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  1. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors The U.S. Preventive ...

  2. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: IS IT POSSIBLE TO PREVENT AND REDUCE DEVIANCES WITH SPORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Al. Dimitrova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses physical activity and sport as a good way to overcome deviant behavior in children. A number of characteristics of sporting activity are identified, which define it as useful not only for the physical but also for the psychological, emotional and overall development of the personality. Organized extracurricular sports activities are mentioned as a good means of organizing the leisure time of the students. Of course, sport is not a universal remedy for the problems of society and the deviant behavior of children. But it is one of the working options for prevention and overcoming deviant behavior, especially if it is a result mainly of the child's personal characteristics such as aggression, temperamental behavior or adrenal dependence. Affiliation to the team gives the child certainty that they area member of a community where they give and receive permanent support. The pursuit of personal achievement reflects the development of the child and directs his or her energy in a positive direction. Achieved success boosts self-confidence and self-esteem that are so necessary to young people especially in teen years. Driving into discipline in sport will lead to compliance with social norms and public laws.

  3. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:

  4. Mind magic: a pilot study of preventive mind-body-based stress reduction in behaviorally inhibited and activated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesma, Francine C; Cornelis, Janine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Children participated in the program (n=30) or in a control condition (n=24). They filled out questionnaires before and after the program and reported their levels of stress before and after each of the five sessions. The program consisted of weekly sessions. Each session incorporated yoga postures, visualization, and social exercises. Breathing techniques were integrated. Stress reductions were only seen in the intervention group and mainly in children with high BIS--irrespective of their behavioral activation system. The results demonstrate that children with high BIS may benefit from a mind-body-based stress reduction program.

  5. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

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    Peter D. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9% of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1% reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3% who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA.

  6. alpha(7) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation prevents behavioral and molecular changes induced by repeated phencyclidine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Christensen, Ditte Z; Hansen, Henrik H

    2009-01-01

    in a modified Y-maze test. Polymorphisms in the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene have been linked to schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that acute administration of the selective alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist SSR180711 dose-dependently reversed the behavioral impairment induced by PCP...

  7. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the medical costs ...Introduction Pressure ulcers (PU) are the most costly secondary complication following an SCI. In addition to the medical costs , the development of a...Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen Sprigle, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Tech Research

  8. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) do not prevent LPS-induced behavioral alterations and microglial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buel, E. M.; Bosker, F. J.; van Drunen, J.; Strijker, J.; Douwenga, W.; Klein, H. C.; Eisel, U. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term neuroimmune activation is a common finding in major depressive disorder (MDD). Literature suggests a dual effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a highly effective treatment strategy for MDD, on neuroimmune parameters: while ECT acutely increases inflammatory parameters,

  9. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    interface pressures and increased blood flow. This level of off-loading is achieved by postural changes during sustained reaching, leaning and other...project has been designed to fill two significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other...significant gaps in the current state of knowledge: 1) accurate measurement of dedicated pressure reliefs and other weight shift activities and 2) the

  10. Aggressive behavior prevention in a dance duet

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    Olena Gant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of aggression and the main directions of prevention of aggressive forms of behavior, among athletes engaged in sports dancing in the preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, "Personal aggressiveness and conflictness". Results: a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggressive behavior in sports dance duets. Level of aggressiveness of athletes of sports dances at the stage of preliminary basic training is determined. Reasons for the formation of aggressive behavior among young athletes are revealed. Areas of preventive and psychocorrectional work with aggressive athletes are singled out. Conclusion: a high level of aggression was detected in 19 (31,67% of the study participants. Determinants of aggressive behavior in sport ballroom pair appear particularly family upbringing style and pedagogical activity of the trainer. Correction of aggressive behavior of young athletes should have a complex systemic character and take into account the main characterological features of aggressive athletes.

  11. Related Factors of Physical Activity Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis Based on Health Belief Model among Teen Girls in Qom City, Iran

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    Zeynab Karimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Although osteoporosis is a disease of adulthood, it can start from childhood and adolescence. Lifestyle, especially physical activity, mobility, and proper nutrition during adolescence are among the important osteoporosis preventive factors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine related factors of physical activity preventive behavior of osteoporosis based on the Health Belief Model (HBM among teen girls in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade girl students in Qom city. The participants were selected via multistage sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire based on Health Belief Model used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS-20. Results The current study, knowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a significant and positive relationship with physical activity behavior (r=0.13, P0.05. Conclusion The results of the study showed that educational interventions and programs must focus on increasing knowledge and perceived self-efficacy to enhance physical activity behavior and reduce the perceived barriers associated with osteoporosis preventive physical activity.

  12. Association of knowledge, preventive counseling and personal health behaviors on physical activity and consumption of fruits or vegetables in community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Alex A; Brownson, Ross C; Mielke, Gregore I; Gomes, Grace Ao; Parra, Diana C; Siqueira, Fernando V; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J; Ramos, Luiz R; Bracco, Mário M; Hallal, Pedro C

    2015-04-09

    There is evidence that if a health professional is active and has a healthy diet, he/she is more likely to advise patients about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the personal physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables behaviors and nutritional status of community health workers; (2) evaluate the association between knowledge, delivery of preventive counseling and personal behaviors among community health workers. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a nationally sample of health professionals working in primary health care settings in Brazil in 2011. This survey was part of the second phase of the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America project, and data were collected through telephone interviews of 269 community health workers from the Unified Health Care system of Brazil. We applied questionnaires about personal reported behaviors, knowledge and preventive counseling in physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables. We calculated the prevalence and associations between the variables with logistic regression. The proportion of community health workers that practiced 150 minutes per week of physical activity in leisure time or transportation was high (64.9%). Half of community health workers were overweight and only 26.2% reported consuming five portions/day of fruits or vegetables. Most community health workers reported counseling about physical activity for more than six months (59.7%), and most were not knowledgeable of the fruits and vegetables and physical activity recommendations. Meeting the fruits and vegetables recommendations was associated with correct knowledge (OR = 4.5; CI95% 1.03;19.7), with reporting 150 minutes or more of physical activity per week (OR = 2.0; CI95% 1.03;3.7) and with reporting physical activity in leisure time (OR = 2.0; CI95% 1.05;3.6). Regular physical activity counseling was associated

  13. Self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity and sedentary behavior to prevent weight regain in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Gaukstern, Jill E; Beavers, Kristen M; Newman, Jill C; Leng, Xiaoyan; Rejeski, W Jack

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether adding a self-regulatory intervention (SRI) focused on self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and sedentary behavior to a standard weight loss intervention improved maintenance of lost weight. Older (65-79 years), obese (BMI = 30-40 kg/m(2) ) adults (n = 48) were randomized to a 5-month weight loss intervention involving a hypocaloric diet (DIET) and aerobic exercise (EX) with or without the SRI to promote SPA and decrease sedentary behavior (SRI + DIET + EX compared with DIET + EX). Following the weight loss phase, both groups transitioned to self-selected diet and exercise behavior during a 5-month follow-up. Throughout the 10-months, the SRI + DIET + EX group utilized real-time accelerometer feedback for self-monitoring. There was an overall group by time effect of the SRI (P DIET + EX lost less weight and regained more weight than SRI + DIET + EX. The average weight regain during follow-up was 1.3 kg less in the SRI + DIET + EX group. Individuals in this group maintained approximately 10% lower weight than baseline compared with those in the DIET + EX group whom maintained approximately 5% lower weight than baseline. Addition of a SRI, designed to increase SPA and decrease sedentary behavior, to a standard weight loss intervention enhanced successful maintenance of lost weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  14. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Scott W.; Horner, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Bullying behaviors are a growing concern in U.S. schools. We present here a behavioral approach to bully prevention utilizing a schoolwide intervention. Bully prevention in positive behavior support (BP-PBS) teaches students to withhold the social rewards hypothesized to maintain bullying. A single-subject multiple baseline design across 6 students and three elementary schools was implemented in an empirical evaluation of the intervention's effectiveness. Results indicated that implementation...

  15. Fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption: - A purchasing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Løvdahl, Sebastian Rosten

    2014-01-01

    In the view of the latest corporate scandals in Norway and increased focus on ethics and anti-corruption, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the roles of Purchasing and Supply Management and Organizational Culture when fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption. More specifically, this research attempts to investigate and theorize how organizations can foster ethical behavior and prevent corruption in their respective activities. The research methodology is qualitative...

  16. Women's attitudes toward practicing cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors

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    Rosemary Thackeray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18–40 years of age, who had a child <5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1% reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.

  17. Effects of a training program for home health care workers on the provision of preventive activities and on the health-related behavior of their clients : A quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Maaike E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Meulen, Anja; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    BACKGROUND: Because home health care workers repeatedly visit the same older adults, they are in an excellent position to improve the health-related behavior of older adults, their clients, by providing preventive activities. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the short- and

  18. Creating a pro-active health care system to combat chronic diseases in Sri Lanka: the central role of preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagner, Michael; Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Hills, Andrew P; De Silva, H Janaka; Karunapema, R P Palitha; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Arambepola, Carukshi; Puska, Pekka

    2016-10-01

    The current burden and future escalating threat of chronic diseases, constitutes the major global public health challenge. In Sri Lanka, cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of annual deaths. Data from Sri Lanka also indicate a high incidence and prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes; 1 in 5 adults have elevated blood sugar in Sri Lanka. It is well established that chronic diseases share four primary behavioral risk factors: 1) tobacco use; 2) unhealthy diet; 3) physical inactivity; and 4) harmful use of alcohol. Evidence has convincingly shown that replacing these behavioral risk factors with the converse, healthy lifestyle characteristics, decrease the risk of poor outcomes associated with chronic disease by 60 to 80%. In essence, prevention or reversal of these behavioral risk factors with effective healthy lifestyle programing and interventions is the solution to the current chronic disease crisis. Expert commentary: Healthy lifestyle is medicine with global applicability, including Sri Lanka and the rest of the South Asia region. This policy statement will discuss the chronic disease crisis in Sri Lanka, its current policies and action implemented to promote healthy lifestyles, and further recommendations on preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle initiatives that are needed to move forward.

  19. Effects of a training program for home health care workers on the provision of preventive activities and on the health-related behavior of their clients: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Maaike E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van der Meulen, Anja; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2017-09-01

    Because home health care workers repeatedly visit the same older adults, they are in an excellent position to improve the health-related behavior of older adults, their clients, by providing preventive activities. The objective of this study was to determine the short- and medium term effects of an intervention to support workers in providing preventive activities for older adults. To do this, the number of activities undertaken by workers and the health-related behavior of their clients were assessed. A quasi-experimental study was performed with a pre-post design and inclusion of one control group. The study took place in a deprived, semi-rural area in The Netherlands (2011-2013). Data in three districts served by one home health care organization were gathered. The participants were home health care workers (registered nurses and nurse aides) and home health care clients aged 55 and over (community-dwelling, dependent older adults receiving home health care). 205 home health care workers participated in the study, 97 of them in the first effect measurement; and 83 of them in the second effect measurement. A total of 304 home health care clients participated, 214 of them in the first effect measurement; and 186 of them in the second effect measurement. Differences in change were determined in health-related behavior between groups of older adults as a result of training home health care workers in preventive activities RESULTS: In the control group of home health care professionals a significant increase was found regarding the provision of preventive activities for the domain 'weight' (partial eta squared: 0.05 and 0.08 at first and second effect measurements, respectively). We found preventive activities performed by home health care professionals to have no significant effects on older adult-reported health-related behavior, but observed in the intervention group a non-significant trend in improvement of physical activity of, respectively, 85 and 207min for

  20. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

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    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  1. Individual resources for the pupil′s addictive behavior prevention

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    Florova N.B.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The expanding knowledge about psychology of addictive adolescents allows to develop innovative strategies and to set new accents in prevention activity among students. Now it is reinforcing the trend of individual preventive work, which is differentiated for ages and stages of the educational process. Such work is most relevant to group of risk for involvement –namely, for students, changing living environment, - who are at the first semester of college. Here is an overview of science concepts of individual preventive engagement, primarily in alcoholism, based on recovery of the spiritual realm, psychological well-being, spiritual potential of any age. On the example of concepts about cognitive behavioral strategies and risks of failure it is shown their potential effectiveness for the monitoring of chemical dependence among adolescents.

  2. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Methodological Approaches to the Prevention Of Schoolgirls’ Deviant Behavior

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    Ivanna Parfanovych

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The methodological approaches to the system of girls’ deviant behavior prevention thatact on different levels on prevention are identified: gender, personality oriented, systematic,synergetic, security and safety, interdisciplinary, institutional, which are provided at differentlevels of prevention. Methodological approaches were applied while developing the design,implementing and analyzing of schoolgirls deviant behavior prevention. Such approaches canbe implemented in practice, if the realities of girls’ socialization in various areas and theproblem are treated from the socio-pedagogical point of view.Key words: schoolgirls, deviant behavior, prevention, methodological approaches.

  4. Prevention messages and AIDS risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.

  5. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  6. [Construction of the addiction prevention core competency model for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.

  7. Preventing skin cancer through behavior change. Implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, J S; Blais, L M; Redding, C A; Weinstock, M A

    1995-07-01

    Sun exposure is the only major causative factor for skin cancer for which prevention is feasible. Both individual and community-based interventions have been effective in changing sun exposure knowledge and attitudes but generally have not been effective in changing behaviors. An integrative model of behavior change is described that has been successful in changing behavior across a wide range of health conditions. This model holds promise for developing a rational public health approach to skin cancer prevention based on sound behavioral science.

  8. Prevention of Suicidal Behavior in Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Research on near-lethal suicide attempts can provide important insights into risk and protective factors, and inform suicide prevention initiatives in prison. Aims: To synthesize findings of research on near-lethal attempts in prisons, and consider their implications for suicide prevention policies and practice, in the context of other research in custody and other settings. Method: We searched two bibliographic indexes for studies in any language on near-lethal and severe self-harm in prisoners, supplemented by targeted searches over the period 2000–2014. We extracted information on risk factors descriptively. Data were not meta-analyzed owing to heterogeneity of samples and methods. Results: We identified eight studies reporting associations between prisoner near-lethal attempts and specific factors. The latter included historical, prison-related, and clinical factors, including psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity, trauma, social isolation, and bullying. These factors were also identified as important in prisoners' own accounts of what may have contributed to their attempts (presented in four studies). Conclusion: Factors associated with prisoners' severe suicide attempts include a range of potentially modifiable clinical, psychosocial, and environmental factors. We make recommendations to address these factors in order to improve detection, management, and prevention of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:27278569

  9. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski Janice; Cerin Ester; Baranowski Tom

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior valida...

