical radio telescope active reflector

    Huang Peng; Tang Xiaoqiang; Wang Liping; Yao Rui

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the cost, 3-PRS mechanism is introduced into the application of supporting the active reflector unit of large radio telescope. The kinematic model of 3-PRS mechanism with rotational joint errors is derived to solve the error problem in actual engineering application. Then based on the error model, inverse and forward kinematics are analyzed. Because the solutions can not be analytically expressed, a numerical method is applied. Afterwards, the parasitic motion errors are analyzed using search method and empirical formulas of the maximum parasitic motion error are put forward. Finally, the tolerance is distributed using empirical formulas to avoid interference between adjacent reflector units. The analyses provide a theoretical basis for the design and installation of large radio telescope active reflector.

  15. Development of an Interdisciplinary STEM Classroom Activity for Radio Receiver Technology

    Davis, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development of a mini STEM-based classroom activity designed to integrate these two fields into one project for middle school aged students is presented here. This lesson involves small groups of students constructing a small AM radio receivers. The lesson surrounding the activity focuses on both the physical nature of electromagnetic and AC waves, circuit design, practical applications to AM radio broadcasting, and research applications of radio telescopes. These tools have shown a significant increase in the lesson's primary concept understanding among 6th grade students, as well as net positive STEM awareness and enthusiasm.Content The primary teaching point for the students to consider and learn during this lesson is 'How does scientific application influence engineering design, and vice versa?' The lesson surrounds the hands-on activity of having students construct their own AM radio receiver. Wave theory and the use of radio instruments for astronomy research are also taught in a traditional lecture format. The activity is designed to complement middle school curriculum, although it has been tested and found suitable for high school and older students as well as the general public.Evaluation and ImpactThe evaluation tool that used for the student groups in this project was a Fryer chart, which is a four panel chart with the main topic listed in the center and a single question in each of the four panels. The students are asked to answer the questions in the chart before and after they participate in the lesson activity, each time in a different colored pencil so that the scores can be given to each student before and after they participated in the activity. Student scores improved from 4.5 to 17.9 out of a total of 20 possible points. This is an overall increase of 67% of the total possible points. The questions asked on the quiz cover the range of wave theory, circuit design, and scientific explanation. This factor of improvement shows that

  16. RADIO-SELECTED BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE VERY LARGE ARRAY STRIPE 82 SURVEY

    Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Myers, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Djorgovski, S. G.; Yan, Lin [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wrobel, J. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Stockton, A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    Galaxy mergers play an important role in the growth of galaxies and their supermassive black holes. Simulations suggest that tidal interactions could enhance black hole accretion, which can be tested by the fraction of binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among galaxy mergers. However, determining the fraction requires a statistical sample of binaries. We have identified kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs directly from high-resolution radio imaging. Inside the 92 deg{sup 2} covered by the high-resolution Very Large Array survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 field, we identified 22 grade A and 30 grade B candidates of binary radio AGNs with angular separations less than 5'' (10 kpc at z = 0.1). Eight of the candidates have optical spectra for both components from the SDSS spectroscopic surveys and our Keck program. Two grade B candidates are projected pairs, but the remaining six candidates are all compelling cases of binary AGNs based on either emission line ratios or the excess in radio power compared to the Hα-traced star formation rate. Only two of the six binaries were previously discovered by an optical spectroscopic search. Based on these results, we estimate that ∼60% of our binary candidates would be confirmed once we obtain complete spectroscopic information. We conclude that wide-area high-resolution radio surveys offer an efficient method to identify large samples of binary AGNs. These radio-selected binary AGNs complement binaries identified at other wavelengths and are useful for understanding the triggering mechanisms of black hole accretion.

  17. Intermittent Jet Activity in the Radio Galaxy 4C29.30?

    Jamrozy, M.; /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Konar, C.; Saikia, D.J.; /NCRA, Ganeshkhind; Stawarz, L.; /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Mack,; /Bologna, Ist. Radioastronomia; Siemiginowska, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2007-04-02

    We present radio observations at frequencies ranging from 240 to 8460 MHz of the radio galaxy 4C29.30 (J0840+2949) using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Effelsberg telescope. We report the existence of weak extended emission with an angular size of {approx} 520 arcsec (639 kpc) within which a compact edge-brightened double-lobed source with a size of 29 arcsec (36 kpc) is embedded. We determine the spectrum of the inner double from 240 to 8460 MHz and show that it has a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index is {approx} 0.8. Its spectral age is estimated to be 33 Myr. The extended diffuse emission has a steep spectrum with a spectral index of {approx} 1.3 and a break frequency 240 MHz. The spectral age is {approx}>200 Myr, suggesting that the extended diffuse emission is due to an earlier cycle of activity. We reanalyze archival x-ray data from Chandra and suggest that the x-ray emission from the hotspots consists of a mixture of nonthermal and thermal components, the latter being possibly due to gas which is shock heated by the jets from the host galaxy.

  18. Nuclear Radio Jet from Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in NGC 4258

    Doi, Akihiro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kameno, Seiji; Inoue, Makoto; Hada, Kazuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN) NGC 4258 has a weak radio continuum component at the galactic center. We investigate its radio spectral properties on the basis of our new observations using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array at 100 GHz and archival data from the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.7-43 GHz and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 347 GHz. The NGC 4258 nuclear component exhibits (1) an intra-month variable and complicated spectral feature at 5-22 GHz and (2) a slightly inverted spectrum at 5-100 GHz (a spectral index of ~0.3) in a time-averaged flux density, which are also apparent in the closest LLAGN M81. These similarities between NGC 4258 and M81 in radio spectral natures in addition to previously known core shift in their AU-scale jet structures produce evidence that the same mechanism drives their nuclei. We interpret the observed spectral property as the superposition of emission spectra originating at different locations with frequency-dependent opacity along the nuclear jet. ...

  19. Nuclear Radio Continuum Emission of Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus NGC 4258

    Doi, Akihiro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kameno, Seiji; Inoue, Makoto; Hada, Kazuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    The nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN) NGC 4258 has a weak radio continuum emission at the galactic center. Quasi-simultaneous multi-frequency observations using the Very Large Array (VLA) from 5 GHz (6 cm) to 22 GHz (1.3 cm) showed inverted spectra in all epochs, which were intra-month variable, as well as complicated spectral features that cannot be represented by a simple power law, indicating multiple blobs in nuclear jets. Using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA), we discovered a large amplitude variable emission at 100 GHz (3 mm), which had higher flux densities at most epochs than those of the VLA observations. A James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) observation at 347 GHz (850 micron) served an upper limit of dust contamination. The inverted radio spectrum of the nucleus NGC 4258 is suggestive of an analogy to our Galactic center Sgr A*, but with three orders of magnitude higher radio luminosity. In addition to the LLAGN M 81, we discuss the nucleus of NGC 4258 as another up-scaled ...

  20. J1216+0709 : A radio galaxy with three episodes of AGN jet activity

    Singh, Veeresh; Kharb, Preeti; Srivastava, Shweta; Janardhan, P

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a `Triple-Double Radio Galaxy (TDRG)' J1216+0709 detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of AGN jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly co-axial middle pair of lobes and a pair of outer lobes that is bent w.r.t. the axis of inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40$^{{\\prime}{\\prime}}$ ($\\sim$ 95 kpc), 1$^{\\prime}$.65 ($\\sim$ 235 kpc) and 5$^{\\prime}$.7 ($\\sim$ 814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm-lengths and flux densities, but in opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter that the western sides, thus suggesting the possibility of jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to rela...

  1. Stratospheric gravity wave activities inferred through the GPS radio occultation technique; Ondas de gravidade na estratosfera terrestre inferida atraves da tecnica de radio ocultacao de GPS

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IPeD), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao; Fechine, Joaquim; Denardini, Clezio Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Wickert, Jens, E-mail: cmw@univap.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: joaquim@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: denardin@dae.inpe.br, E-mail: jens.wickert@gfz-potsdam.de [GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam (GFZ), Department of Geodesy and Remote Sensing (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Stratospheric gravity wave activities were deduced from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles obtained by CHAMP satellite between 2001 and 2005. Potential energy profiles are used to analyze the gravity wave activity over South America. The results showed an inter-annual variation of the potential energy integrated between 24 and 34 km of altitude. The gravity wave activity is more concentrated around the equatorial region. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation of the gravity wave activity, a mean potential energy was determined over (10 deg N-10 deg S) and (100 deg W-20 deg W). The results showed a lower gravity wave activity during winter time, while during spring time the mean potential energy showed an increase in the wave activity. The results of the mean potential energy also showed that the gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere exhibits a higher wave activity during 2002 and 2004 and a lower wave activity during 2003 and 2005. (author)

  2. Delayed triggering of radio Active Galactic Nuclei in gas-rich minor mergers in the local Universe

    Shabala, Stanislav; Kaviraj, Sugata; Middelberg, Enno; Turner, Ross; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Allison, James; Davis, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examine the processes triggering star formation and Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 25 low redshift ($z10^7$ K) brightness temperature required for an mJIVE-20 detection allows us to unambiguously identify the radio AGN in our sample. We find three such objects. Our VLBI AGN identifications are classified as Seyferts or LINERs in narrow line optical diagnostic plots; mid-infrared colours of our targets and the comparison of H$\\alpha$ star formation rates with integrated radio luminosity are also consistent with the VLBI identifications. We reconstruct star formation histories in our galaxies using optical and UV photometry, and find that these radio AGN are not triggered promptly in the merger process, consistent with previous findings for non-VLBI samples of radio AGN. This delay can significantly limit the efficiency of feedback by radio AGN triggered in galaxy mergers. We find that radio AGN hosts have lower star formation rates than non-AGN radio-selected galaxies at the same star...

  3. The sign of active galactic nucleus quenching in a merger remnant with radio jets

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Shidatsu, Megumi; Kawamuro, Taiki; Matsuoka, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We investigate optical, infrared, and radio active galactic nucleus (AGN) signs in the merger remnant Arp 187, which hosts luminous jets launched in the order of $10^5$ yr ago but whose present-day AGN activity is still unknown. We find AGN signs from the optical BPT diagram and infrared [OIV]25.89 $\\mu$m line, originating from the narrow line regions of AGN. On the other hand, Spitzer/IRS show the host galaxy dominated spectra, suggesting that the thermal emission from the AGN torus is considerably small or already diminished. Combining the black hole mass, the upper limit of radio luminosity of the core, and the fundamental plane of the black hole enable us to estimate X-ray luminosity, which gives $<10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Those results suggest that the AGN activity of Arp 187 has already been quenched, but the narrow line region is still alive owing to the time delay of emission from the past AGN activity.

  4. H I absorption towards low-luminosity radio-loud active galactic nuclei of different accretion modes and WISE colours

    Chandola, Yogesh; Saikia, D. J.

    2017-02-01

    H I absorption studies of active galaxies enable us to probe their circumnuclear regions and the general interstellar medium and study the supply of gas that may trigger nuclear activity. In this article, we investigate the dependence of the detection rate of H I absorption on the nature of radio galaxies based on their emission-line spectra and on the nature of host galaxies based on WISE colours and their radio structure, which may help us understand the different accretion modes. We find significant differences in the distributions of W2-W3 colour for sources with H I absorption detections and non-detections. We report a high detection rate of H I absorption in those galaxies with WISE infrared colours W2-W3 > 2, typical of gas-rich systems, along with a compact radio structure. The H I detection rate for low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) with W2-W3 > 2 and compact radio structure is high (70.6 ± 20.4 per cent). In high-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs), compact radio structure in the nuclear or circumnuclear region could give rise to absorption by gas in the dusty torus, in addition to gas in the interstellar medium. However, the higher specific star-formation rate (sSFR) for LERGs with W2-W3 > 2 suggests that H I absorption may be largely due to star-forming gas in their hosts. LERGs with extended radio structure tend to have significantly lower values of W2-W3 compared with those with compact structure. Extended radio sources and those with W2-W3 < 2 have low H I detection rates.

  5. Study on a novel panel support concept for radio telescopes with active surface

    Yang, Dehua; Zhou, Guohua; Okoh, Daniel; Li, Guoping; Cheng, Jingquan

    2010-07-01

    Generally, panels of radio telescopes are mainly shaped in trapezoid and each is supported/positioned by four adjustors beneath its vertexes. Such configuration of panel supporting system is essentially hyper-static, and the panel is overconstrained from a kinematic point of view. When the panel is to be adjusted and/or actuated, it will suffer stress from its adjusters and hence its shape is to be distorted. This situation is not desirable for high precision panels, such as glass based panels especially used for sub-millimeter and shorter wavelength telescopes with active optics/active panel technology. This paper began with a general overview of panel patterns and panel supports of existing radio telescopes. Thereby, we proposed a preferable master-slave active surface concept for triangular and/or hexagonal panel pattern. In addition, we carry out panel error sensitivity analysis for all the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of a panel to identify what DOFs are most sensitive for an active surface. And afterwards, based on the error sensitivity analysis, we suggested an innovative parallel-series concept hexapod well fitted for an active panel to correct for all of its 6 rigid errors. A demonstration active surface using the master-slave concept and the hexapod manifested a great save in cost, where only 486 precision actuators are needed for 438 panels, which is 37% of those actuators needed by classic segmented mirror active optics. Further, we put forward a swaying-arm based design concept for the related connecting joints between panels, which ensures that all the panels attached on to it free from over-constraints when they are positioned and/or actuated. Principle and performance of the swaying-arm connecting mechanism are elaborated before a practical cablemesh based prototype active surface is presented with comprehensive finite element analysis and simulation.

  6. Coronal Radio Sounding Experiments with Mars Express: Scintillation Spectra during Low Solar Activity

    Efimov, A. I.; Lukanina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Rudash, V. K.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, M. K.; Pätzold, M.; Tellmann, S.

    2010-03-01

    Coronal radio sounding observations were carried out with the radio science experiment MaRS on the ESA spacecraft Mars Express during the period from 25 August to 22 October 2004. Differential frequency and log-amplitude fluctuations of the dual-frequency signals were recorded during a period of low solar activity. The data are applicable to low heliographic latitudes, i.e. to slow solar wind. The mean frequency fluctuation and power law index of the frequency fluctuation temporal spectra are determined as a function of heliocentric distance. The radial dependence of the frequency fluctuation spectral index α reflects the previously documented flattening of the scintillation power spectra in the solar wind acceleration region. Temporal spectra of S-band and X-band normalized log-amplitude fluctuations were investigated over the range of fluctuation frequencies 0.01 Hzperiod of high solar activity. Ranging measurements are presented and compared with frequency and log-amplitude scintillation data. Evidence for a weak increase in the fractional electron density turbulence level is obtained in the range 10-40 solar radii.

  7. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES IN THE NGC 2024 FIR 4 REGION

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest–southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2–3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the methanol maser action, which suggests that methanol class II masers are not necessarily excited by high-mass YSOs. Also discussed are properties of other centimeter continuum sources in the field of view and the water masers associated with FIR 6n. Some of the continuum sources are radio thermal jets, and some are magnetically active young stars.

  8. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    Appathurai Balamurugan, MD, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods From March 10, 2003, through June 29, 2003, we aired paid radio advertisements in six major Arkansas metropolitan areas to promote physical activity among tweens. In September 2003, we surveyed 295 Arkansas tweens by telephone to assess their exposure to the advertisements and the impact of the advertisements on their intent to participate in physical activity. In the same telephone survey, we also asked questions about the respondents’ physical activity level. The data were weighted so that the results would be representative of the areas surveyed. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill. Results Of the tweens surveyed, 56.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.7%–62.1% reported hearing the radio advertisements. Of the tweens who heard the advertisement messages, 76.1% (95% CI, 69.4%–82.8% said the messages made them more likely to get involved in physical activity. Younger tweens (aged 9 and 10 years were less likely to have heard the advertisements than older tweens (aged 11 to 13 years. However, the advertisements were more likely to cause younger tweens to want to get involved in physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, P = .003 than older tweens. Of the tweens surveyed, 74.9% (95% CI, 70.0%–79.8% reported that they were involved in nonschool-sponsored sports, and 45.3% (95% CI, 39.6%–51.0% were involved in school-sponsored sports. Conclusion Paid media advertisements may be an effective way to

  9. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific subclass of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This subclass contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is pointing toward Earth. Furthermore, we impose the condition that the jet is obscured by gas or dust surrounding the AGN. A method is presented to determine the total column density of the obscuring medium, which is probed by determining the relative x-ray attenuation with respect to the radio flux as obtained from the AGN spectrum. The total column density allows us to probe the interaction of the jet with the surrounding matter, which leads to additional neutrino production. Finally, starting from two different source catalogs, this method is applied to specify a sample of low redshift radio galaxies for which an increased neutrino production is expected.

  10. Invisible Active Galactic Nuclei. II Radio Morphologies & Five New HI 21 cm Absorption Line Detections

    Yan, Ting; Darling, Jeremy; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sharma, Soniya; Kanekar, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    We have selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper 1. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and HI 21cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz VLA continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size 0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The most compact 36 sources were then observed with the VLBA at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, a detection rate of CSOs ~3 times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty seven sources were observed for HI 21cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only ...

  11. Molecular gas and nuclear activity in early-type galaxies: any link with radio-loudness?

    Baldi, Ranieri D; Capetti, Alessandro; Giovannini, Gabriele; Casasola, Viviana; Perez-Torres, Miguel A; Kuno, Nario

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We want to study the amount of molecular gas in a sample of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) which host low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We look for possible differences between the radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) AGN. Methods. We observed the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) spectral lines with the IRAM 30m and NRO 45m telescopes for eight galaxies. They belong to a large sample of 37 local ETGs which host both RQ and RL AGN. We gather data from the literature for the entire sample. Results. We report the new detection of CO(1-0) emission in four galaxies (UGC0968, UGC5617, UGC6946, and UGC8355) and CO(2-1) emission in two of them (UGC0968 and UGC5617). The CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) ratio in these sources is $\\sim0.7\\pm0.2$. Considering both the new observations and the literature, the detection rate of CO in our sample is 55 $\\pm$ 9%, with no statistically significant difference between the hosts of RL and RQ AGNs. For all the detected galaxies we converted the CO luminosities into the molecular masses, $M...

  12. Optical identification of radio-loud active galactic nuclei in the ROSAT-Green-Bank sample with SDSS spectroscopy

    De-Liang Wang; Jian-Guo Wang; Xiao-Bo Dong

    2009-01-01

    Results of extended and refined optical identification of 181 radio/X-ray sources in the RASS-Green Bank (RGB) catalog are presented (Brinkmann et al.1997)which have been spectroscopically observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)DR5.The SDSS spectra of the optical counterparts are modeled in a careful and selfconsistent way by incorporating the host galaxy's starlight.Optical emission line parameters are presented,which are derived accurately and reliably,along with the radio 1.4-5 GHz spectral indices estimated using (non-simultaneous) archival data.For 72 sources,the identifications are presented for the first time.It is confirmed that the majority of strong radio/X-ray emitters are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs),particularly blazars.Taking advantage of the high spectral quality and resolution and our refined spectral modeling,we are able to disentangle narrow line radio galaxies (NLRGs),as vaguely termed in most previous identification work,into SeyfertⅡgalaxies and LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission regions),based on the standard emission line diagnostics.The NLRGs in the RGB sample,mostly belonging to'weak line radio galaxies',are found to have optical spectra consistent predominantly with LINERs,and only a small fraction with SeyfertⅡgalaxies.A small number of LINERs have radio power as high as 1023-1026W Hz-1 at 5 GHz,being among the strongest radio emitting LINERs known so far.Two sources are identified with radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSIs),a class of rare objects.The presence is also confirmed of fiat-spectrum radio quasars whose radio-optical-X-ray effective spectral indices are similar to those of High-energy peaked BL Lacs (HBLs),as suggested by Padovani et al.,although it is still a debate as to whether this is the case for their actual spectral energy distributions.

  13. A Cooperative Bayesian Nonparametric Framework for Primary User Activity Monitoring in Cognitive Radio Network

    Saad, Walid; Poor, H Vincent; Başar, Tamer; Song, Ju Bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach that enables a number of cognitive radio devices that are observing the availability pattern of a number of primary users(PUs), to cooperate and use \\emph{Bayesian nonparametric} techniques to estimate the distributions of the PUs' activity pattern, assumed to be completely unknown. In the proposed model, each cognitive node may have its own individual view on each PU's distribution, and, hence, seeks to find partners having a correlated perception. To address this problem, a coalitional game is formulated between the cognitive devices and an algorithm for cooperative coalition formation is proposed. It is shown that the proposed coalition formation algorithm allows the cognitive nodes that are experiencing a similar behavior from some PUs to self-organize into disjoint, independent coalitions. Inside each coalition, the cooperative cognitive nodes use a combination of Bayesian nonparametric models such as the Dirichlet process and statistical goodness of fit techniques ...

  14. A Radio-Telemetry System for Navigation and Recording Neuronal Activity in Free-Roaming Rats

    Dian Zhang; Yanling Dong; Megan Li; Houjun Wang

    2012-01-01

    A radio-telemetry recording system is presented which is applied to stimulate specific brain areas and record neuronal activity in a free-roaming rat.The system consists of two major parts:stationary section and mobile section.The stationary section contains a laptop,a Micro Control Unit (MCU),an FM transmitter and a receiver.The mobile section is composed of the headstage and the backpack (which includes the mainboard,FM transmitter,and receiver),which can generate biphasic microcurrent pulses and simultaneously acquire neuronal activity.Prior to performing experiments,electrodes are implanted in the Ventral Posterolateral (VPL) thalamic nucleus,primary motor area (M 1) and Medial Forebrain Bundle (MFB) of the rat.The stationary section modulates commands from the laptop for stimulation and demodulates signals for neuronal activity recording.The backpack is strapped on the back of the rat and executes commands from the stationary section,acquires neuronal activity,and transmits the neuronal activity singles of the waking rat to the stationary section.All components in the proposed system are commercially available and are fabricated from Surface Mount Devices (SMD) in order to reduce the size (25 mm × 15 mm × 2 mm) and weight (10 g with battery).During actual experiments,the backpack,which is powered by a rechargeable Lithium battery (4 g),can generate biphasic microcurrent pulse stimuli and can also record neuronal activity via the FM link with a maximum transmission rate of 1 kbps for more than one hour within a 200 m range in an open field or in a neighboring chamber.The test results show that the system is able to remotely navigate and control the rat without any prior training,and acquire neuronal activity with desirable features such as small size,low power consumption and high precision when compared with a commercial 4-channel bio-signal acquisition and processing system.

  15. The innermost regions of relativistic jets and their magnetic fields in radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    Donnarumma, I; Costamante, L; D'Ammando, F; Giovannini, G; Giommi, P; Giroletti, M; Grandi, P; Jorstad, S G; Marscher, A P; Orienti, M; Pacciani, L; Savolainen, T; Stamerra, A; Tavecchio, F; Torresi, E; Tramacere, A; Turriziani, S; Vercellone, S; Zech, A

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  16. Magnetic Neutral Line-Associated Radio Sources and Evolution of the Active Region NOAA 7321

    Uralov, A. M.; Nakajima, H.; Zandanov, V. G.; Grechnev, V. V.

    1999-12-01

    We report evolution of the active region NOAA~7321 in which radio sources associated with magnetic neutral lines (so-called Neutral Line Associated Source, NLS) were studied on the basis of data of Nobeyama Radioheliograph. We provide physical interpretation of the NLS in terms of topological magnetic reconnection model and discuss their relation to evolution of the active region. Two kinds of the NLS were observed at 17~GHz, i.e. rising and stationary sources. Their presence was associated with substantial expansion of the active region's magnetosphere and accompanied by gradual evolution of spine-like structures visible in soft X-rays before long-duration flares. We suggest that the rising 17~GHz source corresponded to a ``horizontal'' current sheet moving upward which was not bright in soft X-rays. Bright X-ray spine was a boundary of that current sheet. Formation of X-points are believed to be responsible for the presence of low-lying stationary sources arranged along the photospheric neutral line.

  17. Thiamethoxam: Assessing flight activity of honeybees foraging on treated oilseed rape using radio frequency identification technology.

    Thompson, Helen; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Wilkins, Selwyn; Harkin, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to assess homing behavior of bees foraging on winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR), with 1 field drilled with thiamethoxam-treated seed and 2 control fields drilled with fungicide-only-treated seed. Twelve honeybee colonies were used per treatment group, 4 each located at the field edge (on-field site), at approximately 500 m and 1000 m from the field. A total of nearly 300 newly emerged bees per colony were fitted (tagged) with Mic3 radio frequency identification (RFID) transponders and introduced into each of the 36 study hives. The RFID readers fitted to the entrances of the test colonies were used to monitor the activity of the tagged bees for the duration of the 5-wk flowering period of the crop. These activity data were analyzed to assess any impact on flight activity of bees foraging on the treated compared with untreated crops. Honeybees were seen to be actively foraging within all 3 treatment groups during the exposure period. The data for the more than 3000 RFID-tagged bees and more than 90 000 foraging flights monitored throughout the exposure phase for the study follow the same trends across the treatment and controls and at each of the 3 apiary distances, indicating that there were no effects from foraging on the treated crop. Under the experimental conditions, there was no effect of foraging on thiamethoxam-treated oilseed rape on honeybee flight activity or on their ability to return to the hive.

  18. Improved detectability in medical microwave radio-thermometers as obtained by active antennas.

    Jacobsen, Svein; Klemetsen, Øystein

    2008-12-01

    Microwave radiometry is a spectral measurement technique for resolving blackbody radiation of heated matter above absolute zero. The emission levels vary with frequency and are at body temperatures maximized in the infrared spectral band. Medical radio-thermometers are mostly noninvasive short-range instruments that can provide temperature distributions in subcutaneous biological tissues when operated in the microwave region. However, a crucial limitation of the microwave radiometric observation principle is the extremely weak signal level of the thermal noise emitted by the lossy material (-174 dBm/Hz at normal body temperature). To improve the radiometer SNR, we propose to integrate a tiny, moderate gain, low-noise preamplifier (LNA) close to the antenna terminals as to obtain increased detectability of deep seated thermal gradients within the volume under investigation. The concept is verified experimentally in a lossy phantom medium by scanning an active antenna across a thermostatically controlled water phantom with a hot object embedded at 38 mm depth. Three different setups were investigated with decreasing temperature contrasts between the target and ambient medium. As a direct consequence of less ripple on the raw radiometric signal, statistical analysis shows a marked increase in signal-to-clutter ratio of the brightness temperature spatial scan profiles, when comparing active antenna operation with conventional passive setups.

  19. The link between accretion mode and environment in radio-loud active galaxies

    Ineson, Judith; Hardcastle, Martin J; Kraft, Ralph P; Evans, Daniel A; Jarvis, Matt J

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between radio-loud AGN and their environments play an important r\\^{o}le in galaxy and cluster evolution. Recent work has demonstrated fundamental differences between High and Low Excitation Radio Galaxies (HERGs and LERGs), and shown that they may have different relationships with their environments. In the Chandra Large Project ERA (Environments of Radio-loud AGN), we made the first systematic X-ray environmental study of the cluster environments of radio galaxies at a single epoch (z~0.5), and found tentative evidence for a correlation between radio luminosity and cluster X-ray luminosity. We also found that this relationship appeared to be driven by the LERG sub-population (Ineson et al. 2013). We have now repeated the analysis with a low redshift sample (z~0.1), and found strong correlations between radio luminosity and environment richness and between radio luminosity and central density for the LERGs but not for the HERGs. These results are consistent with models in which the HERGs are...

  20. A multi-wavelength study of nuclear activity and environment of a low power radio galaxy CTD 86

    Pandge, M B; Singh, K P; Patil, M K

    2012-01-01

    We present multiwavelength X-ray, optical and radio study of the Fanaroff & Riley class I radio galaxy CTD 86 based on \\xmm{}, \\rosat{}, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Vainu Bappu Telescope (VBT) observations and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) survey. X-ray emission from CTD 86 originates from two components - diffuse thermal emission from hot gas ($kT\\sim 0.9\\kev$, $n_e\\sim 10^{-3}{\\rm cm^{-3}}$, $L_X \\sim 5\\times10^{42}{\\rm ergs s^{-1}}$ and size $\\sim 186{\\rm kpc}$), and a central point source representing the active nucleus. The hot gaseous environment of CTD 86 is similar to those found in galaxy groups or bright early-type galaxies. We found no clear signature of radio-lobes interacting with the diffuse hot gas. X-ray emission from the active nucleus is well described by an intrinsically absorbed ($N_H \\sim 5.9\\times10^{22}{\\rm cm^{-2}}$) power law ($\\Gamma \\sim 1.5$) with a $2-10\\kev$ luminosity $L_X \\sim 2.1\\times10^{42}{\\rm ergs s^{-1}}$. CTD 86 has a weak optic...

  1. Spectral Index Studies of the Diffuse Radio Emission in Abell 2256: Implications to Merger Activity

    Ruta, Kale

    2010-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the merging rich cluster of galaxies Abell 2256. We have observed A2256 at 150 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and successfully detected the diffuse radio halo and the relic emission over an extent $\\sim1.2$ Mpc$^2$. Using this 150 MHz image and the images made using archival observations from the VLA (1369 MHz) and the WSRT (350 MHz), we have produced spectral index images of the diffuse radio emission in A2256. These spectral index images show a distribution of flat spectral index (S$\\propto\

  2. Improvement of photocatalytic activity of silver nanoparticles by radio frequency oxygen plasma irradiation

    Fang, Yingcui; Zhang, Bing; Hong, Liu; Yao, Damao; Xie, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalytic activity (PA) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced by radio frequency (RF) oxygen plasma irradiation (OPI) is investigated in this paper. An improvement in PA by 365% and 181% has been achieved when 15 nm AgNPs irradiated by oxygen plasma for 2 s were used to degrade 10-5 M Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) under ultraviolet (UV) and visible lights, respectively. The PA caused by OPI is better than that induced by the localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) of AgNPs. The mechanism for the improvement was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectra. The OPI-induced formation of AgO/AgNP and Ag2O/AgNP-heterogeneous photocatalysts and electrophilic oxygen are considered to be responsible for the PA improvement. This investigation deepens our understanding of oxygen-assisted photocatalysis of AgNPs and provides a practical approach using solar light for broad spectra photocatalysis with high efficiency.

  3. Radio Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest-southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the ...

  4. PREFACE: ARENA 2006—Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino detection Activities

    Thompson, Lee

    2007-06-01

    The International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Activities, ARENA 2006 was jointly hosted by the Universities of Northumbria and Sheffield at the City of Newcastle Campus of the University of Northumbria in June 2006. ARENA 2006 was the latest in a series of meetings which have addressed, either separately or jointly, the use of radio and acoustic sensors for the detection of highly relativistic particles. Previous successful meetings have taken place in Los Angeles (RADHEP, 2000), Stanford (2003) and DESY Zeuthen (ARENA 2005). A total of 50 scientists from across Europe, the US and Japan attended the conference presenting status reports and results from a number of projects and initiatives spread as far afield as the Sweden and the South Pole. The talks presented at the meeting and the proceedings contained herein represent a `snapshot' of the status of the fields of acoustic and radio detection at the time of the conference. The three day meeting also included two invited talks by Dr Paula Chadwick and Dr Johannes Knapp who gave excellent summaries of the related astroparticle physics fields of high energy gamma ray detection and high energy cosmic ray detection respectively. As well as a full academic agenda there were social events including a Medieval themed conference banquet at Lumley Castle and a civic reception kindly provided by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle and hosted at the Mansion House. Thanks must go to the International Advisory Board members for their input and guidance, the Local Organising Committee for their hard work in bringing everything together and finally the delegates for the stimulating, enthusiastic and enjoyable spirit in which ARENA 2006 took place. Lee Thompson International Advisory Board G. Anton, ErlangenD. Besson, Kansas J. Blümer, KarlsruheA. Capone, Rome H. Falcke, BonnP. Gorham, Hawaii G. Gratta, StanfordF. Halzen, Madison J. Learned, HawaiiR. Nahnhauer, Zeuthen A. Rostovtzev, MoscowD. Saltzberg, Los Angeles L

  5. Throughput Maximization for Cognitive Radio Networks Using Active Cooperation and Superposition Coding

    Hamza, Doha

    2015-02-13

    We propose a three-message superposition coding scheme in a cognitive radio relay network exploiting active cooperation between primary and secondary users. The primary user is motivated to cooperate by substantial benefits it can reap from this access scenario. Specifically, the time resource is split into three transmission phases: The first two phases are dedicated to primary communication, while the third phase is for the secondary’s transmission. We formulate two throughput maximization problems for the secondary network subject to primary user rate constraints and per-node power constraints with respect to the time durations of primary transmission and the transmit power of the primary and the secondary users. The first throughput maximization problem assumes a partial power constraint such that the secondary power dedicated to primary cooperation, i.e. for the first two communication phases, is fixed apriori. In the second throughput maximization problem, a total power constraint is assumed over the three phases of communication. The two problems are difficult to solve analytically when the relaying channel gains are strictly greater than each other and strictly greater than the direct link channel gain. However, mathematically tractable lowerbound and upperbound solutions can be attained for the two problems. For both problems, by only using the lowerbound solution, we demonstrate significant throughput gains for both the primary and the secondary users through this active cooperation scheme. We find that most of the throughput gains come from minimizing the second phase transmission time since the secondary nodes assist the primary communication during this phase. Finally, we demonstrate the superiority of our proposed scheme compared to a number of reference schemes that include best relay selection, dual-hop routing, and an interference channel model.

  6. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  7. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. M.; Luo, B.; Miller, N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Stott, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the approx equals 250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keY to B-band luminosity ratio (L(sub x) /L(sub Beta) varies as [1 +z]) since z approx equals 1.2, implying that some heating mechanism prevents the gas from cooling in these systems. We consider that feedback from radio-mode AGN activity could be responsible for heating the gas. We select radio AGNs in the ETG population using their far-infrared/radio flux ratio. Our radio observations allow us to constrain the duty cycle history of radio AGN activity in our ETG sample. We estimate that if scaling relations between radio and mechanical power hold out to z approx equals 1.2 for the ETG population being studied here, the average mechanical power from AGN activity is a factor of approx equals1.4 -- 2.6 times larger than the average radiative cooling power from hot gas over the redshift range z approx equals 0-1.2. The excess of inferred AGN mechanical power from these ETGs is consistent with that found in the local Universe for similar types of galaxies.

  8. Activity and food choice of piscivorous perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) in a eutrophic shallow lake: a radio-telemetry study

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Broberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    1. Radio transmitters were implanted in large perch (27-37 cm) in a shallow lake in Denmark. Between 6 and 13 perch were tracked every 3 h for 24-h periods twice (summer) or once a month (winter) from August 1997 to July 1998. Activity levels were recorded as minimum distance moved per hour. 2. N......+ planktivorous fish in lakes and has potential implications for pelagic food web structure and lake management by biomanipulation...

  9. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Chang, H. C.; Huang, H. H.; Wu, C. Y.; Hsu, R. Q.; C. Y. Hsu

    2014-01-01

    TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO). Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB) ...

  10. Radio Journalism.

    Bittner, John R.; Bittner, Denise A.

    This book, a how-to-do-it guide for the novice and the professional alike, deals with several aspects of radio journalism: producing documentaries, preparing and announcing radio news, ethics and responsibility, regulation of radio journalism, and careers. It traces the history and growth of radio news, shows its impact on the public, and…

  11. Discovery of an X-ray cavity near the radio lobes of Cygnus A indicating previous AGN activity

    Chon, Gayoung; Krause, Martin; Truemper, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Cygnus A harbours the nearest powerful radio jet of an Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class II radio galaxy in a galaxy cluster where the interaction of the jet with the intracluster medium (ICM) can be studied in detail. We use a large set of Chandra archival data, VLA and new LOFAR observations to shed new light on the interaction of the jets with the ICM. We identify an X-ray cavity in the distribution of the X-ray emitting plasma in the region south of the Cyg A nucleus which has lower pressure than the surrounding medium. The LOFAR and VLA radio observations show that the cavity is filled with synchrotron emitting plasma. The spectral age and the buoyancy time of the cavity indicates an age at least as large as the current Cyg A jets and not much larger than twice this time. We suggest that this cavity was created in a previous active phase of Cyg A when the energy output of the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) was about two orders of magnitude less than today.

  12. A New Perspective of the Radio Bright Zone at The Galactic Center: Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W M

    2015-01-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the VLA using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz, covering the central 30 pc region of the RBZ at the Galactic center. Using the MS-MFS algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1", achieving an rms 8 $\\mu$Jy/beam, and a dynamic range 100,000:1.The radio image is compared with X-ray, CN emission-line and Paschen-$\\alpha$ images obtained using Chandra, SMA and HST/NICMOS, respectively. We discuss several prominent radio features. The "Sgr A West Wings" extend 5 pc from the NW and SE tips of the ionized "Mini-spiral" in Sgr A West to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arc min to the NW and SE of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the "NW Streamers", form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 14.4 pc x 7.3 pc, has a known X-ray counterpart. A row of three thermally emitting rings is observed in the...

  13. Ultra-fast outflows in radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    Tombesi, F; Mushotzky, R F; Ueda, Y; Cappi, M; Gofford, J; Reeves, J N; Guainazzi, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent X-ray observations show absorbing winds with velocities up to mildly-relativistic values of the order of ~0.1c in a limited sample of 6 broad-line radio galaxies. They are observed as blue-shifted Fe XXV-XXVI K-shell absorption lines, similarly to the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) reported in Seyferts and quasars. In this work we extend the search for such Fe K absorption lines to a larger sample of 26 radio-loud AGNs observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The sample is drawn from the Swift BAT 58-month catalog and blazars are excluded. X-ray bright FR II radio galaxies constitute the majority of the sources. Combining the results of this analysis with those in the literature we find that UFOs are detected in >27% of the sources. However, correcting for the number of spectra with insufficient signal-to-noise, we can estimate that the incidence of UFOs is this sample of radio-loud AGNs is likely in the range f=(50+/-20)%. A photo-ionization modeling of the absorption lines with XSTAR allows to estimate the d...