  10. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  11. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

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    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  12. Behavior change is not one size fits all: psychosocial phenotypes of childhood obesity prevention intervention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Mamykina, Lena

    2018-01-17

    Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention. Descriptive coding, summary, and case-ordered descriptive meta-matrices were used to group participants by their psychosocial responses to the intervention and associated behavior changes. Four psychosocial phenotypes of responses emerged: (a) Activated-successful behavior-changers with strong internal supports; (b) Inspired-motivated, but not fully successful behavior-changers with some internal supports, whose taste preferences and food environment overwhelmed their motivation; (c) Reinforced-already practiced target behaviors, were motivated, and had strong family support; and (d) Indifferent-uninterested in behavior change and only did target behaviors if family insisted. Our findings contribute to the field of behavioral medicine by suggesting the presence of specific subgroups of participants who respond differently to behavior change interventions and salient psychosocial characteristics that differentiate among these phenotypes. Future research should examine the utility of prospectively identifying psychosocial phenotypes for improving the tailoring of nutrition behavior change interventions. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  13. Are current health behavioral change models helpful in guiding prevention of weight gain efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen W; Nicklas, Theresa; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Janice

    2003-10-01

    Effective procedures are needed to prevent the substantial increases in adiposity that have been occurring among children and adults. Behavioral change may occur as a result of changes in variables that mediate interventions. These mediating variables have typically come from the theories or models used to understand behavior. Seven categories of theories and models are reviewed to define the concepts and to identify the motivational mechanism(s), the resources that a person needs for change, the processes by which behavioral change is likely to occur, and the procedures necessary to promote change. Although each model has something to offer obesity prevention, the early promise can be achieved only with substantial additional research in which these models are applied to diet and physical activity in regard to obesity. The most promising avenues for such research seem to be using the latest variants of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Ecology. Synergy may be achieved by taking the most promising concepts from each model and integrating them for use with specific populations. Biology-based steps in an eating or physical activity event are identified, and research issues are suggested to integrate behavioral and biological approaches to understanding eating and physical activity behaviors. Social marketing procedures have much to offer in terms of organizing and strategizing behavioral change programs to incorporate these theoretical ideas. More research is needed to assess the true potential for these models to contribute to our understanding of obesity-related diet and physical activity practices, and in turn, to obesity prevention.

  14. Preventing HIV transmission in chinese internal migrants: A behavioral approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liu (Xiaona); V. Erasmus (Vicky); X. Sun (Xinying); R. Cai (Rui); Y. Shi (Yuhui); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a

  15. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  16. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  17. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...

  18. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activ...

  19. Determination of social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH BaghianiMoghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is one of the most common musculoskeletal problem and a metabolic bone disorder that normally is without sign and is shown with fragile bone in the absence of prevention and treatment. This study was aimed to determine social variables affected the health belief model in adopting preventive behaviors of osteoporosis. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 278 women referring to 6 health Centers of Yazd city with random sampling. Data collection was using a self-reported questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software including Kruskall Wallis, Dunn Tests, Mann Whitney, Spearman correlation coefficient and regression. Results: Among the osteoporosis preventive behaviors, the most frequency was related to non smoking actions or exposure to cigarette and the lowest frequency was related to regular physical activity during every weeks. According to spearman's correlation coefficient, it was occurred a direct significant correlation between knowledge, perceived benefits, practical guide, self efficacy and preventive behaviors of women. In addition, a reverse significant correlation was occurred between perceived barrier and women's behavior (P<0.001. Overall, variables of the model predicted 0.36 of preventive behavior's variables and finally self-efficacy was the strongest prediction of behavior (P=0.000. Conclusion: according to the results, the presentation of suitable educational program with emphasize on promotion of knowledge and upgrade of HBM's level in addition increasing barriers in the context of diseases such as osteoporosis by staff of health centers is suggested.

  20. [Occupational sedentary behaviors and physical activity at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Ferrières, Jean; Esquirol, Yolande

    Sedentary behaviors are a leading cause of preventable mortality in developed countries. We mainly have sedentary behaviors at work. Sedentary behaviors must be considered as an occupational risk, and therefore must be a major concern for managers and physicians/health researchers. Recreational physical activity only partly compensates for the negative effects of physical inactivity at work. Physical activity at work without excess (walking, standing) is beneficial. Initiatives to reduce physical inactivity and increase physical activity among employees are effective in terms of mental health, physical health, and productivity. Prevention of sedentary behaviors at work is a win-win partnership between employers and employees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Crime prevention through sports and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the definition of sport, the author has presented the possibilities its application in the prevention of crime and delinquency. In that context, the author analyzes the rate of juvenile delinquency in specific countries, such as Canada, and underlines the fact that the classical criminal measures do not give adequate results. The author points out that it is, therefore, necessary to apply some other preventive measures, which embody the application of sports and physical activity. The author provides examples of good practice in the states which has achieved the best results in the development of such programs. Finally, in view of the increasing number of reported criminal offences committed by both juveniles and adults, the author highlights the need for developing such programs in the Republic of Serbia.

  2. What is the benefit of the biomedical and behavioral interventions in preventing HIV transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kuchenbecker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.

  3. Preventing HIV transmission in Chinese internal migrants: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaona; Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Cai, Rui; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China.

  4. Preventing HIV Transmission in Chinese Internal Migrants: A Behavioral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Vicki; Sun, Xinying; Shi, Yuhui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This study is a step towards a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV transmission among Chinese internal migrants. To explore important and changeable determinants of condom use and inspect effective and feasible methods to increase condom use for the target population, we conducted a three-round web-based Delphi study among a panel of 62 experts between October 2012 and March 2013. The panelists were purposely selected using a stepwise procedure to represent topic-related areas of expertise. The response rate per round ranges from 21% to 81%. The panelists identified 19 possible determinants of condom use and reported 16 intervention methods they considered successful. They agreed that attitude towards condom use was the most important and changeable determinant, while applying behavioral theory, increasing sexual education and condom access, performing worksite health promotion, detecting risk factors, and working closely with relevant organizations and the government were effective and feasible methods to increase condom use among internal migrants in China. In conclusion, results of this study highlight the importance of attitude in changing condom use and underscore the need to apply behavior theory and integrate multiple educational approaches for developing behavioral HIV prevention interventions targeting internal migrants in China. PMID:25610903

  5. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary.

  6. "Nudges" to Prevent Behavioral Risk Factors Associated With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodend, Ashleigh; Schölmerich, Vera; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder-colloquially called "depression"-is a primary global cause of disability. Current preventive interventions, such as problem-solving therapy, are effective but also expensive. "Nudges" are easy and cheap interventions for altering behavior. We have explored how nudging can reduce three behavioral risk factors of depression: low levels of physical activity, inappropriate coping mechanisms, and inadequate maintenance of social ties. These nudges use cognitive biases associated with these behavioral risks, such as valuing the present more than the future, following the herd or the norm, making different choices in light of equivalent conditions, and deciding on the basis of salience or attachment to status quo.

  7. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria.

  8. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  9. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases.

  10. Travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors of US study abroad students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartjes, Laurie B; Baumann, Linda C; Henriques, Jeffrey B

    2009-01-01

    travel, and can accommodate interactive multimedia designs that actively engage and motivate students to adopt prevention behaviors.

  11. Eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found for the comparison of inappropriate eating behaviors in the multivariate covariance model either for females or males. Moreover, the level of physical activity had no significant influence on the inappropriate eating behaviors of these adolescents. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, inappropriate eating behaviors in both genders were similar regardless of the habitual level of physical activity.

  12. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  13. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS. Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV and computer/video game (C/VG screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth.

  14. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  15. Supporting smartphone-based behavioral activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Rohani, Darius A.; Tuxen, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral activation has shown to be a simple yet efective therapy for depressive patients. The method relies on extensive collection of patient reported activity data on an hourly basis. We are currently in the process of designing a smartphone-based behavioral activation system for depressive...... disorders. However, it is an open question to what degree patients would use this approach given the high demand for user input. In order to investigate this question, we collected paper-based behavioral activation forms from 5 patients, covering in total 18 weeks, 115 days, and 1,614 hours of self......-reported activity data. In this paper we present an analysis of this data and discuss the implications for the design of a smartphone-based system for behavioral activation....

  16. University Student Awareness of Skin Cancer: Behaviors, Recognition, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Megan; Estaville, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer, and it often is preventable. The authors sought to evaluate behavior and knowledge regarding skin cancer among students at a Texas university. The authors recruited a diverse group of students in terms of sex, age, and ethnicity to participate in a survey regarding knowledge of skin cancer signs, use of tanning beds, and performance of self-assessment for skin cancer. Participating students could complete surveys in classrooms, at health fairs, or online via Survey Monkey. The authors examined data for the 3 variables in relation to sex, ethnicity, and age. A total of 512 responses were completed. Female students completed 371 (72.46%) surveys, and male students completed 141 (27.54%). The ethnicity of student participants was nearly evenly split among whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. Ethnicity was the most significant factor influencing the knowledge of skin cancer and behaviors to prevent it. Specifically, Hispanic and African American students possessed a lower level of skin cancer awareness. More female students than male students used tanning beds, and although use was self-reported as infrequent, the results imply that 4500 of the university's students might use tanning beds, which is concerning if extrapolated to other university student populations in Texas. Behavioral intervention is critical in reducing students' risk of skin cancer in later years, and university students must acquire knowledge to increase their awareness of skin health and to minimize their risk of developing skin cancer. Radiation therapists are uniquely positioned to share knowledge of skin cancer. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  17. Eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes,Leonardo de Sousa; Morgado,Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Almeida,Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira,Maria Elisa Caputo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences w...

  18. Men's perspectives on cancer prevention behaviors associated with HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Serena; Cornally, Nicola; Hegarty, Josephine

    2018-02-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the diagnosis of anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Evidence indicates that correct condom use in addition to obtaining the HPV vaccine provides the greatest protection from HPV infections. To explore young men's beliefs and behavioral intention in relation to receiving the HPV vaccine and using a condom correctly and consistently for sexual contact. A cross-sectional study underpinned by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was conducted with male participants (n = 359, 18-28 years) who completed an online survey. Descriptive, correlational, and hierarchical regression analyses were performed on both status variables and variables of the TPB. Subjective norms (β = 0.519, P HPV vaccine, while relationship status (β = -0.215, P HPV vaccine and 44% in intention to use a condom were explained by the TPB model. Results from this study will impact on future sexual health research, education programs, and interventions for both HPV preventative behaviors towards the elimination of HPV-related cancers in men. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Saeb

    Full Text Available Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals.

  20. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  1. Community Trial on Heat Related-Illness Prevention Behaviors and Knowledge for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Takahashi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs, to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW, HHW and water delivery (HHW+W, and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047, water intake (p = 0.003, cooling body (p = 0.002 and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047 compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008. An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067 and cooling body (p = 0.095 behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly.

  2. Breaking the rhythm of depression : Cognitive Behavior Therapy and relapse prevention for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockting, Claudi L.H.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  4. Possibilities for teacher’s preventive actions in regard bullying behavior of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of school bullying is an important task of modern educational process, given the seriousness of its consequences for students who behave violently and for those who are exposed to bullying, as well as for other classmates. A teacher, who in comparison with other school staff is in daily contact with students, has an extremely important role in prevention of bullying and in creating encouraging school climate. Through systematized and critical reflection on the views of numerous authors, this article aims at pointing out importance of certain aspects of teachers‘ role in prevention of bullying, and importance of creating a positive school climate as an important prerequisite for preventive activity of teachers, as well as at emphasizing possible obstacles to adequate preventive actions of teachers. In the last section, changes made in recent years in Serbia in regard to prevention of bullying behavior of students in the education system are considered. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179013: Održivost identiteta Srba i nacionalnih manjina u pograničnim opštinama istočne i jugoistočne Srbije

  5. [Prevention of atherosclerosis by enforcing non-smoking behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, H

    1991-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the single most important cause for avoidable diseases. Malignancies, pulmonary diseases, and the different manifestations of coronary artery disease (CAD) are either caused or developed significantly earlier with cigarette smoking. Even in the young-adult-age, smokers have more raised lesions in the abdominal aorta or in the coronary arteries. The analysis of more than 800 patients with myocardial infarction at young age showed that cigarette smoking is the dominant risk factor up until myocardial infarction. In male patients with CAD myocardial infarction is the first clinical manifestation. Therefore, the potential for primary prevention is small in traditional medical practice. Based on these experiences, we tried to support nonsmoking behavior in the 7th grade in school. Knowledge about the cardiovascular system and the acute effects of cigarette smoking were taught. In addition, role plays were performed by the children to practice rejecting an offered cigarette. With this intervention, new onset of smoking could be reduced by 50% over 2 years with a limited (8h) educational intervention. Reasons for the onset of cigarette smoking are different for boys and girls. The percentage of pupils smoking decreases with the increasing social status of the parents. The tobacco industry has recognized that children are an important target group as future consumers, and it uses that fact in its public relations and advertising strategy. However, the government undertakes virtually no efforts to control illegal sales of cigarettes to minors. Tax incomes from illegal sales of cigarettes to minors by far exceed the expenses for preventive efforts of state agencies. A change of this permissive attitude appears warranted.

  6. “Nudges” to Prevent Behavioral Risk Factors Associated With Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder—colloquially called “depression”—is a primary global cause of disability. Current preventive interventions, such as problem-solving therapy, are effective but also expensive. “Nudges” are easy and cheap interventions for altering behavior. We have explored how nudging can reduce three behavioral risk factors of depression: low levels of physical activity, inappropriate coping mechanisms, and inadequate maintenance of social ties. These nudges use cognitive biases associated with these behavioral risks, such as valuing the present more than the future, following the herd or the norm, making different choices in light of equivalent conditions, and deciding on the basis of salience or attachment to status quo. PMID:26378823

  7. Determinants of lifestyle behavior change to prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Braver, N R; de Vet, E; Duijzer, G; Ter Beek, J; Jansen, S C; Hiddink, G J; Feskens, E J M; Haveman-Nies, A

    2017-06-12

    Although there are many effective lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention, insight into effective intervention pathways, especially of long-term interventions, is often lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the effective intervention pathways of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention using mediation analyses. In total, 240 participants at increased risk of T2DM were included in the analyses over 18 months. The intervention was a combined lifestyle intervention with a dietary and a physical activity (PA) component. The primary and secondary outcomes were change in fasting insulin (pmol/L) and change in body weight (kg) after 18 months, respectively. Firstly, in a multiple mediator model, we investigated whether significant changes in these outcomes were mediated by changes in dietary and PA behavior. Secondly, in multiple single mediator models, we investigated whether changes in dietary and PA behavior were mediated by changes in behavioral determinants and the participants' psychological profile. The mediation analyses used linear regression models, where significance of indirect effects was calculated with bootstrapping. The effect of the intervention on decreased fasting insulin was 40% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where dietary behavior was an independent mediator of the association (34%). The effect of the intervention on decreased body weight was 20% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where PA behavior was an independent mediator (17%). The intervention significantly changed intake of fruit, fat from bread spread, and fiber from bread. Change in fruit intake was mediated by change in action control (combination of consciousness, self-control, and effort), motivation, self-efficacy, intention, and skills. Change in fat intake was mediated by change in action control and psychological profile. No mediators could be identified for change in fiber intake. The change in PA behavior was mediated

  8. Why are there social gradients in preventative health behavior? A perspective from behavioral ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Within affluent populations, there are marked socioeconomic gradients in health behavior, with people of lower socioeconomic position smoking more, exercising less, having poorer diets, complying less well with therapy, using medical services less, ignoring health and safety advice more, and being less health-conscious overall, than their more affluent peers. Whilst the proximate mechanisms underlying these behavioral differences have been investigated, the ultimate causes have not.This paper presents a theoretical model of why socioeconomic gradients in health behavior might be found. I conjecture that lower socioeconomic position is associated with greater exposure to extrinsic mortality risks (that is, risks that cannot be mitigated through behavior, and that health behavior competes for people's time and energy against other activities which contribute to their fitness. Under these two assumptions, the model shows that the optimal amount of health behavior to perform is indeed less for people of lower socioeconomic position.The model predicts an exacerbatory dynamic of poverty, whereby the greater exposure of poor people to unavoidable harms engenders a disinvestment in health behavior, resulting in a final inequality in health outcomes which is greater than the initial inequality in material conditions. I discuss the assumptions of the model, and its implications for strategies for the reduction of health inequalities.

  9. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  11. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  12. Modifying Health Behavior to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases: A Nationwide Survey among German Primary Care Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72% and alcohol (61% consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%, and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%, and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%. However, only between 23% (quitting smoking and 49% (diet modification of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD.

  13. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  14. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  15. A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sadros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in socialand domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domainsof adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normalindividuals.Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals(7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years, participated this study inTehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using"Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community" (ABS-RC: 2,consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translatedinto Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English byanother translator, to ensure content non-distortion.Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentallyretarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economicactivity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self direction, responsibility, socialization,disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement,conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documentedin the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors,sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, betweenthe two groups.Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normalones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that theadaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal ofattention and intervention. For these retarded people to function betterin their social and residential environment, it would be necessary todevelop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on theimportance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentallyretarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures,even for normal individuals.

  16. Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sharafkhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is physically demanding as it is ranked second from the viewpoint of physical activity, following industrial occupations. Nursing is considered a profession with high musculoskeletal disorders, specifically low back pain. This article evaluated the nurses’ educational needs based on the Health Belief Model (HBM with focus on the low back pain and adoption of preventive behaviors. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 133 nurses who were selected randomly from three public educational hospitals affiliated with Arak University of Medical Sciences. Data collection was performed with a questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics, questions on HBM constructs, and a checklist for explaining the performances. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In this study, among the HBM constructs, the cues to action and the perceived barriers were the main predictors of optimal performance among the sample subjects (B = 0.09, p < .01. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the nurses’ performance on adopting the preventive behaviors and the scores of perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action (p < .05. However, no significant relationship was observed between the nurses’ performance and perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits. In this study, as for behavior barriers, the nurses complained about unfamiliarity with the workplace ergonomics and inappropriate conditions based on ergonomic principles, which requires educational planning with the aim of overcoming perceived barriers, improving managerial activities, and enhancing the working place conditions.

  17. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Crossed two relapse prevention conditions (skills training-vs-discussion control) with two levels of aversive smoking in volunteer subjects (N=123). Results indicated that relapse-prevention skill training did prevent relapse among cigarette smokers. Lighter smokers were more favorably influenced. (LLL)

  18. Study on application of safety checklist in preventive maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Chen Song; Liu Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the principles and the characteristics of safety checklist as a risk evaluation method. Examples of application of safety checklists to preventive maintenance activities such as criteria comparison and checkup items in place in nuclear power plants are illustrated in details with issues appeared in the checklist establishment. Checklist has a good application in the RCM analysis or in the actual preventive maintenance program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant indicated by concrete instances. In the light of safety checklist which is used to sustain preventive maintenance as a simple and applicable risk analysis approach, we can get deep knowledge of risks of nuclear power plant to perfect preventive maintenance activities. (authors)

  19. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices.

  20. A bio-behavioral model of addiction treatment: applying dual representation theory to craving management and relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly

    2005-01-01

    A bio-behavioral approach to drug addiction treatment is outlined. The presented treatment model uses dual representation theory as a guiding framework for understanding the bio-behavioral processes activated during the application of expressive therapeutic methods. Specifically, the treatment model explains how visual processing techniques can supplement traditional relapse prevention therapy protocols, to help clients better manage cravings and control triggers in hard-to-treat populations such as chronic substance-dependent persons.

  1. Predicting Cancer-Prevention Behavior: Disentangling the Effects of Risk Aversion and Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddel, Mary; Hales, David

    2018-05-16

    Experimental and survey research spanning the last two decades concludes that people who are more risk tolerant are more likely to engage in risky health activities such as smoking and heavy alcohol consumption, and are more likely to be obese. Subjective perceptions of the risk associated with different activities have also been found to be associated with health behaviors. While there are numerous studies that link risk perceptions with risky behavior, it is notable that none of these controls for risk aversion. Similarly, studies that control for risk aversion fail to control for risk misperceptions. We use a survey of 474 men and women to investigate the influence of risk aversion, risk misperceptions, and cognitive ability on the choice to engage in behaviors that either increase or mitigate cancer risk. We measure optimism in two dimensions: baseline optimists are those who inaccurately believe their cancer risk to be below its expert-assessed level, while control optimists are those who believe they can reduce their risk of cancer (by changing their lifestyle choices) to a greater extent than is actually the case. Our results indicate that baseline optimism is significantly and negatively correlated with subjects' tendencies to engage in cancer-risk-reducing behaviors, and positively correlated with risky behaviors. Subjects' control misperceptions also appear to play a role in their tendency to engage in risky and prevention behaviors. When controlling for both of these types of risk misperception, risk aversion plays a much smaller role in determining health behaviors than found in past studies. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. AIDS, behavior, and culture: understanding evidence-based prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Edward C; Ruark, Allison Herling

    2011-01-01

    .... Arguing for a behavior-based approach, the authors make the case that the most effective programs are those that encourage fundamental behavioral changes such as faithfulness, avoidance of concurrent...

  3. Intention to Enact and Enactment of Gatekeeper Behaviors for Suicide Prevention: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Shane T W; Walch, Susan E; Bauer, Kristina N; Glenn, April D

    2017-08-01

    Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention was evaluated on a college campus to examine the impact of training on gatekeeper enactment of behaviors in support of suicide prevention and identify predictors of enactment of gatekeeper behaviors. Trained gatekeepers (N = 216) displayed greater perceived knowledge and self-efficacy for suicide prevention and reported higher rates of self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors, including inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring for mental health treatment when they encountered someone in distress, compared to their untrained counterparts (N = 169). Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, SEM results indicated that attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived knowledge explained intentions to engage in gatekeeper behaviors, accounting for 59% of the variance in intentions to inquire about suicidal ideation and supporting the role of attitudes and perceived behavioral control in intentions to act. These intentions explained self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors among participants who encountered someone in distress, with each one-point increase in intention associated with nearly twice the likelihood of both inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring someone for mental health care. On the other hand, self-reported situational barriers were associated with a decreased likelihood of referral behavior, indicating the role of actual behavioral control over volitional actions. Findings support the value of gatekeeper training for promoting factors that influence the likelihood of action on behalf of suicide prevention.

  4. Clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors is associated with nonadherence to clinical preventive recommendations among adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Esteban-Hernández, Jesus; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; López-de-Andrés, Ana; Carrasco Garrido, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Analyze clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behavior and its relationship with nonadherence to clinical preventive care services among Spanish diabetic adults. Cross-sectional study including 2156 diabetic adults from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. Subjects were asked about their uptake of BP measurement, lipid profile, influenza vaccination, and dental examination. Lifestyle behaviors included smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and dieting. Binary logistic regression models were built to assess the association between clustering of unhealthy lifestyle and the uptake of each preventive activity. Almost 16% and 36% of the subjects had not undergone blood pressure (BP) and blood lipids measurements, respectively. Forty percent had not been vaccinated and 72% had not received dental examination. Fourteen percent of the subjects had three to four unhealthy behaviors and this increased the probability of not having BP check-up (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.38-3.91), blood lipids testing (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.33), and not being vaccinated (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.37-2.89). Number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors is linearly associated with number of preventive measures unfulfilled. Adherence to recommended clinical preventive services is under desirable levels among Spanish diabetes sufferers. These preventive services are provided neither equitably nor efficiently, since subjects with unhealthier lifestyles are less likely to receive them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV/AIDS Prevention Activities of Faith-Based Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these findings, it was recommended that the faith-based Christian organizations should collaborate with relevant agencies, community based workers and non-formal education providers to improve HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery in the study area. Keywords: Prevention, Activities, HIV/AIDS, Empowerment, ...

  6. Does Practice Make Perfect? A Randomized Control Trial of Behavioral Rehearsal on Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10–24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed. PMID:21814869

  7. Does practice make perfect? A randomized control trial of behavioral rehearsal on suicide prevention gatekeeper skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wendi F; Seaburn, David; Gibbs, Danette; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; White, Ann Marie; Caine, Eric D

    2011-08-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10-24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the impact on skills and use of training is less known. Brief gatekeeper training programs are largely educational and do not employ active learning strategies such as behavioral rehearsal through role play practice to assist skill development. In this study, we compare gatekeeper training as usual with training plus brief behavioral rehearsal (i.e., role play practice) on a variety of learning outcomes after training and at follow-up for 91 school staff and 56 parents in a school community. We found few differences between school staff and parent participants. Both training conditions resulted in enhanced knowledge and attitudes, and almost all participants spread gatekeeper training information to others in their network. Rigorous standardized patient and observational methods showed behavioral rehearsal with role play practice resulted in higher total gatekeeper skill scores immediately after training and at follow-up. Both conditions, however, showed decrements at follow-up. Strategies to strengthen and maintain gatekeeper skills over time are discussed.

  8. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Cerin, Ester; Baranowski, Janice

    2009-01-21

    Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

  9. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranowski Janice

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

  10. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  11. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  12. Mental disorder prevention and physical activity in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Salehe Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Physical activity significantly prevents mental disorder in older adults. Although it has effects on anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression, the greatest influence is on improving the somatization symptoms.

  13. Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-15

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.  Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/15/2018.

  14. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  15. Understanding and Preventing Runaway Behavior: Indicators and Strategies for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Lisa A.; Raimondi, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Runaway behavior is a national epidemic that affects many school-aged youths. Although there are no definitive numbers, it has been estimated that between 1.3 and 2.8 million youths run away each year, and youths with disabilities are more at risk for engaging in runaway behavior than their nondisabled peers. Considering the high number of youths…

  16. Incidence of behavior's habits in the cardiovascular disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpi-Ballester, Amparo; Zurriaga-Llorens, Rosario; Gonzalez-Navarro, Pilar; Marzo-Campos, Juan C.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Different models have been proposed from Health Psychology in order to understand and to predict healthy behaviours. Theory of Planed Behavior is a prevailing model in the study of health. Using this theoretical framework, the objective of this descriptive study is to test the impact of behavioral

  17. Integrating Bullying Prevention into Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Chris P.; McIntosh, Kent; Gietz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against victims who are unable to defend themselves. Children and youth who engage in bullying behavior may have a physical advantage, higher social status, or power in numbers, whereas those who are targeted by bullies are likely to be solitary, smaller in stature,…

  18. Breaking the Rhythm of Depression: Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Relapse Prevention for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudi L.H. Bockting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior therapy strategies will be addressed, i.e. acute prophylactic cognitive behavior therapy, continuation cognitive behavior therapy, sequential cognitive behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in partial remission.Specific ingredients of three sequential cognitive behavior therapy programs (well-being cognitive therapy, preventive cognitive therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy will be discussed as applied after remission in patients that experienced previous depressive episodes. Sequential preventive cognitive behavior therapy after acute treatment may be an attractive alternative treatment for many patients who currently use antidepressants for years and years to prevent relapse and recurrence. This is an extremely challenging issue to research thoroughly. Future studies must rule out what intervention for whom is the best protection against relapse and recurrence in depression.

  19. Cancer-preventive activities of tocopherols and tocotrienols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jihyeung; Picinich, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Zhao, Yang; Suh, Nanjoo; Kong, Ah-Ng; Yang, Chung S

    2010-04-01

    The cancer-preventive activity of vitamin E has been studied. Whereas some epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of vitamin E against cancer formation, many large-scale intervention studies with alpha-tocopherol (usually large doses) have not demonstrated a cancer-preventive effect. Studies on alpha-tocopherol in animal models also have not demonstrated robust cancer prevention effects. One possible explanation for the lack of demonstrable cancer-preventive effects is that high doses of alpha-tocopherol decrease the blood and tissue levels of delta-tocopherols. It has been suggested that gamma-tocopherol, due to its strong anti-inflammatory and other activities, may be the more effective form of vitamin E in cancer prevention. Our recent results have demonstrated that a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols inhibits colon, prostate, mammary and lung tumorigenesis in animal models, suggesting that this mixture may have a high potential for applications in the prevention of human cancer. In this review, we discuss biochemical properties of tocopherols, results of possible cancer-preventive effects in humans and animal models and possible mechanisms involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Based on this information, we propose that a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols is a very promising cancer-preventive agent and warrants extensive future research.

  20. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary. PMID:28194203

  1. Mixed methods study of engagement in behaviors to prevent type 2 diabetes among employees with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T; Knaus, Megan; Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Heisler, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Many employers use screenings to identify and recommend modification of employees' risk factors for type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about how often employees then engage in recommended behaviors and what factors influence engagement. We examined the frequency of, facilitators of, and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors among employees found to have pre-diabetes during a workplace screening. We surveyed 82 University of Michigan employees who were found to have pre-diabetes during a 2014 workplace screening and compared the characteristics of employees who 3 months later were and were not engaged in recommended behaviors. We interviewed 40 of these employees to identify the facilitators of and barriers to engagement in recommended behaviors. 3 months after screening, 54% of employees with pre-diabetes reported attempting to lose weight and getting recommended levels of physical activity, had asked their primary care provider about metformin for diabetes prevention, or had attended a Diabetes Prevention Program. These employees had higher median levels of motivation to prevent type 2 diabetes (9/10 vs 7/10, pmotivation and social and external supports. Key barriers were lack of motivation and resources, and competing demands. Most employees found to have pre-diabetes through a workplace screening were engaged in a recommended preventive behavior 3 months after the screening. This engagement could be enhanced by optimizing motivation and risk perception as well as leveraging social networks and external supports.