  14. Low Frequency Radio Observations of X-ray Ghost Bubbles in Abell 2597: A History of Radio Activity in the Core

    Clarke, T E; Blanton, E L; Neumann, D M; Kassim, N E

    2005-01-01

    A previous analysis of the Chandra X-ray image of the center of the cooling core cluster Abell 2597 showed two ``ghost holes'' in the X-ray emission to the west and northeast of the central radio galaxy PKS 2322-123. Previous radio observations did not detect any radio emission coming from the interior of the X-ray holes. We present new low frequency radio observations of Abell 2597. At 330 MHz, radio emission extends into the interior of the western ghost bubble, but not the northeast one. Our re-analysis of the archival Chandra data shows evidence for an X-ray tunnel (elongated region of reduced X-ray emission) extending from near the center of the cD out to the west ghost bubble. We also detect a smaller X-ray hole to the northeast of the center of the cD and closer than the outer ghost bubbles. Radio observations at 1.3 GHz show extensions to the west along the X-ray tunnel toward the west ghost bubble, to the northeast into the new X-ray hole, and to the northwest. All of these structures are much larger...

  15. A NEW PERSPECTIVE OF THE RADIO BRIGHT ZONE AT THE GALACTIC CENTER: FEEDBACK FROM NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES

    Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morris, Mark R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Goss, W. M., E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu [NRAO, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13′ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam{sup −1}, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2′ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.′3 × 3.′2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ∼2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized

  16. A New Perspective of the Radio Bright Zone at The Galactic Center: Feedback from Nuclear Activities

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Morris, Mark R.; Goss, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    New observations of Sgr A have been carried out with the Jansky VLA in the B and C arrays using the broadband (2 GHz) continuum mode at 5.5 GHz. The field of view covers the central 13‧ (30 pc) region of the radio-bright zone at the Galactic center. Using the multi-scale and multi-frequency-synthesis (MS-MFS) algorithms in CASA, we have imaged Sgr A with a resolution of 1″, achieving an rms noise of 8 μJy beam-1, and a dynamic range of 100,000:1. Both previously known and newly identified radio features in this region are revealed, including numerous filamentary sources. The radio continuum image is compared with Chandra X-ray images, with a CN emission-line image obtained with the Submillimeter Array and with detailed Paschen-α images obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS. We discuss several prominent features in the radio image. The “Sgr A west Wings” extend 2‧ (5 pc) from the NW and SE tips of the Sgr A west H ii region (the “Mini-spiral”) to positions located 2.9 and 2.4 arcmin to the northwest and southeast of Sgr A*, respectively. The NW wing, along with several other prominent features, including the previously identified “NW Streamers,” form an elongated radio lobe (NW lobe), oriented nearly perpendicular to the Galactic plane. This radio lobe, with a size of 6.‧3 × 3.‧2 (14.4 pc × 7.3 pc), has a known X-ray counterpart. In the outer region of the NW lobe, a row of three thermally emitting rings is observed. A field containing numerous amorphous radio blobs extends for a distance of ˜2 arcmin beyond the tip of the SE wing; these newly recognized features coincide with the SE X-ray lobe. Most of the amorphous radio blobs in the NW and SE lobes have Paschen-α counterparts. We propose that they have been produced by shock interaction of ambient gas concentrations with a collimated nuclear wind or an outflow that originated from within the circumnuclear disk (CND). We also discuss the possibility that the ionized wind or

  17. The radio/gamma-ray connection in Active Galactic Nuclei in the era of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Ackermann, M; Allafort, A; Angelakis, E; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Cannon, A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cutini, S; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Escande, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grandi, P; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; J, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kn, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Lee, S -H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nishino, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Pavlidou, V; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rain, S; Razzano, M; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Romani, R W; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Scargle, J D; Sgr, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Taylor, G B; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Vandenbroucke, J; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Ziegler, M

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of the correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) detected by Fermi during its first year of operation, with the largest datasets ever used for this purpose. We use both archival interferometric 8.4 GHz data (from the VLA and ATCA, for the full sample of 599 sources) and concurrent single-dish 15 GHz measurements from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO, for a sub sample of 199 objects). Our unprecedentedly large sample permits us to assess with high accuracy the statistical significance of the correlation, using a surrogate-data method designed to simultaneously account for common-distance bias and the effect of a limited dynamical range in the observed quantities. We find that the statistical significance of a positive correlation between the cm radio and the broad band (E>100 MeV) gamma-ray energy flux is very high for the whole AGN sample, with a probability <1e-7 for the correlation appearing by chance. Using the...

  18. A Radio through X-ray Study of the Hot Spots, Active Nucleus, and Environment of the Nearby FR II Radio Galaxy 3C 33

    Kraft, R P; Hardcastle, M J; Evans, D A; Croston, J H; Worrall, D M; Murray, S S

    2007-01-01

    We present results from {\\em Chandra}/ACIS-S, {\\em Spitzer}, {\\em XMM-Newton}, {\\em HST}, and VLA observations of the radio hot spots, extended environment, and nucleus of the nearby ($z$=0.0597) FR II radio galaxy 3C 33. This is a relatively low-power FR II radio galaxy, and so we expect, {\\it a priori}, to detect a significant X-ray synchrotron component to the emission from the hot spots. We detect X-ray emission coincident with the two knots of polarized optical emission from the southern hot spot (SHS), as well as along the northwest arm of this hot spot. We also detect X-ray emission from two compact regions of the northern hot spot (NHS), as well as diffuse emission behind the radio peak. The X-ray flux density of the region at the tip of the southern hot spot, the most compact radio feature of the southern lobe, is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process. The X-ray flux densities of the other three regions of the SHS and the two compact regions of the NHS are an order of magnitude o...

  19. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  20. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensors Activated by External Radio Frequency Fields

    Della Vedova, Paolo; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecular beacon (a nanomachine) is constructed that can be actuated by a radio frequency (RF) field. The nanomachine consists of the following elements arranged in molecular beacon configuration: a gold nanoparticle that acts both as quencher for fluorescence and a localized heat source......; one reporter fluorochrome, and; a piece of DNA as a hinge and recognition sequence. When the nanomachines are irradiated with a 3 GHz RF field the fluorescence signal increases due to melting of the stem of the molecular beacon. A control experiment, performed using molecular beacons synthesized...

  1. Changed Relation Between Radio Flux F10,7 And Some Solar Activity Indices During Cycles 21 - 23

    Bruevich, E A

    2011-01-01

    A stable cyclicity of correlation coefficients Kcorr for some solar activity indices versus F10,7 was found after monthly averages values analysis. These indices are: Wolf numbers, 10,7 cm radio flux F10,7, 0,1-0,8 nm background, the total solar irradiance, Mg II UV-index (280 nm core to wing ratio) and counts of flares. The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of these solar activity indices versus F10,7 were analyzed for every year in solar cycles 21 - 23. We found out that the values of yearly determined correlation coefficients Kcorr for solar activity indices versus F10,7 show the cyclic variations with stable period closed to half length of 11-year cycle (5,5 years approximately)

  2. A search for AGN activity in Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS)

    Lenc, Emil; Middelberg, Enno; Norris, Ray; Mao, Minnie

    2010-04-01

    We propose to observe a large sample of radio sources from the ATLAS (Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) source catalogue with the LBA, to determine their compactness. The sample consists of 36 sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubber Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS), is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations. We will measure the flux densities on long baselines to determine their compactness. Only five IFRS have been previously targeted with VLBI observations (resulting in two detections). We propose using single baseline (Parkes-ATCA) eVLBI observations with the LBA at 1 Gbps to maximise sensitivity. With the observations proposed here we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from 5 to 36, allowing us to draw statistical conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  3. Are luminous radio-loud active galactic nuclei triggered by galaxy interactions?

    Almeida, C Ramos; Tadhunter, C; Pérez-González, P G; Barro, G; Inskip, K J; Morganti, R; Holt, J; Dicken, D

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a comparison between the optical morphologies of a complete sample of 46 southern 2Jy radio galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.05radio galaxies (PRGs). We find that a significant fraction of quiescent ellipticals at low and intermediate redshifts show evidence for disturbed morphologies at relatively high surface brightness levels, which are likely the result of past or on-going galaxy interactions. However, the morphological features detected in the galaxy hosts of the PRGs (e.g. tidal tails, shells, bridges, etc.) are up to 2 magnitudes brighter than those present in their quiescent counterparts. Indeed, if...

  4. The PEP Survey: evidence for intense star-forming activity in the majority of radio-selected AGN at z>~1

    Magliocchetti, Manuela; Santini, Paola; Salvato, Mara; Popesso, Paola; Berta, Stefano; Pozzi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the FIR properties of radio-active AGN, we have considered three different fields where both radio and FIR observations are the deepest to-date: GOODS-South, GOODS-North and the Lockman Hole. Out of a total of 92 radio-selected AGN, ~64% are found to have a counterpart in Herschel maps. The percentage is maximum in the GOODS-North (72%) and minimum (~50%) in the Lockman Hole, where FIR observations are shallower. Our study shows that in all cases FIR emission is associated to star-forming activity within the host galaxy. Such an activity can even be extremely intense, with star-forming rates as high as ~10^3-10^4 Msun/yr. AGN activity does not inhibit star formation in the host galaxy, just as on-site star-formation does not seem to affect AGN properties, at least those detected at radio wavelengths and for z>~1. Furthermore, physical properties such as the mass and age distributions of the galaxies hosting a radio-active AGN do not seem to be affected by the presence of an ongoing sta...

  5. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  6. Immobilized nickel hexacyanoferrate on activated carbons for efficient attenuation of radio toxic Cs(I) from aqueous solutions

    Lalhmunsiama; Lalhriatpuia, C.; Tiwari, Diwakar; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to immobilize nickel hexacyanoferrate onto the large surface of activated carbons (ACs) precursor to rice hulls and areca nut waste materials. These nickel hexacyanoferrate immobilized materials are then assessed in the effective attenuation of radio logically important cesium ions from aqueous solutions. The solid samples are characterized by the XRD analytical method and surface morphology is obtained from the SEM images. The batch reactor experiments show that an increase in sorptive pH (2.0-10.0) apparently not affecting the high percent uptake of Cs(I). Equilibrium modeling studies suggest that the data are reasonably and relatively fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetic studies show that sorption process is fairly rapid and the kinetic data are fitted well to the pseudo-second order rate model. Increasing the background electrolyte concentration from 0.001 to 0.1 mol/L NaCl causes insignificant decrease in Cs(I) removal which infers the higher selectivity of these materials for Cs(I) from aqueous solutions. Further, the column reactor operations enable to obtain the breakthrough data which are then fitted to the Thomas non-linear equation as to obtain the loading capacity of column for Cs(I). The results show that the modified materials show potential applicability in the attenuation of radio toxic cesium from aqueous solution.

  7. Radio and gamma-ray follow-up of the exceptionally high activity state of PKS 1510-089 in 2011

    Orienti, M; D'Ammando, F; Giroletti, M; Kino, M; Nagai, H; Venturi, T; Dallacasa, D; Giovannini, G; Angelakis, E; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Max-Moerbeck, W; Schinzel, F K; Akiyama, K; Hada, K; Honma, M; Niinuma, K; Gasparrini, D; Krichbaum, T P; Nestoras, I; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Riquelme, D; Sievers, A; Ungerechts, H; Zensus, J A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the radio and gamma-ray variability of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in the time range between 2010 November and 2012 January. In this period the source showed an intense activity, with two major gamma-ray flares detected in 2011 July and October. During the latter episode both the gamma-ray and the radio flux density reached their historical peak. Multiwavelength analysis shows a rotation of about 380 deg of the optical polarization angle close in time with the rapid and strong gamma-ray flare in 2011 July. An enhancement of the optical emission and an increase of the fractional polarization both in the optical and in radio bands is observed about three weeks later, close in time with another gamma-ray outburst. On the other hand, after 2011 September a huge radio outburst has been detected, first in the millimeter regime followed with some time delay at centimeter down to decimeter wavelengths. This radio flare is characterized by a rising and a decaying stage, in agreement with...

  8. Radio archive

    Street, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The Centre for Broadcasting History Research, in association with the\\ud British Universities Film and Video Council, is developing an online\\ud audio archive of UK commercial radio, from 1973 to 1992. Work produced\\ud before the Broadcasting Act 1990 represents a different ethos to the role\\ud commercial radio played, and subsequently,continues to play, in the UK.\\ud The change in commercial radio since this period is extraordinary. It is\\ud impossible for the young student of radio, born si...

  9. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  10. Radio Eska Lodz, Commercial Radio As a Local Radio

    Szews, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of network-based local radio using the example of Radio Eska Lodz. The author responds to questions about whether a commercial network radio station can fulfill the functions of local radio and on what this locality is actually based. In this respect, Radio Eska Lodz is characterized as part of the most popular commercial radio network in Poland. The introduction focuses on the process of transformation that local radio stations are undergoing, along with its gen...

  11. A study of solar preflare activity using two-dimensional radio and SMM-XRP observations

    Kundu, M. R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Saba, J. L. R.; Schmelz, J. T. S.; Strong, K. T.

    1987-01-01

    A study of type III activity at meter-decameter wavelengths in the preflare phase of the February 3, 1986 flare is presented, using data obtained with the Clark Lake Multifrequency Radioheliograph. This activity is compared with similar type III burst activity during the impulsive phase, and it is found that there is a displacement of burst sources between the onset and end times of the activity. A comparison of this displacement at three frequencies suggests that the type III emitting electrons gain access progressively to diverging and different field lines relative to the initial field lines. The energetics of the type III emitting electrons are inferred from observations and compared with those of the associated hard X-ray emitting electrons. The soft X-ray data from SMM-XRP show enhanced emission measure, density, and temperature in the region associated with the preflare type III activity.

  12. Solar Radio

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  13. Compact radio cores in radio-quiet AGNs

    Maini, Alessandro; Norris, Ray P; Giovannini, Gabriele; Spitler, Lee R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of radio emission in radio-quiet (RQ) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still debated and might arise from the central AGN, from star formation activity in the host, or from either of these sources. A direct detection of compact and bright radio cores embedded in sources that are classified as RQ can unambiguously determine whether a central AGN significantly contributes to the radio emission. We search for compact, high-surface-brightness radio cores in RQ AGNs that are caused unambiguously by AGN activity. We used the Australian Long Baseline Array to search for compact radio cores in four RQ AGNs located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). We also targeted four radio-loud (RL) AGNs as a control sample. We detected compact and bright radio cores in two AGNs that are classified as RQ and in one that is classified as RL. Two RL AGNs were not imaged because the quality of the observations was too poor. We report on a first direct evidence of radio cores in RQ AGNs at cosmological reds...

  14. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  15. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  16. Discovery of γ-Ray Emission from the Radio-intermediate Quasar III Zw 2: Violent Jet Activity with Intraday γ-Ray Variability

    Liao, Neng-Hui; Xin, Yu-Liang; Fan, Xu-Liang; Weng, Shan-Shan; Li, Shao-Kun; Chen, Liang; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    III Zw 2 is the prototype of radio-intermediate quasars. Although there is the evidence of possessing strong jet, significant γ-ray emission has not been reported before. In this work, we carry out a detailed analysis of the latest Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data. No significant γ-ray signal has been detected in the time-averaged 7-year Fermi-LAT data of III Zw 2; however, we have identified two distinct γ-ray flares with isotropic luminosities of ˜1045 erg s-1. Multiwavelength data analysis (also including the optical photometric observations from Yunnan Observatories) are presented and the main finding is simultaneous optical and γ-ray flares of III Zw 2 appearing in 2009 November. Violent γ-ray variability with a doubling timescale of 2.5 hr was detected in another γ-ray flare in May 2010, for which the 3-hr γ-ray peak flux is ˜250 times of the average flux in 7 years. Rather similar behaviors are observed in blazars and the blazar model can reasonably reproduce the spectral energy distribution of III Zw 2 in a wide energy range, strongly suggesting that its central engine resembles that of blazars. In view of its core, which shares radio similarities with young radio sources, together with weak extended radio lobe emission, we suggest that III Zw 2 harbors a recurrent activity core and thus serves as a valuable target for investigating the fueling and triggering of the activity in radio-loud active galactic nuclei.

  17. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  18. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation: Initial On-Orbit Results

    Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Joel T.; Aksoy, Mustafa; Bringer, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, launched in January 2015, provides global measurements of soil moisture using a microwave radiometer. SMAPs radiometer passband lies within the passive frequency allocation. However, both unauthorized in-band transmitters as well as out-of-band emissions from transmitters operating at frequencies adjacent to this allocated spectrum have been documented as sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) to the L-band radiometers on SMOS and Aquarius. The spectral environment consists of high RFI levels as well as significant occurrences of low level RFI equivalent to 0.1 to 10 K. The SMAP ground processor reports the antenna temperature both before and after RFI mitigation is applied. The difference between these quantities represents the detected RFI level. The presentation will review the SMAP RFI detection and mitigation procedure and discuss early on-orbit RFI measurements from the SMAP radiometer. Assessments of global RFI properties and source types will be provided, as well as the implications of these results for SMAP soil moisture measurements.

  19. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  20. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  1. Relics of Double Radio Sources

    Dwarakanath, K S

    2009-01-01

    We have formed a new sample which consists of extended extragalactic radio sources without obvious active galactic nuclei (AGN) in them. Most of these sources appear to be dead double radio sources. These sources with steep spectra ($\\alpha < $ -1.8; S $\\propto \

  2. The role of travel mode in engagement with a Radio Frequency ID chip based school physical activity intervention

    Emma Coombes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of active travel to school in children is low and declining. For example, the 2014 National Travel Survey showed that just 46% of primary school children walk to school. This is despite the fact that children who actively travel have been shown to be more physically active overall as well as perform better in class. Beat the Street is a community based intervention which uses RFID (Radio Frequency ID chip readers attached to locations around the neighbourhood. The aim of the intervention is to encourage walking and cycling by gamifying these travel behaviours; individuals taking part gain points by touching a smartcard on the readers and these points become part of a competition. One of the aims of Beat the Street is to encourage children who already walk and cycle to and from school to do so more, as well as achieve modal shift from motorised transport to active travel as a means of commuting. However, habitual travel mode is ‘sticky’ and, despite the potential health benefits being greater, it may be more difficult to change mode than it is to encourage more activity in those who already walk or cycle. Set in a neighbourhood in the city of Norwich, England, this analysis examines how travel mode prior to the initiation of Beat the Street is associated with subsequent engagement with the intervention and what the association of this engagement is with physical activity change. Aim: This pilot study evaluates how prior travel mode to school is associated with engagement in the Beat the Street intervention in schoolchildren in the city of Norwich, England. Methods: The Beat the Street intervention was conducted within a Norwich neighbourhood for 9 weeks during May-July 2014. Children were recruited to the evaluation via two schools; one in the intervention neighbourhood, and a control located on the opposite side of the city. All year 4 and 5 children (aged 8-10 years were invited at both schools. Recruited children

  3. Radio astronomy

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  4. Radio Loud AGNs are Mergers

    Chiaberge, Marco; Lotz, Jennifer; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We measure the merger fraction of Type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei at z>1 using new samples. The objects have HST images taken with WFC3 in the IR channel. These samples are compared to the 3CR sample of radio galaxies at z>1 and to a sample of non-active galaxies. We also consider lower redshift radio galaxies with HST observations and previous generation instruments (NICMOS and WFPC2). The full sample spans an unprecedented range in both redshift and AGN luminosity. We perform statistical tests to determine whether the different samples are differently associated with mergers. We find that all (92%) radio-loud galaxies at z>1 are associated with recent or ongoing merger events. Among the radio-loud population there is no evidence for any dependence of the merger fraction on either redshift or AGN power. For the matched radio-quiet samples, only 38% are merging systems. The merger fraction for the sample of non-active galaxies at z>1 is indistinguishable from radio-quiet objects. This...

  5. Digitale radio

    Schiphorst, Roel; Zondervan, L.

    2007-01-01

    Als eerste in Europa heeft Nederland begin december 2006 de omschakeling van analoge naar digitale ethertelevisie gemaakt. Voor de analoge FM-radio is er ook een digitale variant, T-DAB. T-DAB staat voor 'Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting'. Dit artikel gaat verder in op deze techniek en de veld

  6. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  7. (Radio)active participation

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    This year, for the first time, CERN hosted the Rencontres internationales lycéennes de la radioprotection: a three-day event in which some 200 students from 16 schools in France and elsewhere came together to discuss the topic of radiation protection and to deepen their understanding of the field.   Participants of the Rencontres internationales lycéennes de la radioprotection 2014. Each year since 2008, the Centre d’étude sur l’évaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucléaire français (CEPN, the French centre for studies of the evaluation of nuclear protection) and the Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire français (IRSN, the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety), in partnership with various other bodies*, have been organising radiation protection workshops. Aimed at students between the ages of 15 and 18 from France and beyo...

  8. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  9. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  10. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources: Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Herzog, Andreas; Norris, Ray P; Spitler, Lee R; Deller, Adam T; Collier, Jordan D; Parker, Quentin A

    2015-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z >~ 2). Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginal...

  11. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  12. Unified Schemes for Radio-loud AGN: Recent Results

    Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    After briefly summarizing the main tenets of unified schemes of Active Galactic Nuclei, I review some recent results in the field of unification of radio-loud sources, both for the low-luminosity (BL Lacs and Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies) and high-luminosity (radio quasars and Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies) populations.

  13. A closer view of the radio-FIR correlation: disentangling the contributions of star formation and AGN activity

    Moric, Igor; Kimball, Amy; Riechers, Dominik A; Ivezic, Zeljko; Scoville, Nick

    2010-01-01

    We extend the Unified Radio Catalog, a catalog of sources detected by various (NVSS, FIRST, WENSS, GB6) radio surveys, and SDSS, to IR wavelengths by matching it to the IRAS Point and Faint Source catalogs. By fitting each NVSS-selected galaxy's NUV-NIR spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar population synthesis models we add to the catalog star formation rates, stellar masses, and attenuations.We further add information about optical emission line properties for NVSS-selected galaxies with available SDSS spectroscopy. Using an NVSS 20cm (F_{1.4GHz} ge 2.5mJy) selected sample, matched to the SDSS spectroscopic ("main" galaxy and quasar) catalogs and IRAS data (0.04radio-FIR correlation for various types of galaxies, separated into i) quasars, ii) star forming, iii) composite, iv) Seyfert, v) LINER and vi) absorption line galaxies using the standard optical spectroscopic diagnostic tools. We utilize SED-based star formation rates to independently qu...

  14. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation at the WSRT

    Fridman, P A; Millenaar, R P

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of radio astronomical stations is often limited by man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) due to a variety of terrestrial activities. An RFI mitigation subsystem (RFIMS) based on real-time digital signalprocessing is proposed here for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope based on a powerful field programmable gate array processor. In this system the radio astronomy signals polluted by RFI are "cleaned" with the RFIMS before routine back-end correlation processing takes place. The high temporal and frequency resolution of RFIMS allows the detection and excision of RFI better than do standard radio telescope back-end configurations.

  15. Double-double radio galaxies : Further insights into the formation of the radio structures

    Brocksopp, C.; Kaiser, C.R.; Schoenmakers, A. P.; de Bruyn, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Double-double radio galaxies (DDRGs) offer a unique opportunity for us to study multiple episodes of jet activity in large-scale radio sources. We use radio data from the Very Large Array and the literature to model two DDRGs, B1450+333 and B1834+620, in terms of their dynamical evolution. We find t

  16. Double-double radio galaxies: further insights into the formation of the radio structures

    Brocksopp, C.; Kaiser, C. R.; Schoenmakers, A. P.; de Bruyn, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Double-double radio galaxies (DDRGs) offer a unique opportunity for us to study multiple episodes of jet activity in large-scale radio sources. We use radio data from the Very Large Array and the literature to model two DDRGs, B1450+333 and B1834+620, in terms of their dynamical evolution. We find t

  17. Activation and dramatically increased cytolytic activity of tumor specific T lymphocytes after radio-frequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal liver metastases

    Johannes H(a)nsler; Thadd(a)us Till Wissniowski; Detlef Schuppan; Astrid Witte; Thomas Bernatik; Eckhart Georg Hahn; Deike Strobel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess if a specific cytotoxic T cell response can be induced in patients with malignant liver tumors treated with radio-frequency ablation (RFA).METHODS: Six Patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer and 6 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)underwent RFA. Blood was sampled before, 4 and 8 wk after RFA. Test antigens were autologous liver and tumor lysate obtained from each patient by biopsy. Peripheral T cell activation was assessed by an interferon gamma (IFNγ) secretion assay and flow cytometry. T cells were double-stained for CD4/CD8 and IFNγ to detect cytotoxic T cells. The ratio of IFNγ positive and IFNγ negative T cells was determined as the stimulation index (SI). To assess cytolytic activity, T cells were co-incubated with human CaCo colorectal cancer and HepG2 HCC cells and release of cytosolic adenylate kinase was measured by a luciferase assay.RESULTS: Before RFA SI was 0.021 (±0.006) for CD4+and 0.022 (±0.004) for CD8+T cells against nonmalignant liver tissue and 0.018 (±0.005) for CD4+ and 0.021(±0.004) for CD8+ cells against autologous tumor tissue.Four weeks after RFA SI against tumor tissue increased to 0.109 (±0.005) for CD4+ and 0.11 (±0.012) for CD8+T cells against HCC, and to 0.115 (±0.031) for CD4+ and 0.15 (±0.02) for CD8+ cells for colorectal metastases (P <0.0001). No increased SI was observed with nonmalignant tumor tissue at all time points. Before RFA cytolytic activity against the respective cancer cells was low with 2.62 (±0.37) relative luminescence units (RLU), but rose more than 100 fold 4 and 8 wk after RFA. Spontaneous release was <2% of maximum release in all experiments.CONCLUSION: Patients with primary and secondary tumors of the liver show a significant tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cell stimulation with a dramatically increased tumor specific cytolytic activity of CD8+ T cells after RFA.

  18. The faint radio sky: radio astronomy becomes mainstream

    Padovani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky, which has been studied for decades in the infrared, optical, and X-ray bands. I follow the transformation of radio astronomy by reviewing the main components of the radio sky at the bright and faint ends, the issue of their proper classification, their number counts, luminosity functions, and evolution. The overall "big picture" astrophysical implications of these results, and their relevance for a number of hot topics in extragalactic astronomy, are also discussed. The future prospects of the faint radio sky are very bright, as we will soon be flooded with survey data. This review should be useful to all extragalac...

  19. A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

    2009-12-01

    The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

  20. The faint radio sky: radio astronomy becomes mainstream

    Padovani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now, it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky, which has been studied for decades in the infrared, optical, and X-ray bands. I follow the transformation of radio astronomy by reviewing the main components of the radio sky at the bright and faint ends, the issue of their proper classification, their number counts, luminosity functions, and evolution. The overall "big picture" astrophysical implications of these results, and their relevance for a number of hot topics in extragalactic astronomy, are also discussed. The future prospects of the faint radio sky are very bright, as we will soon be flooded with survey data. This review should be useful to all extragalactic astronomers, irrespective of their favourite electromagnetic band(s), and even stellar astronomers might find it somewhat gratifying.

  1. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    van der Wolk, G; Peletier, R F; Pel, J W

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the validity of the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and determine the presence of dust tori among radio galaxies of various types. Actively accreting supermassive black holes in the centres of radio galaxies may be uncovered through their dust tori reradiating the optical and ultraviolet continuum in mid-infrared bands. Using VISIR on the VLT, we have obtained sub-arcsecond (~0.40") resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 micron, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio galaxies of four types in the redshift range z=0.006-0.156. The sample consists of 8 edge-darkened, low-power Fanaroff-Riley class I (FR-I) radio galaxies, 6 edge-brightened, class II (FR-II) radio galaxies displaying low-excitation optical emission, 7 FR-IIs displaying high-excitation optical emission, and 6 FR-II broad emission line radio galaxies. Out of the sample of 27 objects, 10 nuclei are detected and several have constraining non-detections at 10 sigma sensitivities of 7 mJy. On the basis of the core ...

  2. Activation and increase of radio-sensitive CD11b+ recruited Kupffer cells/macrophages in diet-induced steatohepatitis in FGF5 deficient mice

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Manabu; Ikarashi, Masami; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Hanaka, Hiromi; Imaki, Junko; Seki, Shuhji

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that Kupffer cells consist of two subsets, radio-resistant resident CD68+ Kupffer cells and radio-sensitive recruited CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages (Mφs). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized not only by hepatic steatosis but also chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the immunological mechanism of diet-induced steatohepatitis in fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) deficient mice. After consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, FGF5 null mice developed severe steatohepatitis and fibrosis resembling human NASH. F4/80+ Mφs which were both CD11b and CD68 positive accumulated in the liver. The production of TNF and FasL indicated that they are the pivotal effectors in this hepatitis. The weak phagocytic activity and lack of CRIg mRNA suggested that they were recruited Mφs. Intermittent exposure to 1 Gy irradiation markedly decreased these Mφs and dramatically inhibited liver inflammation without attenuating steatosis. However, depletion of the resident subset by clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment increased the Mφs and tended to exacerbate disease progression. Recruited CD11b+ CD68+ Kupffer cells/Mφs may play an essential role in steatohepatitis and fibrosis in FGF5 null mice fed with a HFD. Recruitment and activation of bone marrow derived Mφs is the key factor to develop steatohepatitis from simple steatosis. PMID:27708340

  3. WISE J233237.05–505643.5: A double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus with a spiral-shaped radio morphology

    Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu, Jingwen [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emonts, Bjorn [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Barrows, R. Scott [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Norris, Ray P. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); High, F. William [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H., E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-10

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging, and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) WISE J233237.05–505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid morphology, characterized by a bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in Australian Telescope Compact Array continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332–5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5'' linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch, optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 yr baseline from the AGN component. Gemini South optical data show unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of Hα and Hβ are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ∼3800 km s{sup –1}. We examine possible cases that involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system and discuss the required future investigations to disentangle the mysterious nature of this system.

  4. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    Varela, J.; Reville, V.; Brun, A. S.; Pantellini, F.; Zarka, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the magnetohydrodynamic code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the IMF orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293), Zarka (2007, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598) to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind, IMF orientations and intensities, that allow us to calculate the dissipated power distribution and infer the existence of radio emission hot spots on the planet day side, and to calculate the integrated radio emission of the Hermean magnetosphere. Results: The obtained radio emission distribution of dissipated power is determined by the IMF orientation (associated with the reconnection regions in the magnetosphere), although the radio emission strength is dependent on the IMF intensity and solar wind hydro parameters. The calculated total radio emission level is in agreement with the one estimated in Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293) , between 5 × 105 and 2 × 106 W.

  5. The optical counterpart of sax j1808.4{3658 in quiescence: evidence of an active radio pulsar?

    L. Burderi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La contraparte optica del pulsar binario SAX J1808.4-3658 que emite en rayos X con un per odo de milisegundos, ha sido detectada durante su estapa de quietud a V = 21.5 mag; lo cual es inconsistente con la d ebil emisi on de la estrella compa~nera. Proponemos que la emisi on en el optico de este sistema durante su etapa de quietud es debida a la irradiaci on de la estrella compa~nera y a un disco de acreci on permanente provocado por la energ a rotacional producida por el r apido giro de la estrella de neutrones que act ua como un dipolo magn etico rotante (radio pulsar. En este escenario, la compa~nera se comporta como un bol ometro, reprocesando en el optico parte de la potencia emitida por el pulsar. La fracci on reprocesada depende s olo de par ametros conocidos del sistema binario; la temperatura de cuerpo negro asociada a la estrella compa~nera puede predecirse y rati carse con observaciones. Nuestros c alculos indican que las magnitudes opticas observadas son totalmente compatibles con esta hip otesis. En el caso de que esto sea as , la luminosidad observada en el optico puede ser la primera evidencia de que hay un radio pulsar activo en este sistema en quietud.

  6. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  7. The Concept of 'Radio Music'

    Fjeldsøe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1920s, young composers and musicians turned towards new fields of activity and new media in order to reach a larger audience. In Germany, this effort was part of the movement of Neue Sachlichkeit, and for a short period of time, Radiomusik was considered the ideal means for a democratic......, as discussed by Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith, was at first greeted with great expectations, but soon a more realistic attitude prevailed. Weill, himself a radio critic as well, composed Der Lindberghflug (1929) as a piece of ‘radio music theatre’, but then changed some of its features in order to turn...... it into a didactical play for amateurs, a so-called Lehrstück. The article will present the concept of ‘radio music’ developed within German Neue Sachlichkeit and discuss the relevance of such a concept for current research in the field of radio and music....

  8. Powerful Activity in the Bright Ages. I. A Visible/IR Survey of High Redshift 3C Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    Hilbert, Bryan; Kotyla, JohnPaul; Tremblay, Grant R; Stanghellini, Carlo; Sparks, William B; Baum, Stefi A; Capetti, Alessandro; Macchetto, F Duccio; Miley, George K; O'Dea, Christopher P; Perlman, Eric S; Quillen, Alice C

    2016-01-01

    We present new rest frame UV and visible observations of 22 high-redshift (1 < z < 2.5) 3C radio galaxies and QSOs obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. Using a custom data reduction strategy in order to assure the removal of cosmic rays, persistence signal, and other data artifacts, we have produced high-quality science-ready images of the targets and their local environments. We observe targets with regions of UV emission suggestive of active star formation. In addition, several targets exhibit highly distorted host galaxy morphologies in the rest frame visible images. Photometric analyses reveals that brighter QSOs tend to be generally redder than their dimmer counterparts. Using emission line fluxes from the literature, we estimate that emission line contamination is relatively small in the rest frame UV images for the QSOs. Using archival VLA data, we have also created radio map overlays for each of our targets, allowing for analysis of the optical ...

  9. Radios in the Classroom: Curriculum Integration and Communication Skills. ERIC Digest.

    Ninno, Anton

    Teachers have explored the use of radio in the classroom almost since radio technology entered into the mainstream of society, yet radio remains a relatively unused mode of instruction. This Digest describes several radio applications and summarizes various radio activities to assist teachers in integrating technology into the curriculum.…

  10. Radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars: one population, different epochs of observation

    Blundell, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    I bring together evidence for the rapidity with which quasars' radio synchrotron lobe emission fades and for the intermittency with which jet plasma is ejected from individual quasars and radio galaxies and affirm the picture presented by Nipoti et al (2005) that the radio-loudness of quasars is a function of the epoch at which they are observed. I briefly illustrate this account with examples of successive episodes of jet activity where the axis along which jet plasma is launched appears to have precessed. A new model for the weak core radio emission from radio-quiet quasars, that is not any kind of jet ejecta, is also briefly described.

  11. Depression Radio Broadcast Dramas in the Canadian History Classroom.

    Chilcoat, George W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the Great Depression in which students examine the social, economic, and political events of the period through a study of radio broadcasting. Describes an activity in which students research the era and create a radio broadcast. Outlines activity guidelines, radio language, and evaluation methods. (RW)

  12. The Educational Project for Media Literacy Using Radio Broadcasting System

    北村, 順生; Kitamura, Yorio

    2009-01-01

    This report outlines the educational project for media literacy using radio broadcasting system. The practical activity to produce a radio program are very effective on the students to cultivate their media literacy.

  13. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  14. Prediction of solar particle events and geomagnetic activity using interplanetary scintillation observations from the iowa cocoa-cross radio telescope. Final report April 1, 1976--March 31, 1978

    Roelof, E.C.; Gotwols, B.L.; Mitchell, D.G.; Cronyn, W.M.; Shawhan, S.D.

    1978-05-01

    Synoptic interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations were taken during the summer of 1976 and autumn of 1977 on the University of Iowa COCOA-Cross radio telescope (34.3 MHz), with supplementary observations from the University of Maryland TPT array (38 MHz). A new high sampling rate (10 times per second) digital system made it possible to reconstruct the IPS power spectrum between 0.1-3.0 Hz. The observations, combined with earlier (1974) measurements of integrated IPS power (scintillation index), have led to the conclusion (based on theoretical modelling) that prediction of activity and associated variations in energetic solar particle events is feasible with a lead time of about 24 hours. The technique depends on the observed broadening of the IPS power spectrum as solar wind density enhancements approach the earth. This effect has been documented for both co-rotating and solar flare-associated plasma disturbances.

  15. Spatial and temporal analysis on the distribution of active radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking accuracy with the Kriging method.

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-10-29

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Analysis on the Distribution of Active Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID Tracking Accuracy with the Kriging Method

    Xin Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy.

  17. Comparing the Activity Profiles of Wheelchair Rugby Using a Miniaturised Data Logger and Radio-Frequency Tracking System

    Barry Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study assessed the validity and reliability of a miniaturised data logger (MDL against a radio-frequency-based indoor tracking system (ITS for quantifying key aspects of mobility performance during wheelchair rugby. Eleven international wheelchair rugby players were monitored by both devices during four wheelchair rugby matches. MDL data were averaged over both 1-second (MDL-1 and 5-second (MDL-5 intervals to calculate distance, mean, and peak speeds. The results revealed no significant differences between devices for the distance covered or mean speeds, although random errors of 10% and 12%, respectively, were identified in relation to the mean values. No significant differences in peak speed were revealed between ITS (3.91±0.32 m·s−1 and MDL-1 (3.85±0.45 m·s−1. Whereas peak speeds in MDL-5 (2.75±0.29  m·s−1 were significantly lower than ITS. Errors in peak speed led to large random errors in time and distance spent in speed zones relative to peak speed, especially in MDL-5. The current study revealed that MDL provide a reasonable representation of the distance and mean speed reported during wheelchair rugby. However, inaccuracy in the detection of peak speeds limits its use for monitoring performance and prescribing wheelchair rugby training programmes.

  18. Antenna Technology and other Radio Frequency (RF) Communications Activities at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA's Exploration Vision

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Vision for Space Exploration outlines a very ambitious program for the next several decades of the Space Agency endeavors. Ahead is the completion of the International Space Station (ISS); safely flight the shuttle (STS) until 2010; develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) by no later than 2014; return to the moon by no later than 2020; extend human presence across the solar system and beyond; implement a sustainable and affordable human and robotic program; develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge and infrastructure; and promote international and commercial participation in exploration. To achieve these goals, a series of enabling technologies must be developed or matured in a timely manner. Some of these technologies are: spacecraft RF technology (e.g., high power sources and large antennas which using surface receive arrays can get up to 1 Gbps from Mars), uplink arraying (reduce reliance on large ground-based antennas and high operation costs; single point of failure; enable greater data-rates or greater effective distance; scalable, evolvable, flexible scheduling), software define radio (i.e., reconfigurable, flexible interoperability allows for in flight updates open architecture; reduces mass, power, volume), and optical communications (high capacity communications with low mass/power required; significantly increases data rates for deep space). This presentation will discuss some of the work being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in antenna technology as well as other on-going RF communications efforts.