  2. Increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Remco C; Jansen, Anita T M

    2003-07-01

    Theoretically, cue exposure treatment should be able to prevent relapse by extinguishing conditioned drug responding (e.g. cue-elicited craving). According to contemporary learning theory, though, extinction does not eliminate conditioned responding. Analogous cue exposure with response prevention (CERP) as a treatment of addictive behavior might not eliminate the learned relation between drug-related cues and drug use. This does not necessarily mean that cue exposure cannot successfully prevent relapse. Various suggestions for increasing the efficacy of cue exposure treatment are being discussed from a contemporary learning theory perspective. It is suggested that cue exposure treatment incorporating retrieval cues can be a beneficial treatment in preventing relapse of addictive behavior.

  3. Clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors is associated with a low adherence to recommended preventive practices among COPD patients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Maestu, Luis Puente; Aparicio, Irene Jarana; Ramos, Alicia Oliva; López de Andrés, Ana; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    To analyze clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behavior and its relationship with non-adherence to recommended clinical preventive care services among Spanish COPD patients. Cross-sectional study including 2,575 COPD subjects from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) and 2009 European Health Survey for Spain (EHISS). Subjects were asked about the following recommended preventive practices: uptake of blood pressure (BP) measurement, lipid profile, influenza vaccination and dental examination. Lifestyle behaviors included: smoking status, physical activity, alcohol consumption and obesity. Logistic regression models were built to assess the association between clustering of unhealthy lifestyle and the uptake of preventive activities. Blood pressure measurement in the previous 6 months and a blood lipid test in the last year had not been taken by 11.74% and 23.26% of the subjects, respectively, in 2006 NHS and by 11.16% and 16.33% of the subjects, respectively, in EHISS 2009. Then, 36.36% percent had not been vaccinated and 70.61% had not received dental examination in 2006 NHS and these percentages decreased to 27.33% and 66.22%, respectively, in 2009 EHISS. A higher number of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors increased the probability of not being vaccinated and not having a dental examination. Clustering of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors is linearly associated with a greater number of preventive measures unfulfilled. Compliance with healthy lifestyles and adherence to recommended clinical preventive services is under desirable levels among Spanish COPD patients. Patients with lifestyles considered as "worse" are those who also have lower uptake of recommended preventive activities.

  4. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  5. Obesity prevention and obesogenic behavior interventions in child care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Krampe, Megan; Anundson, Katherine; Castle, Sherri

    2016-06-01

    Review peer-reviewed interventions designed to reduce obesity and improve obesogenic behaviors, including physical activity, diet, and screen time, at child care centers. Interventions components and outcomes, study design, duration, use of behavioral theory, and level of social ecological influence are detailed. Article searches were conducted from March 2014, October 2014, March 2015, January 2016 across three databases. Eligible interventions were conducted in child care settings, included 3-to-5-year-old children, included an outcome measure of obesity or obesogenic behavior, and published in English. Study design quality was assessed using Stetler's Level of Quantitative Evidence. All unique records were screened (n=4589): 237 articles were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 97 articles describing 71 interventions met inclusion criteria. Forty-four articles included multi-level interventions. Twenty-nine interventions included an outcome measure of obesity. Forty-one interventions included physical activity. Forty-five included diet. Eight included screen time. Fifty-five percent of interventions were Level II (randomized controlled trials), while 37% were Level III (quasi-experimental or pre-post only study design), and 8% were Level IV (non-experimental or natural experiments). Most interventions had the intended effect on the target: obesity 48% (n=14), physical activity 73% (n=30), diet 87% (n=39), and screen time 63% (n=5). Summarizing intervention strategies and assessing their effectiveness contributes to the existing literature and may provide direction for practitioners and researchers working with young children in child care. Most interventions produced the targeted changes in obesity and obesity-associated behaviors, supporting current and future efforts to collaborate with early-care centers and professionals for obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incoming College Students' Bystander Behaviors to Prevent Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…

  7. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  8. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  9. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267

  10. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is

  11. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...

  12. Measuring Bystander Attitudes and Behavior to Prevent Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…

  13. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  15. How Do You Motivate Long-Term Behavior Change to Prevent Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Pierce PhD, a professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California, San Diego and Director of Population Science at Moores Cancer Center, presented "How Do You Motivate Long-Term Behavior Change to Prevent Cancer?" 

  16. Cultural Effects on Cancer Prevention Behaviors: Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Risk Optimism Among Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Lwin, May O

    2017-10-01

    Although culture is acknowledged as an important factor that influences health, little is known about cultural differences pertaining to cancer-related beliefs and prevention behaviors. This study examines two culturally influenced beliefs-fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention, and optimistic beliefs about cancer risk-to identify reasons for cultural disparity in the engagement of cancer prevention behaviors. We utilized data from national surveys of European Americans in the United States (Health Information National Trends Survey 4, Cycle3; N = 1,139) and Asians in Singapore (N = 1,200) to make cultural comparisons. The odds of an Asian adhering to prevention recommendations were less than half the odds of a European American, with the exception of smoking avoidance. Compared to European Americans, Asians were more optimistic about their cancer risk both in an absolute and a comparative sense, and held stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Mediation analyses revealed that fatalistic beliefs and absolute risk optimism among Asians partially explain their lower engagement in prevention behaviors, whereas comparative risk optimism increases their likelihood of adhering to prevention behaviors. Our findings underscore the need for developing culturally targeted interventions in communicating cancer causes and prevention.

  17. Prevention of Addictive Behavior Based on the Formation of Teenagers' Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleeva, Vera P.; Shubnikova, Ekaterina G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is due to the development of a new stage of prevention and the need to justify new educational goals and objectives of the pedagogical prevention of addictive behavior in the educational environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the totality of the necessary and sufficient individual resources, that are…

  18. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  19. Preventing Health Damaging Behaviors in Male and Female Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training.” This abstract focused on factors associated with... contraceptive methods among male and female adolescent and young adult soldiers in training Stephanie Adrianse, MD1, Lance M. Pollack, Ph.D2, Cherrie B...keywords: unintended pregnancy, prevention, contraceptive use, adolescents /young adults, psychosocial factors Purpose: Over 50% of pregnancies among

  20. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences.

  1. The Importance of Behavioral Risk Factors for Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burden of disease and risk factors they bring to society are calculated and determined according to this policy. According to World Health Organization (WHO Global Health Risks report, tobacco use, being overweight or obese, insufficient physical activity, alcohol consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption were responsible one-third of deaths (34.4%, and 19.3% (excluded inadequate e fruits and vegetables consumption of the burden of DALYs in middle-income countries. According to Turkey the National Burden of Disease (NBD and WHO is preparing the Global Burden of Disease 2005, which is fundamental in the prevention of chronic diseases is life style risks that can be prevented, controlled, and changed. According to the NBD 2004 study, 79% of deaths were due to non-communicable diseases in our country. The primary risk factor for DALY is high blood pressure, and following 6 risk factors were related to behavior in our country. Smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, inactive life, and high dietary fat and salt intake which are considered to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases are lifestyle behaviors. When adults visited to health facilities for any reason, their risky behavior can be evaluated. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 735-740

  2. Stay Cool Kids?! Effectiveness, Moderation and Mediation of a Preventive Intervention for Externalizing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Stable externalizing behavior in childhood places children at risk for the development of a chronic and persistent pattern of externalizing behavior problems. Preventive interventions that aim to interrupt this developmental trajectory are crucial. Until now, no evidence-based intervention for

  3. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  4. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  5. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Self-Determination Theory with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Peter C.; Patrick, Heather; Wenzel, Amy; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in preventing suicide-related behavior. However, it is often difficult to engage patients who are at-risk in treatment. Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been shown to increase treatment engagement and improve treatment outcomes when it is used to complement other treatments. As a…

  6. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and vitamin D metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Elizabeth A; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Dai, Qi; Kohler, Lindsay N; Warren Anderson, Shaneda; Jurutka, Peter W; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-02-01

    Physical activity is associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). However, the influence of activity and/or sedentary behavior on the biologically active, seco-steroid hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) randomized trial participants (n=876) to evaluate associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations. Continuous vitamin D metabolite measurements and clinical thresholds were evaluated using multiple linear and logistic regression models, mutually adjusted for either 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D and additional confounding factors. A statistically significant linear association between 1,25(OH)2D and moderate-vigorous physical activity per week was strongest among women (β (95% CI): 3.10 (1.51-6.35)) versus men (β (95% CI): 1.35 (0.79-2.29)) in the highest tertile of activity compared to the lowest (p-interaction=0.003). Furthermore, 25(OH)D was 1.54ng/ml (95% CI 1.09-1.98) higher per hour increase in moderate-vigorous activity (p=0.001) and odds of sufficient 25(OH)D status was higher among physically active participants (p=0.001). Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with either metabolite in linear regression models, nor was a statistically significant interaction by sex identified. The current study identified novel associations between physical activity and serum 1,25(OH)2D levels, adjusted for 25(OH)D concentrations. These results identify the biologically active form of vitamin D as a potential physiologic mechanism related to observed population-level associations between moderate-vigorous physical activity with bone health and chronic disease risk. However, future longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the role of physical activity and vitamin D metabolites in chronic disease prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baux-Cazal, L; Gokalsing, E; Amadeo, S; Messiah, A

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted". Publications were included if they described suicidal behavior prevention programs (suicide prevention programs, attempted-suicide prevention programs, suicidal ideation screening programs), and if the studies concerned children under age 13. We also included references cited in the articles if they were not already present in our searches but met inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if they analyzed populations of children and adolescents without sub-analysis for children under age 13. A total of 350 potentially relevant articles were identified, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria, including 4 retrieved from articles' bibliography. Preventive measures against suicidal behavior for children under 13 exist and include: social programs, maltreatment prevention, curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, suicide screening in schools, gatekeepers, reduction of access of lethal means of suicide, suicide screening by primary care, and post-suicide intervention programs. Overall, the evidence was limited by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. However, positive effects were found: school-based suicide prevention programs and gatekeepers increased knowledge about suicide and how to seek help, post-suicide programs helped to reduce psychological distress in the short term. One study showed a decreased risk of attempted-suicide after entry into the child welfare system. There are promising interventions but there is not enough scientific evidence to support any efficient preventive measure against

  8. Comparison of Two Methods of Direct and Indirect Education on Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Darabi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease that decreases bone mass, causes destruction and eventually friability. This disease is preventable, and because adolescent females are the high-risk population, teaching this age group is of the utmost importance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the two educational methods (Lecture and Pamphlet on osteoporosis preventive behaviors among female students. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial (RCT. To collect data, demographic questionnaire, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, and physical activity questionnaire were used. Subjects were 205 seventh-grade girls who were selected by multistage random method and allocated in two experimental (Lecture = 68, Pamphlet = 67 and 70 for control group. In the Lecture group, there were 5 sessions of training, each of which lasted 60 minutes. In the Pamphlet group, only educational pamphlets were given, and no interventions were performed in the control group. Data were analyzed through statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-test and ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the students was 13 + 0.856 years old and there was no difference in terms of demographic variables between intervention and control groups. The results identified the mean scores of physical activity behaviors significantly improved two mounts after the intervention in the lecture group (P=0.001.While, the men scores of the pamphlet group had no significant changes after two months, but the differences of the both group compared to the control group were significant. Considering the significant decreased in the control group (P= 001. The mean scores of calcium intake in the two lecture and pamphlet groups significantly increased (P

  9. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  10. Physical activity, energy intake, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Dai, Shifan; Steffen, Lyn M; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Shah, Syed M; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2009-07-01

    It is unclear to what extent factors affecting energy balance contribute to the development of body fatness in youth. The objective of the current study was to describe the relationship of physical activity, energy intake, and sedentary behavior to BMI, fat free-mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI) in children aged 10-18 years. In the subsample studied, participants were 245 girls and 227 boys (aged > or =10 years at entry or during follow-up assessments, or aged 11-14 years at entry) followed for 4 years from entry at ages 8, 11, or 14 years. At baseline and anniversary examinations, trained interviewers used a questionnaire to assess time spent daily in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior, and energy intake (kcal/day). Sexual maturation was assessed by direct observation of pubic-hair development (Tanner Stages 1-5). Triplicate recordings of height and weight were used to estimate BMI by the standard formula (kg/m(2)); bioelectric impedance was used to estimate percent body fat for calculating FFMI and FMI (kg/m(2)). Multilevel models were used to examine the association of MVPA, energy intake, and sedentary behavior with BMI, FFMI, and FMI. Data were analyzed in 2007-2008. Energy intake was unrelated to FMI or FFMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation or in any model to BMI. Sedentary behavior was unrelated to FMI in any model or to FFMI or BMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation. MVPA was inversely related to FMI. In children aged 10-18 years, MVPA was inversely associated with fat mass and with BMI. Investigations in youth of dietary intake and physical activity, including interventions to prevent or reverse overweight as represented by BMI, should address its fat and lean components and not BMI alone.

  11. When does self-sacrificial leadership motivate prosocial behavior? It depends on followers' prevention focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, David; Mayer, David M; van Dijke, Marius; Bardes, Mary; Schouten, Barbara C

    2009-07-01

    In the present set of studies, the authors examine the idea that self-sacrificial leadership motivates follower prosocial behavior, particularly among followers with a prevention focus. Drawing on the self-sacrificial leadership literature and regulatory focus theory, the authors provide results from 4 studies (1 laboratory and 3 field studies) that support the research hypothesis. Specifically, the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and prosocial behavior (i.e., cooperation, organizational citizenship behavior) is stronger among followers who are high in prevention focus. Implications for the importance of taking a follower-centered approach to leadership are discussed.

  12. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mao

    Full Text Available Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP, workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment.

  13. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  14. Psychological and pedagogical conditions for the preventions of deviant behavior among adolescents

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    Vist N.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article focuses on such a highly relevant subject as the prevention and correction of deviant behavior in the adolescent environment. The study revealed the main vectors for the development of the modern science of deviant behavior, identified the main causes of deviations and carried out a comparative analysis of the work on the prevention of deviant behavior in the CIS countries and abroad. This paper proved that the key factor in the prevention and correction of deviant behavior should be, firstly, the family as the primary and the most important institution of identity formation, and secondly, the pedagogically controlled environment of educational institutions serving as a condition for socialization and personal development for children and adolescents.