  19. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  20. Enhancement in Activity of a Vanadium Catalyst for the Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide by Radio Frequency Plasma During the Preparation Process

    Zhenxing Chen; Honggui Li; Lingsen Wang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency plasma was used to prepare a vanadium catalyst. The results showed that activating time of the catalyst could be shortened quickly and the catalytic activity was improved to some extent with the use of plasma. Catalyst Ls-9 was prepared under an optimal condition of 40 W discharge power, 10 min discharge time and 8 Pa gas pressure. The catalytic activity was up to 54.7% at 410 ℃,which was 2.2% higher than that of the Ls-8 catalyst. Only 10 min was needed to activate the catalyst with plasma, which was 1/9 of the traditional calcination time. For Ls-9, both the endothermic as well as the exothermic peaks detected by differential thermal analysis shifted to higher temperatures obviously,indicating that its crystal phase could melt easily. There existed an apparent endothermic peak at 283 ℃. SEM photographs showed a uniform size distribution. It is inferred that the quadrivalent vanadium compound may exist mainly in the form of VOSO4.

  1. Evidence for Ultra-fast Outflows in Radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-shell Absorption Lines

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-11-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s-1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ~10,000 km s-1 (~0.03c) up to ~100,000 km s-1 (~0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ~42,000 km s-1 (~0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ~ 3-6 erg s-1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ~ 4.2 erg s-1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ~ 1022-1024 cm-2, with a mean value of N H ~ 1023 cm-2. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can

  2. Review of the incineration of 500 tonnes of radio-active residues; Bilan de l'incineration de 500 tonnes de residus radioactifs

    Rodier, J.; Seyfried, P.; Charbonneaux, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    During its first five years operation, the incinerator at the Marcoule Centre has burnt almost 500 tonnes of radio-active residues. Improvements in some of the details of the process have been made during this period; they concern the nature of the materials involved. The technical and radiological results for the installation are very favorable, and have made it possible to maintain a high charge factor.Although the overall economic results are not advantageous in the case of ungraded solid residues this method represents nevertheless the best available for eliminating oils, solvents, wood and dead animals. It can also be of use furthermore each time that a dilution in the atmosphere can advantageously be used as a method of disposing of certain radio elements such as tritium or carbon 14 in the form of gases or vapours. (author) [French] L'incinerateur du Centre de Marcoule a brule, durant les 5 premieres annees de fonctionnement, pres de 500 tonnes de residus radioactifs. Les ameliorations de detail realisees au cours de cette periode ont porte sur la nature des materiaux employes. Les bilans techniques et radiologiques de l'installation sont tres favorables et ont permis de maintenir un facteur de charge eleve. Si le bilan economique n'est pas favorable a l'incineration des residus solides 'tout venant' cette methode constitue cependant la solution ideale pour l'elimination des huiles, des solvants, du bois et des cadavres d'animaux. En outre, elle peut etre interessante chaque fois que la dilution dans l'atmosphere peut etre avantageusement mise a profit pour rejeter certains radioelements tels que le tritium ou le carbone 14 sous forme de gaz ou de vapeurs. (auteur)

  3. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    Bentum, M.J.; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  4. Resonance and Radio

    Starrett, Malin J.

    2008-01-01

    The science and technology of radio receives little attention in contemporary education. This article discusses ways to explore the basic operating principles of radio. (Contains 4 figures, 3 footnotes, and 2 notes.)

  5. Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Showing Multiple Disabilities Learn to Manage a Radio-Listening Activity

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Colonna, Fabio; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed microswitch-based technology to enable three post-coma adults, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state but presented motor and communication disabilities, to operate a radio device. The material involved a modified radio device, a microprocessor-based electronic control unit, a personal microswitch, and an amplified…

  6. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  7. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies

    Nectaria A. B. Gizani; M. A. Garrett; J. P. Leahy

    2002-03-01

    We present the usage of multi-frequency and multi-band radio, VLA, observations as well as X-ray observations in order to study the environment around two powerful radio galaxies, namely Hercules A and 3 C310. We study their environment both in pc- and kpc-scales. We have chosen these two radio galaxies as they present similar and unique characteristics, compared to the ones from our general knowledge about double radio galaxies associated with active galactic nuclei.

  8. Ham radio for dummies

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  9. Radio Quiet AGN

    Czerny, B; Karas, V; Ponti, G

    2005-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei are powered by accretion onto massive black holes. Although radio-quiet objects are not as spectacular sources of very high energy photons as radio-loud ones this class of objects also represents a challenge for modeling high energy processes close to a black hole. Both a hot optically thin plasma and a cooler optically thick accretion disk are usually thought to be present in the vicinity of a black hole although the details of the accretion flow are still under discussion. The role of the disk seems to decrease with a drop in the Eddington ratio: in sources like quasars and Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies disk flow dominates while in Seyfert galaxies the disk retreats, and in sources like LINERS or Sgr A* a disk is most likely absent. Shocks and reconnections are possibly taking place in an inner hot flow and in the magnetic corona above the cold disk. Uncollimated outflow is also present and it may carry significant fraction of available mass and energy.

  10. Radio Loud and Radio Quiet Quasars

    Kellermann, K I; Kimball, A E; Perley, R A; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss 6 GHz JVLA observations covering a volume-limited sample of 178 low redshift ($0.2 5 \\mathrm{~mJy~beam}^{-1}$ ($log(L) \\gtrsim 24$). The radio luminosity function of optically selected QSOs and the extended radio emission associated with RLQs are both inconsistent with simple "unified" models that invoke relativistic beaming from randomly oriented QSOs to explain the difference between RLQs and RQQs. Some intrinsic property of the AGNs or their host galaxies must also determine whether or not a QSO appears radio loud.

  11. Reconfigurable Power-Aware EVA Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) radio system is a pivotal technology for the successful support of the International Space Station beyond 2020 and future...

  12. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI is actively developing Software Defined Radio platforms that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation by modifying both transmit waveforms and...

  13. Analisis Kendala Perizinan Spektrum Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Komunitas

    2014-01-01

    Izin penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio diatur dalam Undang-undang No.36 tahun 1999 tentang Telekomunikasi. Saat ini masih ditemukan Radio Komunitas yang belum memiliki Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemu kenali kendala-kendala yang dihadapi Radio Komunitas pada proses pengajuan Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dengan penanggungjawab Radio Komunitas dan pejabat di lingkungan Balai Monitor Frekuensi Radio (Balmon) di Jakarta, Sema...

  14. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  15. Steep Spectrum Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    Clarke, Tracy E.

    2012-05-01

    Steep spectrum radio emission associated with galaxy clusters comes from compact central active galactic nuclei (AGN) driven radio sources in dense cool core clusters as well as from large regions of diffuse (halo and relic) emission associated with dynamically complex merging systems. These radio halos and relics are best traced at low radio frequencies where details of their morphology, location and spectral index distribution can be used to probe the underlying acceleration mechanism(s) as well as important details of large scale structure formation. Low frequency radio observations also play an important role in the study of AGN feedback into the intracluster medium and the regulation of cooling cores. While spectacular results are coming from the current generation of low frequency instruments, there will soon be a new revolution in studies of steep spectrum sources with the upcoming generation of low frequency interferometers on Earth and ultimately the moon.

  16. Accurate radio and optical positions for the radio star HD 36705 (AB Doradus)

    White, Graeme L.; Jauncey, David L.; Batty, Michael J.; Peters, W. L.; Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    Arc-second position measurements of the active star HD 36705 (AB Dor) and of the variable radio source found nearby are presented. These measurements show that the radio source is clearly identified with HD 36705 and not with the nearby red-dwarf star Rst 137B.

  17. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some Activity Indices which describe the Radiation at Different Altitudes of Atmosphere during Cycles 21–23

    E. A. Bruevich; V. V. Bruevich; G. V. Yakunina

    2014-03-01

    The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of six solar indices versus 10.7 cm radio flux 10.7 were analysed in solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. We also analysed the interconnection between these indices and 10.7 with help of approximation by polynomials of second order. The indices we have studied in this paper are: the relative sunspot numbers – SSN, 530.3 nm coronal line flux – 530 , the total solar irradiance – TSI, Mg II 280 nm core-to-wing ratio UV-index, the Flare Index – FI and the counts of flares. In most cases the regressions of these solar indices vs. 10.7 are close to the linear regression except the moments of time near the minimums and maximums of the 11-year activity. For the linear regressions, we found that correlation coefficients corr() for the solar indices vs. 10.7 and SSN dropped to their minimum values twice during each 11-year cycle.

  18. Senior radio listeners

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers......Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...

  19. Radio Monitoring of Protoplanetary Discs

    Ubach, C.; Maddison, S. T.; Wright, C. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Lommen, D. J. P.; Koribalski, B.

    2017-01-01

    Protoplanetary disc systems observed at radio wavelengths often show excess emission above that expected from a simple extrapolation of thermal dust emission observed at short millimetre wavelengths. Monitoring the emission at radio wavelengths can be used to help disentangle the physical mechanisms responsible for this excess, including free-free emission from a wind or jet, and chromospheric emission associated with stellar activity. We present new results from a radio monitoring survey conducted with Australia Telescope Compact Array over the course of several years with observation intervals spanning days, months and years, where the flux variability of 11 T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon and Lupus star forming regions was measured at 7 and 15 mm and 3 and 6 cm. Results show that for most sources are variable to some degree at 7 mm, indicating the presence of emission mechanisms other than thermal dust in some sources. Additionally, evidence of grain growth to cm-sized pebbles was found for some sources that also have signs of variable flux at 7 mm. We conclude that multiple processes contributing to the emission are common in T Tauri stars at 7 mm and beyond, and that a detection at a single epoch at radio wavelengths should not be used to determine all processes contributing to the emission.

  20. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    Varela, J; Brun, A S; Pantellini, F; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    Context: Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the MHD code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka [2001, 2007] to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydr...

  1. Transformations of Radio Aesthetics

    Grażyna Stachyra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some remarks upon the nature of contemporary radio communications in the context of the terms “aesthetics” and “aesthetisation”. The latter, denoting a process of turning aesthetic phenomena into unaesthetic ones, becomes the dominant strategy of formatted radio. The “surface aesthetisation,” which provides mainly pleasure and entertainment, transcends the simple styling of objects or environment and appears to be a more significant strand of contemporary culture. The article shows several examples of “surface” modelling of radio programming and explains their purpose in radio communication.

  2. A Zynq-based Cluster Cognitive Radio

    Rooks, Kurtis M.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional hardware radios provide very rigid solutions to radio problems. Intelligent software defined radios, also known as cognitive radios, provide flexibility and agility compared to hardware radio systems. Cognitive radios are well suited for radio applications in a changing radio frequency environment, such as dynamic spectrum access. In this thesis, a cognitive radio is demonstrated where the system self reconfigures to dem...

  3. Analysis and Modeling of Jovian Radio Emissions Observed by Galileo

    Menietti, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    Our studies of Jovian radio emission have resulted in the publication of five papers in refereed journals, with three additional papers in progress. The topics of these papers include the study of narrow-band kilometric radio emission; the apparent control of radio emission by Callisto; quasi-periodic radio emission; hectometric attenuation lanes and their relationship to Io volcanic activity; and modeling of HOM attenuation lanes using ray tracing. A further study of the control of radio emission by Jovian satellites is currently in progress. Abstracts of each of these papers are contained in the Appendix. A list of the publication titles are also included.

  4. Two-way radios and scanners for dummies

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    Discover a fun new hobby with helpful possibilities Get directions, talk to folks overseas, or find out whether the fish are biting Want to check out the morning news in London, help out in emergencies, or tune in to the big race? Two-way radios open up a world of possibilities - literally. This handy guide tells you about the equipment you need, fills you in on radio etiquette, shows you how to stay legal, and gives you lots of cool ideas for family-friendly radio activities. Discover how to * Use the right radio lingo * Choose and operate different types of radios * Get a license if you n

  5. Application of mesh network radios to UGS

    Calcutt, Wade; Jones, Barry; Roeder, Brent

    2008-04-01

    During the past five years McQ has been actively pursuing integrating and applying wireless mesh network radios as a communications solution for unattended ground sensor (UGS) systems. This effort has been rewarded with limited levels of success and has ultimately resulted in a corporate position regarding the use of mesh network radios for UGS systems. A discussion into the background of the effort, the challenges of implementing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) mesh radios with UGSs, the tradeoffs involved, and an overview of the future direction is presented.

  6. Enhancing GNU Radio for Hardware Accelerated Radio Design

    Irick, Charles Robert

    2010-01-01

    As technology evolves and new methods for designing radios arise, it becomes necessary to continue the search for fast and flexible development environments. Some of these new technologies include software defined radio (SDR), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and the open source project GNU Radio. Software defined radio is a concept that GNU Radio has harnessed to allow developers to quickly create flexible radio designs. In terms of hardware, the maturity of FPGAs give ...

  7. Analisis Kendala Perizinan Spektrum Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Komunitas

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Izin penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio diatur dalam Undang-undang No.36 tahun 1999 tentang Telekomunikasi. Saat ini masih ditemukan Radio Komunitas yang belum memiliki Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemu kenali kendala-kendala yang dihadapi Radio Komunitas pada proses pengajuan Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR. Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dengan penanggungjawab Radio Komunitas dan pejabat di lingkungan Balai Monitor Frekuensi Radio (Balmon di Jakarta, Semarang dan Yogyakarta. Analisis data mengacu pada model Matthew B Miles dan A Michael Huberman. Hasil penelitian menyatakan kendala yang dihadapi terutama pada sertifikasi perangkat Radio Komunitas.

  8. Valuing commercial radio licences

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence f

  9. Radio Graceful Hamming Graphs

    Niedzialomski Amanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For k ∈ ℤ+ and G a simple, connected graph, a k-radio labeling f : V (G → ℤ+ of G requires all pairs of distinct vertices u and v to satisfy |f(u − f(v| ≥ k + 1 − d(u, v. We consider k-radio labelings of G when k = diam(G. In this setting, f is injective; if f is also surjective onto {1, 2, . . . , |V (G|}, then f is a consecutive radio labeling. Graphs that can be labeled with such a labeling are called radio graceful. In this paper, we give two results on the existence of radio graceful Hamming graphs. The main result shows that the Cartesian product of t copies of a complete graph is radio graceful for certain t. Graphs of this form provide infinitely many examples of radio graceful graphs of arbitrary diameter. We also show that these graphs are not radio graceful for large t.

  10. Radio Emission from Exoplanets

    George, Samuel J.; Stevens, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from new low frequency observations of two extrasolar planetary systems (Epsilon Eridani and HD128311) taken at 150 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We do not detect either system, but are able to place tight upper limits on their low frequency radio emission.

  11. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform th...

  12. Characterising Radio Emissions in Cosmic Filaments

    Miller, R. O.

    2014-02-01

    A growing number of radio studies probe galaxy clusters into the low-power regime in which star formation is the dominant source of radio emission. However, at the time of writing no comparably deep observations have focused exclusively on the radio populations of cosmic filaments. This thesis describes the ATCA 2.1 GHz observations and subsequent analysis of two such regions - labelled Zone 1 (between clusters A3158 and A3125/A3128) and Zone 2 (between A3135 and A3145) - in the Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster (HRS). Source count profiles of both populations are discussed and a radio luminosity function for Zone 1 is generated. While the source counts of Zone 2 appear to be consistent with expected values, Zone 1 exhibits an excess of counts across a wide flux range (1 mJy< S_1.4 < 200 mJy). An excess in radio activity at the lower extent of this range (log P_1.4 < 22.5; within the SF-dominated regime) is also suggested by the radio luminosity function for that region, and brief colour analysis suggests that such an excess is indeed predominantly associated with a starforming population. The differences between the two filamentary zones is attributed to cosmic variation. The regions are both small (~ 1 degree square), and are significantly separated in the HRS. Further radio observations of filaments are required and the results combined into a larger sample size in order to arrive at a generalised model filamentary population.

  13. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Altamirano, D.; O'Brien, T. J.; Page, K. L.; Templeton, M. R.; Körding, E. G.; Knigge, C.; Rupen, M. P.; Fender, R. P.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S.; Migliari, S.; Remillard, R. A.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.; Waagen, E. O.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disc material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows that the compact jet remained active throughout the outburst with no radio quenching.

  14. Why do only some Radio Galaxies acquire giant Sizes?

    Vázquez, Elizabeth López

    2016-01-01

    We study the morphology of the radio emission of giant radio galaxies (GRGs), a rare type of active galaxies, in order to find new clues for the reasons of their large size. Using radio images from two sky surveys at 1.4 GHz we quantified their radio morphology by measuring the geometry (armlength, bending angle, etc.) and flux symmetry for 58 such objects. Preliminary analysis suggests that radio source symmetry does not differ between galaxies and quasars, that there is no evidence for a decrease in linear size with redshift, and only a marginal trend for increasing symmetry with larger size. A merging with data available for other such objects is expected to yield new clues on the possible reasons for their large size. We also searched radio survey images around the positions of 1059 galaxies and quasars for further giant radio sources, and present a preliminary sample of six of these.

  15. A Study Of The Dilution Of Radio-Active Waste In The Rhone (1961); Etude de la dilution dans le rhone des effluents radioactifs du Centre de Marcoule (1961)

    Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Marichal, M.; Court, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The discharge into the Rhone of liquid radio-active waste from the Marcoule Centre necessitates a large number of measurements, in particular chemical and radio-chemical analysis of the waste, itself and of the waters of the Rhone both above arid below the point of discharge. The results thus obtained during 1960 made it possible to evaluate the total amount of active waste discharged and its dilution in the receiving medium. A statistical study of the results of the analysis of the Rhone waters shows that a satisfactory dilution of the waste occurs rapidly; the experimental results obtained with an experimental discharge of rhodamine are thus confirmed. (authors) [French] Le rejet au Rhone des effluents radioactifs liquides produits sur le Centre de Marcoule donne lieu a un grand nombre de mesures et en particulier d'analyses chimiques et radio-chimiques des effluents eux-memes ainsi que des eaux du Rhone avant et apres rejet. Au cours de l'annee 1960, l'ensemble des resultats ainsi obtenus a permis de dresser un bilan des activites rejetees et de leur dispersion dans le milieu recepteur. Une etude statistique des resultats d'analyses des eaux du Rhone montre qu'une dilution satisfaisante des effluents s'effectue rapidement confirmant ainsi les resultats obtenus lors d'un rejet experimental de rhodamine. (auteurs)

  16. DISCOVERY OF GIANT RELIC RADIO LOBES STRADDLING THE CLASSICAL DOUBLE RADIO GALAXY 3C452

    Sirothia, S. K.; Gopal-Krishna [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag No. 3, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: sirothia@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: krishna@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: wiitap@tcnj.edu [Department of Physics, College of New Jersey, P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of a pair of megaparsec size radio lobes of extremely steep spectrum straddling the well-known classical double radio source 3C452. The existence of such fossil lobes was unexpected since for the past several decades this powerful radio galaxy has been regarded as a textbook example of an edge-brightened double radio source of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II), which we now show to be a bona fide ''double-double'' radio galaxy (DDRG). Thus, 3C452 presents a uniquely robust example of recurrent nuclear activity in which the restarted jets are expanding non-relativistically within the relic synchrotron plasma from an earlier active phase and hence the inner double fed by them has evolved into a perfectly normal FR II radio source. This situation contrasts markedly with the strikingly narrow inner doubles observed in a few other DDRGs that have been interpreted in terms of compression of the synchrotron plasma of the relic outer lobes at the relativistic bow-shocks driven by the near ballistic propagation of the two inner jets through the relic plasma. A key ramification of this finding is that it cautions against the currently widespread use of FR II classical double radio sources for testing cosmological models and unification schemes for active galactic nuclei.

  17. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    Herzog, A; Middelberg, E; Seymour, N; Spitler, L R; Emonts, B H C; Franzen, T M O; Hunstead, R; Intema, H T; Marvil, J; Parker, Q A; Sirothia, S K; Hurley-Walker, N; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Callingham, J R; Deshpande, A A; Dwarakanath, K S; For, B -Q; Greenhill, L J; Hancock, P; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kapinska, A D; Kaplan, D L; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Morgan, J; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A; Ord, S M; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Staveley-Smith, L; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Zheng, Q; Chippendale, A P; Harvey-Smith, L; Heywood, I; Indermuehle, B; Popping, A; Sault, R J; Whiting, M T

    2016-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z > 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio...

  18. Radio Identifications of Markarian Galaxies and the Correlation between Radio and Far-Infrared Properties

    Shao-Guang Luo; Xue-Bing Wu

    2005-01-01

    By checking DSS optical images and NVSS radio images, 782 Markarian galaxies were identified to be NVSS radio sources. A comparison of the radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz and the far-infrared (FIR) luminosity for 468 "normal"galaxies shows a tight correlation. Most of the Seyfert galaxies and quasars follow the radio-FIR relation deduced from the "normal" galaxy sample, but with a somewhat larger scatter. A total 167 Markarian galaxies, comprising 100 "normal"galaxies, 66 Seyfert galaxies and one quasar, have either excess radio emission or much lower FIR spectral index α(25μm, 60μm). These galaxies may be classified as "AGN-powered". For "normal" galaxies, the average q value (defined as the log ratio between FIR and radio luminosities) is 2.3. There seems a trend for q to slightly decrease with increasing radio luminosity. This may imply that the ongoing active star formation in galaxies with higher radio luminosities is more efficient in heating the cosmic-ray electrons.

  19. Size dependence of the radio-luminosity-mechanical-power correlation in radio galaxies

    Shabala, S. S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Godfrey, L. E. H., E-mail: Stanislav.Shabala@utas.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2013-06-01

    We examine the relationship between source radio luminosity and kinetic power in active galactic nucleus jets. We show that neglecting various loss processes can introduce a systematic bias in the jet powers inferred from radio luminosities for a sample of radio galaxies. This bias can be corrected for by considering source size as well as radio luminosity; effectively the source size acts as a proxy for source age. Based on a sample of Fanaroff-Riley Type II radio sources with jet powers derived from the measured hotspot parameters, we empirically determine a new expression for jet power that accounts for the source size, (Q{sub jet}/10{sup 36} W)=1.5{sub −0.8}{sup +1.8}(L{sub 151}/10{sup 27} W Hz{sup −1}){sup 0.8}(1+z){sup 1.0}(D/kpc){sup 0.58±0.17}, where D is source size and L {sub 151} the 151 MHz radio luminosity. By comparing a flux-limited and volume-limited sample, we show that any derived radio-luminosity-jet-power relation depends sensitively on sample properties, in particular the source size distribution and the size-luminosity correlation inherent in the sample. Such bias will affect the accuracy of the kinetic luminosity function derived from lobe radio luminosities and should be treated with caution.

  20. Jugando en el Pidi: Active Learning, Early Child Development and Interactive Radio Instruction. Supporting Caregivers, Parents, and Young Children. LearnTech Case Study Series, No. 4.

    Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia

    In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…

  1. Radio source evolution

    Perucho, Manel

    2015-01-01

    Baldwin (1982) wrote that "the distribution of sources in the radio luminosity, P, overall physical size, D, diagram" could be considered as "the radio astronomer's H-R diagram". However, unlike the case of stars, not only the intrinsic properties of the jets, but also those of the host galaxy and the intergalactic medium are relevant to explain the evolutionary tracks of radio radio sources. In this contribution I review the current status of our understanding of the evolution of radio sources from a theoretical and numerical perspective, using the P-D diagram as a framework. An excess of compact (linear size < 10 kpc) sources could be explained by low-power jets being decelerated within the host galaxy, as shown by recent numerical simulations. These decelerated jets could also explain the population of the radio sources that have been recently classified as FR0. I will discuss the possible tracks that radio sources may follow within this diagram, and some of the physical processes that can explain the d...

  2. The radio structure of NGC 1275

    Pedlar, A.; Ghataure, H.S.; Davies, R.D.; Harrison, B.A. (Nuffield Radio Astronomy Labs., Jodrell Bank (UK)); Perley, R.; Crane, P.C. (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM. (USA)); Unger, S.W. (Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham (UK))

    1990-10-01

    We present high dynamic range VLA and MERLIN images of NGC 1275 at wavelengths of 18, 22, 90 and 199 cm with angular resolutions ranging from 0.3 to 40 arcsec. Over the central 30 arcsec there is evidence for collimated ejection mainly in PA 160{sup o}. Outside this region the radio structure shows evidence of a sharp change in direction to approximately PA 235{sup o}, before merging into the 10-arcmin radio halo. On arcsec and arcmin angular scales, there is considerable asymmetry between the structure north and south of the active nucleus. We consider the radio source structure to be consistent with an asymmetrical Fanaroff-Riley type I source, with the jet collimation axis close to the line-of-sight. The radio 'halo' consists of the outer lobes of this structure. (author).

  3. Radio broadcasting via satellite

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.

    1990-10-01

    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  4. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Saradi Bora

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's ionosphere consists of plasma produced by thephotoionization of thin upper atmospheric gases by UV raysand photons of short wavelength from the sun. The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the readers to the study of ionosphere in the contextof its use as a radio reflector, with particular reference toIndia.

  5. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    Lykke, Marianne; Skov, Mette

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars’ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported...

  6. Radio y elecciones

    Alma Rosa Alva de la Selva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de la radio en México ante la contienda electoral de julio de 2000. Se examina el papel de la radio como espacio para la discusión política, así como el tratamiento informativo que hizo del tema. Asimismo, se analiza la posible repercusión de factores de reciente surgimiento en el panorama radiofónico para un manejo más autónomo de la información política en la radio

  7. Sensitive radio survey of obscured quasar candidates

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars in samples at both low (z ˜ 0.5) and high (z ˜ 2.5) redshift to understand the role of radio activity in accretion, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 6.0 GHz and 1.4 GHz. Our z ˜ 2.5 sample consists of optically selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of νLν[1.4 GHz] ≲ 1040 erg s-1. Only a single source is individually detected in our deep (rms˜10 μJy) exposures. This population would not be identified by radio-based selection methods used for distinguishing dusty star-forming galaxies and obscured active nuclei. In our pilot A-array study of z ˜ 0.5 radio-quiet quasars, we spatially resolve four of five objects on scales ˜5 kpc and find they have steep spectral indices with an average value of α = -0.75. Therefore, radio emission in these sources could be due to jet-driven or radiatively driven bubbles interacting with interstellar material on the scale of the host galaxy. Finally, we also study the additional population of ˜200 faint ( ˜ 40 μJy-40 mJy) field radio sources observed over ˜120 arcmin2 of our data. 60 per cent of these detections (excluding our original targets) are matched in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and are, in roughly equal shares, active galactic nuclei (AGN) at a broad range of redshifts, passive galaxies with no other signs of nuclear activity and infrared-bright but optically faint sources. Spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed star-forming galaxies constitute only a small minority of the matches. Such sensitive radio surveys allow us to address important questions of AGN evolution and evaluate the AGN contribution to the radio-quiet sky.

  8. Music, Radio, and Mediatization

    Krogh, Mads; Michelsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music– radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...... of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex non- linearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life....

  9. The digital sport radio.

    Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.

  10. Everyday Radio Telescope

    Mandal, Pranshu; Kumar, Pratik; Yelikar, Anjali; Soni, Kanchan; T, Vineeth Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an affordable, portable college level radio telescope for amateur radio astronomy which can be used to provide hands-on experience with the fundamentals of a radio telescope and an insight into the realm of radio astronomy. With our set-up one can measure brightness temperature and flux of the Sun at 11.2 GHz and calculate the beam width of the antenna. The set-up uses commercially available satellite television receiving system and parabolic dish antenna. We report the detection of point sources like Saturn and extended sources like the galactic arm of the Milky way. We have also developed python pipeline, which are available for free download, for data acquisition and visualization.

  11. Boom Booom Net Radio

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study of an exi......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...... of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  12. Unveiling the radio cosmos

    Vanderlinde, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Using a radio telescope with no moving parts, the dark energy speeding up the expansion of the Universe can be probed in unprecedented detail, says Keith Vanderlinde, on behalf of the CHIME collaboration.

  13. Social cognitive radio networks

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  14. Smart Radio Spectrum Management for Cognitive Radio

    Partha Pratim Bhattacharya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s wireless networks are characterized by fixed spectrum assignment policy. The limited availablespectrum and the inefficiency in the spectrum usage necessitate a new communication paradigm toexploit the existing wireless spectrum opportunistically. Cognitive radio is a paradigm for wirelesscommunication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or receptionparameters to communicate efficiently avoiding interference with licensed or unlicensed users. It cancapture best available spectrum to meet user communication requirements (spectrum management. Inthis work, a fuzzy logic based system for spectrum management is proposed where the radio can shareunused spectrum depending on parameters like distance, signal strength, node velocity and availabilityof unused spectrum. The system is simulated and is found to give satisfactory results.

  15. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves; Etudes d'analyse par activation. Parties A et B: le comptage des radio-nucleides de periodes courtes. Partie C: programme de depouillement des courbes de decroissance

    Junod, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [French] Parties A et B: Un radionucleide de periode courte etant defini specialement par la decroissance de son activite pendant la duree meme du comptage, on rappelle en premiere partie de ce rapport les relations fondamentales qui lient periode, temps de comptage, taux de comptage et nombre d'impulsions enregistrees. La

  16. Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines

    1980-01-01

    Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single­ djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro­ physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre­ tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...

  17. Classics in radio astronomy

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  18. Quasi-Quiescent Radio Emission from the First Radio-Emitting T Dwarf

    Williams, Peter K G; Zauderer, B Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Radio detections of ultracool dwarfs provide insight into their magnetic fields and the dynamos that maintain them, especially at the very bottom of the main sequence, where other activity indicators dramatically weaken. Until recently, the coolest brown dwarf detected in the radio was only of spectral type L3.5, but this has changed with the Arecibo detection of rapid polarized flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. Here, we report the detection of quasi-quiescent radio emission from this source at 5.8 GHz using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The luminosity is {\

  19. Radio Source Morphology: 'nature or nuture'?

    Banfield, Julie; Emonts, Bjorn; O'Sullivan, Shane

    2012-10-01

    Radio sources, emanating from supermassive black-holes in the centres of active galaxies, display a large variety of morphological properties. It is a long-standing debate to what extent the differences between various types of radio sources are due to intrinsic properties of the central engine (`nature') or due to the properties of the interstellar medium that surrounds the central engine and host galaxy (`nurture'). Settling this `nature vs. nurture' debate for nearby radio galaxies, which can be studied in great detail, is vital for understanding the properties and evolution of radio galaxies throughout the Universe. We propose to observe the radio galaxy NGC 612 where previous observations have detected the presence of a large-scale HI bridge between the host galaxy and a nearby galaxy NGC 619. We request a total of 13 hrs in the 750m array-configuration to determine whether or not the 100 kpc-scale radio source morphology is directly related to the intergalactic distribution of neutral hydrogen gas.

  20. HI absorption in nearby compact radio galaxies

    Glowacki, M.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Curran, S. J.; Musaeva, A.; Deng, C.; Parry, R.; Sligo, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    HI absorption studies yield information on both AGN feeding and feedback processes. This AGN activity interacts with the neutral gas in compact radio sources, which are believed to represent the young or recently re-triggered AGN population. We present the results of a survey for HI absorption in a sample of 66 compact radio sources at 0.040 100 km s-1) features, indicative of disturbed gas kinematics. Such broad, shallow and offset features are also found within low-excitation radio galaxies which is attributed to disturbed circumnuclear gas, consistent with early-type galaxies typically devoid of a gas-rich disk. Comparing mid-infrared colours of our galaxies with HI detections indicates that narrow and deep absorption features are preferentially found in late-type and high-excitation radio galaxies in our sample. These features are attributed to gas in galactic disks. By combining XMM-Newton archival data with 21-cm data, we find support that absorbed X-ray sources may be good tracers of HI content within the host galaxy. This sample extends previous HI surveys in compact radio galaxies to lower radio luminosities and provides a basis for future work exploring the higher redshift universe.

  1. Size dependence of the radio luminosity - mechanical power correlation in radio galaxies

    Shabala, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between source radio luminosity and kinetic power in Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jets. We show that neglecting various loss processes can introduce a systematic bias in the jet powers inferred from radio luminosities for a sample of radio galaxies. This bias can be corrected for by considering source size as well as radio luminosity; effectively the source size acts as a proxy for source age. Based on a sample of FR-II radio sources with jet powers derived from the measured hotspot parameters, we empirically determine a new expression for jet power that accounts for the source size, Q_jet / 10^{36} W = 1.5 (L_151 / 10^{27} W/Hz)^{0.8} (1+z)^{1.0} (D / kpc)^{0.58 \\pm 0.17}, where D is source size and L_151 the 151 MHz radio luminosity. By comparing a flux-limited and volume-limited sample, we show that any derived radio luminosity - jet power relation depends sensitively on sample properties, in particular the source size distribution and the size-luminosity correlation inherent i...

  2. The jet power, radio loudness and black hole mass in radio loud AGNs

    Liu, Y; Gu, M F; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Dong Rong; Gu, Min Feng

    2006-01-01

    The jet formation is thought to be closely connected with the mass of central supermassive black hole in Active Galactic Nuclei. The radio luminosity commonly used in investigating this issue is merely an indirect measure of the energy transported through the jets from the central engine, and severely Doppler boosted in core-dominated radio quasars. In this work, we investigate the relationship between the jet power and black hole mass, by estimating the jet power using extrapolated extended 151 MHz flux density from the VLA 5 GHz extended radio emission, for a sample of 146 radio loud quasars complied from literature. After removing the effect of relativistic beaming in the radio and optical emission, we find a significant intrinsic correlation between the jet power and black hole mass. It strongly implies that the jet power, so as jet formation, is closely connected with the black hole mass.To eliminate the beaming effect in the conventional radio loudness, we define a new radio loudness as the ratio of the...

  3. Radio Access Sharing Strategies for Multiple Operators in Cellular Networks

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2015-01-01

    deployments (required for coverage enhancement), increased base station utilization, and reduced overall power consumption. Today, network sharing in the radio access part is passive and limited to cell sites. With the introduction of Cloud Radio Access Network and Software Defined Networking adoption......Mobile operators are moving towards sharing network capacity in order to reduce capital and operational expenditures, while meeting the increasing demand for mobile broadband data services. Radio access network sharing is a promising technique that leads to reduced number of physical base station...... to the radio access network, the possibility for sharing baseband processing and radio spectrum becomes an important aspect of network sharing. This paper investigates strategies for active sharing of radio access among multiple operators, and analyses the individual benefits depending on the sharing degree...

  4. The Broad Line Radio Galaxy J2114+820

    Lara, L; Cotton, W D; Feretti, L; Giovannini, G; Marcaide, J M; Venturi, T

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the study of a new sample of large angular size radio galaxies selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, we have made radio observations of J2114+820, a low power radio galaxy with an angular size of 6'. Its radio structure basically consists of a prominent core, a jet directed in north-west direction and two extended S-shaped lobes. We have also observed the optical counterpart of J2114+820, a bright elliptical galaxy with a strong unresolved central component. The optical spectrum shows broad emission lines. This fact, together with its low radio power and FR-I type morphology, renders J2114+820 a non-trivial object from the point of view of the current unification schemes of radio loud active galactic nuclei.

  5. Radio data archiving system

    Knapic, C.; Zanichelli, A.; Dovgan, E.; Nanni, M.; Stagni, M.; Righini, S.; Sponza, M.; Bedosti, F.; Orlati, A.; Smareglia, R.

    2016-07-01

    Radio Astronomical Data models are becoming very complex since the huge possible range of instrumental configurations available with the modern Radio Telescopes. What in the past was the last frontiers of data formats in terms of efficiency and flexibility is now evolving with new strategies and methodologies enabling the persistence of a very complex, hierarchical and multi-purpose information. Such an evolution of data models and data formats require new data archiving techniques in order to guarantee data preservation following the directives of Open Archival Information System and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance for data sharing and publication. Currently, various formats (FITS, MBFITS, VLBI's XML description files and ancillary files) of data acquired with the Medicina and Noto Radio Telescopes can be stored and handled by a common Radio Archive, that is planned to be released to the (inter)national community by the end of 2016. This state-of-the-art archiving system for radio astronomical data aims at delegating as much as possible to the software setting how and where the descriptors (metadata) are saved, while the users perform user-friendly queries translated by the web interface into complex interrogations on the database to retrieve data. In such a way, the Archive is ready to be Virtual Observatory compliant and as much as possible user-friendly.

  6. Tools of radio astronomy

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  7. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  8. Optical and Radio Variability of BL Lacertae

    Gaur, Haritma; Bachev, R; Strigachev, A; Semkov, E; Wiita, Paul J; Volvach, A E; Gu, Minfeng; Agarwal, A; Agudo, I; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Lahteenmaki, A; Peneva, S; Nikolashvili, M G; Sigua, L A; Tornikoski, M; Volvach, L N

    2015-01-01

    We observed the prototype blazar, BL Lacertae, extensively in optical and radio bands during an active phase in the period 2010--2013 when the source showed several prominent outbursts. We searched for possible correlations and time lags between the optical and radio band flux variations using multifrequency data to learn about the mechanisms producing variability. During an active phase of BL Lacertae, we searched for possible correlations and time lags between multifrequency light curves of several optical and radio bands. We tried to estimate any possible variability timescales and inter-band lags in these bands. We performed optical observations in B, V, R and I bands from seven telescopes in Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece and India and obtained radio data at 36.8, 22.2, 14.5, 8 and 4.8 GHz frequencies from three telescopes in Ukraine, Finland and USA. Significant cross-correlations between optical and radio bands are found in our observations with a delay of cm-fluxes with respect to optical ones of ~250 days...

  9. Radio Broadcasting for Adult Nonformal Environmental Education in Botswana.

    Nyirenda, Juma E.

    1995-01-01

    Radio broadcasting is used in Botswana to inform, teach, and persuade adults about issues in agriculture, health, wildlife, conservation, and other areas. However, open broadcasting is not an effective nonformal education tool. Active and guided group listening to radio enables discussion and feedback. (SK)

  10. The Double–Double Radio Galaxy 3C293

    S. A. Joshi; S. Nandi; D. J. Saikia; C. H. Ishwara-Chandra; C. Konar

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of radio continuum observations at frequencies ranging from ∼ 150–5000 MHz of the misaligned double–double radio galaxy (DDRG) 3C293 (J1352+3126) using the GMRT and the VLA, and estimate the time-scale of interruption of jet activity to be less than ∼ 0.1 Myr.

  11. Political Talk Radio: Actions Speak Louder than Words.

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Gianos, Christopher L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines differences among groups of listeners to political talk radio using data from a survey of adults in San Diego, California, from the perspective of Grunig's situational involvement model. Among more active audience members, limited motivational data suggest that political talk radio served a mix of needs, including seeking political…

  12. Comets at radio wavelengths

    Crovisier, Jacques; Colom, Pierre; Biver, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Comets are considered as the most primitive objects in the Solar System. Their composition provides information on the composition of the primitive solar nebula, 4.6 Gyr ago. The radio domain is a privileged tool to study the composition of cometary ices. Observations of the OH radical at 18 cm wavelength allow us to measure the water production rate. A wealth of molecules (and some of their isotopologues) coming from the sublimation of ices in the nucleus have been identified by observations in the millimetre and submillimetre domains. We present an historical review on radio observations of comets, focusing on the results from our group, and including recent observations with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio telescope, the IRAM antennas, the Odin satellite, the Herschel space observatory, ALMA, and the MIRO instrument aboard the Rosetta space probe.

  13. ANTENNA OF RADIO CONTROL

    Ludwig Ilnytskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to current issues in the field of radio monitoring. In this article was considered the antenna of radio control, which represents a grid from three vibrators. Threelement antenna array provides simultaneous control of two radio electronic devices that radiates at frequencies that are close to each other. Antenna system using simple technical means provides noise suppression, even if noise will have the same frequency as useful signal. This makes it possible to use the antenna system in conditions of multibeam wave propagation under the adjustment on the most intense by the power beam. Antenna system makes it possible to measure the electromagnetic field intensity, congestion of the frequency spectrum, direction of noise electromagnetic waves incidence, noise electric field intensity.

  14. Tracing High Redshift Starformation in the Current and Next Generation of Radio Surveys

    Seymour, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The current deepest radio surveys detect hundreds of sources per square degree below 0.1mJy. There is a growing consensus that a large fraction of these sources are dominated by star formation although the exact proportion has been debated in the literature. However, the low luminosity of these galaxies at most other wavelengths makes determining the nature of individual sources difficult. If future, deeper surveys performed with the next generation of radio instrumentation are to reap high scientific reward we need to develop reliable methods of distinguishing between radio emission powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and that powered by star formation. In particular, we believe that such discriminations should be based on purely radio, or relative to radio, diagnostics. These diagnostics include radio morphology, radio spectral index, polarisation, variability, radio luminosity and flux density ratios with non-radio wavelengths e.g. with different parts of the infrared (IR) regime. We discuss the advant...

  15. Saber sobre la radio

    Mata, María Cristina; Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Argentina

    1998-01-01

    La autora propone en este artículo repensar los fundamentos sobre los cuales se estructuran las asignaturas y talleres de radio en las escuelas de Comunicación Social en Latinoamérica, con el proposito de romper la escisión  entre teoría/práctica y de no violentar su complejidad: en la radio, entendida como práctica comunicativa, se juega en primer lugar una "red de vinculaciones e intercambios" en condiciones privilegiadas para la dialoguicidad. En un segundo lugar, asociado al desarrollo de...

  16. Mobile radio channels

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  17. A Reconfigurable Radio Architecture for Cognitive Radio in Emergency Networks

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve today's spectrum scarcity problem. Cognitive Radio is able to sense the spectrum to find the free spectrum, which can be optimally used by Cognitive Radio without causing interference to the licensed user. In the scope of the Adapt

  18. Spectrum management and radio resource management considering cognitive radio systems

    Haartsen, Jaap C.; Wieweg, Lasse; Huschke, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    International fora and some national administrations define a cognitive radio (CR) as a pioneering radio communication system that would be capable of altering and adapting its transmitter and receiver parameters based on communication and the exchange of information with related detectable radio co

  19. Radio Fatwa : Islamic Tanya-Jawab Programmes on Radio Dakwah

    Sunarwoto,

    2012-01-01

    The present article is a study of radio fatwa in Indonesia with special reference to the Tanya-Jawab genres in radio dakwah.The concept of fatwa has changed over time. Such Islamic Tanya-Jawab programmes broadcast on radio dakwah are important to understand how fatwa is disseminated by means of medi

  20. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by the steep SEDs and the compact morphology of IFRS. The detailed multi

  1. Gas and radio galaxies: a story of love and hate

    Morganti, Rafaella

    2011-07-01

    Gas in radio galaxies is an important component that plays different roles. Gas can feed the AGN and make it active but dense gas can also be an obstacle for radio jets and (temporarily) destroy their flow. The characteristics of the different phases of gas in the circumnuclear regions of active nuclei hold clear signatures of the influences that the black hole activity has on its surroundings. I will review these effects based on some recent results obtained in the study of neutral hydrogen and CO. In particular, I will concentrate on the effects of radio jets in generating the strong negative feedback of the kind invoked in current scenarios for galaxy evolution.

  2. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO)

    Nickola, Marisa; Gaylard, Mike; Quick, Jonathan; Combrinck, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    HartRAO provides the only fiducial geodetic site in Africa, and it participates in global networks for VLBI, GNSS, SLR, and DORIS. This report provides an overview of geodetic VLBI activities at HartRAO during 2012, including the conversion of a 15-m alt-az radio telescope to an operational geodetic VLBI antenna.

  3. Short range radio research in Twente

    Meijerink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The research and education by the Telecommunication Engineering Group at the University of Twente is dedicated to physical layer topics in communications. Three research tracks have prominence: Short Range Radio, Microwave Photonics, and Electromagnetic Compatibility. Arjan is active in the Short Ra

  4. Radio-active colloids in the functional exploration of the reticulo-endothelium system; Les colloides radioactifs dans l'exploration fonctionnelle du systeme reticulo-endothelial

    Chivot, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    A historical review describes the reticulo-endothelial system (R.E.S.) and aims at defining it and at explaining its operation. The methods used for its examination and the colloids utilized are considered. The author has been led to prepare a special type of colloid: an albuminous complex containing radio-iodine, 'C.A. {sup 131}I', whose method of preparation and physical and biological examination are described. A human albumin, having a known optical density in solution, is heated until a change in the optical density indicates that an aggregation of the proteinic molecules has occurred. The denatured protein is iodated with {sup 131}I. Electrophoretic, ultracentrifuge and autoradiographic controls are then carried out. This atoxic and metabolisable preparation of biological origin is compared with the better defined colloidal gold which serves as reference. C.A.{sup 131}I is injected into mice. It is shown by radioactivity measurements, auto-radiographies on sections of the whole animal, and anthropo-gamma-metric detections that a high concentration occurs in the S.R.E. of the liver. These static results are only of limited importance however compared to those obtained from an in vivo study of the phenomenon. The author records the changes in the radioactivity of the blood derived from the carotid artery using a well-scintillator. He obtains directly a curve of the radioactivity of blood having a decreasing exponential form; the mathematical expression describing this curve is given. The biological half-life T 1/2 of the colloid in the blood is a measure of its phagocytosis by the S.R.E. cells. A supplementary check is provided by the direct recording of the hepatic activity using a suitably collimated exterior detector. A curve of increasing-exponential form is obtained and its parameters are corollary to the preceding curve. These tests carried out on guinea-pigs and rats make it possible to give to the S.R.E. a phagocytic index which is

  5. Radio-active colloids in the functional exploration of the reticulo-endothelium system; Les colloides radioactifs dans l'exploration fonctionnelle du systeme reticulo-endothelial

    Chivot, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    A historical review describes the reticulo-endothelial system (R.E.S.) and aims at defining it and at explaining its operation. The methods used for its examination and the colloids utilized are considered. The author has been led to prepare a special type of colloid: an albuminous complex containing radio-iodine, 'C.A. {sup 131}I', whose method of preparation and physical and biological examination are described. A human albumin, having a known optical density in solution, is heated until a change in the optical density indicates that an aggregation of the proteinic molecules has occurred. The denatured protein is iodated with {sup 131}I. Electrophoretic, ultracentrifuge and autoradiographic controls are then carried out. This atoxic and metabolisable preparation of biological origin is compared with the better defined colloidal gold which serves as reference. C.A.{sup 131}I is injected into mice. It is shown by radioactivity measurements, auto-radiographies on sections of the whole animal, and anthropo-gamma-metric detections that a high concentration occurs in the S.R.E. of the liver. These static results are only of limited importance however compared to those obtained from an in vivo study of the phenomenon. The author records the changes in the radioactivity of the blood derived from the carotid artery using a well-scintillator. He obtains directly a curve of the radioactivity of blood having a decreasing exponential form; the mathematical expression describing this curve is given. The biological half-life T 1/2 of the colloid in the blood is a measure of its phagocytosis by the S.R.E. cells. A supplementary check is provided by the direct recording of the hepatic activity using a suitably collimated exterior detector. A curve of increasing-exponential form is obtained and its parameters are corollary to the preceding curve. These tests carried out on guinea-pigs and rats make it possible to give to the S.R.E. a phagocytic index which is

  6. Radio-frequency integrated-circuit engineering

    Nguyen, Cam

    2015-01-01

    Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering addresses the theory, analysis and design of passive and active RFIC's using Si-based CMOS and Bi-CMOS technologies, and other non-silicon based technologies. The materials covered are self-contained and presented in such detail that allows readers with only undergraduate electrical engineering knowledge in EM, RF, and circuits to understand and design RFICs. Organized into sixteen chapters, blending analog and microwave engineering, Radio-Frequency Integrated-Circuit Engineering emphasizes the microwave engineering approach for RFICs. Provide

  7. Future Nanosatellite Constellation for Radio Occultation Measurements

    Fallet, C.; Mahfouf, J. F.; Hauchechrne, A.; Mathieu, R.; Martin, T.; Capet, N.; Mandea, M.

    2016-08-01

    The future nanosatellite constellation for radio occultation measurements aims to provide 10000 occultations per day (horizon 2020). The radio occultation technique based on the refraction of an electromagnetic signal between a GNSS satellite (Global Navigation Satellite System) and a receiver satellite located o a low orbit provides a way to observe the Earth's atmosphere, especially its temperature, pressure and water vapor, but also the ionosphere. This technique is now considered a mature concept, the benefits clearly recognized by the communities of weather prediction, climatology and space weather. Activities are underway at CNES to define a low cost system and instrumental concept to satisfy the specifications of the different communities.

  8. Educational Broadcasting--Radio.

    Ahamed, Uvais; Grimmett, George

    This manual is intended for those who must conduct educational radio broadcasting training courses in Asia-Pacific countries without the resources of experienced personnel, as well as for individuals to use in self-learning situations. The selection of material has been influenced by the need to use broadcasting resources effectively in programs…

  9. Valuing commercial radio licences

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  10. Albanian: Basic Radio Communications.

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This volume has been designed as a supplement to a course in Albanian developed by the Defense Language Institute. The emphasis in this text is placed on radio communications instruction. The volume is divided into five exercises, each of which contains a vocabulary, dictation, and an air-to-ground communications procedure conducted in Albanian…

  11. The LOFAR radio environment

    Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S; van Diepen, G; Martinez-Ruby, O; Labropoulos, P; Brentjens, M A; Ciardi, B; Daiboo, S; Harker, G; Jelic, V; Kazemi, S; Koopmans, L V E; Mellema, G; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R F; Schaye, J; Vedantham, H; Veligatla, V; Wijnholds, S J; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, M; Beck, R; Bell, M; Bell, M R; Bentum, M; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Birzan, L; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Bruggen, M; Butcher, H; Conway, J; de Vos, M; Dettmar, R J; Eisloeffel, J; Falcke, H; Fender, R; Frieswijk, W; Gerbers, M; Griessmeier, J M; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hessels, J; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V; Koopman, Y; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; McKean, J; Meulman, H; Mevius, M; Mol, J D; Nijboer, R; Noordam, J; Norden, M; Paas, H; Pandey, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A; Rafferty, D; Rawlings, S; Reich, W; Rottgering, H J A; Schoenmakers, A P; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Stappers, B; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; van Ardenne, A; van Cappellen, W; van Duin, A P; van Haarlem, M; van Leeuwen, J; van Weeren, R J; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M; Wucknitz, O

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This paper discusses the spectral occupancy for performing radio astronomy with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), with a focus on imaging observations. Methods: We have analysed the radio-frequency interference (RFI) situation in two 24-h surveys with Dutch LOFAR stations, covering 30-78 MHz with low-band antennas and 115-163 MHz with high-band antennas. This is a subset of the full frequency range of LOFAR. The surveys have been observed with a 0.76 kHz / 1 s resolution. Results: We measured the RFI occupancy in the low and high frequency sets to be 1.8% and 3.2% respectively. These values are found to be representative values for the LOFAR radio environment. Between day and night, there is no significant difference in the radio environment. We find that lowering the current observational time and frequency resolutions of LOFAR results in a slight loss of flagging accuracy. At LOFAR's nominal resolution of 0.76 kHz and 1 s, the false-positives rate is about 0.5%. This rate increases approximately linear...

  12. Discovery of Correlated Behavior Between the HXR and the Radio Bands in Cygnus X-3

    McCollough, M L; Zhang, S N; Harmon, B A; Hjellming, R M; Waltman, E B; Foster, R S; Ghigo, F D; Briggs, M S; Pendleton, G N; Johnston, K J

    1999-01-01

    Using CGRO/BATSE hard X-ray (HXR) data and GHz radio monitoring data from the Green Bank Interferometer (GBI), we have performed a long term study ($\\sim$ 1800 days) of the unusual X-ray binary Cyg X-3 resulting in the discovery of a remarkable relationship between these two wavelength bands. We find that, during quiescent radio states, the radio flux is strongly anticorrelated with the intensity of the HXR emission. The relationship switches to a correlation with the onset of major radio flaring activity. During major radio flaring activity the HXR drops to a very low intensity during quenching in the radio and recovers during the radio flare. Injection of plasma into the radio jets of Cyg X-3 occurs during changes in the HXR emission and suggests that disk-related and jet-related components are responsible for the high energy emission.

  13. On associating Fast Radio Bursts with afterglows

    Vedantham, H K; Mooley, K; Frail, D; Hallinan, G; Kulkarni, S R

    2016-01-01

    A radio source that faded over 6 days, with a redshift $z\\approx0.5$ host, has been identified by Keane et al. (2016) as the transient afterglow to a Fast Radio Burst (FRB 150418). We report follow-up radio and optical observations of the afterglow candidate, and find a source that is consistent with an active galactic nucleus (AGN). If the afterglow-candidate is nonetheless a prototypical FRB afterglow, existing surveys limit the fraction of FRBs that produce afterglows to 0.25 for modulation-index $m=\\Delta S/\\bar{S}\\geq0.7$, and 0.07 for $m\\geq1$, at 95\\% confidence. Afterglow associations with the barrage of bursts expected from future FRB surveys must satisfy constraints on the afterglow rate set by state of the art slow-transient surveys.

  14. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods: Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (~0.40 arcsec) resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 μm, of the nuclei of a sample of 27 radio gala

  15. INOVASI RADIO KAMPUS (RANCANG BANGUN RADIO UDINUS DENGAN INOVASI TEKNOLOGI @RADIO

    Wellia Shinta Sari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK memaksa industri penyiaran untuk ikut menyesuaikan diri. Radio konvensional bisa jadi akan tertinggal jika tidak melakukan inovasi teknologi yang ada. Begitu juga dengan radio kampus, yang keberadaannya sangat dibutuhkan sebagai wadah kreativitas dan sarana pembelajaran di sebuah universitas, apalagi yang memiliki program studi penyiaran. Radio kampus Suara Dian yang masih konvensional sehingga hampir kehilangan eksistensinya harus segera dibenahi dan dihidupkan kembali dengan mengikuti perkembangan teknologi di era konvergensi. Metode Inovasi teknologi yang bisa dilakukan adalah dengan menggunakan teknologi @Radio Streaming, yang bukan sekedar streaming, tapi juga optimalisasi teknologi yang terintegrasi dinamis melalui RISE (Radio Broadcasting Integrated System. Dengan berbagai fitur unggul dari inovasi teknologi tersebut, maka diharapkan Radio kampus Udinus ”Suara Dian” dapat kembali hidup, berkembang dan lebih kompetitif ditengah industri penyiaran Radio. Kata kunci : radio, kampus, konvergensi, streaming.

  16. Research into the radio-active contamination of foodstuffs of animal origin; Recherches sur la contamination radioactive des aliments d'origine animale

    Leistner, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    The author assembles in a very complete way all the actually available data relating to the transfer of the most important radionuclides from the environment through animal products to man. As these are not directly utilizable for the countries of the European Community, he proposes to go further into the question in order to be able to take into account the changing ecological conditions. (author) [French] L'auteur a rassemble d'une facon tres complete les don ees actuellement disponibles relatives au transfert des radio uclides les plus importants du milieu ambiant par l'intermediaire des aliments d'origine animale a l'homme. Celles i n'etant pas directement utilisables pour les pays de la Communaute Economique Europeenne, il propose des etudes complementaires pour tenir compte de la variabilite des conditions ecologiques. (auteur)

  17. B1524-136 A CSS quasar with two-sided radio jets

    Mantovani, F; Bondi, M; Junor, W; Salter, C J; Ricci, R

    2002-01-01

    We present MERLIN, global VLBI and VLBA observations of the high-luminosity, compact steep-spectrum quasar B1524$-$136 at cm wavelengths. These observations reveal well-defined radio jets on both sides of the active nucleus, a situation which is almost unique amongst high-luminosity radio quasars. However, the radio jets on opposite sides are very dissimilar, and the overall radio structure appears highly distorted. We discuss possible implications of these observations.

  18. Alte Marchen?--alter Hut. Neue Marchen!--neuer Hut? 3 Moderne Marchen bearbeitet als Horspiele, mit Aufgaben und Ubungen (Old Fairy Tales?--Old Hat. New Fairy Tales!--New Hat? Three Modern Fairy Tales Presented in a Radio Play, with Activities and Drills).

    Kage, Michael

    Three German modern "fairy tales" are presented in a radio play format with exercises based on the tales. Detailed suggestions for the exercises and other class activities based on the manual are included. While serving as a comprehension exercise of the preceding text, the exercises and other activities recommended to accompany them depart from…

  19. THE AUGER ENGINEERING RADIO ARRAY

    Klaus Weidenhaupt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array currently measures MHz radio emission from extensive air showers induced by high energy cosmic rays with 24 self-triggered radio detector stations. Its unique site, embedded into the baseline detectors and extensions of the Pierre Auger Observatory, allows to study air showers in great detail and to calibrate the radio emission. In its final stage AERA will expand to an area of approximately 20km2 to explore the feasibility of the radio-detection technique for future cosmic-ray detectors. The concept and hardware design of AERA as well as strategies to enable self-triggered radio detection are presented. Radio emission mechanisms are discussed based on polarization analysis of the first AERA data.

  20. Radio observations of Planck clusters

    Kale, Ruta

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a number of new galaxy clusters have been detected by the ESA-Planck satellite, the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Several of the newly detected clusters are massive, merging systems with disturbed morphology in the X-ray surface brightness. Diffuse radio sources in clusters, called giant radio halos and relics, are direct probes of cosmic rays and magnetic fields in the intra-cluster medium. These radio sources are found to occur mainly in massive merging clusters. Thus, the new SZ-discovered clusters are good candidates to search for new radio halos and relics. We have initiated radio observations of the clusters detected by Planck with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. These observations have already led to the detection of a radio halo in PLCKG171.9-40.7, the first giant halo discovered in one of the new Planck clusters.

  1. Thermal and Nonthermal Radio Galaxies

    Antonucci, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Radio galaxies were discovered and mapped in the 1950s. The optical spectra showed little or no nuclear continuum light. Some also revealed powerful high ionization emission lines, while others showed at most weak low-ionization emission lines. Quasars were found in the 1960s, and their spectra were dominated by powerful continuum radiation which was subsequently identified with optically thick thermal radiation from copious accretion flows, as well as high ionization narrow emission lines, and powerful broad permitted lines. By the 1980s, data from optical polarization and statistics of the radio properties required that many radio galaxies contain hidden quasar nuclei, hidden from the line of sight by dusty, roughly toroidal gas distributions. The radio galaxies with hidden quasars are referred to as "thermal." Do all radio galaxies have powerful hidden quasars? We now know the answer using arguments based on radio, infrared, optical and X-ray properties. Near the top of the radio luminosity function, for F...

  2. Distributed Radio Interferometric Calibration

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2015-01-01

    Increasing data volumes delivered by a new generation of radio interferometers require computationally efficient and robust calibration algorithms. In this paper, we propose distributed calibration as a way of improving both computational cost as well as robustness in calibration. We exploit the data parallelism across frequency that is inherent in radio astronomical observations that are recorded as multiple channels at different frequencies. Moreover, we also exploit the smoothness of the variation of calibration parameters across frequency. Data parallelism enables us to distribute the computing load across a network of compute agents. Smoothness in frequency enables us reformulate calibration as a consensus optimization problem. With this formulation, we enable flow of information between compute agents calibrating data at different frequencies, without actually passing the data, and thereby improving robustness. We present simulation results to show the feasibility as well as the advantages of distribute...

  3. Searches for radio transients

    Bhat, N D R

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of the transient Universe is an exciting and fast-emerging area within radio astronomy. Known transient phenomena range in time scales from sub-nanoseconds to years or longer, thus spanning a huge range in time domain and hinting a rich diversity in their underlying physical processes. Transient phenomena are likely locations of explosive or dynamic events and they offer tremendous potential to uncover new physics and astrophysics. A number of upcoming next-generation radio facilities and recent advances in computing and instrumentation have provided a much needed impetus for this field which has remained a relatively uncharted territory for the past several decades. In this paper we focus mainly on the class of phenomena that occur on very short time scales (i.e. from $\\sim$ milliseconds to $\\sim$ nanoseconds), known as {\\it fast transients}, the detections of which involve considerable signal processing and data management challenges, given the high time and frequency resolutions required in the...

  4. Tools of radio astronomy

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  5. Advanced radio over fiber network technologies.

    Novak, Dalma; Waterhouse, Rod

    2013-09-23

    The evolution of wireless communication networks supporting emerging broadband services and applications offers new opportunities for realizing integrated optical and wireless network infrastructures. We report on some of our recent activities investigating advanced technologies for next generation converged optical wireless networks. Developments in Active Antenna Systems, mobile fronthaul architectures, and 60 GHz fiber distributed wireless networks are described. We also discuss the potential for analog radio over fiber distribution links as a viable solution for meeting the capacity requirements of new network architectures.

  6. Radio frequency ion source

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The study on Radio Frequency Ion Source is mainly introduced, which is used for CIAE 600kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator; and obtained result is also presented. The RF ion source consists of a diameter phi 25 mm, length 200 mm, coefficient of expansion =3.5 mA, beam current on target >=1.5 mA, beam spot =100 h.

  7. Radio sky and the right to observe it

    Gulyaev, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    It was decided in May 2012 that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be built in Africa and Australia, two Southern Hemisphere continents. Here we discuss the plan for SKA design and construction, and how New Zealand radio astronomers can participate in this project and contribute to astronomy and astrophysics research. Geodesy and the study of tectonic plate motion is another important area of research for New Zealand radio astronomy to contribute to. As New Zealand is located at the boundary between two colliding tectonic plates (Australian and Pacific) and most of geological activity in New Zealand originates from their motion, it is important to monitor the relative plate motion with high precision using both GPS and radio astronomical techniques. We discuss radio frequency interference (RFI) as a limiting factor for radio astronomy, and provide results of RFI measurements in different locations in New Zealand.

  8. Low-Frequency Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio phenomena are due to the presence of nonthermal electrons in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Understanding these phenomena is important in characterizing the space environment near Earth and other destinations in the solar system. Substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, because of the continuous and uniform data sets available from space-based radio and white-light instrumentation. This paper highlights some recent results obtained on IP radio phenomena. In particular, the source of type IV radio bursts, the behavior of type III storms, shock propagation in the IP medium, and the solar-cycle variation of type II radio bursts are considered. All these phenomena are closely related to solar eruptions and active region evolution. The results presented were obtained by combining data from the Wind and SOHO missions.

  9. The cluster environments of powerful radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN

    McLure, R J

    2000-01-01

    The spatial clustering amplitude (B_{gq}) is determined for a sample of 44 powerful AGN at z~0.2. No significant difference is detected in the richness of the cluster environments of the radio-loud and radio-quiet sub-samples, both of which typically inhabit environments as rich as Abell Class ~0. Comparison with radio luminosity-matched samples from Hill & Lilly (1991) and Wold et al. (2000a) suggests that there is no epoch-dependent change in environment richness out to at least z>=0.5 for either radio galaxies or radio quasars. Comparison with the APM cluster survey shows that, contrary to current folklore, powerful AGN do not avoid rich clusters, but rather display a spread in cluster environment which is perfectly consistent with being drawn at random from the massive elliptical population. Finally, we argue that virtually all Abell class ~0 clusters contained an active galaxy during the epoch of peak quasar activity at z~2.5.

  10. Extended Radio Emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile "core-only" source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 Å, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  11. Time-correlation between the radio and gamma-ray activity in blazars and the production site of the gamma-ray emission

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Richards, J L; King, O G; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Reeves, R; Shepherd, M C; Stevenson, M A; Angelakis, E; Fuhrmann, L; Grainge, K J B; Pavlidou, V; Romani, R W; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the location of the gamma-ray emission site in blazars, we investigate the time-domain relationship between their radio and gamma-ray emission. Light-curves for the brightest detected blazars from the first 3 years of the mission of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope are cross-correlated with 4 years of 15GHz observations from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program. The large sample and long light-curve duration enable us to carry out a statistically robust analysis of the significance of the cross-correlations, which is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations including the uneven sampling and noise properties of the light-curves. Modeling the light-curves as red noise processes with power-law power spectral densities, we find that only one of 41 sources with high quality data in both bands shows correlations with significance larger than 3-sigma (AO 0235+164), with only two more larger than even 2.25-sigma (PKS 1502+106 and B2 2308+34). Additionally, we find correlated variability in Mrk ...

  12. The Suzaku Observation of the Nucleus of the Radio-Loud Active Galaxy Centaurus A: Constraints on Abundances of the Accreting Material

    Markowitz, A; Watanabe, S; Nakazawa, K; Fukazawa, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Awaki, H; Bamba, A; Isobe, N; Kataoka, J; Madejski, G; Mushotzky, R; Okajima, T; Ptak, A; Reeves, J N; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, T; Yaqoob, T

    2007-01-01

    A Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio-loud AGN Centaurus A in 2005 has yielded a broadband spectrum spanning 0.3 to 250 keV. The net exposure times after screening were: 70 ks per X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) camera, 60.8 ks for the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) PIN, and 17.1 ks for the HXD-GSO. The hard X-rays are fit by two power-laws of the same slope, absorbed by columns of 1.5 and 7 * 10^{23} cm^{-2} respectively. The spectrum is consistent with previous suggestions that the power-law components are X-ray emission from the sub-pc VLBI jet and from Bondi accretion at the core, but it is also consistent with a partial covering interpretation. The soft band is dominated by thermal emission from the diffuse plasma and is fit well by a two-temperature VAPEC model, plus a third power-law component to account for scattered nuclear emission, jet emission, and emission from X-ray Binaries and other point sources. Narrow fluorescent emission lines from Fe, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ni are detected. The Fe K alp...

  13. PKS0347+05: a radio-loud/radio-quiet double AGN system triggered in a major galaxy merger

    Tadhunter, C; Morganti, R; Holt, J; Rose, M; Dicken, D; Inskip, K

    2012-01-01

    We present optical, infrared and radio observations of the powerful FRII radio source PKS0347+05 (z=0.3390), and demonstrate that it is a rare example of a radio-loud/radio-quiet double AGN system, comprising a weak line radio galaxy (WLRG) separated by 25 kpc (in projection) from a Seyfert 1 nucleus at the same redshift. Our deep Gemini optical images show a highly disturbed morphology, with a warped dust lane crossing through the halo and nuclear regions of the radio galaxy host, tidal tails, and a bridge connecting the radio galaxy to the Seyfert 1 nucleus. Spectral synthesis modelling of our Gemini optical spectrum of the radio galaxy shows evidence for a reddened young stellar population of age <100 Myr. Further evidence for recent star formation activity in this source is provided by the detection of strong PAH features in mid-IR Spitzer/IRS spectra. Together, these observations support a model in which both AGN have been triggered simultaneously in a major galaxy merger. However, despite the presenc...

  14. Radio emision from supernova remnants

    Dubner, G.

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies have been discovered through radio observations, and only a very small number of the SNRs catalogued in the Milky Way have not been detected in the radio band, or are poorly defined by current radio observations. The study of the radio emission from SNRs is an excellent tool to investigate morphological characteristics, marking the location of shock fronts and contact discontinuities; the presence, orientation and intensity of the magnetic field; the energy spectrum of the emitting particles; and the dynamical consequences of the interaction with the circumstellar and interstellar medium. I will review the present knowledge of different important aspects of radio remnants and their impact on the interstellar gas. Also, new radio studies of the Crab Nebula carried out with the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 3 GHz and with ALMA at 100 GHz, will be presented.

  15. Flexible Adaptation in Cognitive Radios

    Li, Shujun

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to software-defined radio and cognitive radio, along with methodologies for applying knowledge representation, semantic web, logic reasoning and artificial intelligence to cognitive radio, enabling autonomous adaptation and flexible signaling. Readers from the wireless communications and software-defined radio communities will use this book as a reference to extend software-defined radio to cognitive radio, using the semantic technology described. Readers with a background in semantic web and artificial intelligence will find in this book the application of semantic web and artificial intelligence technologies to wireless communications. For readers in networks and network management, this book presents a new approach to enable interoperability, collaborative optimization and flexible adaptation of network components. Provides a comprehensive ontology covering the core concepts of wireless communications using a formal language; Presents the technical realization of using a ...

  16. Population density effect on radio frequencies interference (RFI) in radio astronomy

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Hassan, Mohd Saiful Rizal; Rosli, Zulfazli; Hamidi, Zety Shahrizat

    2012-06-01

    Radio astronomical observation is infected by wide range of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). We will also use information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'good' areas generated by this study. After investigating a few suitable sites we will commence to the site and construct the RFI observation. Eventually, the best area we will be deciding from the observations soon. The result of this experiment will support our planning to build the first radio telescope in Malaysia. Radio observatories normally are located in remote area, in order to combat RFI from active spectrum users and radio noise produced in industrial or residential areas. The other solution for this problem is regulating the use of radio frequencies in the country (spectrum management). Measurement of RFI level on potential radio astronomical site can be done to measure the RFI levels at sites. Seven sites are chosen divide by three group, which is A, B and C. In this paper, we report the initial testing RFI survey for overall spectrum (0-2GHz) for those sites. The averaged RFI level above noise level at the three group sites are 19.0 (+/-1.79) dBm, 19.5 (+/-3.71) dBm and 17.0 (+/-3.71) dBm and the averaged RFI level above noise level for without main peaks are 20.1 (+/-1.77) dBm, 19.6 (+/-3.65) dBm and 17.2 (+/-1.43) dBm respectively.

  17. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.

    2016-12-01

    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  18. Software defined radio architectures evaluation

    Palomo, Alvaro; Villing, Rudi; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an performance evaluation of GNU Radio and OSSIE, two open source Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures. The two architectures were compared by running implementations of a BPSK waveform utilising a software loopback channel on each. The upper bound full duplex throughput was found to be around 700kbps in both cases, though OSSIE was slightly faster than GNU Radio. CPU and memory loads did not differ significantly.

  19. Radio Astrometry of the Triple Systems Algol and UX Arietis

    Peterson, W. M.; Mutel, R. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Güdel, M.; Goss, W. M.

    2011-08-01

    We have used multi-epoch long-baseline radio interferometry to determine the proper motion and orbital elements of Algol and UX Arietis, two radio-bright, close binary stellar systems with distant tertiary components. For Algol, we refine the proper motion and outer orbit solutions, confirming the recent result of Zavala et al. that the inner orbit is retrograde. The radio centroid closely tracks the motion of the KIV secondary. In addition, the radio morphology varies from double-lobed at low flux level to crescent-shaped during active periods. These results are most easily interpreted as synchrotron emission from a large, co-rotating meridional loop centered on the K star. If this is correct, it provides a radio-optical frame tie candidate with an uncertainty ±0.5 mas. For UX Arietis, we find an outer orbit solution that accounts for previous very long baseline interferometry observations of an acceleration term in the proper motion fit. The outer orbit solution is also consistent with previously published radial velocity curves and speckle observations of a third body. The derived tertiary mass, 0.75 solar masses, is consistent with the K1 main-sequence star detected spectroscopically. The inner orbit solution favors radio emission from the active K0IV primary only. The radio morphology, consisting of a single, partially resolved emission region, may be associated with the persistent polar spot observed using Doppler imaging.

  20. Radio Pulsating Structures with Coronal Loop Contraction

    Kallunki, J.; Pohjolainen, S.

    2012-10-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of a solar eruption event on 20 July 2004, comprising observations in Hα, EUV, soft X-rays, and in radio waves with a wide frequency range. The analyzed data show both oscillatory patterns and shock wave signatures during the impulsive phase of the flare. At the same time, large-scale EUV loops located above the active region were observed to contract. Quasi-periodic pulsations with ˜ 10 and ˜ 15 s oscillation periods were detected both in microwave - millimeter waves and in decimeter - meter waves. Our calculations show that MHD oscillations in the large EUV loops - but not likely in the largest contracting loops - could have produced the observed periodicity in radio emission, by triggering periodic magnetic reconnection and accelerating particles. As the plasma emission in decimeter - meter waves traces the accelerated particle beams and the microwave emission shows a typical gyrosynchrotron flux spectrum (emission created by trapped electrons within the flare loop), we find that the particles responsible for the two different types of emission could have been accelerated in the same process. Radio imaging of the pulsed decimetric - metric emission and the shock-generated radio type II burst in the same wavelength range suggest a rather complex scenario for the emission processes and locations. The observed locations cannot be explained by the standard model of flare loops with an erupting plasmoid located above them, driving a shock wave at the CME front.

  1. Detection of radio continuum emission from Procyon

    Drake, Stephen A.; Simon, Theodore; Brown, Alexander

    1993-01-01

    We have detected the F5 IV-V star Procyon as a weak and variable 3.6 cm radio continuum source using the VLA. The inferred radio luminosity is similar to, though some-what higher than, the X-band luminosity of the active and flaring sun. The 33 micro-Jy flux density level at which we detected Procyon on four of five occasions is close to the 36 micro-Jy radio flux density expected from a model in which the radio emission consists of two components: optically thick 'stellar disk' emission with a 3.6 cm brightness temperature of 20,000 K that is 50 percent larger than the solar value, and optically thin coronal emission with an emission measure the same as that indicated by Einstein and EXOSAT X-ray flux measurements in 1981 and 1983. The maximum mass-loss rate of a warm stellar wind is less than 2 x 10 exp -11 solar mass/yr. An elevated flux density of 115 micro-Jy observed on a single occasion provides circumstantial evidence for the existence of highly localized magnetic fields on the surface of Procyon.

  2. Molecular gas in nearby powerful radio galaxies

    Ocana-Flaquer, B; Lim, L; Dinh-V-Trung,; Combes, F

    2009-01-01

    Powerful radio-AGN are normally hosted by massive elliptical galaxies which are usually very poor in molecular gas. Nevertheless the gas is needed in the very center to feed the nuclear activity. Thus it is important to study the origin, the distribution and the kinematics of the molecular gas in such objects. We have performed at the IRAM-30m telescope a survey of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission in the most powerful radio galaxies of the Local Universe, selected only on the basis of their radio-continuum fluxes. The main result of this survey is the very low content in molecular gas of such galaxies compared to FIR selected galaxies. The median value of the molecular gas mass, taking into account the upper limits, is 1x10^8 Msun; if we calculate it for all the galaxies together, and if we separate them into FR-I and FR-II type galaxies, an important difference is found between them. Moreover, the CO spectra indicates the presence of a central molecular gas disk in these radio galaxies. Our results contrast ...

  3. Radio spectra of the WMAP catalog sources

    Trushkin, S A

    2003-01-01

    Compiled radio spectra are presented for 208 extragalactic sources from the catalog created from the WMAP satellite all-sky survey data in a range of 23-94 GHz taken during the first year of its operation in orbit. 205 out of 208 WMAP sources are reliably identified with radio sources from other catalogs, including also four out of five sources unidentified by the WMAP survey authors. We have found 203 WMAP sources to have optical identification: 141 quasars, 29 galaxies, 19 active galactic nuclei, 19 BL Lac-type objects and one planetary nebula, IC418. Simultaneous measurements of flux densities for 26 sources at five frequencies, 2.3, 3.9, 7.7, 11.2 and 21.7 GHz, were made with the radio telescope RATAN-600 in 2003 March. 25 sources were detected at all the frequencies, and only one, WMAP0517-0546, unidentified in other catalogs was not detected in our observations and is likely to be spurious. Using the database CATS we found a large number of identifications in different radio catalogs and in several long...

  4. Planck intermediate results: XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.;

    2016-01-01

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous gro...

  5. Military Mail Radio

    Bîlbîie Răduţ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and scientific personalities from the army, military experts and creators of the doctrine have collaborated with the radio from the beginnings of radiophony, the educational role of this new, persuasive communication channel being evident not only for Romania or the Romanian army but also for all the countries that had radiophony services. This happens in the context of the end of the crisis and the start of economic and social development, promoting culture, creating a solid class of peasants with a certain social status, in villages, together with the priest, teacher and gendarme, increasing of the number of subscriptions and development of the Romanian radiophony.