  15. Forming a Learning Culture to Promote Fracture Prevention Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarson, Helene V.; Strandmark, Margaretha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore interprofessional experiences of incorporating fracture prevention activities in clinical practice inspired by an empowerment approach. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection consisted primarily of focus groups interviews, systematized and analyzed by the grounded theory method. The study took…

  16. Characterizing preventive activity in Camagüey province

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, María

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the characteristic features of preventive activities within the System of Education at Camaguey province. This information herein gathers results from a research investigation project and might be of interest for teachers, principals and investigators as a professional tool.

  17. Perioperative registered nurses knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers regarding pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallier, Peggy C; Reineke, Patricia R; Asadoorian, Kathy; Choonoo, John G; Campo, Marc; Malmgreen-Wallen, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Hospital acquired pressure ulcers have a detrimental effect on patient quality of life, morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare industry. Little is known about pressure ulcer prevention in perioperative services. The objectives of this study were to describe perioperative registered nurses (RNs) knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers about pressure ulcer prevention and to determine if knowledge and the availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool are predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. A cross-sectional descriptive pilot study was conducted. Sixty-two perioperative RNs from 10 acute care hospitals participated. Perioperative nurses believed carrying out pressure ulcer prevention strategies is essential to nursing practice but only two-thirds reported conducting pressure ulcer risk assessment on all patients and daily assessment on at risk patients. Results indicated a knowledge deficit regarding assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers as performance on the PUKT (72%) fell below the recommended score of 90%. Results of binary logistic regression indicated that knowledge as measured by the PUKT and availability of a pressure ulcer staging tool were statistically significant (p=0.03) predictors of pressure ulcer prevention behavior. The initial model without the predictor variables, indicated an overall success rate of correct predictions of 64% which increase to 73% when the predictor variables were added to the initial model. Although perioperative nurses believe that pressure ulcer prevention is important, a knowledge deficit exists and there is a need for pressure ulcer prevention education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventing Behavioral Disorders via Supporting Social and Emotional Competence at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Annika; Albers, Lucia; von Kries, Rüdiger; Hillenbrand, Clemens; Hennemann, Thomas

    2015-09-25

    13-18% of all preschool children have severe behavioral problems at least transiently, sometimes with long-term adverse consequences. In this study, the social training program "Lubo aus dem All! - Vorschulalter" (Lubo from Outer Space, Preschool Version) was evaluated in a kindergarten setting. 15 kindergartens were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, in a 2:1 ratio. The intervention was designed to strengthen emotional knowledge and regulation, the ability to take another person's point of view, communication skills, and social problem solving. The control group continued with conventional kindergarten activities. The primary endpoint was improvement in social-cognitive problem solving strategies, as assessed with the Wally Social Skills and Problem Solving Game (Wally). Secondary endpoints were improvement in prosocial behavior and reduction in problematic behavior, as assessed with the Preschool Social Behavior Questionnaire (PSBQ) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF). Data were collected before and after the intervention and also 5 months later. Mixed models were calculated with random effects to take account of the cluster design and for adjustment for confounding variables. 221 children in kindergarten, aged 5-6 years, were included in the study. Randomization was unsuccessful: the children in the intervention group performed markedly worse on the tests carried out before the intervention. Five months after the end of the intervention, the social-cognitive problem solving strategies of the children in the intervention group had improved more than those of the children in the control group: the intergroup difference in improvement was 0.79 standard deviations of the Wally test (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-1.46). This effect was just as marked 5 months later (0.63, 95% CI 0.03-1.23). Prosocial behavior, as measured by the PSBQ, also improved more in the intervention group, with an intergroup difference of 0

  19. DETERMINANTS OF PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOR REGARDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Platonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze potential determinants of preventive behavior (PB in patients with essential hypertension (HT and chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD, and to establish their significance and hierarchy. Material and methods. Patients with HT (n=285 and CIHD (n=223 were studied. Questioning of all patients was performed to assess the characteristics of their PB. Differentiated multivariate analysis of activity and efficacy of PB determinants was performed in HT and CIHD patients by the method of step-by-step backward logistic regression. Results. Awareness of the cardiovascular diseases (CVD and its prevention (odds ratio [OR] 6.08 as well as high level of general education (OR=2.29 were the most significant determinants of active PB in HT patients. Sufficient social support (OR=3.77, awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR=3.16 were the most significant determinants of active PB in patients with CIHD. Efficacy of PB in patients with HT and CIHD mostly depends on satisfaction of medical service (OR=10.2 and 6.63, respectively, social support (OR=6.25 and 10.5, respectively, adequate awareness of CVD and its prevention (OR, 6.92 and 6.64, respectively. Conclusion. PB activity and efficacy in patients with HT and CIHD depends on many contributing and impeding factors. Disregarding these factors can result in failure in preventive efforts at both individual and population levels.

  20. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  1. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sircova

    Full Text Available In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP, a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1 The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940 and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2 The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3 The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4 diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index. It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global

  2. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.

  3. On the existence of a threshold for preventive behavioral responses to suppress epidemic spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahneh, Faryad Darabi; Chowdhury, Fahmida N; Scoglio, Caterina M

    2012-01-01

    The spontaneous behavioral responses of individuals to the progress of an epidemic are recognized to have a significant impact on how the infection spreads. One observation is that, even if the infection strength is larger than the classical epidemic threshold, the initially growing infection can diminish as the result of preventive behavioral patterns adopted by the individuals. In order to investigate such dynamics of the epidemic spreading, we use a simple behavioral model coupled with the individual-based SIS epidemic model where susceptible individuals adopt a preventive behavior when sensing infection. We show that, given any infection strength and contact topology, there exists a region in the behavior-related parameter space such that infection cannot survive in long run and is completely contained. Several simulation results, including a spreading scenario in a realistic contact network from a rural district in the State of Kansas, are presented to support our analytical arguments.

  4. Blueberry polyphenols prevent cardiomyocyte death by preventing calpain activation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier Lieben; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Aloud, Basma Milad; Raj, Pema; Yu, Liping; Le, Hoa; Netticadan, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an aqueous wild blueberry extract and five wild blueberry polyphenol fractions on an in vitro model of heart disease. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with extract and fractions, and then exposed to norepinephrine (NE). Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiomyocyte contractile function as well as the activities of calpain, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in cardiomyocytes treated with and without NE and blueberry fraction (BF). Four of five blueberry fractions prevented cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by NE. Total phenolic fraction was used for all further analysis. The NE-induced increase in oxidative stress, nuclear condensation, calpain activity and lowering of SOD and CAT activities were prevented upon pretreatment with BF. Reduced contractile function was also significantly improved with BF pretreatment. Blueberry polyphenols prevent NE-induced adult cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. The protective effects of BF may be in part attributed to a reduction in calpain activity and oxidative stress.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Melanoma Prevention and Control Behaviors Among At-Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Parsons, Bridget G; Mooney, Ryan; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Cloyes, Kristin; Hay, Jennifer L; Kohlmann, Wendy; Grossman, Douglas; Leachman, Sancy A

    2018-04-06

    Melanoma prevention is essential for children who are at elevated risk for the disease due to family history. However, children who carry a familial risk for the disease do not optimally adhere to recommended melanoma preventive behaviors. The current study sought to identify perceived barriers to and facilitators of children's engagement in melanoma preventive behaviors among children at elevated risk for melanoma due to family history of the disease (i.e., having a parent with a history of melanoma) from both parents' and childrens' perspectives. Qualitative methods were employed and consisted of separate focus group discussions with children (ages 8-17 years, n = 37) and their parents (n = 39). Focus group transcripts were coded using content analysis. Parents and children reported a number of barriers and facilitators, including on the individual (e.g., knowledge and awareness, preferences), social (e.g., peer influences, family modeling and communication), and contextual (e.g., healthcare provider communication) levels. The identified categories of barriers and facilitators both confirm and extend the literature documenting the reasons children who are at elevated risk for melanoma do not engage in melanoma prevention and control behaviors. Programs aiming to decrease melanoma risk among children of melanoma survivors could help families address their barriers to preventive behavior implementation and build on facilitators. Melanoma survivors and their children could benefit from support on their interactions with healthcare providers, schools, peers, and other caregivers about melanoma prevention.

  6. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  7. Relapse Prevention: An Overview of Marlatts Cognitive- Behavioral Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Relapse prevention(RPis an important component of alcoholism treatment. The RP model proposed by Marlatt and Gordon suggests that both immediate determinants (e.g.,high- risk situations, coping skills, outcome expectancies, and the abstinence violation effect and covert antecedents (e.g., lifestyle factor and urges and cravings can contribute to relapse.The RP model also incorporates numerous specific and global intervention strategies that allow therapist and client to address each step of the relapse process. Specific interventions include identifying specific high-risk situations for each client and enhancing the client's skills for coping with those situations, increasing the client's self- efficacy, eliminating myths regarding alcohol's effects, managing lapses, and restructuring the client's perceptions of the relapse process. Global strategies comprise balancing the client's lifestyle and helping him or her develop positive addictions, employing stimulus control techniques and urgemanagement techniques, and developing relapse road maps. Several studies have provided theoretical and practical support for the RP model.

  8. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  9. Self-Regulatory Strategies as Correlates of Physical Activity Behavior in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Katie L; Balto, Julia M; Motl, Robert W

    2018-05-01

    To examine self-regulation strategies as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional, or survey, study. University-based research laboratory. Convenience sample of persons with MS (N=68). Not applicable. Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), 12-item Physical Activity Self-Regulation Scale (PASR-12), and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Correlation analyses indicated that GLTEQ scores were positively and significantly associated with overall self-regulation (r=.43), self-monitoring (r=.45), goal-setting (r=.27), reinforcement (r=.30), time management (r=.41), and relapse prevention (r=.53) PASR-12 scores. Regression analyses indicated that relapse prevention (B=5.01; SE B=1.74; β=.51) and self-monitoring (B=3.65; SE B=1.71; β=.33) were unique predictors of physical activity behavior, and relapse prevention demonstrated a significant association with physical activity behavior that was accounted for by EXSE. Our results indicate that self-regulatory strategies, particularly relapse prevention, may be important correlates of physical activity behavior that can inform the design of future behavioral interventions in MS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Preventive social activities with teenages from incomplete families

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    Ruslan Chubuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article foregrounds the importance of social prevention activities with adolescents from single-parent families, which aim at overcoming external social pressures and psychological discomfort as well as creating a system of mutual support and self-help for adolescents. The aim of this article is to highlight the forms and methods of work that constitute the set of traditional methods of professional influence on adolescents from single-parent families and their parents. The author proposes a work process cycle of social prevention activities (which defines the selection of apparatus, content, forms and methods of work to  186 carry out in a logical sequence of certain stages that are characteristic of work with any singleparent family. First (pre-preparatory stage consisted of a primary formulation of goal guidelines for social preventive specialists with the aim of determination of the search criterion for the conditions and social environment of single-parent families, acquaintance with the problems of the family and the adolescent. Second (organization and information stage consisted of gathering of information, its organization and analysis. In the third (determination and diagnosis stage, the methods of detailed investigation of both adolescent and family members’ problems were chosen. In the fourth (procedure and analytics stage, the methods of detailed research of single-family problems, determined by the programme, were implemented. In the fifth (correction and results stage stipulated for the socio-educational (correctional work (if necessary with members of single-parent families to create new or to restore damaged positive relationships of the adolescent with their family and enhance social responsibility of all family members for the future of the adolescent, etc. In the sixth (control and prevention stage social workers make monitor visits to the single-parent families during a certain period. Key words: stage, incomplete

  11. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

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    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  12. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

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    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  13. Predictors of risky sexual behavior in African American adolescent girls: implications for prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K

    2002-09-01

    To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.

  14. Mobile Phone Apps for Preventing Cancer Through Educational and Behavioral Interventions: State of the Art and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Champagne, Nicole; Jacobs, Molly; Massey, Rachael I

    2016-05-30

    Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of mobile phones in smoking cessation, promoting healthy diet, nutrition, and physical activity, sun safety, and cancer screening. Although many apps relating to the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases are available from major mobile phone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their efficacy. In this paper, we discuss issues related to the development and testing of new apps for preventing cancer through smoking cessation, sun safety, and other healthy behaviors, including key methodologic issues and outstanding challenges. An exploratory literature review was conducted using bibliographic searches in PubMed and CINAHL with relevant search terms (eg, smartphones, smoking cessation, cancer prevention, cancer screening, and carcinogens) to identify papers published in English through October 2015. Only 4 randomized controlled trials of the use of mobile phone apps for smoking cessation and 2 trials of apps for sun safety were identified, indicating that it is premature to conduct a systematic search and meta-analysis of the published literature on this topic. Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to better establish the cancer prevention and control capabilities of mobile phone apps. In developing new and refined apps for cancer prevention and control, both health literacy and eHealth literacy should be taken into account. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as smoking cessation, cancer screening, and sun safety. Mobile phone apps are likely to be a useful and low-cost intervention for preventing cancer through behavioral changes.

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S.; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentar...

  16. Tip-over prevention through heuristic reactive behaviors for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talke, Kurt; Kelley, Leah; Longhini, Patrick; Catron, Garret

    2014-06-01

    , previously experimentally validated, to predict the likelihood of robot tip-over and trigger prevention behaviors. A unique heuristic approach to tip-over avoidance was investigated, wherein a set of evasive maneuvers that an expert teleoperator might take are activated when the tip-over-likelihood estimate passes a critical threshold. This control approach was validated on an iRobot Packbot as well as on a Segway RMP 440. The heuristic laws demonstrated the advantage of alerting operators to a tip-over scenario and gave them more time to correct the situation, as well as the ability to automatically initiate recovery on the y". This research shows promise in preventing dangerous scenarios that could damage a robot and/or compromise its mission, thus saving lives. It further provides a good foundation for follow-on development involving the expansion and integration of the prevention-control algorithms, to include movable payloads, environment manipulation, 2D or 3D look-ahead laser sensing and mapping, and adaptive path planning.

  17. Designing behavioral self-regulation application for preventive personal mental healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hirano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy targeted restoration and few have targeted primary prevention. The purpose of this study is to obtain the knowledge for further development on preventive mental healthcare application. We developed a personal mental healthcare application which aimed to give users the chance to manage their mental health by self-monitoring and regulating their behavior. Through the 30-day field trial, the results showed improvement of mood score through conducting of suggested action, and the depressive mood of the participants was significantly decreased after the trial. The possibility of application and further problem was confirmed.