  6. Radio Frequency Anechoic Chamber Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the design, manufacture, and test of antenna systems. The facility is also used as an electromagnetic compatibility/radio frequency interference...

  7. Internet Resources for Radio Astronomy

    Andernach, H.

    A subjective overview of Internet resources for radio-astronomical information is presented. Basic observing techniques and their implications for the interpretation of publicly available radio data are described, followed by a discussion of existing radio surveys, their level of optical identification, and nomenclature of radio sources. Various collections of source catalogues and databases for integrated radio source parameters are reviewed and compared, as well as the web interfaces to interrogate the current and ongoing large-area surveys. Links to radio observatories with archives of raw (uv-) data are presented, as well as services providing images, both of individual objects or extracts (``cutouts'') from large-scale surveys. While the emphasis is on radio continuum data, a brief list of sites providing spectral line data, and atomic or molecular information is included. The major radio telescopes and surveys under construction or planning are outlined. A summary is given of a search for previously unknown optically bright radio sources, as performed by the students as an exercise, using Internet resources only. Over 200 different links are mentioned and were verified, but despite the attempt to make this report up-to-date, it can only provide a snapshot of the situation as of mid-1998.

  8. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  9. The Allen Telescope Array: The First Widefield, Panchromatic, Snapshot Radio Camera for Radio Astronomy and SETI

    Welch, Jack; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Bower, Geoffrey C; Cheng, Calvin; Croft, Steve; Dexter, Matt; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Forster, James; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Jorgensen, Susanne; Keating, Garrett; Lugten, John; MacMahon, Dave; Milgrome, Oren; Thornton, Douglas; Urry, Lynn; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter H; Tarter, Melvin Wright Jill; Ackermann, Robert; Atkinson, Shannon; Backus, Peter; Barott, William; Bradford, Tucker; Davis, Michael; DeBoer, Dave; Dreher, John; Harp, Gerry; Jordan, Jane; Kilsdonk, Tom; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Fleming, Seth Shostak Matt; Cork, Chris; Wadefalk, Artyom Vitouchkine Niklas; Weinreb, Sander

    2009-01-01

    The first 42 elements of the Allen Telescope Array (ATA-42) are beginning to deliver data at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory in Northern California. Scientists and engineers are actively exploiting all of the flexibility designed into this innovative instrument for simultaneously conducting surveys of the astrophysical sky and conducting searches for distant technological civilizations. This paper summarizes the design elements of the ATA, the cost savings made possible by the use of COTS components, and the cost/performance trades that eventually enabled this first snapshot radio camera. The fundamental scientific program of this new telescope is varied and exciting; some of the first astronomical results will be discussed.

  10. Session 21.3 - Radio and Optical Site Protection

    Sefako, Ramotholo

    2016-10-01

    Advancement in radio technology means that radio astronomy has to share the radio spectrum with many other non-astronomical activities, majority of which increase radio frequency interference (RFI), and therefore detrimentally affecting the radio observations at the observatory sites. Major radio facilities such as the SKA, in both South Africa and Australia, and the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) in China will be very sensitive, and therefore require protection against RFI. In the case of optical astronomy, the growing urbanisation and industrialisation led to optical astronomy becoming impossible near major cities due to light and dust pollution. Major optical and IR observatories are forced to be far away in remote areas, where light pollution is not yet extreme. The same is true for radio observatories, which have to be sited away from highly RFI affected areas near populated regions and major cities. In this review, based on the Focus Meeting 21 (FM21) oral presentations at the IAU General Assembly on 11 August 2015, we give an overview of the mechanisms that have evolved to provide statutory protection for radio astronomy observing, successes (e.g at 21 cm HI line), defeats and challenges at other parts of the spectrum. We discuss the available legislative initiatives to protect the radio astronomy sites for large projects like SKA (in Australia and South Africa), and FAST against the RFI. For optical protection, we look at light pollution with examples of its effect at Xinglong observing station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC), Ali Observatory in Tibet, and Asiago Observatory in Italy, as well as the effect of conversion from low pressure sodium lighting to LEDs in the County of Hawaii.

  11. Radio as the Voice of God: Peace and Tolerance Radio Programming’s Impact on Norms

    Daniel P. Aldrich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observers have argued that radio programming can alter norms, especially through hate radio designed to increase animosity between groups. This article tests whether or not radio programming under the Countering Violent Extremism (CVE policy framework can reduce potential conflict and increase civic engagement and positive views of foreign nations. Data from surveys of more than 1,000 respondents in Mali, Chad, and Niger illuminate the ways in which peace and tolerance programming changed perspectives and altered behavior in statistically significant ways. Results show that individuals exposed to multi-level U.S. government programming were more likely to listen to peace and tolerance radio. Further, bivariate, multivariate regression, and propensity score matching techniques show that individuals who listened more regularly to such programs participated more frequently in civic activities and supported working with the West to combat terrorism (holding constant a number of potential confounding economic, demographic, and attitudinal factors. However, higher levels of radio listening had no measurable impact on opposition to the use of violence in the name of Islam or opposition to the imposition of Islamic law. Further, data indicate that women and men have responded to programming in measurably different ways. These mixed results have important implications for current and future “soft-side” programs for countering violent extremism.

  12. Uranium and radium activities in samples of aquifers of the main cities of the Estado de Chihuahua; Actividades de uranio y radio en muestras de agua subterranea de las principales ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav.edu.mx

    2003-07-01

    The natural uranium is in four valence states +3, +4, +5 and +6 being the hexavalent state the more soluble, which plays an important role in the transport of the uranium in the environment. The high concentrations of uranium in water not only in near waters to uranium mines, but also are in some mineral waters or in waters that are extracted of deep wells as it happens in the State of Chihuahua, where the underground waters are the fundamental source of consumption. The radium is a disintegration product of the uranium, the radio content in water is considered the second source of natural radioactivity. The distribution of radium in water is in function of the uranium content present in the aquifer. It was determined the uranium and radium content in samples of underground water of the main cities of the State of Chihuahua according to their number of inhabitants. The extraction methods for uranium and sulfates precipitation of Ba-Ra by means of the addition of barium carriers for the radium were used. The measures of the activities of uranium and radium were carried out by means of a portable liquid scintillation detector trade mark Thiathler-OY HIDEX. The obtained results have demonstrated that the content of uranium and radium in dissolution are in most of the sampling wells above the permissible maximum levels that manage the Mexican regulations. The high contents of uranium and radio can be attributed since to the influence of the geologic substrate characteristic of the zone in the State of Chihuahua they exist but of 50 uranium deposits. (Author)

  13. Coherent detection of orbital angular momentum in radio

    Daldorff, L K S; Bergman, J E S; Isham, B; Al-Nuaimi, M K T; Forozesh, K; Carozzi, T D

    2015-01-01

    The angular momentum propagated by a beam of radiation has two contributions: spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). SAM corresponds to wave polarisation, while OAM-carrying beams are characterized by a phase which is a function of azimuth. We demonstrate experimentally that radio beams propagating OAM can be generated and coherently detected using ordinary electric dipole antennas. The results presented here could pave the way for novel radio OAM applications in technology and science, including radio communication, passive remote sensing, and new types of active (continuous or pulsed transmission) electromagnetic measurements.

  14. Routing Protocol Design and Performance Optimization in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Zhenguo Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocol is an important issue in cognitive radio networks. This paper explored the issues and challenges of routing protocol in cognitive radio network from five aspects: hidden terminal, exposed terminal, deafness, cross-layer design, and topology. The existed protocols are classified by the metrics: the establishment of active routing, cross-layer routing, and network performance indicators. Focusing on analyzing performance of routing protocols and design optimized schemes in cognitive radio networks, the advantage and disadvantage of related work were discussed in detail.

  15. Radio emission from rapidly-rotating cool giant stars

    Drake, Stephen A.; Walter, Frederick M.; Florkowski, David R.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a VLA program are reported to examine the radio continuum emission from 11 rapidly-rotating cool giant stars, all of which were originally believed to be single stars. Six of the 11 stars were detected as radio sources, including FK Com and HR 9024, for which there exist multifrequency observations. HD 199178, UZ Lib (now known to be a binary system), and HD 82558, for which there is only 6-cm data. The radio properties of these stars are compared with those of the active, rapidly rotating evolved stars found in the RS CVn binary systems.

  16. The coexistence of cognitive radio and radio astronomy

    Bentum, M.J.; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    An increase of the efficiency of spectrum usage requires the development of new communication techniques. Cognitive radio may be one of those new technique, which uses unoccupied frequency bands for communications. This will lead to more power in the bands and therefore an increasing level of Radio

  17. Evaluation of GNU Radio Platform Enhanced for Hardware Accelerated Radio Design

    Karve, Mrudula Prabhakar

    2010-01-01

    The advent of software radio technology has enabled radio developers to design and imple- ment radios with great ease and flexibility. Software radios are effective in experimentation and development of radio designs. However, they have limitations when it comes to high- speed, high-throughput designs. This limitation can be overcome by introducing a hardware element to the software radio platform. Enhancing GNU Radio for Hardware Accelerated Radio Design project implements suc...

  18. Radio astronomy from space

    Woan, G.

    2011-04-01

    At frequencies below about 30 MHz, radio astronomy becomes increasingly difficult from the Earth's surface, mainly due to a combination of poor ionospheric seeing and strong terrestrial interference. The obvious move is to space, either as free-flying spacecraft or with a telescope located somewhere on the Moon. All the major space agencies have a renewed interest in the Moon as a site for exploration and science, and low-frequency radio astronomy is probably the strongest of the astronomical objectives put forward in these programmes. Although the Sun is a strong source of interference in extra-solar system work, it is also a prime target for study in itself. A constellation of satellites (as proposed for the SIRA mission) would be able to image both the Sun and the inner heliosphere over the entire low-frequency band. Here we investigate some of the advantages and limitations of astronomy at these very low frequencies, using space- and lunar-based antennas.

  19. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  20. Radio emission of the sun at millimeter wavelengths

    Nagnibeda, V. G.; Piotrovich, V. V.

    This review article deals with the radio emission originating from different solar atmospheric regions - the quiet solar atmosphere, active regions and solar flares. All experimental data of the quiet Sun brightness temperature at the region of 0.1 - 20 mm wavelength are summarized. The quiet Sun brightness distributions across the disk and values of the solar radio radius are reviewed. The properties of the sources of sunspot-associated active region emission and radio brightness depression associated with Hα-filaments are considered in comparison with observations at centimetre and optical domains. The observational properties of millimetre wave bursts and their correlations with similar phenomena at other domains are reviewed. Special reference is devoted to nearly 100% correlation impulsive radio bursts with hard X-ray bursts. Existence of the fine temporal structure containing many spikes with time scales up to 10 ms as well as observations of quasi-periodic millisecond oscillations are discussed.

  1. Ultraviolet and radio flares from UX Arietis and HR 1099

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of the RS CVn systems UX Ari and HR 1099 with the IUE satellite and the VLA are presented. Flaring activity is observed at ultraviolet wavelengths with the IUE when none is detected at radio wavelengths with the VLA. Radio flares with no detectable ultraviolet activity have also been observed. Thus, flares in the two spectral regions are either uncorrelated or weakly correlated. The flaring emission probably originates in different regions at the two wavelengths. Radio flares from RS CVn stars may originate in sources that are larger than, or comparable to, a star in size. This is in sharp contrast to compact, coherent radio flares from dwarf M stars. The ultraviolet flares from RS CVn stars probably originate in sources that are smaller than a component star.

  2. Radio Mode Outbursts in Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William; Churazov, Eugene; McNamara, Brian; David, Laurence; Murray, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Outbursts from active galactic nuclei (AGN) affect the hot atmospheres of isolated giant elliptical galaxies (gE's), as well as those in groups and clusters of galaxies. Chandra observations of a sample of nearby gE's show that the average power of AGN outbursts is sufficient to stop their hot atmospheres from cooling and forming stars, consistent with radio mode feedback models. The outbursts are intermittent, with duty cycles that increases with size.

  3. MEASURING THE JET POWER OF FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    Shabala, S. S.; Santoso, J. S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Godfrey, L. E. H. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

    2012-09-10

    We use frequency-dependent position shifts of flat-spectrum radio cores to estimate the kinetic power of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. We find a correlation between the derived jet powers and AGN narrow-line luminosity, consistent with the well-known relation for radio galaxies and steep spectrum quasars. This technique can be applied to intrinsically weak jets even at high redshift.

  4. Interactive radio instruction: developing instructional methods.

    Friend, J

    1989-01-01

    The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce

  5. Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations

    M. Hoeft; S. E. Nuza; S. Gottlöber; R. J. van Weeren; H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Brüggen

    2011-12-01

    Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, identifying shock fronts and applying a parametric model for the radio emission allows us to simulate the formation of radio relics. We analyze a simulated shock front in detail. We find a rather broad Mach number distribution. The Mach number affects strongly the number density of relativistic electrons in the downstream area, hence, the radio luminosity varies significantly across the shock surface. The abundance of radio relics can be modeled with the help of the radio power probability distribution which aims at predicting radio relic number counts. Since the actual electron acceleration efficiency is not known, predictions for the number counts need to be normalized by the observed number of radio relics. For the characteristics of upcoming low frequency surveys we find that about thousand relics are awaiting discovery.

  6. Cognitive Radio for Emergency Networks

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the scope of the Adaptive Ad-hoc Freeband (AAF) project, an emergency network built on top of Cognitive Radio is proposed to alleviate the spectrum shortage problem which is the major limitation for emergency networks. Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve todayâ?~B

  7. 78 FR 32165 - Commercial Radio Operators; Correction

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Commercial Radio Operators; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communication Commission...) Administers the Commission's commercial radio operator program (part 13 of this chapter); the Commission's... rules concerning radio operator licenses for maritime and aviation in order to reduce...

  8. Preparation and Evaluation of Dental Resin with Antibacterial and Radio-Opaque Functions

    Pekka K. Vallittu; Lippo V. J. Lassila; Jingwei He; Eva Söderling

    2013-01-01

    In order to prepare antibacterial and radio-opaque dental resin, a methacrylate monomer named 2-Dimethyl-2-dodecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodine (DDMAI) with both antibacterial and radio-opaque activities was added into a 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropyl)-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) dental resin system. Degree of conversion (DC), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), water sorption (WS) and solubility (WSL), antibacterial activity, and radio-opacity...

  9. The radio halo in the merging cluster A3562

    Venturi, T; Dallacasa, D; Brunetti, G; Giacintucci, S; Hunstead, R W; Morganti, R

    2003-01-01

    we present new VLA observations at 1.4 GHz confirming the presence of a radio halo at the centre of the cluster A3562, in the core of the Shapley Concentration. We also report a detailed multifrequency radio study of the head tail galaxy J1333--3141, which is completely embedded in the halo emission. The radio halo has an irregular shape, and a largest linear size of $\\sim$ 620 kpc, which is among the smallest found in the literature. The source has a steep spectrum, i.e. $\\alpha_{843 MHz}^{1.4 GHz} \\sim 2$, and its total radio power, P$_{1.4 GHz} \\sim 2 \\times10^{23}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, is the lowest known to date.The radio power of the halo and the X-ray parameters of the cluster, such as L$_X$ and kT, nicely fit the correlations found in the literature for the other halo clusters, extending them to low radio powers. We found that the total number of electrons injected in the cluster environment by the head--tail source is enough to feed the halo, if we assume that the galaxy has been radio active over a large fr...

  10. Radio Emission from Globular Clusters

    2002-01-01

    Radio emission of globular clusters is studied by analyzing the VLA radio survey data of the NVSS and FIRST. We find that 13 clusters have radio sources within their half-mass radii of clusters. Sources detected previously in NGC 7078and NGC 6440 are identified. Pulsars in NGC 6121, NGC 6440 and NGC 7078cannot be detected because of the insufficient survey sensitivity and resolution.There may be a pulsar in the core of Terzan 1. The nature of the extended radio source near the core of NGC 6440 remains unclear. In the core of a globular cluster,there may be many neutron stars or an intermediate mass black hole, but this cannot be clarified with the current radio observations.

  11. CONSTRAINING RADIO EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Dib, R. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Champion, D. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Hessels, J. W. T., E-mail: plazar@physics.mcgill.ca [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2012-01-10

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits of L{sub 1950} {approx}< 1.60 mJy kpc{sup 2} for periodic emission and L{sub 1950,single} {approx}< 7.6 Jy kpc{sup 2} for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  12. Constraining Radio Emission from Magnetars

    Lazarus, Patrick; Champion, David J; Hessels, Jason W T; Dib, Rim

    2011-01-01

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U0142+61 following its 2006 X-ray bursts were obtained. No radio emission was detected was detected for any of our targets. The non-detections allow us to place luminosity upper limits (at 1950 MHz) of approximately L < 1.60 mJy kpc^2 for periodic emission and L < 7.6 Jy kpc^2 for single pulse emission. These are the most stringent limits yet for the magnetars observed. The resulting luminosity upper limits together with previous results are discussed, as is the importance of further radio observations of radio-loud and radio-quiet magnetars.

  13. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  14. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    2007-09-01

    Hawking. The newly-discovered radio burst, the researchers said, might be the "last gasp" of a black hole as it finally evaporates completely. "We're actively looking for more of these powerful, short bursts, in other archival pulsar surveys, and hope to resolve the mystery of their origin," said McLaughlin. "In addition, if we can associate these events with galaxies of known distance, the radio dispersion we measure can be used as a powerful new way to determine the amount of material in intergalactic space," she added. The Parkes radio telescope is part of the Australia Telescope, which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  15. The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model.

    Christensen, P R

    1985-01-01

    Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.

  16. Correlation radio range finder

    A. Sorochan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In work widely known methods of range measuring are short characterized. The basic attention is given features of signal processing in a correlation method of range measuring. The signal with angular modulation with one-voice-frequency fluctuation is used as a probing signal. The absence of Doppler effect on the formation of the correlation integral, the frequency instability of the transmitter, the phase change on reflection from the target is presented. It is noticed that the result of signal processing in the range measuring instrument is reduced to formation on an exit one-voice-frequency harmonious fluctuation equal to modulating frequency that provides high characteristics of a radio range finder.

  17. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  18. Cosmological MHD Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Radio Relics: Insights and Warnings for Observations

    Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J; O'Shea, Brian W; Burns, Jack O; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare to observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio rel...

  19. Young radio sources: the duty-cycle of the radio emission and prospects for gamma-ray emission

    Orienti, M; Giovannini, G; Giroletti, M; D'Ammando, F

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary stage of a powerful radio source originated by an AGN is related to its linear size. In this context, compact symmetric objects (CSOs), which are powerful and intrinsically small objects, should represent the young stage in the individual radio source life. However, the fraction of young radio sources in flux density-limited samples is much higher than what expected from the number counts of large radio sources.This indicates that a significant fraction of young radio sources does not develop to the classical Fanaroff-Riley radio galaxies,suggesting an intermittent jet activity. As the radio jets are expanding within the dense and inhomogeneous interstellar medium,the ambient may play a role in the jet growth, for example slowing down or even disrupting its expansion when a jet-cloud interaction takes place. Moreover, this environment may provide the thermal seed photons that scattered by the lobes' electrons may be responsible for high energy emission, detectable by Fermi-LAT.

  20. The Cost-Effectiveness of Interactive Radio Instruction for Improving Primary School Instruction in Honduras, Bolivia and Lesotho.

    Tilson, Thomas D.; And Others

    Findings are presented from studies on the use of radio for teaching primary school children mathematics in Honduras and Bolivia and English as a Second Language in Lesotho. Interactive radio instruction (IRI) is so called because of the active participation of the students. Although lessons are presented by conventional radio, scripts are written…

  1. Radiative versus Jet Mode in Radio Galaxies

    Hardcastle, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the local universe, the vast majority of radio-loud active galaxies show none of the conventional AGN apparatus of accretion disk, torus, corona, or broad/narrow-line regions. Instead such nuclear emission as they have appears to be completely dominated by emission directly from the jet; the accretion, which must be present to drive the jet, appears to be highly radiatively inefficient. However, the most radio-luminous objects in the universe are almost all quasars (type I or type II) which behave in the textbook manner, appearing as a normal radiatively efficient AGN with the addition of a jet. The past decade has seen a substantial evolution in our understanding of the physical origins of these differences, their relation to the host galaxy and environment, and their interpretation in terms of completely unified models of AGN, and I will review our current understanding of these issues in my talk.

  2. Distant Radio Galaxies and their Environments

    Miley, George

    2008-01-01

    We review the properties and nature of luminous high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs, z > 2) and the environments in which they are located. HzRGs have several distinct constituents which interact with each other - relativistic plasma, gas in various forms, dust, stars and an active galactic nucleus (AGN). These building blocks provide unique diagnostics about conditions in the early Universe. We discuss the properties of each constituent. Evidence is presented that HzRGs are massive forming galaxies and the progenitors of brightest cluster galaxies in the local Universe. HzRGs are located in overdense regions in the early Universe and are frequently surrounded by protoclusters. We review the properties and nature of these radio-selected protoclusters. Finally we consider the potential for future progress in the field during the next few decades. A compendium of known HzRGs is given in an appendix.

  3. CALLISTO - A new concept for solar radio

    Benz, A O; Meyer, H A; Benz, Arnold O.; Monstein, Christian; Meyer, HAnsueli

    2004-01-01

    A new radio spectrometer, CALLISTO, is presented. It is a dual-channel frequency-agile receiver based on commercially available consumer electronics. Its major characteristic is the low price for hardware and software, and the short assembly time, both two or more orders of magnitude below existing spectrometers. The instrument is sensitive at the physical limit and extremely stable. The total bandwidth is 825 MHz, and the width of individual channels is 300 kHz. A total of 1000 measurements can be made per second. The spectrometer is well suited for solar low-frequency radio observations pertinent to space weather research. Five instruments of the type were constructed until now and put into operation at several sites, including Bleien (Zurich) and NRAO (USA). First results in the 45 - 870 MHz range are presented. Some of them were recorded in a preliminary setup during the time of high solar activity in October and November 2003.

  4. EXAMINING THE RADIO-LOUD/RADIO-QUIET DICHOTOMY WITH NEW CHANDRA AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF 13 UGC GALAXIES

    Kharb, P.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A. [Physics Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Capetti, A.; Balmaverde, B. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Chiaberge, M.; Macchetto, D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grandi, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna (Italy); Giovannini, G. [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Montez, R., E-mail: kharb@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We present the results from new {approx}15 ks Chandra-ACIS and 4.9 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 13 galaxies hosting low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This completes the multiwavelength study of a sample of 51 nearby early-type galaxies described in Capetti and Balmaverde and Balmaverde and Capetti. The aim of the three previous papers was to explore the connection between the host galaxies and AGN activity in a radio-selected sample. We detect nuclear X-ray emission in eight sources and radio emission in all but one (viz., UGC 6985). The new VLA observations improve the spatial resolution by a factor of 10: the presence of nuclear radio sources in 12 of the 13 galaxies confirms their AGN nature. As previously indicated, the behavior of the X-ray and radio emission in these sources depends strongly on the form of their optical surface brightness profiles derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, i.e., on their classification as 'core', 'power-law', or 'intermediate' galaxies. With more than twice the number of 'power-law' and 'intermediate' galaxies compared to previous work, we confirm with a much higher statistical significance that these galaxies lie well above the radio-X-ray correlation established in Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies and the low-luminosity 'core' galaxies. This result highlights the fact that the 'radio-loud/radio-quiet' dichotomy is a function of the host galaxy's optical surface brightness profile. We present radio-optical-X-ray spectral indices for all 51 sample galaxies. Survival statistics point to significant differences in the radio-to-optical and radio-to-X-ray spectral indices between the 'core' and 'power-law galaxies (Gehan's Generalized Wilcoxon test probability p for the two classes being statistically similar is <10{sup -5}), but not in the optical-to-X-ray spectral indices (p = 0.25). Therefore, the

  5. Radio Search For Extrasolar Planets

    Zarka, P.

    Theoretical justification and ongoing observational efforts in view of detecting radio emissions from extrasolar planets will be presented. On the "prediction" side, a heuris- tic scaling law has been established relating the radio output of any magnetized flow- obstacle system to the incident magnetic energy flux on the obstacle. Its confirmation by the observation of radio emission from extrasolar planets would help to understand the energy budget of such a system. On the "detection" side, specific procedures have been developed for interference mitigation and weak burst detection.

  6. A radio-resistant perforin-expressing lymphoid population controls allogeneic T cell engraftment, activation, and onset of graft-versus-host disease in mice.

    Davis, Joanne E; Harvey, Michael; Gherardin, Nicholas A; Koldej, Rachel; Huntington, Nicholas; Neeson, Paul; Trapani, Joseph A; Ritchie, David S

    2015-02-01

    Immunosuppressive pretransplantation conditioning is essential for donor cell engraftment in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The role of residual postconditioning recipient immunity in determining engraftment is poorly understood. We examined the role of recipient perforin in the kinetics of donor cell engraftment. MHC-mismatched BMT mouse models demonstrated that both the rate and proportion of donor lymphoid cell engraftment and expansion of effector memory donor T cells in both spleen and BM were significantly increased within 5 to 7 days post-BMT in perforin-deficient (pfn(-/-)) recipients, compared with wild-type. In wild-type recipients, depletion of natural killer (NK) cells before BMT enhanced donor lymphoid cell engraftment to that seen in pfn(-/-) recipients. This demonstrated that a perforin-dependent, NK-mediated, host-versus-graft (HVG) effect limits the rate of donor engraftment and T cell activation. Radiation-resistant natural killer T (NKT) cells survived in the BM of lethally irradiated mice and may drive NK cell activation, resulting in the HVG effect. Furthermore, reduced pretransplant irradiation doses in pfn(-/-) recipients permitted long-term donor lymphoid cell engraftment. These findings suggest that suppression of perforin activity or selective depletion of recipient NK cells before BMT could be used to improve donor stem cell engraftment, in turn allowing for the reduction of pretransplant conditioning.

  7. Advanced Radio Resource Management for Multi Antenna Packet Radio Systems

    Stanislav Nonchev; Mikko Valkama

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose fairness-oriented packet scheduling (PS) schemes with power-efficientcontrol mechanism for future packet radio systems. In general, the radio resource managementfunctionality plays an important role in new OFDMA based networks. The control of the networkresource division among the users is performed by packet scheduling functionality based on maximizingcell coverage and capacity satisfying, and certain quality of service requirements. Moreover, multiantennatransmit-r...

  8. The Nuclear Structure of 3C84 with Space VLBI (RadioAstron) Observations

    Giovannini, Gabriele; Savolainen, Tuomas; Nagai, Hiroshi; Giroletti, Marcello; Hada, Kazuhiro; Bruni, Gabriele; Hodgson, Jeffrey; Honma, Mareki; Kino, Motoki; Kovalev, Yuri Y; Krichbaum, Thomas; Lee, Sang-Sung; Lobanov, Andrei; Sohn, Bong Won; Sokolovsky, Kirill; Voitsik, Peter; Zensus, J Anton

    2015-01-01

    The radio galaxy 3C84 is a representative of gamma-ray-bright misaligned active galactic nuclei (AGN) and one of the best laboratories to study the radio properties of subparsec scale jets. We discuss here the past and present activity of the nuclear region within the central 1pc and the properties of subparsec-sized components C1, C2 and C3. We compare these results with the high resolution space-VLBI image at 5GHz obtained with the RadioAstron satellite and we shortly discuss the possible correlation of radio emission with the gamma-ray emission.

  9. PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics

    Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

    2010-10-01

    NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105

  10. Recent Radio Monitoring of Microquasars with RATAN-600 Radio Telescope

    Trushkin, S A; Kotani, T; Nizhelskij, N A; Namiki, M; Tsuboi, M; Voitsik, P A

    2007-01-01

    We report about the multi-frequency (1-30 GHz) daily monitoring of the radio flux variability of the three microquasars: SS433, GRS1915+105 and Cyg X-3 during the period from September 2005 to May 2006. 1. We detected clear correlation of the flaring radio fluxes and X-rays 'spikes' at 2-12 keV emission detected in RXTE ASM from GRS1915+105 during eight relatively bright (200-600 mJy) radio flares in October 2005. The 1-22 GHz spectra of these flares in maximum were optically thick at frequencies lower 2.3 GHz and optically thin at the higher frequencies. During the radio flares the spectra of the X-ray spikes become softer than those of the quiescent phase. Thus these data indicated the transitions from very high/hard states to high/soft ones during which massive ejections are probably happened. These ejections are visible as the detected radio flares. 2. After of the quiescent radio emission we have detected a drop down of the fluxes (~20 mJy) from Cyg X-3. That is a sign of the following bright flare. Inde...

  11. Radio frequency integrated circuit design for cognitive radio systems

    Fahim, Amr

    2015-01-01

    This book fills a disconnect in the literature between Cognitive Radio systems and a detailed account of the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement such systems.  Throughout the book, requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radio systems are emphasized when discussing the circuit implementation details.  In addition, this book details several novel concepts that advance state-of-the-art cognitive radio systems.  This is a valuable reference for anybody with background in analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit design, needing to learn more about integrated circuits requirements and implementation for cognitive radio systems. ·         Describes in detail cognitive radio systems, as well as the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement them; ·         Serves as an excellent reference to state-of-the-art wideband transceiver design; ·         Emphasizes practical requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radi...

  12. Long-term thyroid values after intake of radio-active iodine; Bilans thyroidiens de longue duree apres administration d'iode radioactif

    Riviere, R. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In connection with a compartment theory, a kinetic study of thyroid metabolism in man requires the determination of the specific iodine activity at all accessible levels (plasma, urines, faeces), during periods of over a month; The basic methods required for such a study are therefore the use of iodine-125 as a tracer, the exact determination of iodine-127 using activation analysis and the setting-up of a daily diet of constant iodine content. The results are presented for each particular case and the main parameters of thyroid metabolism are calculated. The discussion includes some special considerations concerning the pathological condition of the subject or a break in the thyroid equilibrium. It shows in particular that constant disagreement exists between the experimental curves for the specific iodine activity and the corresponding theoretical curves for a conventional thyroid process based on 3 compartments; these discrepancies concern both the inorganic iodine and the organic iodine eliminated with the faeces. (author) [French] Dans le cadre d'une theorie a compartiments, l'etude cinetique du metabolisme thyroidien chez l'homme necessite la determination de l'activite specifique de l'iode a tous les niveaux accessibles (plasma, urines, feces), pendant des periodes depassant un mois. Les methodes de base indispensables pour une telle etude sont donc l'utilisation de l'iode 125 comme traceur, le dosage precis de l'iode 127 grace a l'analyse par activation et l'etablissement d'une diete journaliere constante en iode. Les resultats sont presentes pour chaque cas et les principaux parametres du metabolisme thyroidien calcules. La discussion fait part de considerations particulieres liees a l'etat pathologique du sujet ou a une rupture de l'equilibre thyroidien. Elle met surtout en lumiere des desaccords constants entre les courbes experimentales d'activite specifique de l'iode et les

  13. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  14. Radio-active pollution near natural uranium-graphite-gas reactors; La pollution radioactive aupres des piles uranium naturel - graphite - gaz

    Chassany, J.; Pouthier, J.; Delmar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-07-01

    The results of numerous evaluations of the contamination are given: - Reactors in operation during maintenance operations. - Reactors shut-down during typical repair operations (coolants, exchangers, interior of the vessel, etc. ) - Following incidents on the cooling circuit and can-rupture. They show that, except in particular cases, it is the activation products which dominate. Furthermore, after ten years operation, the points at which contamination liable to emit strong doses accumulates are very localized and the individual protective equipment has not had to be reinforced. (authors) [French] Les resultats de nombreuses evaluations de la contamination sont donnes: - Piles en marche pendant les operations d'entretien - Piles a l'arret au cours des chantiers caracteristiques (refrigerants, echangeurs, interieur du caisson, etc.) - A la suite d'incidents sur le circuit de refroidissement et de rupture de gaine. Ils montrent que, sauf cas particulier, ce sont essentiellement les produits d'activation qui dominent. Par ailleurs apres 10 ans de fonctionnement, les points d'accumulation de la contamination susceptibles de delivrer des debits de dose importants restent tres localises et les moyens de protection individuels utilises n'ont pas du etre renforces. (auteurs)

  15. SETI and International Radio Law

    Lyall, F.

    2010-04-01

    The use of radio in SETI is subject to international rules agreed through the International Telecommunication Union. These are summarised. An opportunity for their revision will arise in 2012. Suggestions may be made.

  16. Coherent Radio Emission from Pulsars

    Mitra, Dipanjan; Gil, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    We review a physical model where the high brightness temperature of 10$^{25}-10^{30}$ K observed in pulsar radio emission is explained by coherent curvature radiation excited in the relativistic electron-positron plasma in the pulsar magnetosphere.

  17. Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bennett Aerospace and Team Partners propose to develop a small, lightweight, and very power-efficient mobile radio for use on the Lunar surface. Our Team will...

  18. Reconfigurable, Digital EVA Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AeroAstro proposes to develop a low-power, low-volume and lightweight, state-of-the-art digital radio capable of operating in a wide variety of bands, from VHF...

  19. Reconfigurable, Digital EVA Radio Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The nature of human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars demands a frequency-agile, reconfigurable, durable digital radio delivering telemetry, ranging, voice,...

  20. On the evaluation of Web Radio

    Field, A.N.; Hartel, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    We develop an evaluation method for Web radio, and perform it to see what we can be learnt about seven prominent Web radio sites. We also evaluate a commercial FM radio station for control purposes. We present a taxonomy of Web radio, and we give our observations and conclusions on this evaluation.

  1. Innovativeness and the Public Radio Audience.

    Williams, Wenmouth, Jr.; Krugman, Dean M.

    1981-01-01

    A public radio audience was surveyed to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between innovativeness and public radio listening. Rather than supporting the hypothesis, findings indicate that the entertainment and information elements of public radio are the primary attractions for the public radio audience. (MER)

  2. Planck intermediate results. XLV. Radio spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Bendo, G J; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Israel, F P; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Continuum spectra covering centimetre to submillimetre wavelengths are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, mainly active galactic nuclei, based on four-epoch Planck data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous ground-based radio observations between 1.1 and 37 GHz. The single-survey Planck data confirm that the flattest high-frequency radio spectral indices are close to zero, indicating that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum is much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The radio spectra peak at high frequencies and exhibit a variety of shapes. For a small set of low-z sources, we find a spectral upturn at high frequencies, indicating the presence of intrinsic cold dust. Variability can generally be approximated by achromatic variations, while sources with clear signatures of evolving shocks appear to be limited to the strongest outbursts.

  3. Radio Implementation of a Testbed For Cognitive Radio Source Localization Using USRPS and GNU Radio

    2014-09-01

    pp. 116–130, 2009. [4] R.A. Rashid , M.A. Sarijari, N. Fisal, S.K.S. Yusof and N.H. Mahalin, “Spectrum sensing measurement using GNU Radio and...USRP software radio platform,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Wireless and Mobile Commun., Luxembourg, 2011. [5] R.A. Rashid , M.A. Sarijari, N. Fisal...Sarijari, A. Marwanto, N. Fisal, S.K.S. Yusof and R.A Rashid , “Energy detection sensing based on GNU Radio and USRP: An analysis study,” in Proc

  4. Radio and line transmission 2

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  5. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    Kawase, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  6. Radio emission from RS CVn binary systems

    Doiron, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The RS CVn binary stellar systems UX Ari, HR 1099, AR Lac, HR 5110, II Peg, lambda And, and SZ Psc were investigated by use of radio interferometry during the period from July 1982 through August 1983. Interferometry took two forms: Very Large Array (VLA) observations and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The VLA observations determined the characteristic polarization and flux behavior of the centimeter wavelength radio emission. The observed spectral index was near zero during quiescent periods, rising to between 0.5 and 1.0 during active periods. No net linear polarization is observed to a limit of 1.7%. This is expected since the Faraday depth of thermal electrons deduced from x-ray observations is approx. 10/sup 5/. Circular polarization is observed to be less than 20% at all frequencies often with a helicity reversal between 1.6 GHz and 5 GHz. The VLBI observations have shown that the brightness temperatures are often T/sub B/ approx.> 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/K and size sources smaller than or comparable to the overall size of the binary system. These data are consistent with incoherent gyrosynchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons which are optically thick to their own radiation at 1.6 GHz and optically thin at 5 GHz and above. The spectral behavior suggests that the radio emission is due to a power-law distribution of electrons.

  7. Molecular gas in nearby powerful radio galaxies

    Leon, S; Combes, F; Van Trung, D

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the central region of nearby 3CR radio galaxies (z$<$ 0.03). Out of 21 galaxies, 8 have been detected in, at least, one of the two CO transitions. The total molecular gas content is below 10$^9$ \\msun. Their individual CO emission exhibit, for 5 cases, a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of an inclined rotating disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation curve. The inferred disk or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the observed presence of dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of the galaxies. We reason that if their gas originates from the mergers of two gas-rich disk galaxies, as has been invoked to explain the molecular gas in other radio galaxies, then these galaxies must have merged a long time ago (few Gyr or more) but their remnant elliptical galaxies only recently (last 10$^7$ years or less) become active radio galaxies. Instead, we argue the the cannibalism of g...

  8. An Evolutionary Sequence of Young Radio Galaxies

    Collier, J D; Filipović, M D; Tothill, N F H

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the faintest sample of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources to date, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We test the hypothesis that GPS and CSS sources are the youngest radio galaxies, place them into an evolutionary sequence along with a number of other young Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) candidates, and search for evidence of the evolving accretion mode and its relationship to star formation. GPS/CSS sources have very small radio jets that have been recently launched from the central Supermassive Black Hole and grow in linear size as they evolve, which means that the linear size of the jets is an excellent indicator of the evolutionary stage of the AGN. We use high-resolution radio observations to determine the linear size of GPS/CSS sources, resolve their jets and observe their small-scale morphologies. We combine this with other multi-wavelength age indicators, including the spectral age, colours, optical spectra and Spectral Energy Distributio...

  9. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-09-01

    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  10. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources are at high redshifts

    Herzog, Andreas; Norris, Ray P; Sharp, Rob; Spitler, Lee R

    2013-01-01

    Context. Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for High-redshift Radio Galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between these classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study diffcult. So far, no redshift is known for an original IFRS which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims. This work tests the hypothesis that IFRS follow the relation between 3.6 um flux density and redshift found for HzRGs. Furthermore, redshifts will enable us to reveal the intrinsic radio and infrared properties of IFRS and we will test the current suggestions that IFRS are high-redshift radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Methods. A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and lo...

  11. On the relationship between BL Lacertae objects and radio galaxies

    Landt, Hermine

    2008-01-01

    We present deep radio images at 1.4 GHz of a large and complete sample of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) selected from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS). We have observed 24 northern sources with the Very Large Array (VLA) in both its A and C configurations and 15 southern sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in its largest configuration. We find that in the DXRBS, as in the 1-Jy survey, which has a radio flux limit roughly ten times higher than the DXRBS, a considerable number (about a third) of BL Lacs can be identified with the relativistically beamed counterparts of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies. We attribute the existence of FR II-BL Lacs, which is not accounted for by current unified schemes, to an inconsistency in our classification scheme for radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). Taking the extended radio power as a suitable measure of intrinsic jet power, we find similar average values for low- (LBL) and high-energy peaked BL Lacs (HBL), contrary to the...

  12. The optical spectra of X-shaped radio galaxies

    Landt, Hermine; Healey, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    X-shaped radio galaxies are defined by their peculiar large-scale radio morphology. In addition to the classical double-lobed structure they have a pair of low-luminosity wings that straddles the nucleus at almost right angles to the active lobes, thus giving the impression of an 'X'. In this paper we study for the first time the optical spectral properties of this object class using a large sample (~50 sources). We find that the X-shaped radio population is composed roughly equally of sources with weak and strong emission line spectra, which makes them, in combination with the well-known fact that they preferentially have radio powers intermediate between those of Fanaroff-Riley type I (FR I) and type II (FR II) radio galaxies, the archetypal transition population. We do not find evidence in support of the proposition that the X-shape is the result of a recent merger: X-shaped radio sources do not have unusually broad emission lines, their nuclear environments are in general not dusty, and their host galaxie...

  13. Scale-invariant radio jets and varying black hole spin

    Moscibrodzka, Monika; Noble, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Compact radio cores associated with relativistic jets are often observed in both active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries. Their radiative properties follow some general scaling laws which primarily depend on their masses and accretion rates. However, it has been suggested that the black hole spin can also strongly influence the power and radio flux of these. Here, we attempt to estimate the dependency of the radio luminosity of steady jets launched by accretion disks on black hole mass, accretion rate and spin using numerical simulations. We make use of 3D GRMHD simulations of accretion disks around low-luminosity black holes in which the jet radio emission is produced by the jet sheath. We find that the radio flux increases roughly by a factor of 6 as the back hole spin increases from a~0 to a=0.98. This is comparable to the increase in accretion power with spin, meaning that the ratio between radio jet and accretion power is hardly changing. Although our jet spine power scales as expected for the Blandfor...

  14. Radio faint AGN: a tale of two populations

    Padovani, P; Kellermann, K I; Miller, N; Mainieri, V; Tozzi, P

    2015-01-01

    We study the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS) Very Large Array sample, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 32.5 microJy at the field centre and redshift ~ 4, and covers ~ 0.3 deg^2. Number counts are presented for the whole sample while the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions are derived for active galactic nuclei (AGN). The faint radio sky contains two totally distinct AGN populations, characterised by very different evolutions, luminosity functions, and Eddington ratios: radio-quiet (RQ)/radiative-mode, and radio-loud/jet-mode AGN. The radio power of RQ AGN evolves ~ (1+z)^2.5, similarly to star-forming galaxies, while the number density of radio-loud ones has a peak at ~ 0.5 and then declines at higher redshifts. The number density of radio-selected RQ AGN is consistent with that of X-ray selected AGN, which shows that we are sampling the same population. The unbiased fraction of radiative-mode RL AGN, derived from our own and previously published data, is a strong funct...

  15. 物联网应用中有源RFID标签的EAL4安全要求%Assurance level 4 security requirements of active radio frequency identification tags in the Internet of Things

    高金萍; 石竑松; 王宇航; 杨永生; 张翀斌

    2012-01-01

    A framework is given for evaluation assurance level 4(EAL4) security requirements for radio frequency identification(RFID) active tags in applications for the Internet of Things(IOT).The evaluation assurance level and the security assurance requirements are chosen based on ISO/IEC standard 15 408 and an analysis of the asset value and potential threat.Then,the potential threats are related to the active tags to set security objectives for the target to resist potential attacks.A minimal set of security function requirements is given to specify the functionality of active tags.Finally,the consistency between the Abstractions is analyzed to justify the rationale behind the framework.This work provides a reference for designers of security mechanisms for active tags and a basis for the evaluation and procurement of active tags.%该文为物联网应用中安全要求较高的有源RFID标签类产品建立了一套满足评估保证级(EAL)4级的一组安全要求。此安全要求的建立,以通用评估准则(ISO15408)为依据,通过对有源标签保护的资产价值和潜在威胁的分析,为有源标签界定了合理的评估保证级别及相应的安全保证要求,并通过分析其在物联网应用中可能面临的潜在威胁,导出了有源标签需要满足的安全目的,进一步得出了需要满足的最小安全功能要求,并论证了它们之间的对应性。建立的安全要求框架可以作为指引研发者对有源标签进行全面安全性设计考量的重要参考,也可以为有源标签类产品的采购、测评提供依据。

  16. UHV交流输电线路有源干扰下无方向信标台功率限值的分析%Analysis of Non-directional Radio Beacon Power Limit Under the Condition of Active Interference Caused by UHV AC Transmission Line

    周铖路; 翁木云; 陈凤

    2015-01-01

    有关UHV交流输电线路与无方向信标台电磁兼容方面的研究主要集中在防护距离的分析,对间距无法满足要求时的兼容问题研究较少。为此,从台站频谱参数入手,分析特高压交流输电线路有源干扰下无方向信标台的发射功率限值。首先介绍无方向信标台的工作原理及配置区域,然后分析UHV交流输电线路对台站的干扰机理,最后根据飞行航迹,以防护率为干扰判别依据,结合防护距离的研究,分别针对航路无方向信标台、近距无方向信标台和远距无方向信标台进行有效辐射功率的分析。结果表明,在给定条件下,对于航路和远距无方向信标台,有效辐射功率分别大于5.298 W、5.273 W时,机载无线电罗盘不受干扰;对于近距无方向信标台,与输电线路始终满足兼容的要求,无需分析限值。%The EMC research between UHV AC transmission line and non-directional radio beacon mainly focused on the protection distance while the study of EMC is little when the protection distance cannot meet the requirements. Therefore, the non-directional radio beacon power limit under the condition of active interference caused by UHV AC transmission line is analyzed from the aspect of spectrum parameters. Firstly, the working principle and configuration area of non-directional radio beacon are introduced. Then the interference mechanism of non-directional radio beacon from UHV AC transmission line is analyzed. Finally, the effective radiated power (ERP) of route non-directional radio beacon, close non-directional radio beacon and distance non-directional radio beacon are analyzed according to the flight path and protection ratio in combination with protection distance research. The results show that under the given conditions, route non-directional radio beacon and distance non-directional radio beacon’s ERP should be greater than 5.298 W and 5.273 W respectively to keep

  17. The Gamma-Ray Emitting Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS 2004-447 II. The Radio View

    Schulz, R; Kadler, M; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Stevens, J; Edwards, P G; Carpenter, B; Elsässer, D; Gehrels, N; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; Lovell, J E J; Mannheim, K; Markowitz, A; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Trüstedt, J; Tzioumis, A K; Wilms, J

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (g-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the gamma-ray loud AGN. The radio-loudest g-NLS1 known, PKS 2004-447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring program TANAMI. We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS 2004-447, which are essential to understand the diversity of the radio properties of g-NLS1s. The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4 GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightne...

  18. GMRT observations of X-shaped radio sources

    Lal, D V; Lal, Dharam Vir

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a study of X-shaped sources based on observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). These observations were motivated by our low frequency study of 3C 223.1 (Lal & Rao 2005), an X-shaped radio source, which showed that the wings (or low-surface-brightness jets) have flatter spectral indices than the active lobes (or high-surface-brightness jets), a result not easily explained by most models. We have now obtained GMRT data at 240 and 610 MHz for almost all the known X-shaped radio sources and have studied the distribution of the spectral index across the sources. While the radio morphologies of all the sources at 240 and 610 MHz show the characteristic X-shape, the spectral characteristics of the X-shaped radio sources, seem to fall into three categories, namely, sources in which (A) the wings have flatter spectral indices than the active lobes, (B) the wings and the active lobes have comparable spectral indices, and (C) the wings have steeper spectral indices than t...

  19. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    Middelberg, Enno; Hales, Christopher A; Seymour, Nick; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Huynh, Minh T; Lenc, Emil; Mao, Minnie Y

    2010-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6um when using sensitive Spitzer observations with uJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8GHz and 8.6GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spec...

  20. The Excess Radio Background and Fast Radio Transients

    Kehayias, John; Weiler, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE~2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contrib...

  1. Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA): Radio Aperture Synthesis from Space

    MacDowall, R.; Kaiser, M.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-05-01

    SIRA, the Solar Imaging Radio Array, will be a constellation of about 16 microsats designed to image radio sources in the solar corona and heliosphere using aperture synthesis techniques. These images will permit the mapping and tracking of CME-driven shocks (type II radio bursts) and solar flare electrons (type III radio bursts) as a function of time from near the sun to 1 AU. Two dimensional imaging of the CME-driven shock front is important for determination of space weather effects of CMEs, whereas imaging of the ubiquitous type III bursts will permit the derivation of density maps in the outer corona and solar wind. This will be the first mission to image the heliosphere (and the celestial sphere) with good angular resolution at frequencies below the ionospheric cutoff ( 10 MHz). The radio images are intrinsically complementary to white-light coronograph data, such as those of SDO, and can play a valuable role in the NASA Living with a Star program.

  2. Determining the radio AGN contribution to the radio-FIR correlation using the black hole fundamental plane relation

    Wong, O Ivy; Schawinski, K; Kapińska, A D; Lamperti, I; Oh, K; Ricci, C; Berney, S

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the 1.4 GHz radio properties of 92 nearby (z<0.05) ultra hard X-ray selected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample. Through the ultra hard X-ray selection we minimise the biases against obscured or Compton-thick AGN as well as confusion with emission derived from star formation that typically affect AGN samples selected from the UV, optical and infrared wavelengths. We find that all the objects in our sample of nearby, ultra-hard X-ray selected AGN are radio quiet; 83\\% of the objects are classed as high-excitation galaxies (HEGs) and 17\\% as low-excitation galaxies (LEGs). While these low-z BAT sources follow the radio--far-infrared correlation in a similar fashion to star forming galaxies, our analysis finds that there is still significant AGN contribution in the observed radio emission from these radio quiet AGN. In fact, the majority of our BAT sample occupy the same X-ray--radio fundamental plane as have been observed in other samples, which incl...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.

    2004-07-01

    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).

  4. IA-Regional-Radio - Social Network for Radio Recommendation

    Dziczkowski, Grzegorz; Bougueroua, Lamine; Wegrzyn-Wolska, Katarzyna

    This chapter describes the functions of a system proposed for the music hit recommendation from social network data base. This system carries out the automatic collection, evaluation and rating of music reviewers and the possibility for listeners to rate musical hits and recommendations deduced from auditor's profiles in the form of regional Internet radio. First, the system searches and retrieves probable music reviews from the Internet. Subsequently, the system carries out an evaluation and rating of those reviews. From this list of music hits, the system directly allows notation from our application. Finally, the system automatically creates the record list diffused each day depending on the region, the year season, the day hours and the age of listeners. Our system uses linguistics and statistic methods for classifying music opinions and data mining techniques for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent radio adaptive on auditor's age and region - IA-Regional-Radio.

  5. Radio Halos in future surveys in the radio continuum

    Cassano, R; Norris, Ray P; Roettgering, H J A; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Trasatti, M

    2012-01-01

    Giant radio halos (RH) are Mpc-scale synchrotron sources detected in a significant fraction of massive and merging galaxy clusters.Their statistical properties can be used to discriminate among various models for their origin. Theoretical predictions are important as new radio telescopes are about to begin to survey the sky at low and high frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to model the formation and evolution of RH in a cosmological framework by assuming that RH are either generated in turbulent merging clusters, or are purely hadronic sources generated in more relaxed clusters, "off-state" halos. The models predict that the luminosity function of RH at high radio luminosities is dominated by the contribution of RH generated in turbulent clusters. The generation of these RH becomes less efficient in less massive systems causing a flattening of the luminosity function at lower luminosities. This flattening is compensated by the contribution of "off-state" RH that ...

  6. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  7. Radio Counterparts of Compact Binary Mergers Detectable in Gravitational Waves: A Simulation for an Optimized Survey

    Hotokezaka, K.; Nissanke, S.; Hallinan, G.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Nakar, E.; Piran, T.

    2016-11-01

    Mergers of binary neutron stars and black hole-neutron star binaries produce gravitational-wave (GW) emission and outflows with significant kinetic energies. These outflows result in radio emissions through synchrotron radiation. We explore the detectability of these synchrotron-generated radio signals by follow-up observations of GW merger events lacking a detection of electromagnetic counterparts in other wavelengths. We model radio light curves arising from (i) sub-relativistic merger ejecta and (ii) ultra-relativistic jets. The former produce radio remnants on timescales of a few years and the latter produce γ-ray bursts in the direction of the jet and orphan-radio afterglows extending over wider angles on timescales of weeks. Based on the derived light curves, we suggest an optimized survey at 1.4 GHz with five epochs separated by a logarithmic time interval. We estimate the detectability of the radio counterparts of simulated GW-merger events to be detected by advanced LIGO and Virgo by current and future radio facilities. The detectable distances for these GW merger events could be as high as 1 Gpc. Around 20%-60% of the long-lasting radio remnants will be detectable in the case of the moderate kinetic energy of 3\\cdot {10}50 erg and a circum-merger density of 0.1 {{cm}}-3 or larger, while 5%-20% of the orphan-radio afterglows with kinetic energy of 1048 erg will be detectable. The detection likelihood increases if one focuses on the well-localizable GW events. We discuss the background noise due to radio fluxes of host galaxies and false positives arising from extragalactic radio transients and variable active galactic nuclei, and we show that the quiet radio transient sky is of great advantage when searching for the radio counterparts.

  8. A direct localization of a fast radio burst and its host

    Chatterjee, S.; Law, C. J.; Wharton, R. S.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bower, G. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Bassa, C. G.; Demorest, P.; Butler, B. J.; Seymour, A.; Scholz, P.; Abruzzo, M. W.; Bogdanov, S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Keimpema, A.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Rupen, M.; Spitler, L. G.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts are astronomical radio flashes of unknown physical nature with durations of milliseconds. Their dispersive arrival times suggest an extragalactic origin and imply radio luminosities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of all known short-duration radio transients. So far all fast radio bursts have been detected with large single-dish telescopes with arcminute localizations, and attempts to identify their counterparts (source or host galaxy) have relied on the contemporaneous variability of field sources or the presence of peculiar field stars or galaxies. These attempts have not resulted in an unambiguous association with a host or multi-wavelength counterpart. Here we report the subarcsecond localization of the fast radio burst FRB 121102, the only known repeating burst source, using high-time-resolution radio interferometric observations that directly image the bursts. Our precise localization reveals that FRB 121102 originates within 100 milliarcseconds of a faint 180-microJansky persistent radio source with a continuum spectrum that is consistent with non-thermal emission, and a faint (twenty-fifth magnitude) optical counterpart. The flux density of the persistent radio source varies by around ten per cent on day timescales, and very long baseline radio interferometry yields an angular size of less than 1.7 milliarcseconds. Our observations are inconsistent with the fast radio burst having a Galactic origin or its source being located within a prominent star-forming galaxy. Instead, the source appears to be co-located with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a previously unknown type of extragalactic source. Localization and identification of a host or counterpart has been essential to understanding the origins and physics of other kinds of transient events, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events. However, if other fast radio bursts have similarly faint radio and optical counterparts, our findings imply that

  9. A direct localization of a fast radio burst and its host.

    Chatterjee, S; Law, C J; Wharton, R S; Burke-Spolaor, S; Hessels, J W T; Bower, G C; Cordes, J M; Tendulkar, S P; Bassa, C G; Demorest, P; Butler, B J; Seymour, A; Scholz, P; Abruzzo, M W; Bogdanov, S; Kaspi, V M; Keimpema, A; Lazio, T J W; Marcote, B; McLaughlin, M A; Paragi, Z; Ransom, S M; Rupen, M; Spitler, L G; van Langevelde, H J

    2017-01-04

    Fast radio bursts are astronomical radio flashes of unknown physical nature with durations of milliseconds. Their dispersive arrival times suggest an extragalactic origin and imply radio luminosities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of all known short-duration radio transients. So far all fast radio bursts have been detected with large single-dish telescopes with arcminute localizations, and attempts to identify their counterparts (source or host galaxy) have relied on the contemporaneous variability of field sources or the presence of peculiar field stars or galaxies. These attempts have not resulted in an unambiguous association with a host or multi-wavelength counterpart. Here we report the subarcsecond localization of the fast radio burst FRB 121102, the only known repeating burst source, using high-time-resolution radio interferometric observations that directly image the bursts. Our precise localization reveals that FRB 121102 originates within 100 milliarcseconds of a faint 180-microJansky persistent radio source with a continuum spectrum that is consistent with non-thermal emission, and a faint (twenty-fifth magnitude) optical counterpart. The flux density of the persistent radio source varies by around ten per cent on day timescales, and very long baseline radio interferometry yields an angular size of less than 1.7 milliarcseconds. Our observations are inconsistent with the fast radio burst having a Galactic origin or its source being located within a prominent star-forming galaxy. Instead, the source appears to be co-located with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a previously unknown type of extragalactic source. Localization and identification of a host or counterpart has been essential to understanding the origins and physics of other kinds of transient events, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events. However, if other fast radio bursts have similarly faint radio and optical counterparts, our findings imply that

  10. Dust heating in the cores of 3CRR radio galaxies

    Birkinshaw, M; Bliss, A

    2015-01-01

    We have undertaken a Spitzer campaign to measure the IR structures and spectra of low-redshift 3CRR radio galaxies. The results show that the 3.6 - 160 micron infrared properties vary systematically with integrated source power, and so demonstrate that contemporary core activity is characteristic of the behaviour of sources over their lifetimes. IR synchrotron emission is seen from jets and hotspots in some cases. Thermal emission is found from a jet/gas interaction in NGC 7385. Most of the near-IR integrated colours of the low-redshift 3CRR radio galaxies are similar to those of passive galaxies, so that IR colours are poor indicators of radio activity.

  11. Congestion Avoidance in IP Based CDMA Radio Access Network

    Syed Shakeel Hashmi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CDMA is an important air interface technologies for cellular wireless networks. As CDMAbasedcellular networks mature, the current point-to-point links will evolve to an IP-based Radio AccessNetwork (RAN. mechanisms must be designed to control the IP Radio Access Network congestion.This Paper implements a congestion control mechanism using Router control and channelcontrol method for IP-RAN on CDMA cellular network. The Router control mechanism uses the featuresof CDMA networks using active Queue Management technique to reduce delay and to minimize thecorrelated losses. The Random Early Detection Active Queue Management scheme (REDAQM is to berealized for the router control for data transmission over the radio network using routers as the channel.The channel control mechanism control the congestion by bifurcating the access channel into multiplelayer namely RACH, BCCH and DCH for data accessing. The proposed paper work is realized usingMatlab platform.

  12. AGN content of X-ray, IR and radio sources

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have carried out a number of surveys and identification works related to X-ray, IR and radio sources and searched for extragalactic ones. Among them, most interesting are Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Starburst (SB) Galaxies. Some 4500 AGN have been revealed from ROSAT BSC and FSC sources, and many more are hidden ones; those showing evidence of activity but with no emission lines in optical wavelengths. We estimated AGN content of X-ray sources as 52.9%. IR sources contain thousands of SBs, and most important are those having signs of interaction and/or merging. We have carried out optical identifications of IRAS point sources, and 1278 IR galaxies have been revealed, including LIRGs and ULIRGs. We have also combined IRAS PSC and FSC catalogs and compiled its extragalactic sample, which allowed to estimate AGN content among IR sources as 23.7%. Extragalactic radio sources contain bright galaxies, AGN and SBs. We have studied the border between AGN and normal galaxies by radio/optical flux ratios to establish which objects may be attributed to AGN based on radio properties. Interestingly, absolute majority of objects associated with both X-ray and radio sources are AGN.

  13. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_1.4GHz > 10^24 W Hz^-1) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest ...

  14. Compact radio cores : from the first black holes to the last

    Falcke, H; Kording, E; Nagar, NM

    2004-01-01

    One of the clearest signs of black hole activity is the presence of a compact radio core in the nuclei of galaxies. While in the past the focus had been on the few bright and relativistically beamed sources, new surveys now show that essentially all black holes produce compact radio emission that ca

  15. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella

    2013-01-01

    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  16. The radio properties of bright Seyfert galaxies

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M.; Bertotti, G. (Centro Interuniversitario Regionale per l' Astrofisica e la Cosmologia (Italy) Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The radio properties of a sample of 69 bright spectroscopically selected Seyfert galaxies, which suffers from little bias toward Markarian galaxies with strong UV excess. At variance with most of the earlier results, generally based on galaxy samples which are strongly biased toward the inclusion of Markarian objects, there is no clear evidence of a significant difference in the major radio properties (radio power, radio-to-optical luminosity ratio, radio spectral index and radio size) of type 1 and type 2 Seyferts. The resulting observational scenario appears now to be more consistent than before with the idea that Seyfert 2 galaxies are simply Seyfert 1 obscured objects. 70 refs.

  17. Expected Number Counts of Radio Galaxy Clusters

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies may contain radio sources if they still experience successive mergers at present. This has been confirmed by radio observations that about 30% of nearby clusters possess radio halos. We present a theoretical prediction of radio cluster counts using a semi-analytic approach which incorporates the empirical correlation between radio power and dynamical mass of clusters, and the cluster mass function described by the Press-Schechter formalism. The total population of radio clusters over the whole sky and their redshift distribution are given.

  18. Unseen cosmos the universe in radio

    Graham-Smith, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Radio telescopes have transformed our understanding of the Universe. Pulsars, quasars, Big Bang cosmology: all are discoveries of the new science of radio astronomy. Here, Francis Graham-Smith describes the birth, development, and maturity of radio astronomy, from the first discovery of cosmic radio waves to its present role as a major part of modern astronomy. Radio is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering infra-red, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays, and Graham-Smith explains why it is that radio waves give us a unique view of the Universe. Tracing the development o

  19. Radio-Optical Imaging of ATLBS Survey

    Kshitij Thorat

    2011-12-01

    We present the radio-optical imaging of ATLBS, a sensitive radio survey (Subrahmanyan et al. 2010). The primary aim of the ATLBS survey is to image low-power radio sources which form the bulk of the radio source population to moderately high red-shifts ( ∼ 1.0). The accompanying multiband optical and near infra-red observations provide information about the hosts and environments of the radio sources. We give here details of the imaging of the radio data and optical data for the ATLBS survey.

  20. An Update on Radio Supernovae

    van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Montes, Marcos J.; Panagia, Nino

    The radio emission from supernovae (SNe) is nonthermal synchrotron radiation of high brightness temperature, with a ``turn-on'' delay at longer wavelengths, power-law decline after maximum with index beta, and spectral index alpha asymptotically decreasing with time to a final, optically thin value. Radio supernovae (RSNe) are best described by the Chevalier (1982) ``mini-shell'' model, with modifications by Weiler \\etal\\ (1990). RSNe observations provide a valuable probe of the SN circumstellar environment and constraints on progenitor masses. We present a progress report on a number of recent RSNe, as well as on new behavior from RSNe 1979C and 1980K, and on RSNe as potential distance indicators. In particular, we present updated radio light curves for SN 1993J in M81.

  1. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  2. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  3. Phenomenology of magnetospheric radio emissions

    Carr, T. D.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Jupiter has now been observed over 24 octaves of the radio spectrum, from about 0.01 MHz to 300,000 MHz. Its radio emissions fill the entire spectral region where interplanetary electromagnetic propagation is possible at wavelengths longer than infrared. Three distinct types of radiation are responsible for this radio spectrum. Thermal emission from the atmosphere accounts for virtually all the radiation at the high frequency end. Synchrotron emission from the trapped high-energy particle belt deep within the inner magnetosphere is the dominant spectral component from about 4000 to 40 MHz. The third class of radiation consists of several distinct components of sporadic low frequency emission below 40 MHz. The decimeter wavelength emission is considered, taking into account the discovery of synchrotron emission, radiation by high-energy electrons in a magnetic field, and the present status of Jovian synchrotron phenomenology. Attention is also given to the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, and emissions at kilometric wavelengths.

  4. Radio Context Awareness and Applications

    Luca Reggiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The context refers to “any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity, where an entity can be a person, place, or physical object.” Radio context awareness is defined as the ability of detecting and estimating a system state or parameter, either globally or concerning one of its components, in a radio system for enhancing performance at the physical, network, or application layers. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of context awareness and the recent advances in the main radio techniques that increase the context awareness and smartness, posing challenges and renewed opportunities to added-value applications in the context of the next generation of wireless networks.

  5. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  6. A comprehensive long-term study of the radio and X-ray variability of NGC 4051 Paper II

    Jones, S.; McHardy, I.; Maccarone, T. J.

    2017-02-01

    The origin of the low-luminosity radio emission in radio-quiet active galactic nucleus, is unknown. The detection of a positive correlation between the radio and X-ray emission would imply a jet-like origin, similar to that seen in 'hard-state' X-ray binary systems. In our previous work, we found no believable radio variability in the well-known X-ray bright Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051, despite large amplitude X-ray variability. In this study, we have carefully re-analysed radio and X-ray observations using the same methods as our previous work; we again find no evidence for core radio variability. In direct contrast to our findings, another study claim significant radio variability and a distinctive anticorrelation between radio and X-ray data for the same source. The other study report only integral flux values and do not consider the effect of the changing array on the synthesized beam. In both our studies of NGC 4051, we have taken great care to account for the effect that the changing beam size has on the measured radio flux and as a result we are confident that our method gives more accurate values for the intrinsic core radio flux. However, the lack of radio variability we find is hard to reconcile because radio images of NGC 4051 do show jet-like structure. We suggest that the radio structures observed are likely the result of a previous period of higher radio activity and that the current level of radio emission from a compact nuclear jet is low.

  7. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  8. Microwave radio transmission design guide

    Manning, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This newly revised second edition provides a current, comprehensive treatment of the subject with a focus on applying practical knowledge to real-world networks. It includes a wealth of important updates, including discussions on backhaul capacity limitations, ethernet over radio, details on the latest cellular radio standards (2.5G, 3G, and 4G). You also learn about recent changes in spectrum management, including the availability of unlicensed bands and new mm band frequencies between 70 and 90 GHz. Additionally, you find more details on the fundamentals of antennas, especially at VHF/UHF le

  9. La radio glocal cross-media: la alternativa ante la reducción de espacios de proximidad local en la radio convencional

    José María Chomón Serna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palabras clave: Información, Proximidad, Radio-periódico, Inmediatez, Cross-media, Transmedia ResumenLas cadenas radiofónicas españolas, Ser, Onda Cero, Cope y RNE (Radio 5 Todo Noticias compiten por la reducción de la proximidad local, sin reparar en las consecuencias y fijando como objetivo los recortes económicos.Las cadenas radiofónicas, mediante un proceso de mimetismo, aplican una misma pauta de programación local, y tienden a instaurar un nuevo modelo radiofónico: la “radio-periódico”. Este modelo supone la pérdida de dos de las principales características de la radio: la inmediatez y la cercanía.La estrategia de reducción de contenidos locales no supone en este contexto una contradicción si se compensa mediante las herramientas que propicien que el “prosumer” acceda a contenidos “glocales”, facilitando la actividad cross-media  y el relato transmedia. Keywords: Information, Proximity, Radio-newspaper, Immediacy, Cross-media, Transmedia AbstractThe Spanish radio stations Ser, Onda Cero, Cope and RNE (Radio 5 Todo Noticias compete for the reduction of local proximity, without thinking about the consequences and setting the economic cutbacks as the only objective.The radio stations, through a mimicry process, make use of the same pattern of local schedule, having established a new radio model: the radio-newspaper. This model means the loss of two of the main radio features: The immediacy and the nearness.The reduction of local content strategy does not mean, in this context, a contradiction if it is offsetting by the tools that propitiate the access of the "prosumer" to "glocal" contents, making easier the cross-media activity and the transmedia stories.

  10. 75 FR 10439 - Cognitive Radio Technologies and Software Defined Radios

    2010-03-08

    ... clarification filed by Cisco Systems, Inc. (``Cisco'') requesting that the Commission clarify: (1) The... of software that controls security measures in software defined radios. 3. In responding to the Cisco... response to the Cisco petition for reconsideration that raised the issue of using open source software...

  11. Cosmic downsizing of powerful radio galaxies to low radio luminosities

    Rigby, E E; Best, P N; Rosario, D; Röttgering, H J A

    2015-01-01

    At bright radio powers ($P_{\\rm 1.4 GHz} > 10^{25}$ W/Hz) the space density of the most powerful sources peaks at higher redshift than that of their weaker counterparts. This paper establishes whether this luminosity-dependent evolution persists for sources an order of magnitude fainter than those previously studied, by measuring the steep--spectrum radio luminosity function (RLF) across the range $10^{24} 10^{26}$ W/Hz the redshift of the peak space density increases with luminosity, whilst at lower radio luminosities the position of the peak remains constant within the uncertainties. This `cosmic downsizing' behaviour is found to be similar to that seen at optical wavelengths for quasars, and is interpreted as representing the transition from radiatively efficient to inefficient accretion modes in the steep-spectrum population. This conclusion is supported by constructing simple models for the space density evolution of these two different radio galaxy classes; these are able to successfully reproduce the ...

  12. Radio access selection in multi-radio access systems

    Jorgušeski, L.; Litjens, R.; Zhiyi, C.; Nikookar, H.

    2007-01-01

    Future wireless access systems will be characterized by their heterogeneity from technological point of view. It is envisaged that in certain areas end-users will have a choice between various radio accesses (RAs) such as e.g. classical cellular networks (GSM, UMTS, WiMAX, etc), WLAN hot-spots, or o

  13. Intelligent Cognitive Radio Models for Enhancing Future Radio Astronomy Observations

    Ayodele Abiola Periola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio astronomy organisations desire to optimise the terrestrial radio astronomy observations by mitigating against interference and enhancing angular resolution. Ground telescopes (GTs experience interference from intersatellite links (ISLs. Astronomy source radio signals received by GTs are analysed at the high performance computing (HPC infrastructure. Furthermore, observation limitation conditions prevent GTs from conducting radio astronomy observations all the time, thereby causing low HPC utilisation. This paper proposes mechanisms that protect GTs from ISL interference without permanent prevention of ISL data transmission and enhance angular resolution. The ISL transmits data by taking advantage of similarities in the sequence of observed astronomy sources to increase ISL connection duration. In addition, the paper proposes a mechanism that enhances angular resolution by using reconfigurable earth stations. Furthermore, the paper presents the opportunistic computing scheme (OCS to enhance HPC utilisation. OCS enables the underutilised HPC to be used to train learning algorithms of a cognitive base station. The performances of the three mechanisms are evaluated. Simulations show that the proposed mechanisms protect GTs from ISL interference, enhance angular resolution, and improve HPC utilisation.

  14. RADIO FATWA Islamic Tanya-Jawab Programmes on Radio Dakwah

    Sunarwoto S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a study of radio fatwa in Indonesia with special referenceto the Tanya-Jawab genres in radio dakwah.The concept of fatwa haschanged over time. Such Islamic Tanya-Jawab programmes broadcast onradio dakwah are important to understand how fatwa is disseminated bymeans of media, since Islamic Tanya-Jawab programmes can be consideredas part of fatwa. These programmes give not only information about Islam,but also become a forum in which interpretation of Islam takes place. Thiscan be seen in the discussion on the Islamic ruling on eating “dog meat”, inwhich interpretation of Islamic law is highly contested.[Artikel ini mendisukusikan radio fatwa di Indonesia, utamanya tentangprogram tanya-jawab yang disiarkan radio dakwah. Konsep fatwa terusberubah dan program tanya-jawab merupakan salah satu cara bagaimanafatwa disebarluaskan melalui berbagai media. Penulis berpendapat bahwaprogram Tanya-Jawab dapat disebut sebagai salah satu bentuk fatwa. Inikarena program tersebut tidak saja mengetengahkan informasi mengenaiIslam, namun juga interpretasi mengenai Islam. Pedebatan mengenai hukummemakan daging anjing merupakan salah satu contoh isu kontrovesial yang akan dijelaskan melalui artikel ini.

  15. A Radio Astronomy Curriculum for the Middle School Classroom

    Davis, J.; Finley, D. G.

    2000-12-01

    In the summer of 2000, two teachers working on a Masters of Science Teaching program at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, spent eight weeks as interns at the Array Operations Center for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. The resulting projects will directly benefit students in the indvidual classrooms, as well as provide an easy-to-access resource for other educators. One of the products is a Radio Astronomy Curriculum for upper middle school classes. Radio astronomy images, based on scientific research results using NRAO's Very Large Array, are featured on trading cards which include an explanation, a ``web challenge'', and in some cases, a comparison of radio and optical images. Each trading card has corresponding lesson plans with background information about the images and astronomy concepts needed to do the lessons. Comparison of optical and radio astronomy is used as much as possible to explain the information from research using visible and radio wavelengths. New Mexico's Content Standards and Benchmarks (developed using national standards) for science education was used as a guide for the activities. The three strands of science listed in the standards, Unifying Concepts and Processes, Science as Inquiry, and Science Content are addressed in the lessons. Higher level thinking and problem solving skills are featured throughout the curriculum. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The NSF's RET program is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Radio-AGN in the AKARI-NEP field and their role in the evolution of galaxies

    Karouzos, Marios; 10.5303/PKAS.2012.27.4.287

    2013-01-01

    Radio-loud active galaxies have been found to exhibit a close connection to galactic mergers and host galaxy star-formation quenching. We present preliminary results of an optical spectroscopic investigation of the AKARI NEP field. We focus on the population of radio-loud AGN and use photometric and spectroscopic information to study both their star-formation and nuclear activity components. Preliminary results show that radio-AGN are associated with early type, massive galaxies with relatively old stellar populations.

  17. Are radio galaxies and quiescent galaxies different? Results from the analysis of HST brightness profiles

    De Ruiter, H R; Capetti, A; Fanti, R; Morganti, R; Santantonio, L

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the optical brightness profiles of early type galaxies, using a number of samples of radio galaxies and optically selected elliptical galaxies. For the radio galaxy samples--B2 of Fanaroff-Riley type I and 3C of Fanaroff-Riley type II-- we determined a number of parameters that describe a "Nuker-law" profile, which were compared with those already known for the optically selected objects. We find that radio active galaxies are always of the "core" type (i.e. an inner Nuker law slope gamma 0.5). This difference is not due to any effect with absolute magnitude, since in a region of overlap in magnitude the dichotomy between radio active and radio quiescent galaxies remains. We speculate that core-type objects represent the galaxies that have been, are, or may become, radio active at some stage in their lives; active and non-active core-type galaxies are therefore identical in all respects except their eventual radio-activity: on HST scales we do not find any relationship between boxiness ...

  18. Social media usage by teen segmented commercial private radio in Bandung

    Tri Lestari Martha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio is one of mass media which functions to inform, to educate, to entertain and to influence. In Indonesia, private commercial broadcast radios are the biggest in numbers with more than 700 radio stations throughout indonesia. Some of the private commmercial radio stations select audience segmentation of young people or teenagers. This is due to fact that numbers of young people dominate the whole population. Social media nowadays has become a primary need for most of its users, especially young people. The usage of social media as a tool in virtual social interaction, has also been used by many radio stations, especially whose target audience are teenagers. The usage of social media by teen segmented radio stations is not only for on-air activities, but also to support off-air activities. How the use of social media by teen segmented radio stations in Bandung, to support on-air and off-air activities, is the focus of this research. Through qualitative research with descriptive method, it is hoped to describe more comprehensively about the usage of social media by teen segmented private radio stations in Bandung.

  19. Noise and intercept point calculation for modern radio receiver planning

    Iversen, Christian Rye; Kolding, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents analytical expressions for determining noise and intercept points for cascaded radio receiver stages. The theory allows for active receiver stages with frequency selectivity and flexible impedance levels. This makes the method highly usable for planning of modem receivers where...

  20. Next generation wireless communications using radio over fiber

    Gomes, Nathan J; Gameiro, Atilio

    2012-01-01

    Taking a coherent and logical approach, this book describes the potential use of co-ordinated multipoint systems supported by radio over fiber. It covers an impressive breadth of topics, ranging from components, subsystem and system architecture, to network management and business perspectives. The authors show the importance of radio over fiber in eliminating or mitigating against the current, perceived barriers to the use of co-ordinated multipoint, and the drivers for standardisation activities in future mobile/wireless systems over the next few years. The book brings together the

  1. Radio disappearance of the magnetar XTE J1810-197 and continued X-ray timing

    Camilo, F; Halpern, J P; Alford, J A J; Cognard, I; Reynolds, J E; Johnston, S; Sarkissian, J; van Straten, W

    2016-01-01

    We report on timing, flux density, and polarimetric observations of the transient magnetar and 5.54 s radio pulsar XTE J1810-197 using the GBT, Nancay, and Parkes radio telescopes beginning in early 2006, until its sudden disappearance as a radio source in late 2008. Repeated observations through 2016 have not detected radio pulsations again. The torque on the neutron star, as inferred from its rotation frequency derivative f-dot, decreased in an unsteady manner by a factor of 3 in the first year of radio monitoring. In contrast, during its final year as a detectable radio source, the torque decreased steadily by only 9%. The period-averaged flux density, after decreasing by a factor of 20 during the first 10 months of radio monitoring, remained steady in the next 22 months, at an average of 0.7+/-0.3 mJy at 1.4 GHz, while still showing day-to-day fluctuations by factors of a few. There is evidence that during this last phase of radio activity the magnetar had a steep radio spectrum, in contrast to earlier be...