  18. Primary preventive programs for risk behavior: Results from a study in high poverty areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brito-Navarrete

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Educational interventions that provide mothers with strategies and knowledge regarding the cognitive and emotional development of their preschool children, have an impact on mother–child relationship, promoting interpersonal affective behavior and mother responsiveness to the needs of their children and they also promote the development of self-control and regulation of children, which allow them a functional social adjustment, thus preventing the onset of antisocial behavior.

  19. Employment status matters: a statewide survey of quality-of-life, prevention behaviors, and absenteeism and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, James A; Kelly, Kevin M; Burmeister, Leon F; Lozier, Matt J; Amendola, Alison; Lind, David P; KcKeen, Arlinda; Slater, Tom; Hall, Jennifer L; Rohlman, Diane S; Buikema, Brenda S

    2014-07-01

    To estimate quality-of-life (QoL), primary care, health insurance, prevention behaviors, absenteeism, and presenteeism in a statewide sample of the unemployed, self-employed, and organizationally employed. A statewide survey of 1602 Iowans included items from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention QoL and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey prevention behavior questionnaires used to assess employee well-being; their indicator results are related to World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-derived absenteeism and presenteeism scores. The unemployed exhibited poorer QoL and prevention behaviors; the self-employed exhibited many better QoL scores due largely to better prevention behaviors than those employed by organizations. Higher QoL measures and more prevention behaviors are associated with lower absenteeism and lower presenteeism. Employment status is related to measures of well-being, which are also associated with absenteeism and presenteeism.

  20. Oxysterol Restraint of Cholesterol Synthesis Prevents AIM2 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Eric V; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Russell, David W; Cyster, Jason G

    2017-11-16

    Type I interferon restrains interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-driven inflammation in macrophages by upregulating cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) and repressing SREBP transcription factors. However, the molecular links between lipid metabolism and IL-1β production remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) by macrophages is required to prevent inflammasome activation by the DNA sensor protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). We find that in response to bacterial infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages upregulate Ch25h to maintain repression of SREBP2 activation and cholesterol synthesis. Increasing macrophage cholesterol content is sufficient to trigger IL-1β release in a crystal-independent but AIM2-dependent manner. Ch25h deficiency results in cholesterol-dependent reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and release of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol. AIM2 deficiency rescues the increased inflammasome activity observed in Ch25h -/- . Therefore, activated macrophages utilize 25-HC in an anti-inflammatory circuit that maintains mitochondrial integrity and prevents spurious AIM2 inflammasome activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical activity in the prevention and rehabilitation of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Veselin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are more widespread today, whereby they take dimensions of global epidemic. They are the leading cause of diseases in the world, of inability to work, of absenteeism and premature mortality up to 65 years of age. Modern lifestyle in which there is not enough physical activity is recognized as one of the major risk factors for health and emergence of CVD. Physical inactivity is responsible for poor health quality, unnecessary illnesses and premature death. The aim of this work is to point out the basic risk factors and importance and the role of physical exercise in the prevention and rehabilitation of CVD. In the analysis of the data, the methods of speculation and introspection are used. Numerous studies have shown that properly practiced physical activity is a powerful and beneficial effect in the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of cardiovascular diseases (Scrutino et al. 2005; Secco et al. 2000; Jovović, 2008; Šuščević et al. 2011. Physical activity belongs to the concept of numerous factors, which along with the reduction of risk factors, lifestyle changes and medical therapy leads to the reduction of risk for cardiovascular diseases. To achieve the desired effect, a combination of aerobic, interval and isotonic muscle activity of moderate intensity at least four times a week for 45 minutes is recommended. During the secondary prevention and rehabilitation, physical activity adapts to health status, level of individual risk and the estimated functional abilities of patients. Transformational processes can only be achieved through regular exercise. The risk of emergence of complications during physical exercise is negligible, especially if the walking is practiced as a form of physical exercise.

  2. Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. This paper uses the Mediating Variable Model (MVM) as a conceptual framework for examining why obesity prevention interventions have not worked. Problems were identified in measurement of...

  3. The Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program: Adapting Behavioral Activation as a Treatment for Depression in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Schloredt, Kelly; Martell, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac; Hubley, Samuel; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine implementation feasibility and initial treatment outcomes of a behavioral activation (BA) based treatment for adolescent depression, the Adolescent Behavioral Activation Program (A-BAP). A randomized, controlled trial was conducted with 60 clinically referred adolescents with a depressive disorder who were randomized to receive either 14 sessions of A-BAP or uncontrolled evidenced-based practice for depression. The urban sample was 64% female, predominantly Non-Hispanic White (67%), and had an average age of 14.9 years. Measures of depression, global functioning, activation, and avoidance were obtained through clinical interviews and/or through parent and adolescent self-report at preintervention and end of intervention. Intent-to-treat linear mixed effects modeling and logistic regression analysis revealed that both conditions produced statistically significant improvement from pretreatment to end of treatment in depression, global functioning, and activation and avoidance. There were no significant differences across treatment conditions. These findings provide the first step in establishing the efficacy of BA as a treatment for adolescent depression and support the need for ongoing research on BA as a way to enhance the strategies available for treatment of depression in this population.

  4. Texting and Mobile Phone App Interventions for Improving Adherence to Preventive Behavior in Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif M; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2017-04-19

    Many preventable behaviors contribute to adolescent mortality and morbidity. Non-adherence to preventive measures represents a challenge and has been associated with worse health outcomes in this population. The widespread use of electronic communication technologies by adolescents, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service, SMS) and mobile phones, presents new opportunities to intervene on risk and preventive risk behavior, but little is known about their efficacy. This study aimed to systematically evaluate evidence for the efficacy of text messaging and mobile phone app interventions to improve adherence to preventive behavior among adolescents and describe intervention approaches to inform intervention development. This review covers literature published between 1995 and 2015. Searches included PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, CINAHL, INSPEC, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and additional databases. The search strategy sought articles on text messaging and mobile phone apps combined with adherence or compliance, and adolescents and youth. An additional hand search of related themes in the Journal of Medical Internet Research was also conducted. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, assessed full-text articles, and extracted data from articles that met inclusion criteria. Included studies reflect original research-experimental or preexperimental designs with text messaging or mobile phone app interventions-targeting adherence to preventive behavior among adolescents (12-24 years old). The preferred reporting items of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for reporting results, and findings were critically appraised against the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria. Of 1454 records, 19 met inclusion criteria, including text messaging (n=15) and mobile phone apps (n=4). Studies targeted clinic attendance, contraceptive use, oral health, physical activity and weight management

  5. EQUIPping High School Students. Effects of a universal prevention program on antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem

  6. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  7. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  8. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of a Multiple High-Risk Behavior Prevention Program and Delivery of Universal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…

  10. Preventive Behavior of Recurrent Kidney Stones and Its Relationship with its Knowledge and Receiving it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Morowatisharifabad

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the low rate of knowledge and performance of the subjects as well as the high age of patients suffering from kidney stones and lack of enough education in this group, health staff can be the most important source of knowledge for these people about preventive behaviors of kidney stones recurrence.

  11. The Differential Effects of Rape Prevention Programming on Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Mary J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…

  12. When does self-sacrificial leadership motivate prosocial behavior? It depends on followers’ prevention focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cremer, D.; Mayer, D.M.; van Dijke, M.; Schouten, B.C.; Bardes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present set of studies, the authors examine the idea that self-sacrificial leadership motivates follower prosocial behavior, particularly among followers with a prevention focus. Drawing on the self-sacrificial leadership literature and regulatory focus theory, the authors provide results

  13. Mind the movement: Frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral motivation, bilateral frontal activation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Müller, Mathias; Mühlberger, Andreas; Hewig, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Frontal asymmetry has been investigated over the past 30 years, and several theories have been developed about its meaning. The original theory of Davidson and its diversification by Harmon-Jones & Allen allocated approach motivation to relative left frontal brain activity and withdrawal motivation to relative right frontal brain activity. Hewig and colleagues extended this theory by adding bilateral frontal activation representing a biological correlate of the behavioral activation system if actual behavior is shown. Wacker and colleagues formulated a theory related to the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory by Gray & McNaughton. Here, relative left frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral activation system and behavior, while relative right frontal brain activation represents the revised behavioral inhibition system, representing the experience of conflict. These theories were investigated with a newly developed paradigm where participants were able to move around freely in a virtual T maze via joystick while having their EEG recorded. Analyzing the influence of frontal brain activation during this virtual reality task on observable behavior for 30 participants, we found more relative left frontal brain activation during approach behavior and more relative right brain activation for withdrawal behavior of any kind. Additionally, there was more bilateral frontal brain activation when participants were engaged in behavior compared to doing nothing. Hence, this study provides evidence for the idea that frontal asymmetry stands for behavioral approach or avoidance motivation, and bilateral frontal activation stands for behavior. Additionally, observable behavior is not only determined by frontal asymmetry, but also by relevant traits. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Andrew Z H; Lwin, May O; Ho, Shirley S

    2017-04-11

    The family is an important social context where children learn and adopt eating behaviors. Specifically, parents play the role of health promoters, role models, and educators in the lives of children, influencing their food cognitions and choices. This study attempts to systematically review empirical studies examining the influence of parents on child food consumption behavior in two contexts: one promotive in nature (e.g., healthy food), and the other preventive in nature (e.g., unhealthy food). From a total of 6,448 titles extracted from Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO and PubMED, seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria for a systematic review, while thirty seven articles contained requisite statistical information for meta-analysis. The parental variables extracted include active guidance/education, restrictive guidance/rule-making, availability, accessibility, modeling, pressure to eat, rewarding food consumption, rewarding with verbal praise, and using food as reward. The food consumption behaviors examined include fruits and vegetables consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snack consumption. Results indicate that availability (Healthy: r = .24, p parental modeling effects (Healthy: r = .32, p parenting practices might be dependent on the food consumption context and the age of the child. For healthy foods, active guidance/education might be more effective (r = .15, p children 7 and older, restrictive guidance/rule-making could be more effective in preventing unhealthy eating (r = - .20, p children 6 and younger, rewarding with verbal praise can be more effective in promoting healthy eating (r = .26, p parental behaviors are strong correlates of child food consumption behavior. More importantly, this study highlights 3 main areas in parental influence of child food consumption that are understudied: (1) active guidance/education, (2) psychosocial mediators, and (3) moderating influence of general parenting styles.

  15. Predicting intentions versus predicting behaviors: domestic violence prevention from a theory of reasoned action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.

  16. Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.

  17. Translating models of antisocial behavioral development into efficacious intervention policy to prevent adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Apter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  19. Content and effects of news stories about uncertain cancer causes and preventive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lee, Theodore; Robbins, Rebecca; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kresovich, Alex; Kirshenblat, Danielle; Standridge, Kimberly; Clarke, Christopher E; Jensen, Jakob; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from two studies that describe news portrayals of cancer causes and prevention in local TV and test the effects of typical aspects of this coverage on cancer-related fatalism and overload. Study 1 analyzed the content of stories focused on cancer causes and prevention from an October 2002 national sample of local TV and newspaper cancer coverage (n = 122 television stations; n = 60 newspapers). Informed by results from the content analysis, Study 2 describes results from a randomized experiment testing effects of the volume and content of news stories about cancer causes and prevention (n = 601). Study 1 indicates that local TV news stories describe cancer causes and prevention as comparatively more certain than newspapers but include less information about how to reduce cancer risk. Study 2 reveals that the combination of stories conveying an emerging cancer cause and prevention behavior as moderately certain leads to an increased sense of overload, while a short summary of well-established preventive behaviors mitigates these potentially harmful beliefs. We conclude with a series of recommendations for health communication and health journalism practice.

  20. Promotion of Influenza Prevention Beliefs and Behaviors through Primary School Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koep, T H; Jenkins, S; M Hammerlund, M E; Clemens, C; Fracica, E; Ekker, S C; Enders, F T; Huskins, W C; Pierret, C

    2016-06-01

    School-based campaigns to improve student health have demonstrated short-term success across various health topics. However, evidence of the effectiveness of programs in promoting healthy beliefs and behaviors is limited. We hypothesized that educational curricula teaching the science behind health promotion would increase student knowledge, beliefs and adherence to healthy behaviors, in this case related to influenza. Integrated Science Education Outreach is a successful education intervention in Rochester, Minnesota public schools that has demonstrated improvements in student learning. Within this program, we designed novel curricula and assessments to determine if gains in knowledge extended to influenza prevention. Further, we coupled InSciEd Out programming with a clinical intervention, Influenza Prevention Prescription Education (IPPE), to compare students' attitudes, intentions and healthy behaviors utilizing surveys and hand hygiene monitoring equipment. 95 students participated in (IPPE) in the intervention school. Talking drawings captured improvement in influenza prevention understanding related to hand washing [pre n=17(43%); post n=30(77%)] and vaccination [pre n=2(5%); post n=15(38%)]. Findings from 1024 surveys from 566 students revealed strong baseline understanding and attitudes related to hand washing and cough etiquette (74% or greater positive responses). Automated hand hygiene monitoring in school bathrooms and classrooms estimated compliance for both soap (overall median 63%, IQR 38% to 100%) and hand sanitizer use (0.04 to 0.24 uses per student per day) but did not show significant pre/ post IPPE differences. Student understanding of principles of influenza prevention was reasonably high. Even with this baseline, InSciEd Out and IPPE improved students' unprompted knowledge of behaviors to prevent influenza, as reflected by talking drawings. This novel metric may be more sensitive in capturing knowledge among students than traditional

  1. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management on Relapse Prevention in Substance Dependent Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Karimian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral stress management on relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent. Method: In a experimental study, 30 individuals who settled in Esfahan therapeutic community center were accidently divided in to an experimental (15 subjects and a control (15 subjects group. The experimental group underwent ten 90 minutes sessions of cognitive-behavioral stress management and the control group didn't receive any particular treatment. All participants underwent urine tests at the beginning of the study, completion of treatment and three months following the completion of treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and X2 test. Findings: results showed significant difference in relapse rates of two groups in the following stage. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral stress management is effective in relapse prevention in men who are substance dependent.

  2. Elicitation of cognitions related to HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennille, Julie; Solomon, Phyllis; Fishbein, Martin; Blank, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An important step in research using the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB) is conducting an elicitation process to identify topic and population specific cognitions. This study explored HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses and introduces findings from focus groups conducted during the development phase of an HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention study. Researchers held four focus groups with persons with mental illnesses focused on HIV risks and condom use. Participants discussed sexual side effects of psychotropic medications as a potential cause of both medication non-adherence and HIV risk behaviors. The intersection of these two issues is specific to this population. We conclude with the recommendation that HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention for persons with mental illnesses must incorporate the promotion of healthy sexuality, including attention to sexual side effects of psychotropic medications.