  2. Constraining the Redshift Evolution of FIRST Radio Sources in RCS1 Galaxy Clusters

    Gralla, Megan B; Yee, H K C; Barrientos, L Felipe

    2010-01-01

    We conduct a statistical analysis of the radio source population in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift by matching radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters (FIRST) catalog with 618 optically-selected galaxy clusters from the first Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS1). The number of excess radio sources (above the background level) per cluster is 0.14 +/- 0.02 for clusters with 0.35 1.5 sigma) in the number of radio sources per unit of cluster mass for the galaxy clusters with 0.35 4.1 X 10^(24) W/Hz) radio sources per unit (10^14 solar masses) mass, which we measure to be 0.031 +/- 0.004. We further characterize the population of galaxy cluster-related radio sources through visual inspection of the RCS1 images, finding that although the radio activity of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) also does not strongly evolve between our high and low redshift samples, the lower-redshift, richest clusters are more likely to host radio-loud BCGs than the higher-redshift, rich est...

  3. Infrared-faint radio sources in the SERVS deep fields. Pinpointing AGNs at high redshift

    Maini, A.; Prandoni, I.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Mignano, A.; Lacy, M.; Morganti, R.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) represent an unexpected class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelength, but unusually faint at infrared (IR) and optical wavelengths. A recent and extensive campaign on the radio-brightest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≳ 10 mJy) has provided evidence that most of them (if not all) contain an active galactic nuclei (AGN). Still uncertain is the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs (S1.4 GHz≲ 1 mJy). Aims: The scope of this paper is to assess the nature of the radio-faintest IFRSs, testing their classification and improving the knowledge of their IR properties by making use of the most sensitive IR survey available so far: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). We also explore how the criteria of IFRSs can be fine-tuned to pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at very high redshift (z > 4). Methods: We analysed a number of IFRS samples identified in SERVS fields, including a new sample (21 sources) extracted from the Lockman Hole. 3.6 and 4.5 μm IR counterparts of the 64 sources located in the SERVS fields were searched for and, when detected, their IR properties were studied. Results: We compared the radio/IR properties of the IR-detected IFRSs with those expected for a number of known classes of objects. We found that IR-detected IFRSs are mostly consistent with a mixture of high-redshift (z ≳ 3) radio-loud AGNs. The faintest ones (S1.4 GHz 100 μJy), however, could be also associated with nearer (z 2) dust-enshrouded star-burst galaxies. We also argue that, while IFRSs with radio-to-IR ratios >500 can very efficiently pinpoint radio-loud AGNs at redshift 2 < z < 4, lower radio-to-IR ratios ( 100-200) are expected for higher redshift radio-loud AGNs.

  4. LEP radio-frequency cavity

    1991-01-01

    One of the copper radio-frequency accelerating cavities installed for the first phase of LEP (1989-1995). Bunches of electrons and positrons circulated in LEP in opposite directions and were accelerated in eight different sets of 16 cavities (situated on either side of the four experiments), gaining 400 million volts of accelerating power per turn.

  5. The Highest Redshift Radio Galaxies

    Van Breugel, W

    2000-01-01

    At low redshifts powerful radio sources are uniquely associated with massive galaxies, and are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes. Modern 8m -- 10m telescopes may be used used to find their likely progenitors at very high redshifts to study their formation and evolution.

  6. Radio frequency propagation made easy

    Faruque, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Propagation to a broad audience.  The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications.  The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  7. Radio frequency modulation made easy

    Faruque, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Modulation to a broad audience. The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications. The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  8. Public safety and cognitive radio

    Heskamp, Marnix; Schiphorst, Roel; Slump, Kees; Wyglinsk, Alexander M.; Nekovee, Maziar; Hou, Y. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This book gives comprehensive and balanced coverage of the principles of cognitive radio communications, cognitive networks, and details of their implementation, including the latest developments in the standards and spectrum policy. Case studies, end-of-chapter questions, and descriptions of variou

  9. Radio Frequency Solid State Amplifiers

    Jacob, J

    2015-01-01

    Solid state amplifiers are being increasingly used instead of electronic vacuum tubes to feed accelerating cavities with radio frequency power in the 100 kW range. Power is obtained from the combination of hundreds of transistor amplifier modules. This paper summarizes a one hour lecture on solid state amplifiers for accelerator applications.

  10. Young Radio Amateurs Speak English.

    Freund, Bilha

    1997-01-01

    In an Israeli elementary school program to stimulate students' development of oral English skills, students write dialogs and conversation themes in areas of interest, then practice and conduct the conversations with amateur radio operators around the world. Challenges and successes are detailed. (MSE)

  11. Radio properties of local AGN

    Nagar, NM; Falcke, H; Wilson, AS; Mujica, R; Maiolino, R

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the radio properties of the similar to 470 nearby bright (northern) galaxies of the Palomar spectroscopic sample. Almost half the sample's galaxies have nuclei with emission-lines characteristic of AGN but with L-H alpha = 50% of all LLAGNs; there is no evidence against all L

  12. Radio observations of massive stars

    Blomme, Ronny

    2011-01-01

    Detectable radio emission occurs during almost all phases of massive star evolution. I will concentrate on the thermal and non-thermal continuum emission from early-type stars. The thermal radio emission is due to free-free interactions in the ionized stellar wind material. Early ideas that this would lead to an easy and straightforward way of measuring the mass-loss rates were thwarted by the presence of clumping in the stellar wind. Multi-wavelength observations provide important constraints on this clumping, but do not allow its full determination. Non-thermal radio emission is associated with binarity. This conclusion was already known for some time for Wolf-Rayet stars and in recent years it has become clear that it is also true for O-type stars. In a massive-star binary, the two stellar winds collide and around the shocks a fraction of the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. Spiralling in the magnetic field these electrons emit synchrotron radiation, which we detect as non-thermal radio em...

  13. Radio Properties of Pinwheel Nebulae

    Monnier, J D; Tuthill, P G; Danchi, W C

    2002-01-01

    A small number of dusty Wolf-Rayet stars have been resolved into pinwheel nebulae, defined by their ``rotating'' spiral dust shells observed in the infrared. This morphology is naturally explained by dust formation associated with colliding winds in a binary system. In order to confirm and further explore this hypothesis, we have observed the known pinwheel nebulae (WR 104 and WR 98a) as well as the suspected binary WR 112 at multiple radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array to search for non-thermal radio emission from colliding winds. The spectrum of each target is nearly flat between 5 and 22 GHz, consistent with the presence of non-thermal emission that is reduced at low frequencies by free-free absorption. This emission must lie outside the radio ``photosphere,'' leading us to estimate a lower limit to the physical size of the non-thermal emitting region that is larger than expected from current theory. Based on a radio and infrared comparison to WR 104 and 98a, we conclude that WR 112 is a likely can...

  14. China's Largest Radio Antenna System

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three-and-half-year efforts, the National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) has constructed two arrays of radio antennae: a 50m antenna at Miyun Station in Beijing and a 40m antenna in Kunming, capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  15. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  16. Constraining Radio Emission from Magnetars

    Lazarus, P.; Kaspi, V.M.; Champion, D.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Dib, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report on radio observations of five magnetars and two magnetar candidates carried out at 1950 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope in 2006-2007. The data from these observations were searched for periodic emission and bright single pulses. Also, monitoring observations of magnetar 4U 0142+61 follow

  17. Newnes radio and electronics engineer's pocket book

    Moorshead, H W; Perry, J

    1978-01-01

    Newnes Radio and Electronics Engineer's Pocket Book, Fifteenth Edition provides reference of the information relevant in radio and electronics engineering. The book presents tables, illustrations, and diagrams of various data used in radio and electronics engineering. The coverage of the text includes abbreviations and symbols, electrical equations, and code conversions. The text will be useful to engineers, technicians, and other professionals who require a reference about the different aspects of radio and electronics.

  18. Cognitive Radio Networks for Tactical Wireless Communications

    2014-12-01

    defined algorithm or rule-set. Tactical CRNs and commercial CRNs While both the commercial world and the tactical world use the term “cognitive radio ...they do not have exactly the same view of what it is. In the commercial world, cognitive radios are radios that use locally available spectrum, which...below compares various aspects of tactical and commercial cognitive radios and CR networks [10]. We focus more on tactical CRN in this paper as we

  19. LOFAR discovery of a 700-kpc remnant radio galaxy at low redshift

    Brienza, M; Morganti, R; Vilchez, N; Maddox, N; Murgia, M; Orru, E; Shulevski, A; Best, P N; Brüggen, M; Harwood, J J; Jamrozy, M; Jarvis, M J; Mahony, E K; McKean, J; Röttgering, H J A

    2015-01-01

    Remnant radio galaxies represent the final "dying" phase of radio galaxy evolution, in which the jets are no longer active. Due to their rarity in flux limited samples and the difficulty of identification, this "dying" phase remains poorly understood and the luminosity evolution largely unconstrained. Here we present the discovery, and detailed analysis of a large (700 kpc), low surface brightness remnant radio galaxy that has been identified in LOFAR images at 150 MHz. Combining LOFAR data with new follow-up Westerbork observations and archival data at higher frequencies we investigate the source morphology and spectral properties from 116 to 4850 MHz. By modelling the radio spectrum we probe characteristic timescales of the radio activity. The source has a relatively smooth, diffuse, amorphous appearance together with a very weak central compact core which is associated with the host galaxy located at z=0.051. From our ageing and morphological analysis it is clear that the nuclear engine is currently switch...

  20. 47 CFR 90.185 - Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple licensing of radio transmitting equipment in the mobile radio service. 90.185 Section 90.185 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES...

  1. Cognitive Radio for Smart Grid: Theory, Algorithms, and Security

    Raghuram Ranganathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cognitive radio and smart grid are two areas which have received considerable research impetus. Cognitive radios are intelligent software defined radios (SDRs that efficiently utilize the unused regions of the spectrum, to achieve higher data rates. The smart grid is an automated electric power system that monitors and controls grid activities. In this paper, the novel concept of incorporating a cognitive radio network as the communications infrastructure for the smart grid is presented. A brief overview of the cognitive radio, IEEE 802.22 standard and smart grid, is provided. Experimental results obtained by using dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA, kernel PCA, and landmark maximum variance unfolding (LMVU on Wi-Fi signal measurements are presented in a spectrum sensing context. Furthermore, compressed sensing algorithms such as Bayesian compressed sensing and the compressed sensing Kalman filter is employed for recovering the sparse smart meter transmissions. From the power system point of view, a supervised learning method called support vector machine (SVM is used for the automated classification of power system disturbances. The impending problem of securing the smart grid is also addressed, in addition to the possibility of applying FPGA-based fuzzy logic intrusion detection for the smart grid.

  2. Space Radio Astronomy in the next 1000001 (binary) years

    Gurvits, L I

    2012-01-01

    Radio astronomy and active exploration of space are peers: both began by efforts of enthusiasts in the 1930s and got a major technological boost in the 1940s-50s. Thus, for the sake of a brief review at this very special conference, it is fair to estimate the present age of these human endeavours as 1000001 (binary) years. These years saw a lot of challenging and fruitful concerted efforts by radio astronomers and space explorers. Among the high points one can mention several highly successful space-borne CMB observatories, three orbital VLBI missions, the first examples of radio observations at spectral windows hitherto closed for Earth-based observers and many yet to be implemented initiatives which are at various stages of their paths toward launch-pads of all major world space agencies. In this review I will give a bird-eye picture of the past achievements of space-oriented radio astronomy and zoom into several projects and ideas that will further push the presence of radio astronomy into the space agenda...

  3. Digging deep into the ULIRG phenomenon: When radio beats dust

    Perez-Torres, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Luminous and Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (U/LIRGs) do also radiate copious amounts of radio emission, both thermal (free-free) and non-thermal (mainly synchrotron). This is very handy since, unlike optical and infra-red observations, radio is not obscured by the ubiquitous dust present in U/LIRGs, which allows a direct view of the ongoing activity in the hearts of those prolific star-forming galaxies. Here, I first justify the need for this high-angular resolution radio studies of local U/LIRGs, discuss the energy budget and the magnetic field, as well as IC and synchrotron losses in U/LIRGs, and present some selected results obtained by our team on high-angular resolution radio continuum studies of U/LIRGs. Among other results, I show the impressive discovery of an extremely prolific supernova factory in the central ~150 pc of the galaxy Arp 299-A (D=45 Mpc) and the monitoring of a large number of very compact radio sources in it, the detection and precise location of the long-sought AGN in Arp 299-A. A...

  4. Observations of Supernova Remnants with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Egron, E; Loru, S; Iacolina, M N; Marongiu, M; Righini, S; Mulas, S; Murtas, G; Bachetti, M; Concu, R; Melis, A; Trois, A; Ricci, R; Pilia, M

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of the Astronomical Validation activities for the 64m Sardinia Radio Telescope, we performed 5-22 GHz imaging observations of the complex-morphology supernova remnants (SNRs) W44 and IC443. We adopted innovative observing and mapping techniques providing unprecedented accuracy for single-dish imaging of SNRs at these frequencies, revealing morphological details typically available only at lower frequencies through interferometry observations. High-frequency studies of SNRs in the radio range are useful to better characterize the spatially-resolved spectra and the physical parameters of different regions of the SNRs interacting with the ISM. Furthermore, synchrotron-emitting electrons in the high-frequency radio band are also responsible for the observed high-energy phenomenology as -e.g.- Inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emission components observed in gamma-rays, to be disentangled from hadron emission contribution (providing constraints on the origin of cosmic rays).

  5. Fate of baby radio galaxies: Dead or Alive ?

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kino, Motoki

    2008-01-01

    In order to reveal the long-term evolution of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we examine the dynamical evolution of variously-sized radio galaxies [i.e., compact symmetric objects (CSOs), medium-size symmetric objects (MSOs), Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies (FRIIs)]. By comparing the observed relation between the hot spot size and the linear size of radio source with a coevolution model of hot spot and cocoon, we find that the advance speed of hot spots and lobes inevitably show the deceleration phase (CSO-MSO phase) and the acceleration phase (MSO-FRII phase). The deceleration is caused by the growth of the cross-sectional area of the cocoon head. Moreover, by comparing the hot spot speed with the sound speed of the ambient medium, we predict that only CSOs whose initial advance speed is higher than 0.3-0.5c can evolve into FRIIs.

  6. Spectral structure of X-shaped radio sources

    Lal, D V; Lal, Dharam Vir

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope low frequency data for an X-shaped source, 3C 223.1 has revealed an unusual result as discussed earlier by Lal & Rao (2004, MNRAS in press). The radio morphologies of it at 240 and 610 MHz show a well-defined X-shaped structure with a pair of active jets along the north-south axis and a pair of wings along the east-west axis, that pass symmetrically through the undetected radio core. The wings (or low surface brightness jet) seem to have flatter spectral index with respect to the high surface brightness jet. This clearly shows the value of mapping the sample of X-shaped sources at low frequencies. Here we present our preliminary results for two more such sources.

  7. Fate of baby radio galaxies: Dead or alive?

    Kawakatu, N.; Nagai, H.; Kino, M.

    2009-02-01

    In order to reveal the long-term evolution of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we examine the dynamical evolution of variously-sized radio galaxies [i.e., compact symmetric objects (CSOs), medium-size symmetric objects (MSOs), Fanaroff-Riley type II radio galaxies (FRIIs)]. By comparing the observed relation between the hot spot size and the linear size of radio source with a coevolution model of hot spot and cocoon, we find that the advance speed of hot spots and lobes inevitably show the deceleration phase (CSO-MSO phase) and the acceleration phase (MSO-FRII phase). The deceleration is caused by the growth of the cross-sectional area of the cocoon head. Moreover, by comparing the hot spot speed with the sound speed of the ambient medium, we predict that only CSOs whose initial advance speed is higher than 0.3-0.5 c can evolve into FRIIs.

  8. New trends in meteor radio receivers

    Rault, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Recent progresses in low cost—but performing—SDR (software defined radio) technology presents a major breakthrough in the domain of meteor radio observations. Their performances are now good enough for meteor work and should therefore encourage newcomers to join the meteor radio community.

  9. 78 FR 37474 - Commercial Radio Operators

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 13 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... years, the information collection associated with commercial radio licenses, as well as for Commercial Operator License Examination Managers (COLEM(s)) that administer commercial radio operator licenses...

  10. 75 FR 66709 - Commercial Radio Operators Rules

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80, and 87 Commercial Radio Operators Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications... within the commercial radio operators service, to determine which rules can be clarified, streamlined, or... proceeding to amend the Commercial Radio Operators rules, and related rules in parts 0, 1, 80, and...

  11. 78 FR 23150 - Commercial Radio Operators

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0, 1, 13, 80 and 87 Commercial Radio Operators AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends our rules concerning commercial radio operator... hold an appropriate commercial radio operator license. The Commission initiated this proceeding...

  12. 62. The Return of Educational Radio?

    Berman, Sally D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines one of the traditional technologies of distance education, radio, and presents examples of educational and community radio usage in Asia and Africa. Instead of merely transposing western approaches to distance education in developing countries, it is suggested that the developed world can learn from uses of radio in developing…

  13. 46 CFR 169.715 - Radio.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio. 169.715 Section 169.715 Shipping COAST GUARD..., Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.715 Radio. (a) Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone installations are... Regulations, part 83. (b) A valid certificate issued by the FCC is evidence that the radio installation is...

  14. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so

  15. Double-double radio galaxies: further insights into the formation of the radio structures

    Brocksopp, Catherine; Schoenmakers, Arno; de Bruyn, Ger

    2010-01-01

    Double-double radio galaxies (DDRGs) offer a unique opportunity for us to study multiple episodes of jet activity in large-scale radio sources. We use radio data from the Very Large Array and the literature to model two DDRGs, B1450+333 and B1834+620, in terms of their dynamical evolution. We find that the standard Fanaroff-Riley II model is able to explain the properties of the two outer lobes of each source, whereby the lobes are formed by ram-pressure balance of a shock at the end of the jet with the surrounding medium. The inner pairs of lobes, however, are not well-described by the standard model. Instead we interpret the inner lobes as arising from the emission of relativistic electrons within the outer lobes, which are compressed and re-accelerated by the bow-shock in front of the restarted jets and within the outer lobes. The predicted rapid progression of the inner lobes through the outer lobes requires the eventual development of a hotspot at the edge of the outer lobe, causing the DDRG ultimately t...

  16. The nature of extragalactic radio-jets from high-resolution radio-interferometric observations

    Perucho, Manel

    2015-01-01

    Extragalactic jets are a common feature of radio-loud active galaxies. The nature of the observed jets in relation to the bulk flow is still unclear. In particular it is not clear whether the observations of parsec-scale jets using the very long baseline interferometric technique (VLBI) reveal wave-like structures that develop and propagate along the jet, or trace the jet flow itself. In this contribution I review the evidence collected during the last years showing that the ridge-lines of helical radio-jets do not correspond to observational artifacts. This conclusion was reached by studying a number of VLBI observations of the radio jet in the quasar S5~0836+710 at different frequencies and epochs. The ridge-line of the emission in the jet coincides at all frequencies within the errors. Moreover, small differences between the ridge-lines as observed at different epochs reveal wave-like motion transversal to the jet propagation axis. I also discuss similar results, albeit with different interpretations, obta...

  17. Wafer Scale Distributed Radio

    2009-07-01

    elevated patch antenna. micron 1, 2j. [31] POZAR , D. Considerations for millimeter wave printed antennas. IEEE Transactions on antennas and propagation...31, 5 (1983), 740–747. [32] POZAR , D. Analysis of finite phased arrays of printed dipoles. IEEE Transactions on An- tennas and Propagation 33, 10...1985), 1045–1053. [33] POZAR , D. The active element pattern. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 42, 8 (1994), 1176–1178. 92 90 [34] PRODANOV

  18. The Dynamics of Radio Galaxies and Double–Double Radio Galaxies

    C. Konar; M. Jamrozy; M. J. Hardcastle; J. H. Croston; S. Nandi; D. J. Saikia; J. Machalski

    2011-12-01

    Relativistic and magnetized plasma ejected by radio loud AGNs through jets form the diffuse lobes of radio galaxies. The radiating particles (electron/electron–positron) in lobes emit in radio via the synchrotron process and X-ray via inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. The thermal environment around radio galaxies emits X-rays via the thermal bremsstrahlung process. By combining information from these processes we can measure physical conditions in and around the radio lobes and thus study the dynamics of radio galaxies, including double–double radio galaxies.

  19. Periodic optical variability of radio-detected ultracool dwarfs

    Harding, L. K.; Golden, A.; Singh, Navtej; Sheehan, B.; Butler, R. F. [Centre for Astronomy, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Hallinan, G. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boyle, R. P. [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zavala, R. T., E-mail: lkh@astro.caltech.edu [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    A fraction of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are known to be radio active, in some cases producing periodic pulses. Extensive studies of two such objects have also revealed optical periodic variability, and the nature of this variability remains unclear. Here, we report on multi-epoch optical photometric monitoring of six radio-detected dwarfs, spanning the ∼M8-L3.5 spectral range, conducted to investigate the ubiquity of periodic optical variability in radio-detected ultracool dwarfs. This survey is the most sensitive ground-based study carried out to date in search of periodic optical variability from late-type dwarfs, where we obtained 250 hr of monitoring, delivering photometric precision as low as ∼0.15%. Five of the six targets exhibit clear periodicity, in all cases likely associated with the rotation period of the dwarf, with a marginal detection found for the sixth. Our data points to a likely association between radio and optical periodic variability in late-M/early-L dwarfs, although the underlying physical cause of this correlation remains unclear. In one case, we have multiple epochs of monitoring of the archetype of pulsing radio dwarfs, the M9 TVLM 513–46546, spanning a period of 5 yr, which is sufficiently stable in phase to allow us to establish a period of 1.95958 ± 0.00005 hr. This phase stability may be associated with a large-scale stable magnetic field, further strengthening the correlation between radio activity and periodic optical variability. Finally, we find a tentative spin-orbit alignment of one component of the very low mass binary, LP 349–25.

  20. The relationship between the radio core dominance parameter and the spectral index in different classes of extragalactic radio sources

    Jun-Hui Fan; Jiang-He Yang; Jing Pan; Tong-Xu Hua

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have two major classes,namely radio loud AGNs and radio quiet AGNs.A small subset of the radio-loud AGNs is called blazars,which display extreme observational properties,such as rapid variability,high Iuminosity,high and variable polarization,and superluminal motion.All of those observational properties are probably due to a relativistic beaming effect with the jet pointing close to the line of sight.Observations suggest that the orientation can be expressed by a core-dominance parameter,R.The R,to some extent,is associated with the beaming effect.Blazars are believed to be unified with Fanaroff & Riley type I/Ⅱ (FRI/Ⅱ)radio galaxies.In this work,we collected relevant observations from the literature for a sample of 1223 AGNs including 77 BL Lacertae objects,495 quasars,460 galaxies,119 FRs and 72 unidentified sources,and calculated the core-dominance parameters and spectral indexes,discussed the relationship between the two parameters,and gave some discussions.Our analysis suggests that the core-dominance parameters in BL Lacertae objects are larger than those in quasars and galaxies,and the radio spectral indexes in BL Lacertae objects are lower than those in quasars and galaxies.We also found that the core-dominance parameter-spectral index correlation exists for a large sample presented in this work,which may come from a relativistic beaming effect.

  1. The Role of Alternative Programming in College Radio.

    Sauls, Samuel J.

    College radio is quite often viewed as the true alternative to commercial radio. However, what is alternative radio and how does college radio factor into the ideal? To further understand this concept, this paper focuses on the role of alternative programming in college radio. Areas discussed include alternative radio as a non-mainstream form of…

  2. De radio en radio: el escenario radiofónico

    Lic. Dulce María García Dávila

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discierne sobre concepciones modernas de programación radiofónica y presenta los resultados que arrojó el estudio del escenario radiofónico de la ciudad de Maracaibo, con el uso de la técnica de la audiografía. Nos ofrece una descripción de los tipos de programación, la música, los programas informativos y de opinión, las estrategias de promoción y publicitarias más utilizadas por las emisoras de amplitud modulada en la ciudad. Este estudio forma parte de una primera etapa del proyecto de investigación titulado "Hacia un modelo de radio educativa y popular para el Occidente del país, a partir de la experiencia de Radio Fe y Alegría 850 AM".

  3. Advanced Radio Resource Management for Multi Antenna Packet Radio Systems

    Nonchev, Stanislav; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2201

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose fairness-oriented packet scheduling (PS) schemes with power-efficient control mechanism for future packet radio systems. In general, the radio resource management functionality plays an important role in new OFDMA based networks. The control of the network resource division among the users is performed by packet scheduling functionality based on maximizing cell coverage and capacity satisfying, and certain quality of service requirements. Moreover, multiantenna transmit-receive schemes provide additional flexibility to packet scheduler functionality. In order to mitigate inter-cell and co-channel interference problems in OFDMA cellular networks soft frequency reuse with different power masks patterns is used. Stemming from the earlier enhanced proportional fair scheduler studies for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems, we extend the development of efficient packet scheduling algorithms by adding transmit power considerations in the ove...

  4. K. C. Yeh: Radio Science Editor

    Advances in satellite technology and computer science have had the greatest impact on radio science in the last quarter century, according to Kung Chie Yeh, the new editor of Radio Science. Yeh, whose term began July 1 (Eos, April 12, 1983, p. 137, February 22, 1983, p. 73), is a professor in the electrical engineering department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.An international authority on ionospheric radio physics, Yeh also is known for his work on trans-ionospheric radio wave propagation as it affects earth-space communications and satellite navigation. Hehas been studying radio science for nearly 30 years.

  5. Throughput Analysis for Cognitive Radio (CR Systems

    Ahmed S.Kadhim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio networks, the secondary network (users are allowed to utilize the frequency bands of primary network (users when they are not currently being used. To support this function, the secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary user is found to be active, the secondary users have to vacate the channel within certain amount of time. There are two parameters related to channel sensing: probability of detection and probability of false alarm. The higher the detection probability, the better the primary users can be protected. However, from the secondary users’ perspective, the lower the false alarm probability, the more chances the channel can be reused,thus the higher the achievable throughput for the secondary users. In this paper, we study the fundamental tradeoff between sensing capability and achievable throughput of the secondary users. Also, we present a design for sensing slot duration to maximize the achievable throughput for the secondary users under the constraint that the primary users are sufficiently protected. Using energy detection scheme, an optimal sensing time which provides the best tradeoff is given. Cooperative sensing is alsostudied based on the methodology of the proposed sensing throughput tradeoff. Computer simulations arepresented to evaluate the proposed tradeoff methodology

  6. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    Mingarelli, Chiara M F; Lazio, T Joseph W

    2015-01-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact, without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally the luminosity was expected in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS--BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is $20\\%-80\\%$ as luminous, given 0.5~ms timing resolution. The main burst is from the peak luminosity before merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic ...

  7. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service...

  8. Radio-quiet Fast Coronal Mass Ejections

    Gopalswamy, N.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shocks in the interplanetary medium that produce type II radio emission. These CMEs are faster and wider on the average, than the general population of CMEs. However, when we start from fast (speed > 900 km/s) and wide (angular width > 60 degrees), more than half of them are not associated with radio bursts. In order to understand why these CMEs are radio quiet, we collected all the fast and wide (FW) CMEs detected by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and isolated those without associated type II radio bursts. The radio bursts were identified in the dynamic spectra of the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) Experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We also checked the list against metric type II radio bursts reported in Solar Geophysical Data and isolated those without any radio emission. This exercise resulted in about 140 radio-quiet FW CMEs. We identified the source regions of these CMEs using the Solar Geophysical Data listings, cross-checked against the eruption regions in the SOHO/EIT movies. We explored a number of possibilities for the radio-quietness: (i) Source region being too far behind the limb, (ii) flare size, (iii) brightness of the CME, and (iv) the density of the ambient medium. We suggest that a combination of CME energy and the Alfven speed profile of the ambient medium is primarily responsible for the radio-quietness of these FW CMEs.

  9. Propagation engineering in radio links design

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner.  This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models.  This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main  parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...

  10. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Kang, Hyesung

    2015-01-01

    We explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud of fossil relativistic electrons in the cluster periphery. Such a scenario could explain uniformity of the surface brightness and spectral curvature in the integrated spectra of thin arc-like radio relics. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. The surface brightness profile of radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated as well. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed $u_s \\sim 3,000 \\kms$ and sonic Mach number $M_s \\sim 3$. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over $(0.1-10) \

  11. KARAKTERISTIK BAHASA PENYIAR RADIO JPI FM SOLO

    Muhammad Rohmadi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa adalah alat komunikasi yang digunakan penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo untuk berkomunikasi dengan para pendengarnya. Bahasa penyiar radio memiliki berbagai variasi dan karakter tersendiri dibandingkan bahasa-bahasa yang digunakan dalam ranah pendidikan, pemerintahan, dan keluarga. Karakteristik ragam bahasa penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo diwarnal campur kode, alih kode, dan nuansa humor dalam siarannya. Tujuan utama penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo adalah untuk menarik simpati pendengar dan berinteraksi dengan para pendengar Radio JPI FM Solo secara kreatif. Selain itu, ragam bahasa penyiar Radio JPI FM Solo memanfatkan beberapa fungsi utama ketika berkomunikasi dengan pendengarnya. Fungsi-fungsi tersebut adalah fungsi puitik, fungsi direktif, fungsi fatis, fungsi ekspresif, dan fungsi referensial dalam siaran Radio JPI FM Solo.

  12. Relic Radio Bubbles and Cluster Cooling Flows

    De Young, D S

    2003-01-01

    Recent suggestions that buoyant radio emitting cavities in the intracluster medium can cause significant reheating of cooling flows are re-examined when the effects of the intracluster magnetic field are included. Expansion of the cavity creates a tangential magnetic field in the ICM around the radio source, and this field can suppress instabilities that mix the ICM and the radio source. The onset of instability can be delayed for ~100 million years, and calculation of the actual reheating time shows that this may not occur until about 1Gy after creation of the cavity. These results may explain why the relic radio bubbles are still intact at such late times, and it may imply that the role of radio sources in reheating the ICM should be re-examined. In addition, the existence of relic radio cavities may also imply that the particle content of radio source lobes is primarily electrons and protons rather than electrons and positrons.

  13. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  14. The MOJAVE Chandra Sample: A Correlation Study of Blazars and Radio Galaxies in X-ray and Radio Wavelengths

    Hogan, Brandon Scott

    2011-05-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory has increased the quality and number of detections the X-ray regime since its launch in 1999. It is an important tool for studying the jets which are associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and their possible emission mechanisms. The MOJAVE Chandra Sample (MCS) is a sample of 27 AGN which have been selected from the radio flux-limited MOJAVE (Monitoring of Jets in AGN with VLBA Experiments) sample. The objects contained in the MOJAVE sample are traditionally associated with relativistically beamed jets that have small viewing angles. The MCS was created to study the correlation of X-ray and radio emission on kiloparsec scales. The complete sample is made up of all MOJAVE Fanaroff & Riley type II objects which have over 100 mJy of extended radio emission at 1.4 GHz and a radio structure of at least 3" in extent. Chandra observations have revealed X-ray and radio correlation in 21 of the 27 jets, bringing the detection rate to ˜78%. The selection criteria provides a quantitative method of discovering new X-ray jets associated with AGN from radio observations. The X-ray morphologies are usually well correlated with the radio emission, except for the sources which show extreme bending on the kiloparsec scale. The emission mechanism for these relativistically beamed quasars and radio galaxies can be interpreted as inverse Compton scattering off of the cosmic microwave background by the electrons in the jets (IC/CMB). The emission mechanism is reinforced by spectral energy distributions (SED) which model the emission mechanisms for sources with sufficient X-ray, optical, and radio data available. I have explored the effects of jet bending and jet deceleration in conjunction with the inverse Compton emission model and used different scenarios to derive best fit viewing angles and bulk Lorentz factors, which were calculated by using the superluminal speeds along with parameters that were derived from the IC/CMB model. The range of

  15. Review of the human resources needed for development of the activity in a service hospital radio physics; Revision de los medios humanos necesarios para el desarrollo de la actividad en un servicio de radiofisica hospitalaria

    Almansa, J. F.; Burgos, D. E.; Guerrero, R.

    2011-07-01

    The age of the recommendations on minimum human and material resources of the SEFM, along with the emergence of new imaging techniques and new equipment, plus analysis of recent international publications relating to the subject and the establishment of relative value units in several Spanish regions, justify a revision of the minimum necessary human resources to carry out the tasks of Radio physics service with adequate safety and quality.

  16. CGCG292-057: A Near-Distance Merger Galaxy with Double;Double Radio Lobes and X-shape Structure

    M. Jamrozy; D. Kozieł-Wierzbowska; S. Zoła; A. Kuźmicz; J. Machalski

    2011-12-01

    J1159+5820 is an extended radio galaxy with a quite unusual morphology, featuring two pairs of radio lobes. Such sources, called double–double radio galaxies, constitute a very rare class of extragalactic radio sources. Furthermore, the extended radio structure of this source shows an X-shape form. According to a much likely scenario, such a morphology is due to interrupting nuclear activity in its central active galactic nucleus. Interestingly, the host of this source is a near-distance bright galaxy named CGCG292-057, which is clearly disturbed, with tidal features and shells as plausible signs of a recent merger.

  17. The radio-frequency quadrupole

    Vretenar, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerators appeared on the accelerator scene in the late 1970s and have since revolutionized the domain of low-energy proton and ion acceleration. The RFQ makes the reliable production of unprecedented ion beam intensities possible within a compact radio-frequency (RF) resonator which concentrates the three main functions of the low-energy linac section: focusing, bunching and accelerating. Its sophisticated electrode structure and strict beam dynamics and RF requirements, however, impose severe constraints on the mechanical and RF layout, making the construction of RFQs particularly challenging. This lecture will introduce the main beam optics, RF and mechanical features of a RFQ emphasizing how these three aspects are interrelated and how they contribute to the final performance of the RFQ.

  18. Radio physics of the sun; Proceedings of the Symposium, University of Maryland, College Park, Md., August 7-10, 1979

    Kundu, M. R. (Editor); Gergely, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented in the areas of the radio characteristics of the quiet sun and active regions, the centimeter, meter and decameter wavelength characteristics of solar bursts, space observations of low-frequency bursts, theoretical interpretations of solar active regions and bursts, joint radio, visual and X-ray observations of active regions and bursts, and the similarities of stellar radio characteristics to solar radio phenomena. Specific topics include the centimeter and millimeter wave characteristics of the quiet sun, radio fluctuations arising upon the transit of shock waves through the transition region, microwave, EUV and X-ray observations of active region loops and filaments, interferometric observations of 35-GHz radio bursts, emission mechanisms for radio bursts, the spatial structure of microwave bursts, observations of type III bursts, the statistics of type I bursts, and the numerical simulation of type III bursts. Attention is also given to the theory of type IV decimeter bursts, Voyager observations of type II and III bursts at kilometric wavelengths, radio and whitelight observations of coronal transients, and the possibility of obtaining radio observations of current sheets on the sun.

  19. Exploration of the Radio-Loud/Radio Quiet Dichotomy for QSO: Using Radio Morphology and 4D Eigenvector 1

    Zamfir, Sebastian; Sulentic, J. W.; Marziani, P.; Dultzin, D.

    2007-12-01

    The reality of a RL/RQ Dichotomy for QSO remains an open problem. Recent studies not only provide us with contradictory results, but also display the confusion of comparing conclusions drawn on the basis of different views on "what means radio-loud"? We propose a definition of radio loudness based on three criteria (simultaneously applied): radio morphology, radio luminosity and radio-optical flux density ratio. Fanaroff-Riley II radio sources (FRIIs) are assumed to be the parent population of RL quasars, while the core dominated RL quasars are assumed to be preferentially aligned FRIIs. Orientation-unification then suggests the RQ-RL boundary is set by the least radio luminous FRII and by the lowest radio-optical ratio for an FRII. We also consider RL and RQ quasars in the context of a 4D Eigenvector 1 (4DE1) Parameter Space that is defined independently of any radio measure. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data for 400+ QSO (z<0.7 and brighter than psf g =17.5), coupled with FIRST and NVSS radio surveys (1.4GHz), we show that classical RL sources distribute very differently from the RQ majority of QSO.

  20. The most luminous radio galaxies

    Malcolm S. Longair

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten las propiedades de las fuentes de radio extragal acticas m as brillantes y de sus galaxias an trionas. Estas fuentes est an asociadas con las galaxias m as masivas conocidas hasta el corrimiento al rojo de al menos 2. Resultan ser una clase unica de objetos para estudiar los n ucleos gal acticos extremadamente activos y sus galaxias an trionas, y representan retos para entender la formaci on de las galaxias m as masivas.

  1. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  2. Very high redshift radio galaxies

    van Breugel, W.J.M., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    High redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) provide unique targets for the study of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters at very high redshifts. We discuss how efficient HzRG samples ae selected, the evidence for strong morphological evolution at near-infracd wavelengths, and for jet-induced star formation in the z = 3 800 HzRG 4C41 17

  3. TEACHING ENGLISH LISTENING BY RADIO

    1998-01-01

    After noting the difficulty of teaching the skill of listening in China, the paper reports on an English by radio project at the author’s university, and suggests the reasons for its success. Problems in the teaching of listening in China THE development of listening skills for non-English majors receives some emphasis in Chinese universities nowadays. More authentic British and American recorded materials are being included. But listening is

  4. COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTER RADIO RELICS: INSIGHTS AND WARNINGS FOR OBSERVATIONS

    Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Norman, Michael L., E-mail: samuel.skillman@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic-ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio relic properties on the viewing angle of the cluster, raising concerns regarding the interpretation of observed radio features in clusters. We also find that a given shock should not be characterized by a single Mach number. We find that the bulk of the radio emission comes from gas with T > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, {rho} {approx} 10{sup -28}-10{sup -27} g cm{sup -3}, with magnetic field strengths of 0.1-1.0 {mu}G, and shock Mach numbers of M {approx} 3-6. We present an analysis of the radio spectral index which suggests that the spatial variation of the spectral index can mimic synchrotron aging. Finally, we examine the polarization fraction and position angle of the simulated radio features, and compare to observations.