  3. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Val-Laillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at

  4. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  5. Neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches to study eating behavior and prevent and treat eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.

    2015-01-01

    Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain–behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of

  6. Effects of Violence Prevention Behavior on Exposure to Workplace Violence and Threats: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann; Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie

    2018-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigates the relationship between prevention behaviors, that is, enacted violence prevention policies, and exposure to workplace violence and threats across four different high risk work sectors: psychiatry, special schools, eldercare, and the prison and probation services. Logistic regression analysis of a 1-year follow-up sample of 3.016 employees from these four sectors shows that prevention behaviors are significantly and negatively associated with self-reported exposure to workplace violence and threats-in the prison and probation services, eldercare, and in psychiatry, while no significant associations are found for special schools. The results therefore show clear sector differences with regard to the preventive effect of violence prevention behaviors. Furthermore, this multisector comparison suggests that prevention behaviors are more effective in relation to a moderate frequency of violence and threats, and that only top management prevention behavior can prevent very frequent incidents (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.58). This study contributes to the literature by use of a longitudinal design and acceptable response rates, while also simultaneously investigating several high risk sectors. The results imply that when managing workplace violence in high risk areas of human service work, there should be emphasis on the use of violence prevention behaviors from top management, supervisor, and among coworkers. However, type of sector and the frequency of workplace violence should be analyzed to evaluate the potential impact of prevention behaviors.

  7. Internet Use and Preventive Health Behaviors Among Couples in Later Life: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sangbo; Han, Sae Hwang; Gilligan, Megan

    2018-05-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the link between internet use and preventive health behaviors. We focused on couples to examine whether there were cross-partner associations between internet use and preventive health behaviors. The data for this study came from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and the sample consisted of 5,143 pairs of coupled-individuals. Preventive health behaviors included cancer screenings (mammogram and prostate tests), cholesterol tests, and flu shots. Logistic multilevel actor-partner interdependence models were employed to test the study hypotheses. Internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving prostate exams and cholesterol tests for husbands, net of demographic and health characteristics, and insurance status. We found that wives' internet use was associated with a higher likelihood of receiving flu shots and prostate exams for husbands, but husbands' internet use was not associated with wives' preventive health behaviors. Research linking internet use and preventive health behaviors is important because such behaviors are associated not only with health of the older population but also with substantial reductions in health care expenditures. Our findings suggested that internet use of older adults is associated with their own preventive health behaviors, as well as their spouses' preventive health behaviors. Interventions and programs to facilitate older adults' preventive health behaviors should consider couple-based approaches.

  8. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB. Methods:…

  9. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urruty, Kenli A.

    2009-01-01

    The "obesity epidemic" in the United States is a current health concern that has sparked research interest in physical activity as a means of weight management. However, little research has examined the physical activity behaviors of rural adolescents. The goal of the current study was to use a biopsychosocial framework to examine the physical activity behaviors of a sample of rural adolescents, and explore factors associated with physical activity participation. A sample of 162 ninth- an...

  10. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  11. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  12. Young people in Bogota, Colombia develop their own strategies to prevent risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M

    1996-01-01

    Although the government of Colombia moved in 1993 to mandate sexuality education in primary and secondary schools, nongovernmental organizations have worked in this area for more than two decades. Notable has been the work of one such organization, the Colombian Human and Social Development Foundation, among youth from a marginal, underserved area of Bogota that houses approximately 27,000 adolescents. The project uses a peer approach to relate the values of responsibility, tolerance, and self-determination to the prevention of risky sexual behaviors. At the onset, 15 youth leaders from the local school identified strategies for raising the topic of sexuality to their peers: suggestion boxes, school radio programs, educational materials such as murals and pamphlets, workshops, board games with sexuality-related themes, and community involvement. Suggestion box submissions revealed that sixth and seventh graders wanted to know about puberty-related events, while older students were interested in the effects of masturbation on health and appearance and the association between premarital sexual activity and one's reputation. In an 18-month period, close to 9000 community residents were reached with program materials and 1798 adolescents participated in group meetings. Among the gains observed have been correction of misinformation, a broader view of sexuality, the capacity for independent thought, and self-pride.

  13. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  14. [Adapted physical activity in the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, Ksenija; Gava, Branka Protić; Grajić, Mirko; Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Borislav; Todorović, Snezana Tomasević

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging. According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world's population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF BONE TISSUE: Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in reducing sclerostin, which is known to inhibit bone

  15. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders’ active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders’ stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders’ momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader’s beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721

  16. Nutritional Preventive Behavior of Osteoporosis in Female Students: Applying Health Belief Model (HBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoporosis is one of the most important health problems and it is of great importance to prevent this disease. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis using health belief model in female students in Qom city, Iran.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 265 tenth to twelfth grade female students in Qom city. The subjects were selected via multistage sampling method. To collect data, we used a standard questionnaire based on health belief model. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0 using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and ANOVA. ResultsKnowledge and perceived self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.04, r=0.12 and P=0.004, r=0.18, respectively. However, perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers had a negative and significant relationship with nutritional preventive behavior of osteoporosis (P=0.02, r=-0.14 and P

  17. Lithium prevents long-term neural and behavioral pathology induced by early alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M

    2012-03-29

    Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  19. Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2014-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) have potential for helping people increase their physical activity, but little is known about the behavior change techniques marketed in these apps. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions of top-ranked apps for physical activity. Top-ranked apps (n=167) were identified on August 28, 2013, and coded using the Coventry, Aberdeen and London-Revised (CALO-RE) taxonomy of behavior change techniques during the following month. Analyses were conducted during 2013. Most descriptions of apps incorporated fewer than four behavior change techniques. The most common techniques involved providing instruction on how to perform exercises, modeling how to perform exercises, providing feedback on performance, goal-setting for physical activity, and planning social support/change. A latent class analysis revealed the existence of two types of apps, educational and motivational, based on their configurations of behavior change techniques. Behavior change techniques are not widely marketed in contemporary physical activity apps. Based on the available descriptions and functions of the observed techniques in contemporary health behavior theories, people may need multiple apps to initiate and maintain behavior change. This audit provides a starting point for scientists, developers, clinicians, and consumers to evaluate and enhance apps in this market. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  1. The need to reemphasize behavior change for HIV prevention in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward C; Kajubi, Phoebe; Ruark, Allison; Kamya, Sarah; D'Errico, Nicole; Hearst, Norman

    2013-03-01

    Uganda has long been considered an AIDS success story, although in recent years declines in prevalence and incidence appear to have stalled or even reversed. During the early stages of Uganda's AIDS prevention program, health messages emphasized behavior change, especially fidelity. Ugandans were made to fear AIDS and feel personally at risk of dying from a new, poorly understood disease. In this research, six focus group discussions with 64 participants in peri-urban and rural areas outside Kampala suggest that HIV prevention messages have shifted in the direction of risk reduction: condoms, testing, and drugs. Ugandans now seem less afraid of becoming infected with HIV, at least in part because antiretroviral therapy is available, and this diminished fear may be having a disinhibiting effect on sexual behavior. Participants believe that HIV rates are on the rise, that more individuals are engaged in multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships, and that sexual behavior is less restrained than a generation ago. These findings suggest that AIDS-prevention programs in Uganda would benefit from refocusing on the content that yielded success previously-sexual behavior change strategies. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  2. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  3. The associations between aggressive behaviors and internet addiction and online activities in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate (a) the association between Internet addiction and aggressive behaviors, as well as the moderating effects of gender, school, and depression on this association; and (b) to evaluate the association between Internet activities and aggressive behaviors. A total of 9405 adolescents were recruited into this study and completed the questionnaires. Their aggressive behaviors, with or without Internet addiction, Internet activities, demographic data, with or without depression, self-esteem, family function, and the watching of violent TV were assessed. The results demonstrated that after controlling for the effects of shared associated factors and watching violent TV programs, adolescents with Internet addiction were more likely to have aggressive behaviors during the previous year. The association was more significant among adolescents in junior high schools than in senior high/vocational schools. Online chatting, adult sex Web viewing, online gaming, online gambling, and Bulletin Board System were all associated with aggressive behaviors. The results suggest that preventive programs for aggressive behaviors should pay attention to Internet addiction among adolescents. Also, intervention to prevent the effects of Internet addiction on aggressive behaviors should be conducted as early as possible.

  4. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  5. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne inFANT program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J; Crawford, David; Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2012-08-28

    The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children's habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent's own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers' diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn's first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers' diet (food frequency questionnaire), physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire) were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (-0.42;-0.02) and -0.25 (-0.50;-0.01), respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. "Fruits and vegetables" and "Cereals and sweet foods". These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal

  6. A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioret Sandrine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18 months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (−0.42;-0.02 and −0.25 (−0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that

  7. Quercetin prevents chronic unpredictable stress induced behavioral dysfunction in mice by alleviating hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-15

    It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco use related attitudes and behaviors in Indian Adolescents: association with school-based prevention education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.

  9. Decreases in tanning behaviors following a short online survey: Potential for prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard

    2015-01-01

    To date, tanning prevention programs have led to limited success. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential unexpected prevention effects of completing an online survey focused on tanning attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge among female college tanners. A sample of 92 female undergraduate students from the USA, mean age = 20.09, SD = 1.41 years, who engaged in indoor tanning completed an online survey assessing awareness of tanning-related health risks, appearance-based motivations to tan and not to tan, media literacy related to tanning marketing, and tanning behaviors in 2013. Four months later, participants were invited to complete a follow-up survey assessing tanning intentions and behaviors since completing the initial survey. Fifty-one participants (55%) completed the follow-up questions, of whom 43 (84.3%) reported having decreased or ceased engaging in indoor tanning. In addition participants provided comments indicating that completing the survey had lead to decreases in their tanning behaviors. Our study presents novel and compelling support for using brief online surveys for decreasing health-risk behaviors such as sunbed use. Such measures are extremely cost-effective and easy to disseminate and implement. Replication and extension of these findings are warranted.

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  11. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  12. Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgana, Iliana; Sumner, Rebecca P; Towers, Greg J; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos

    2018-02-28

    efficient oncolytics in virotherapy. The successful therapeutic use of VACV depends on a detailed understanding of its ability to modulate host innate immune responses. DNA sensing is a critical cellular mechanism for pathogen detection and activation of innate immunity that is centrally coordinated by the ER-resident protein STING. Here STING is shown to mediate immune activation in response to MVA, but not to virulent VACV strains or other virulent poxviruses, which prevent STING activation and DNA sensing during infection and after DNA transfection. These results provide new insights into poxvirus immune evasion and have implications in the rational design of VACV-based therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 Georgana et al.

  13. Nicotine dependence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among adult smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul D Loprinzi; Jerome F Walker

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. Aim: This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used....

  14. Managing preventive occupational health and safety activities in Danish enterprises during a period of financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.; Bach, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    The onset of the financial crisis in 2008 has put pressure on enterprises that in turn have downsized and reorganized. Research has shown that economic recession has an effect on psychological and behavioral health that is attributed to working environment problems. The objective of this study is...... focus on the management of preventive workplace health and safety activities in enterprises during a period of economic recession....... is to unravel whether the onset of a general economic recession has had an impact on companies’ and public institutions’ preventive occupational health and safety activities. Hypotheses of the role of pro-cyclical and countercyclical effects are presented. This study is based on a survey of enterprise...... preventive occupational health safety activities. The baseline for the survey was established, in 2006 before the onset of the recession, with a follow up in 2011. Findings are discussed that support both the pro-cyclical and the countercyclical hypotheses. It is concluded that there is a need for a special...

  15. Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustila Taina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age ≥ 40 years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring’s age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child’s age 1 to 2 years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710

  16. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup

    2013-06-01

    Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.

  17. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  18. Acceptability and Receipt of Preventive Care for Chronic-Disease Health Risk Behaviors Reported by Clients of Community Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlem, Kate; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula; Lecathelinais, Christophe; McElwaine, Kathleen; Wolfenden, Luke; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Compared with the general population, people with a mental illness have a greater prevalence of behaviors that contribute to higher chronic disease rates. Mental health clinical guidelines recommend preventive care to address such behaviors; however, little information is available about whether clients consider preventive care acceptable or about the prevalence of such care in mental health services. This article describes acceptability and receipt of assessment, advice, and referral for smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity, as reported by community mental health service clients. The association between preventive care, diagnosis, and number of clinical appointments was examined. A cross-sectional telephone interview was conducted with clients (N=558) of community mental health services in Australia. Although preventive care was highly acceptable to clients (86%-97%), receipt of preventive care was low. Client receipt of risk assessment ranged from 26% (assessment of fruit or vegetable intake) to 76% (assessment of alcohol consumption). The proportion of clients at risk of and assessed for unhealthy behavior who then received brief advice ranged from 69% (fruit or vegetable intake) to 85% (physical activity), whereas only 38% (alcohol consumption) to 49% (smoking) received any referral. A greater number of mental health appointments were associated with higher prevalence of preventive care, as were diagnoses of diabetes or respiratory conditions and not having a schizophrenia diagnosis. Practice change strategies are required to increase the delivery of routine preventive care within mental health services if clients are to benefit from clinical guidelines.

  19. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, William J.; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A.; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation.

  20. The Effectiveness of Transactional Behavior Analytic Group Therapy on the Prevention of Relapse among Detoxified People

    OpenAIRE

    S Mousa Kafi; Rahim Mollazadeh Esfanaji; Morteza Nori; Ertaj Salehi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Addiction Phenomenon among detoxified people is an important therapeutic problem for substance abusers. The aim of this research was the study of effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on prevention of relapse of detoxified people. Method: the research design was quasi experimental with witness group. By using of available sampling of detoxified people who referred to government centers for maintenance therapy with Methadone, 24 subjects that divided to t...

  1. Essays on investor behavior and trading activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kyröläinen, P. (Petri)

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates a set of equity market phenomena associated with investors' trading activity, using a comprehensive Finnish Central Securities Depository (FCSD) database that records practically all trades by Finnish investors. This database enables us to classify a large number of heterogeneous investors using both economic and institutional characteristics. The first essay classifies investors by trading activity. It analyzes trading styles of active and passive inv...