  5. The column density distribution of hard X-ray radio galaxies

    Panessa, F.; Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Bazzano, A.; Dallacasa, D.; La Franca, F.; Malizia, A.; Venturi, T.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGN) with jets, we have studied the column density distribution of a hard X-ray selected sample of radio galaxies, derived from the INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS) and Swift/The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) AGN catalogues (˜7-10 per cent of the total AGN population). The 64 radio galaxies have a typical FR II radio morphology and are characterized by high 20-100 keV luminosities (from 1042 to 1046 erg s-1) and high Eddington ratios (log LBol/LEdd typically larger than ˜0.01). The observed fraction of absorbed AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2) is around 40 per cent among the total sample, and ˜75 per cent among type 2 AGN. The majority of obscured AGN are narrow-line objects, while unobscured AGN are broad-line objects, obeying to the zeroth-order predictions of unified models. A significant anti-correlation between the radio core dominance parameter and the X-ray column density is found. The observed fraction of Compton thick AGN is ˜2-3 per cent, in comparison with the 5-7 per cent found in radio-quiet hard X-ray selected AGN. We have estimated the absorption and Compton thick fractions in a hard X-ray sample containing both radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies and therefore affected by the same selection biases. No statistical significant difference was found in the absorption properties of radio galaxies and non-radio galaxies sample. In particular, the Compton thick objects are likely missing in both samples and the fraction of obscured radio galaxies appears to decrease with luminosity as observed in hard X-ray non-radio galaxies.

  6. Constraints on Accretion Disk Physics in Low Luminosity Radio Galaxies

    Baum, Stefi; Noel-Storr, Jacob; O'Dea, Christopher

    2008-03-01

    It is currently believed that essentially all galaxies harbor a massive black hole in their nuclei. If this is true, then it becomes hard to understand why we do not see the luminosity released by the inevitable accretion of the galaxy ISM onto the black hole in all galaxies. The differences in AGN output between the two classes of narrow-line radio galaxies (FRI and FRII) may hold the vital clue. High radio luminosity FRIIs generally show strong high-excitation narrow lines and are believed to be the obscured counterparts of radio loud quasars. Low radio luminosity FRIs by contrast have weaker, low-ionization lines and low ratios of optical to radio luminosities. A large difference in accretion rate and radiative efficiency between FRI and FRIIs would explain the difference in the optical properties and also provide a new unification between different classes of active galaxies in which the dominant parameter is accretion rate. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations already exist for most of a well defined sample of FRIs. However, the previously observed objects are the 'famous' ones, e.g., M87, M84, NGC315, 3C264, 3C31. Thus, the existing datasets are highly selected. Here we propose a very small request to complete the sample. We propose IRAC observations in all 4 bands, and MIPS photometry at 24 and 70 microns of 8, and 7 sources, respectively, for a total request of 1.7 hrs. These observations will complete the sample at very little cost in observing time. The large amount of existing complmentary data at multiple wavebands will greatly enhance the legacy value of the proposed observations. By completing the sample, the proposed IRAC and MIPS observations will produce a well defined and very well studied sample of nearby low luminosity radio galaxies. We will use the completed sample to investigate the properties of the accretion disk radiation, and the circumnuclear obscuring material.

  7. Building a pipeline of talent for operating radio observatories

    Wingate, Lory M.

    2016-07-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) National and International Non-Traditional Exchange (NINE) Program teaches concepts of project management and systems engineering in a focused, nine-week, continuous effort that includes a hands-on build project with the objective of constructing and verifying the performance of a student-level basic radio instrument. The combination of using a project management (PM)/systems engineering (SE) methodical approach based on internationally recognized standards in completing this build is to demonstrate clearly to the learner the positive net effects of following methodical approaches to achieving optimal results. It also exposes the learner to basic radio science theory. An additional simple research project is used to impress upon the learner both the methodical approach, and to provide a basic understanding of the functional area of interest to the learner. This program is designed to teach sustainable skills throughout the full spectrum of activities associated with constructing, operating and maintaining radio astronomy observatories. NINE Program learners thereby return to their host sites and implement the program in their own location as a NINE Hub. This requires forming a committed relationship (through a formal Letter of Agreement), establishing a site location, and developing a program that takes into consideration the needs of the community they represent. The anticipated outcome of this program is worldwide partnerships with fast growing radio astronomy communities designed to facilitate the exchange of staff and the mentoring of under-represented1 groups of learners, thereby developing a strong pipeline of global talent to construct, operate and maintain radio astronomy observatories.

  8. Herschel-ATLAS/GAMA: What determines the far-infrared properties of radio-galaxies?

    Virdee, Jasmeer; Rawlings, Steven; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Mauch, Tom; Jarvis, Matt; Verma, Aprajita; Smith, Daniel; Heywood, Ian; White, Sarah; Baes, Martin; Cooray, Asantha; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Eales, Steve; Michalowski, Michal; Bourne, Nathan; Dariush, Ali; Dunne, Loretta; Hopwood, Rosalind; Ibar, Eduardo; Maddox, Steve; Smith, Matthew; Valiante, Elisabetta; 10.1093/mnras/stt488

    2013-01-01

    We perform a stacking analysis of H-ATLAS data in order to obtain isothermal dust temperatures and rest-frame luminosities at 250um (L250), for 1599 radio sources over the H-ATLAS P1 GAMA area. The radio sample is generated using a combination of NVSS data and K-band UKIDSS-LAS data, over 0.011.5 L_{K}^{*}) may have systematically lower FIR luminosities (~25%) than their colour-matched non radio-detected counterparts. Compact radio sources (30kpc) counterparts. The higher dust temperature suggests that this may be attributed to enhanced SFRs, but whether this is directly or indirectly due to radio activity (e.g. jet induced or merger-driven SF) is as yet unknown.

  9. Radio Galaxies and the Magnetization of the IGM

    Wiita, P J

    2003-01-01

    Observed radio galaxies had a much higher comoving density during the `quasar era', at z ~ 2-3, but these sources are only detectable for small fractions of their active lifetimes at such high z due to expansion losses and increased inverse Compton losses against the cosmic microwave background. Using recent models for the evolution of the size and luminosity of powerful double radio sources, as well as LCDM simulations of the cosmic web of baryonic material, we argue that during the quasar era a high volume fraction of this web was occupied by the lobes of double radio sources. They could have seeded the IGM with an average magnetic field approaching 10^{-8} G. Further, these advancing overpressured lobes could compress the denser interstellar gas clouds of the galaxies engulfed by them and thus trigger starbursts. This can probably account for much of the intense star-formation activity witnessed beyond z ~ 1.5. Also, the sweeping up of the ISM of the gas-rich galaxies by the rapidly advancing radio lobes m...

  10. Stellar populations in a complete sample of local radio galaxies

    Raimann, D; Quintana, H; Hunstead, R; Wisotzki, L

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the continuum emission and stellar populations in the inner 1-3 kiloparsecs of a complete sample of twenty-four southern radio galaxies, and compare the results with a control sample of eighteen non-active early-type galaxies. Twelve of the radio galaxies are classified as Fanaroff-Riley type I (FRI), eight as FRII and four as intermediate or undefined type (FRx). Optical long-slit spectra are used to perform spectral synthesis as a function of distance from the nucleus at an average sampling of 0.5-1.0kpc and quantify the relative contributions of a blue featureless continuum and stellar population components of different ages. Our main finding is a systematic difference between the stellar populations of the radio and control sample galaxies: the former have a larger contribution from an intermediate age (1Gyr) component, suggesting a connection between the present radio activity and a starburst which occurred about 1Gyr ago. In addition, we find a correlation between the contri...

  11. Multiple shock structures in a radio selected cluster of galaxies

    Brown, Shea; Rudnick, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    We present a new radio-selected cluster of galaxies, 0217+70, using observations from the Very Large Array and archival optical and X-ray data. The new cluster is one of only seven known that has candidate double peripheral radio relics, and the only one of those with a giant radio halo (GRH), as well. It also contains unusual diffuse radio filaments interior to the peripheral relics, and a clumpy, elongated X-ray structure. All of these indicate a very actively evolving system, with ongoing accretion and merger activity, illuminating a network of shocks, such as those first seen in numerical simulations. The peripheral relics are most easily understood as outgoing spherical merger shocks with large variations in brightness along them, likely reflecting the inhomogeneities in the shocks' magnetic fields . The interior filaments could be projections of substructures from the sheet-like peripheral shocks, or they might be separate structures due to multiple accretion events. ROSAT images show large-scale diffus...

  12. 225m Outdoor W-Band Radio-over-Fiber Link Using an Optical SFP+ Module

    Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Chorchos, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    A W-band radio-over-fiber link based on a commercial SFP+ module is demonstrated, allowing easy integration into existing PON solutions. Without active laser control good RF frequency stability and 225m wireless distance are achieved......A W-band radio-over-fiber link based on a commercial SFP+ module is demonstrated, allowing easy integration into existing PON solutions. Without active laser control good RF frequency stability and 225m wireless distance are achieved...

  13. Radio Emissions from Plasma with Electron Kappa-Distributions

    Fleishman, G. D.; Kuznetsov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Gregory Fleishman (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, USA)Alexey Kuznetsov (Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk, Russia), Currently there is a concern about the ability of the classical thermal (Maxwellian) distribution to describe quasisteady-state plasma in the solar atmosphere, including active regions. In particular, other distributions have been proposed to better fit observations, for example, kappa-distributions. If present, these distributions will generate radio emissions with different observable properties compared with the classical gyroresonance (GR) or free-free emission, which implies a way of remotely detecting these kappa distributions in the radio observations. Here we present analytically derived GR and free-free emissivities and absorption coefficients for the kappa-distribution, and discuss their properties, which are in fact remarkably different from the classical Maxwellian plasma. In particular, the radio brightness temperature from a gyrolayer increases with the optical depth τ for kappa-distribution. This property has a remarkable consequence allowing a straightforward observational test: the GR radio emission from the non-Maxwellian distributions is supposed to be noticeably polarized even in the optically thick case, where the emission would have strictly zero polarization in the case of Maxwellian plasma. This offers a way of remote probing the plasma distribution in astrophysical sources, including solar active regions as a vivid example. In this report, we present analytical formulae and computer codes to calculate the emission parameters. We simulate the gyroresonance emission under the conditions typical of the solar active regions and compare the results for different electron distributions. We discuss the implications of our findings for interpretation of radio observations. This work was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-1250374 and AGS-1262772, NASA grant NNX14AC87G to New Jersey Institute of Technology

  14. Are Homologous Radio Bursts Driven by Solar Post-Flare Loops?

    2007-01-01

    Three particularly complex radio bursts (2001 October 19, 2001 April 10 and 2003 October 26) obtained with the spectrometers (0.65-7.6 GHz) at the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC, Beijing and Yunnan) and other instruments (NoRH, TRACE and SXT) are presented. They each have two groups of peaks occurring in different frequency ranges (broad-band microwave and narrow-band decimeter wavelengths). We stress that the second group of burst peaks that occurred in the late phase of the flares and associated with post-flare loops may be homologous radio bursts. We think that they are driven by the post-flare loops. In contrast to the time profiles of the radio bursts and the images of coronal magnetic polarities, we are able to find that the three events are caused by the active regions including main single-bipole magnetic structures, which are associated with multipole magnetic structures during the flare evolutions. In particular, we point out that the later decimetric radio bursts are possibly the radio counterparts of the homologous flares (called "homologous radio bursts" by us), which are also driven by the single-bipole magnetic structures. By examining the evolutions of the magnetic polarities of sources (17 GHz),we could presume that the drivers of the homologous radio bursts are new and/or recurring appearances/disappearances of the magnetic polarities of radio sources, and that the triggers are the magnetic reconnections of single-bipole configurations.

  15. Herschel-ATLAS: far-infrared properties of radio-selected galaxies

    Hardcastle, M J; Jarvis, M J; Bonfield, D G; Dunne, L; Rawlings, S; Stevens, J A; Christopher, N M; Heywood, I; Mauch, T; Rigopoulou, D; Verma, A; Baldry, I K; Bamford, S P; Buttiglione, S; Cava, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Croom, S M; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Eales, S; Fritz, J; Hill, D T; Hughes, D; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Jones, D H; Loveday, J; Maddox, S J; Michalowski, M J; Negrello, M; Norberg, P; Pohlen, M; Prescott, M; Rigby, E E; Robotham, A S G; Rodighiero, G; Scott, D; Sharp, R; Smith, D J B; Temi, P; van Kampen, E

    2010-01-01

    We use the Herschel-ATLAS science demonstration data to investigate the star-formation properties of radio-selected galaxies in the GAMA-9h field as a function of radio luminosity and redshift. Radio selection at the lowest radio luminosities, as expected, selects mostly starburst galaxies. At higher radio luminosities, where the population is dominated by AGN, we find that some individual objects are associated with high far-infrared luminosities. However, the far-infrared properties of the radio-loud population are statistically indistinguishable from those of a comparison population of radio-quiet galaxies matched in redshift and K-band absolute magnitude. There is thus no evidence that the host galaxies of these largely low-luminosity (Fanaroff-Riley class I), and presumably low-excitation, AGN, as a population, have particularly unusual star-formation histories. Models in which the AGN activity in higher-luminosity, high-excitation radio galaxies is triggered by major mergers would predict a luminosity-d...

  16. Steep-spectrum sources and the duty cycle of the radio emission

    Orienti, M

    2010-01-01

    It is currently accepted that intrinsically compact and bright radio sources characterized by a convex spectrum peaking at frequencies ranging from 100 MHz to a few GHz are young objects. Following the evolutionary models, these objects would evolve into the population of classical radio galaxies. However, the fraction of young radio sources in flux density-limited samples is much larger than what expected from the number counts of large radio sources. This may suggest that for some reason a significant fraction of young objects would never become large radio galaxies with sizes up to a few Mpc. The discovery of the young radio source PKS 1518+047 characterized by an uncommonly steep spectrum confirms that the radio emission may switch off shortly after its onset. Then the source spectrum steepens and evolves due to energy losses. If the interruption is not temporary, the fate of the fading sources is to disappear at frequencies lower than those explored by current radio telescopes. Fossils of past activities...

  17. Multiple Shock Structures in a Radio-selected Cluster of Galaxies

    Brown, S.; Duesterhoeft, J.; Rudnick, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new radio-selected cluster of galaxies, 0217+70, using observations from the Very Large Array and archival optical and X-ray data. The new cluster is one of only seven known that has candidate double peripheral radio relics, and the second of those with a giant radio halo (GRH), as well. It also contains unusual diffuse radio filaments interior to the peripheral relics and a clumpy, elongated X-ray structure. All of these indicate a very actively evolving system, with ongoing accretion and merger activity, illuminating a network of shocks, such as those first seen in numerical simulations. The peripheral relics are most easily understood as outgoing spherical merger shocks with large variations in brightness along them, likely reflecting the inhomogeneities in the shocks' magnetic fields. The interior filaments could be projections of substructures from the sheet-like peripheral shocks or they might be separate structures due to multiple accretion events. ROSAT images show large-scale diffuse X-ray emission coincident with the GRH and additional patchy diffuse emission that suggests a recent merger event. This uniquely rich set of radio shocks and halo offer the possibility, with deeper X-ray and optical data and higher resolution radio observations, of testing the models of how shocks and turbulence couple to the relativistic plasma. The cluster 0217+70 is also overluminous in the radio compared with the empirical radio-X-ray correlation for clusters—the third example of such a system. This new population of diffuse radio emission opens up the possibility of probing low-mass cluster mergers with upcoming deep radio continuum surveys.

  18. The Radio Luminosity Function and Galaxy Evolution in the Coma Cluster

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mabasher, Bahram; Brudgesm Terrry J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Smith, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the radio luminosity function and radio source population for two fields within the Coma cluster of galaxies, with the fields centered on the cluster core and southwest infall region and each covering about half a square degree. Using VLA data with a typical rms sensitivity of 28 (mu)Jy per 4.4" beam, we identify 249 radio sources with optical counterparts brighter than r = 22 (equivalent to M(sub r) = -13 for cluster member galaxies). Comprehensive optical spectroscopy identifies 38 of these as members of the Coma cluster, evenly split between sources powered by an active nucleus and sources powered by active star formation. The radio-detected star-forming galaxies are restricted to radio luminosities between about 10(exp 21) and 10(exp 22) W/Hz, an interesting result given that star formation dominates field radio luminosity functions below about 10(exp 23) W/Hz. The majority of the radio-detected star-forming galaxies have characteristics of starbursts, including high specific star formation rates and optical spectra with strong emission lines. In conjunction with prior studies on post-starburst galaxies within the Coma cluster, this is consistent with a picture in which late-type galaxies entering Coma undergo a starburst prior to a rapid cessation of star formation. Optically bright elliptical galaxies (Mr less than or equals -20.5) make the largest contribution to the radio luminosity function at both the high (> approx. 3x10(exp 22) W/Hz) and low (< approx. 10(exp 21) W/Hz) ends. Through a stacking analysis of these optically-bright ellipticals we find that they continue to harbor radio sources down to luminosities as faint as 3x10(exp 19) W/Hz. However, contrary to published results for the Virgo cluster we find no evidence for the existence of a population of optically faint (M(sub r) approx. equals -14) dwarf ellipticals hosting strong radio AGN.

  19. The AGN content of deep radio surveys and radio emission in radio-quiet AGN. Why every astronomer should care about deep radio fields

    Padovani, P; Miller, N; Kellermann, K I; Mainieri, V; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2014-01-01

    We present our very recent results on the sub-mJy radio source populations at 1.4 GHz based on the Extended Chandra Deep Field South VLA survey, which reaches ~ 30 {\\mu}Jy, with details on their number counts, evolution, and luminosity functions. The sub-mJy radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of star-forming galaxies and radio-quiet AGN evolving at a similar, strong rate and declining radio-loud AGN. While the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star-forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-mJy sky. Our results shed also light on a fifty-year-old issue, namely radio emission from radio-quiet AGN, and suggest that it is closely related to star formation, at least at z ~ 1.5 - 2. The implications of our findings for future, deeper radio surveys, including those with the Square Kilometre Array, are also discussed. One of the main messages, especially to non-radio astronomers, is that radio surveys are reaching such f...

  20. Radio Galaxy Zoo: discovery of a poor cluster through a giant wide-angle tail radio galaxy

    Banfield, J. K.; Andernach, H.; Kapińska, A. D.; Rudnick, L.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Cotter, G.; Vaughan, S.; Jones, T. W.; Heywood, I.; Wing, J. D.; Wong, O. I.; Matorny, T.; Terentev, I. A.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.; Shabala, S. S.; Willett, K. W.

    2016-08-01

    We have discovered a previously unreported poor cluster of galaxies (RGZ-CL J0823.2+0333) through an unusual giant wide-angle tail radio galaxy found in the Radio Galaxy Zoo project. We obtained a spectroscopic redshift of z = 0.0897 for the E0-type host galaxy, 2MASX J08231289+0333016, leading to Mr = -22.6 and a 1.4 GHz radio luminosity density of L1.4 = 5.5 × 1024 W Hz-1. These radio and optical luminosities are typical for wide-angle tailed radio galaxies near the borderline between Fanaroff-Riley classes I and II. The projected largest angular size of ≈8 arcmin corresponds to 800 kpc and the full length of the source along the curved jets/trails is 1.1 Mpc in projection. X-ray data from the XMM-Newton archive yield an upper limit on the X-ray luminosity of the thermal emission surrounding RGZ J082312.9+033301 at 1.2-2.6 × 1043 erg s-1 for assumed intracluster medium temperatures of 1.0-5.0 keV. Our analysis of the environment surrounding RGZ J082312.9+033301 indicates that RGZ J082312.9+033301 lies within a poor cluster. The observed radio morphology suggests that (a) the host galaxy is moving at a significant velocity with respect to an ambient medium like that of at least a poor cluster, and that (b) the source may have had two ignition events of the active galactic nucleus with 107 yr in between. This reinforces the idea that an association between RGZ J082312.9+033301 and the newly discovered poor cluster exists.

  1. Adaptive Sensing and Transmission Durations for Cognitive Radios

    Afifi, Wessam; Nafie, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    In a cognitive radio setting, secondary users opportunistically access the spectrum allocated to primary users. Finding the optimal sensing and transmission durations for the secondary users becomes crucial in order to maximize the secondary throughput while protecting the primary users from interference and service disruption. In this paper an adaptive sensing and transmission scheme for cognitive radios is proposed. We consider a channel allocated to a primary user which operates in an unslotted manner switching activity at random times. A secondary transmitter adapts its sensing and transmission durations according to its belief regarding the primary user state of activity. The objective is to maximize a secondary utility function. This function has a penalty term for collisions with primary transmission. It accounts for the reliability-throughput tradeoff by explicitly incorporating the impact of sensing duration on secondary throughput and primary activity detection reliability. It also accounts for thro...

  2. Private TV and Radio Broadcasting in Azerbaijan

    Vefalı ENSEROV

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of mass media and its innovation like the other areas were inevitable in post-soviet countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this means, media area of Azerbaijan began to privatization process after independence and since mid 1990`s private radio and television channels began to broadcast in the country one by one that uni-centrally, officially and ideologically was directed by Moscow before. Progress which is related to privatization process of broadcasting in Azerbaijan is being handled in this study. This study also includes legal regulations in the mass media area and mechanism of auto-control. The activities of national private broadcasting companies are also scrutinized in the study as well as the condition of the communication freedom.

  3. Mean field games for cognitive radio networks

    Tembine, Hamidou

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we study mobility effect and power saving in cognitive radio networks using mean field games. We consider two types of users: primary and secondary users. When active, each secondary transmitter-receiver uses carrier sensing and is subject to long-term energy constraint. We formulate the interaction between primary user and large number of secondary users as an hierarchical mean field game. In contrast to the classical large-scale approaches based on stochastic geometry, percolation theory and large random matrices, the proposed mean field framework allows one to describe the evolution of the density distribution and the associated performance metrics using coupled partial differential equations. We provide explicit formulas and algorithmic power management for both primary and secondary users. A complete characterization of the optimal distribution of energy and probability of success is given.

  4. Design Space Decomposition for Cognitive and Software Defined Radios

    Fayez, Almohanad Samir

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radios (SDRs) lend themselves to flexibility and extensibility because theydepend on software to implement radio functionality. Cognitive Engines (CEs) introduceintelligence to radio by monitoring radio performance through a set of meters and configuringthe underlying radio design by modifying its knobs. In Cognitive Radio (CR) applications,CEs intelligently monitor radio performance and reconfigure them to meet it applicationand RF channel needs. While the issue of introduci...

  5. Probing large-scale structure with radio observations

    Brown, Shea D.

    This thesis focuses on detecting magnetized relativistic plasma in the intergalactic medium (IGM) of filamentary large-scale structure (LSS) by observing synchrotron emission emitted by structure formation shocks. Little is known about the IGM beyond the largest clusters of galaxies, and synchrotron emission holds enormous promise as a means of probing magnetic fields and relativistic particle populations in these low density regions. I'll first report on observations taken at the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope of the diffuse radio source 0809+39. I use these observations to demonstrate that 0809+39 is likely the first "radio relic" discovered that is not associated with a rich |"X-ray emitting cluster of galaxies. I then demonstrate that an unconventional reprocessing of the NVSS polarization survey can reveal structures on scales from 15' to hundreds of degrees, far larger than the nominal shortest-baseline scale. This yields hundreds of new diffuse sources as well as the identification of a new nearby galactic loop . These observations also highlight the major obstacle that diffuse galactic foreground emission poses for any search for large-scale, low surface- brightness extragalactic emission. I therefore explore the cross-correlation of diffuse radio emission with optical tracers of LSS as a means of statistically detecting the presence of magnetic fields in the low-density regions of the cosmic web. This initial study with the Bonn 1.4 GHz radio survey yields an upper limit of 0.2 mG for large-scale filament magnetic fields. Finally, I report on new Green Bank Telescope and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations of the famous Coma cluster of galaxies. Major findings include an extension to the Coma cluster radio relic source 1253+275 which makes its total extent ~2 Mpc, as well as a sharp edge, or "front", on the Western side of the radio halo which shows a strong correlation with merger activity associated with an

  6. Radio y cultura: una propuesta de radio ciudadana en Internet

    Mauricio Andrés Álvarez-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es resultado de la investigación para optar a título de magíster “La Peña Cultural: modelo de radio ciudadana en Internet”, realizada durante los años 2013 y 2014 para la Universidad de Medellín. En ella se realiza una exploración de la radio en Internet como plataforma con herramientas multimediales que podrían afianzar la formación de ciudadanía reflexiva por medio de contenidos de promoción cultural. De la misma manera, identifica, a partir de un rastreo de emisoras en Colombia, cómo esas herramientas –las redes sociales, podcasts, chats, canales de video y nuevas formas comunicativas– permiten la participación activa de los ciudadanos en su producción. Rescatar el uso de tecnologías que facilitan la comunicación, como la radio en Internet, para reconocer y recuperar el valor de la promoción cultural propia de un estado en aras de la formación de una ciudadanía reflexiva, es el acercamiento que se hizo a partir de la etnografía y la investigación aplicada y que ahora se expone en este artículo. Es la forma en que los ciudadanos podrían converger en un medio de comunicación para producir contenidos que fortalezcan su identidad cultural o, si se quiere, su visión de nación. Es la apuesta por establecer una alternativa a los ya tradicionales modelos, una guía para la comunidad interesada en promover una ciudadanía reflexiva del patrimonio cultural. Palabras clave

  7. Structure and biological activity of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering prepared hydroxyapatite coating on titanium substrate%射频磁控溅射法制备钛基HA涂层的结构与生物活性

    王国卿; 张乃生

    2013-01-01

    采用射频磁控溅射法在医用钛表面制备羟基磷灰石(HA)涂层,研究HA涂层的形貌、物相、力学性能、细胞相容性和在机体内的组织相容性,分析其在骨修复中应用的可能性。结果表明:射频磁控溅射法制备的钛基HA生物涂层呈粗糙岛屿状结构,HA平均粒径为(402) nm、厚度为1.0~1.6μm的涂层力学性能最好,其纳米硬度高于11 GPa,弹性模量大于136 GPa;HA涂层可促进成骨细胞增殖,成骨细胞粘附于HA涂层表面并形成伪足铺展生长;植入实验动物体内4周后材料表面被结缔组织覆盖,血管形成;植入12周后,骨小梁形成,其内部可见破骨细胞;植入12周后与植入前相比,涂层的结合强度未发生显著变化。说明该 HA涂层具有较高的成骨活性和稳定性,在骨修复方面具有良好的应用前景。%Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on medical titanium substrate were prepared by radio-frequency(RF) magnetron sputtering method. And the morphology, phase, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and histocompatibility of the coatings in body were researched to analyze the possibility of applying in bone repair. The results show that:HA coatings on medical titanium substrate prepared by RF magnetron sputtering show rough island-like structure; average particle diameter of HA is (402) nm; coating with thickness of 1.0~1.6 μm shows the best mechanical properties with nanohardness beyond 11 GPa and elastic modulus beyond 136 GPa. HA coating can promote the proliferation of osteoblasts which adhered to HA coating surface, and formed pseudopodia to spread out growth. After implanted in experimental animals’ body for 4 week, material surface is covered by connective tissue and blood vessel form;and after 12 week, trabecular bone forms and osteoclasts are visible inside. The comparison between Pre-implantation and the implantation for 12 week shows that the bonding strength of coating has no

  8. ULTRA STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES IN THE LOCKMAN HOLE: SERVS IDENTIFICATIONS AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION AT THE FAINTEST RADIO FLUXES

    Afonso, J.; Bizzocchi, L.; Grossi, M.; Messias, H.; Fernandes, C. A. C. [Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Simpson, C. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Chapman, S.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jarvis, M. J. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Rottgering, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Oort Gebouw, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Norris, R. P. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dunlop, J.; Best, P. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Pforr, J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Vaccari, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Padova, vicolo Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova (Italy); Seymour, N. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UCL, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Huang, J.-S., E-mail: jafonso@oal.ul.pt [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2011-12-20

    Ultra steep spectrum (USS) radio sources have been successfully used to select powerful radio sources at high redshifts (z {approx}> 2). Typically restricted to large-sky surveys and relatively bright radio flux densities, it has gradually become possible to extend the USS search to sub-mJy levels, thanks to the recent appearance of sensitive low-frequency radio facilities. Here a first detailed analysis of the nature of the faintest USS sources is presented. By using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array radio observations of the Lockman Hole at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz, a sample of 58 USS sources, with 610 MHz integrated fluxes above 100 {mu}Jy, is assembled. Deep infrared data at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m from the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) are used to reliably identify counterparts for 48 (83%) of these sources, showing an average total magnitude of [3.6]{sub AB} = 19.8 mag. Spectroscopic redshifts for 14 USS sources, together with photometric redshift estimates, improved by the use of the deep SERVS data, for a further 19 objects, show redshifts ranging from z = 0.1 to z = 2.8, peaking at z {approx} 0.6 and tailing off at high redshifts. The remaining 25 USS sources, with no redshift estimate, include the faintest [3.6] magnitudes, with 10 sources undetected at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m (typically [3.6] {approx}> 22-23 mag from local measurements), which suggests the likely existence of higher redshifts among the sub-mJy USS population. The comparison with the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies models indicates that Fanaroff-Riley type I radio sources and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei may constitute the bulk of the faintest USS population, and raises the possibility that the high efficiency of the USS technique for the selection of high-redshift sources remains even at the sub-mJy level.

  9. Millisecond extragalactic radio bursts as magnetar flares

    Popov, S B

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the population of millisecond extragalactic radio bursts discovered by Thornton et al. (2013) are in good correspondence with the hypothesis that such events are related to hyperflares of magnetars, as was proposed by us after the first observation of an extragalactic millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al. (2007). We also point that some of multiple millisecond radio bursts from M31 discovered by Rubio-Herrera et al. (2013) also can be related to weaker magnetar bursts.

  10. Radio continuum jet in NGC 7479

    Laine, Seppo; Beck, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The barred galaxy NGC 7479 hosts a remarkable jet-like radio continuum feature: bright, 12-kpc long in projection, and hosting an aligned magnetic field. The degree of polarization is 6%-8% along the jet, and remarkably constant, which is consistent with helical field models. The radio brightness of the jet suggests strong interaction with the ISM and hence a location near the disk plane. We observed NGC 7479 at four wavelengths with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. The equipartition ...

  11. Local radio, public opinion and citizen participation

    BUENDÍA ASTUDILLO, ALEXANDER; Doctor Educación Univ. Del Cauca; Pino Correa, Juan Carlos; Universidad del Cauca, Popayán - Cauca

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how local radio stations that foster citizen participation and public opinion can develop into agents of social mobilization, as long they hold a broad notion of democracy. The article gives an account of the involvement that the ECCO research group (Universidad del Cauca, Colombia) has had in the project “Citizen radio: Room for democracy”, where researchers have given support to local radio stations and have sought to understand how these media conceive, assume and work tow...

  12. Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TR-7546 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio by Jan Paolo...Interference Cancellation System Design Using GNU Radio by Jan Paolo Acosta Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...Design Using GNU Radio 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jan Paolo Acosta 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  13. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    Mingarelli, Chiara; Levin, Janna; Lazio, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact, without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally the luminosity was expected in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs), NS-BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak. The main burst is from the peak luminosity before merger, while the post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS-BH pairs are desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not be detected any other way, with EM counterparts augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. Valuably, EM signal can break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW as well as probe the NS magnetic field strength, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  14. Determinations of Key Physical Parameters Related to Classical Double Radio Sources

    Wan, L; Guerra, E J; Wan, Lin; Daly, Ruth A.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-frequency radio observations of the radio bridge of a powerful classical double radio source can be used to determine: the beam power of the jets emanating from the AGN; the total time the source will actively produce jets that power large-scale radio emission; the thermal pressure of the medium in the vicinity of the radio source; and the total mass, including dark matter, of the galaxy or cluster of galaxies traced by the ambient gas that surrounds the radio source. Empirical determinations of each of these quantities are obtained and analyzed for 22 radio sources. Typical beam powers are about $10^{45} {erg s}^{-1}$. The characteristic or total time the AGN will actively produce a collimated outflow is estimated. Typical total lifetimes are $\\sim (10^7$ to $10^8$) years. Total masses, and mass-density profiles, similar to those of low-redshift clusters of galaxies are obtained. Thus, some clusters of galaxies, or cores of clusters, exist at redshifts of one to two. A new method of estimating the ther...

  15. A Chandra Study of the Radio Galaxy NGC 326: Wings, Outburst History, and AGN Feedback

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    NGC 326 is one of the most prominent X- or Z-shaped radio galaxies (XRGs/ZRGs) and has been the subject of several studies attempting to explain its morphology through either fluid motions or reorientation of the jet axis. We examine a 100 ks archival Chandra exposure and find several features associated with the radio galaxy: a high-temperature front that may indicate a shock, high-temperature knots around the rim of the radio emission, and a cavity associated with the eastern wing of the radio galaxy. A reasonable interpretation of these features in light of the radio data allows us to reconstruct the history of the AGN outbursts. The active outburst was likely once a powerful radio source which has since decayed, and circumstantial evidence favors reorientation as the means to produce the wings. Because of the obvious interaction between the radio galaxy and the ICM and the wide separation between the active lobes and wings, we conclude that XRGs are excellent sources in which to study AGN feedback in gala...

  16. On the connection between radio and gamma rays

    Orienti M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic jets are one of the most powerful manifestations of the release of energy produced around supermassive black holes at the centre of active galactic nuclei (AGN. Their emission is observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the radio band to gamma rays. Despite decades of efforts, many aspects of the physics of relativistic jets remain elusive. In particular, the location and the mechanisms responsible for the high-energy emission and the connection of the variability at different wavelengths are among the greatest challenges in the study of AGN. From the comparison of the radio and gamma-ray light curves of gamma-ray flaring objects, there is evidence that some flares, either in radio or in gamma rays, have not an obvious connection at the other extreme of the electromagnetic spectrum, like in the case of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 SBS 0846+513. An intriguing aspect pointed out by high resolution radio observations is the change of the polarization properties close in time with some high energy flares. In particular, in PKS 1510–089 and 3C 454.3 a rotation of almost 90 degrees has been observed after strong gamma-ray flares. The swing of the polarization angle may be related either to the propagation of a shock along the jet that orders the magnetic field, or a change of the opacity regime.

  17. Periodic Optical Variability of Radio Detected Ultracool Dwarfs

    Harding, Leon K; Boyle, Richard P; Golden, Aaron; Singh, Navtej; Sheehan, Brendan; Zavala, Robert T; Butler, Ray F

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are known to be radio active, in some cases producing periodic pulses. Extensive studies of two such objects have also revealed optical periodic variability and the nature of this variability remains unclear. Here we report on multi-epoch optical photometric monitoring of six radio detected dwarfs, spanning the $\\sim$M8 - L3.5 spectral range, conducted to investigate the ubiquity of periodic optical variability in radio detected ultracool dwarfs. This survey is the most sensitive ground-based study carried out to date in search of periodic optical variability from late-type dwarfs, where we obtained 250 hours of monitoring, delivering photometric precision as low as $\\sim$0.15%. Five of the six targets exhibit clear periodicity, in all cases likely associated with the rotation period of the dwarf, with a marginal detection found for the sixth. Our data points to a likely association between radio and optical periodic variability in late-M/early-L dwarfs, alth...

  18. Low Frequency Spectral Structure of X-shaped Radio Sources

    Lal, D. V.; Rao, A. P.

    2005-12-01

    X-shaped radio galaxies are attributed to be formed by galactic mergers as the black holes of two galaxies fall into the merged system and form a bound system. Recent analysis of Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope low frequency data for an X-shaped source, 3C 223.1 has revealed an unusual result (Lal & Rao 2004). The radio morphologies of it at 240 and 610 MHz show well defined X-shape with a pair of active jets along the north-south axis and a pair of wings along the east-west axis, that pass symmetrically through the undetected radio core. The wings (or low surface brightness jets) have flatter spectral indices with respect to the high surface brightness jets, which confirms the earlier marginal result obtained at high frequency by Dennett-Thorpe et al. (2002). Although unusual, it is a valuable result which puts stringent constraints on the formation models and nature of these sources. We present preliminary results for two such sources.

  19. Space Telecommunications Radio System Software Architecture Concepts and Analysis

    Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.; Briones, Janette C.; Blaser, Tammy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project investigated various Software Defined Radio (SDR) architectures for Space. An STRS architecture has been selected that separates the STRS operating environment from its various waveforms and also abstracts any specialized hardware to limit its effect on the operating environment. The design supports software evolution where new functionality is incorporated into the radio. Radio hardware functionality has been moving from hardware based ASICs into firmware and software based processors such as FPGAs, DSPs and General Purpose Processors (GPPs). Use cases capture the requirements of a system by describing how the system should interact with the users or other systems (the actors) to achieve a specific goal. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to illustrate the Use Cases in a variety of ways. The Top Level Use Case diagram shows groupings of the use cases and how the actors are involved. The state diagrams depict the various states that a system or object may be in and the transitions between those states. The sequence diagrams show the main flow of activity as described in the use cases.

  20. RadioAstron -- a Telescope with a Size of 300 000 km: Main Parameters and First Observational Results

    Kardashev, N S; 10.1134/S1063772913030025

    2013-01-01

    The Russian Academy of Sciences and Federal Space Agency, together with the participation of many international organizations, worked toward the launch of the RadioAstron orbiting space observatory with its onboard 10-m reflector radio telescope from the Baikonur cosmodrome on July 18, 2011. Together with some of the largest ground-based radio telescopes and a set of stations for tracking, collecting, and reducing the data obtained, this space radio telescope forms a multi-antenna ground-space radio interferometer with extremely long baselines, making it possible for the first time to study various objects in the Universe with angular resolutions a million times better than is possible with the human eye. The project is targeted at systematic studies of compact radio-emitting sources and their dynamics. Objects to be studied include supermassive black holes, accretion disks, and relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, stellar-mass black holes, neutron stars and hypothetical quark stars, regions of format...