  2. Mechanism by which BMI influences leisure-time physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Nolin, Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to clarify the mechanism by which BMI influences leisure-time physical activity. This was achieved in accordance with the assumptions underlying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), considered as one of the most useful theories to predict behavior adoption. At baseline, a sample of 1,530 respondents completed a short questionnaire to measure intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC), the two proximal determinants of behavior of TPB. Past behavior, sociodemographic variables, and weight and height were also assessed. The dependent variable, leisure-time physical activity was assessed 3 months later. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that BMI is a direct predictor of future leisure-time physical activity, not mediated by the variables of TPB. Additional hierarchical analyses indicated that BMI was not a moderator of the intention-behavior and PBC-behavior relationships. The results of this study suggest that high BMI is a significant negative determinant of leisure-time physical activity. This observation reinforces the importance of preventing weight gain as a health promotion strategy for avoiding a sedentary lifestyle.

  3. Life skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.

  4. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Modelling activity transport behavior in PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, Jim; McGurk, John; Dickinson, Shirley; Burrows, Robert; Hinds, Kelvin; Hussey, Dennis; Deshon, Jeff; Barrios Figueras, Joan Pau; Maldonado Sanchez, Santiago; Fernandez Lillo, Enrique; Garbett, Keith

    2012-09-01

    The activation and transport of corrosion products around a PWR circuit is a major concern to PWR plant operators as these may give rise to high personnel doses. The understanding of what controls dose rates on ex-core surfaces and shutdown releases has improved over the years but still several questions remain unanswered. For example the relative importance of particle and soluble deposition in the core to activity levels in the plant is not clear. Wide plant to plant and cycle to cycle variations are noted with no apparent explanations why such variations are observed. Over the past few years this group have been developing models to simulate corrosion product transport around a PWR circuit. These models form the basis for the latest version of the BOA code and simulate the movement of Fe and Ni around the primary circuit. Part of this development is to include the activation and subsequent transport of radioactive species around the circuit and this paper describes some initial modelling work in this area. A simple model of activation, release and deposition is described and then applied to explain the plant behaviour at Sizewell B and Vandellos II. This model accounts for activation in the core, soluble and particulate activity movement around the circuit and for activity capture ex-core on both the inner and outer oxides. The model gives a reasonable comparison with plant observations and highlights what controls activity transport in these plants and importantly what factors can be ignored. (authors)

  6. Impact of a Booklet about Diabetes Genetic Susceptibility and Its Prevention on Attitudes towards Prevention and Perceived Behavioral Change in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Nishigaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Offspring of type 2 diabetic patients are at a high risk of type 2 diabetes. Information on diabetes genetic susceptibility and prevention should be supplied to the offspring. Methods. A six-page booklet on diabetes genetic susceptibility and prevention was distributed to 173 patients who ere ordered to hand it to their offspring. The patients answered a self-administered questionnaire on booklet delivery and attitudinal and behavioral changes toward diabetes and its prevention in themselves and their offspring. Results. Valid responses were obtained from 130 patients. Forty-nine patients had actually handed the booklet. Booklet induces more relief than anxiety. From the patient's view, favorable attitudinal and/or behavioral changes occurred in more than half of the offspring who were delivered the booklet. Conclusion. The booklet worked effectively on attitudes and behaviors toward diabetes and its prevention both in patients and their offspring. However, the effectiveness of patients as information deliverers was limited.

  7. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  8. Examining the psychological pathways to behavior change in a group-based lifestyle program to prevent type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine R; Hardie, Elizabeth A; Moore, Susan M

    2012-04-01

    To examine the psychological process of lifestyle change among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. A randomized control trial in which 307 volunteers (intervention, n = 208; wait control, n = 99) diagnosed with prediabetes completed a six-session group-based intervention to promote healthier living. Participants' motivation to change, diet and exercise self-efficacy, mood, knowledge about diabetes, activity levels, healthy eating, waist circumference, and weight were assessed before and after the program. Participation in the program was associated with significant increases in healthy eating and physical activity, reductions in waist and weight, and improvements in motivation, positive mood, self-efficacy, and knowledge. Examination of the pathways to lifestyle change showed that the educational aspect of the program increased activity levels because it increased diabetes knowledge and improved mood. Eating behavior was not mediated by any of the psychological variables. Improvements in diet and physical activity were, in turn, directly associated with changes in weight and waist circumference. Although the program significantly improved motivation, self-efficacy, and mood, its impact on knowledge uniquely explained the increase in physical activity. Group-based programs that are tailored to lifestyle behaviors may provide a cost-effective method of diabetes prevention, but more research is needed to explain why they improve healthy eating.

  9. Zinc prevents sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharides after a stress challenge in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago B Kirsten

    Full Text Available Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS, an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations.

  10. Initial insight into why physical activity may help prevent adolescent smoking uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Sass, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Whereas research supports the importance of regular physical activity to decrease the likelihood of smoking uptake, the mechanisms accounting for this relationship are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the enjoyment or reward derived from physical activity is one mechanism underlying the relationship between smoking and physical activity. The sample was composed of 1374 adolescents participating in a prospective longitudinal survey study of health behaviors. Variables were measured via self-report every six months for eight waves of data spanning four years. An associative processes latent growth curve model revealed a significant and negative indirect effect of baseline physical activity on baseline smoking through baseline physical activity reward (b(indirect)=-.18, z=-3.11, p=.002; 95% CI=-.29, -.07). Similarly, there was a significant and negative indirect effect of physical activity trend on smoking trend through physical activity reward trend (b(indirect)=-.16, z=-2.09, p=.04; 95% CI=-.30, -.01). The effect of physical activity on smoking at baseline and across time was completely mediated by physical activity reward. There was less support for the idea that smoking progression was associated with reduced physical activity reward and subsequent declines in physical activity. This study provides the first evidence implicating physical activity reward as one mechanism by which physical activity reduces the likelihood of adolescent smoking uptake. Smoking prevention interventions that promote physical activity and target physical activity enjoyment may have an important impact on adolescent smoking initiation and progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  12. A Behaviorally-Oriented Activities Therapy Program for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasanoff, Enid; Schrader, Carl

    1979-01-01

    A behaviorally-oriented activities therapy program was designed and implemented with adolescents who manifested problems at school, at home, and with peers. Techniques employed included: contingency contracting, assertiveness training, relaxation training, and cognitive restructuring. (Author/KC)

  13. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  14. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  15. ‘Small Changes' to Diet and Physical Activity Behaviors for Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Hills

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment.

  16. Implementation of behavior change techniques in mobile applications for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-04-01

    Mobile applications (apps) for physical activity are popular and hold promise for promoting behavior change and reducing non-communicable disease risk. App marketing materials describe a limited number of behavior change techniques (BCTs), but apps may include unmarketed BCTs, which are important as well. To characterize the extent to which BCTs have been implemented in apps from a systematic user inspection of apps. Top-ranked physical activity apps (N=100) were identified in November 2013 and analyzed in 2014. BCTs were coded using a contemporary taxonomy following a user inspection of apps. Users identified an average of 6.6 BCTs per app and most BCTs in the taxonomy were not represented in any apps. The most common BCTs involved providing social support, information about others' approval, instructions on how to perform a behavior, demonstrations of the behavior, and feedback on the behavior. A latent class analysis of BCT configurations revealed that apps focused on providing support and feedback as well as support and education. Contemporary physical activity apps have implemented a limited number of BCTs and have favored BCTs with a modest evidence base over others with more established evidence of efficacy (e.g., social media integration for providing social support versus active self-monitoring by users). Social support is a ubiquitous feature of contemporary physical activity apps and differences between apps lie primarily in whether the limited BCTs provide education or feedback about physical activity. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Status of Preventive Behaviors in Traffic Accidents in Junior High School Students in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Leila; Tavazohi, Hossein; Shirdavani, Soheila; Heidari, Kamal; Nobari, Reza Fadaei; Kelishadi, Roya; Yalverdi, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Background: Population growth and use of the car in daily life entails new incidents and accidents everyday. Adolescents’ entering the new world of adults, their insufficient knowledge of rules, and high-risk behaviors expose them to more risks. Accordingly, a study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the status of preventive behaviors in traffic accidents in boy and girl junior high school students in Isfahan regarding vehicle use. Methods: A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 7000 junior high school boy and girl students from 20 towns in Isfahan Province using multi-stage cluster sampling method in 2009–2010. A researcher-made questionnaire was used as data collection tool, which evaluated students’ practice and preventive behaviors with 21 questions, each examining students’ practice in accidents and incidents that may occur in school and on the way to school. Data were analyzed with Epi 6 and SPSS software using t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Girls comprised 49.9% of students and 50.1% were boys, 84% lived in urban areas and 15.5% in rural areas. The frequency of an accident location was school in 53.9% with 3739 cases and on the way to school in 10.6% with 732 cases. Mean practice score of preventive behaviors in traffic accidents involving cars, taxi, and school bus (72.6 ± 17.52 girls, 72.7 ± 18.31 boys, P = 0.88), motorbike (79.1 ± 14.048 girls, 74.1 ± 19.73 boys, P traffic rules training, particularly how to cross the street. PMID:26157568

  18. The Status of Preventive Behaviors in Traffic Accidents in Junior High School Students in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Leila; Tavazohi, Hossein; Shirdavani, Soheila; Heidari, Kamal; Nobari, Reza Fadaei; Kelishadi, Roya; Yalverdi, Narges

    2014-12-01

    Population growth and use of the car in daily life entails new incidents and accidents everyday. Adolescents' entering the new world of adults, their insufficient knowledge of rules, and high-risk behaviors expose them to more risks. Accordingly, a study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the status of preventive behaviors in traffic accidents in boy and girl junior high school students in Isfahan regarding vehicle use. A descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 7000 junior high school boy and girl students from 20 towns in Isfahan Province using multi-stage cluster sampling method in 2009-2010. A researcher-made questionnaire was used as data collection tool, which evaluated students' practice and preventive behaviors with 21 questions, each examining students' practice in accidents and incidents that may occur in school and on the way to school. Data were analyzed with Epi 6 and SPSS software using t-test and Chi-square test. Girls comprised 49.9% of students and 50.1% were boys, 84% lived in urban areas and 15.5% in rural areas. The frequency of an accident location was school in 53.9% with 3739 cases and on the way to school in 10.6% with 732 cases. Mean practice score of preventive behaviors in traffic accidents involving cars, taxi, and school bus (72.6 ± 17.52 girls, 72.7 ± 18.31 boys, P = 0.88), motorbike (79.1 ± 14.048 girls, 74.1 ± 19.73 boys, P school and have the lowest practice score in this respect. It is recommended that as the first step, students be given necessary road traffic rules training, particularly how to cross the street.

  19. Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), Behavioral activation system (BAS) and schizophrenia : Relationship with psychopathology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Marion R. M.; van Honk, Jack; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) have been conceptualized as two neural motivational systems that regulate sensitivity to punishment (BIS) and reward (BAS). Imbalance in BIS and BAS levels has been reported to be related to various forms of

  20. Behavioral Modulation by Spontaneous Activity of Dopamine Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiharu Ichinose

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine modulates a variety of animal behaviors that range from sleep and learning to courtship and aggression. Besides its well-known phasic firing to natural reward, a substantial number of dopamine neurons (DANs are known to exhibit ongoing intrinsic activity in the absence of an external stimulus. While accumulating evidence points at functional implications for these intrinsic “spontaneous activities” of DANs in cognitive processes, a causal link to behavior and its underlying mechanisms has yet to be elucidated. Recent physiological studies in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster have uncovered that DANs in the fly brain are also spontaneously active, and that this activity reflects the behavioral/internal states of the animal. Strikingly, genetic manipulation of basal DAN activity resulted in behavioral alterations in the fly, providing critical evidence that links spontaneous DAN activity to behavioral states. Furthermore, circuit-level analyses have started to reveal cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate or regulate spontaneous DAN activity. Through reviewing recent findings in different animals with the major focus on flies, we will discuss potential roles of this physiological phenomenon in directing animal behaviors.

  1. Behavioral and Psychological Phenotyping of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Implications for Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Angela D; Jakicic, John M; Hunter, Christine M; Evans, Mary E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Epstein, Leonard H

    2017-10-01

    Risk for obesity is determined by a complex mix of genetics and lifetime exposures at multiple levels, from the metabolic milieu to psychosocial and environmental influences. These phenotypic differences underlie the variability in risk for obesity and response to weight management interventions, including differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior. As part of a broader effort focused on behavioral and psychological phenotyping in obesity research, the National Institutes of Health convened a multidisciplinary workshop to explore the state of the science in behavioral and psychological phenotyping in humans to explain individual differences in physical activity, both as a risk factor for obesity development and in response to activity-enhancing interventions. Understanding the behavioral and psychological phenotypes that contribute to differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior could allow for improved treatment matching and inform new targets for tailored, innovative, and effective weight management interventions. This summary provides the rationale for identifying psychological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to physical activity and identifies opportunities for future research to better understand, define, measure, and validate putative phenotypic factors and characterize emerging phenotypes that are empirically associated with initiation of physical activity, response to intervention, and sustained changes in physical activity. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  3. Religious Activities and Suicide Prevention: A Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Stack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis contributes to the existing literature on religion and suicide in three interrelated ways: (1 providing an analysis of suicide completions whereas most research is based on non-lethal levels of suicidality; (2 assessing the relationship with concrete individual level data on completed suicides instead of aggregated data marked by the ecological fallacy issue; and (3 providing gender specific analyses to determine if the relationship is gendered. METHODS. Data come from the U.S. Public Health Service, National Mortality Followback Survey. They refer to 16,795 deaths including 1385 suicides. Significant others of the deceased were interviewed to measure all variables. The dependent variable is a binary variable where 1 = death by suicide and 0 = all other causes. The central independent variable is an index of religious activities. Controls are included for five categories of confounders (1 psychiatric morbidity; (2 help-seeking behavior; (3 Opportunity factors such as firearms; (4 social integration; and (5 demographics. RESULTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that controlling for 16 predictors of suicide, a one unit increase in religious activities reduced the odds of a suicide death by 17% for males and by 15% for females. The difference in coefficients is not significant (Z = 0.51. Other significant predictors of suicide deaths included suicide ideation (OR = 8.87, males, OR = 11.48, females and firearm availability (OR = 4.21, males, OR = 2.83, females. DISCUSSION. Religious activities were found to lower suicide risk equally for both men and women. Further work is needed to assess pathways, including suicide ideation, between religious activities and lowered suicide risk. This is the first U.S. based study to test for a gendered association between religion and suicide at the individual level of analysis.

  4. Teachers' Cognitive Activities and Overt Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Jere E.

    Recent research on teacher planning, thinking, and decision making is reviewed. The work on planning reveals that teachers typically do not use the objectives-based, rational models stressed in textbooks, but instead concentrate on the activities included in a curriculum as they seem to relate to the needs and interests of the students. This…

  5. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantut Susanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  6. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  8. Application of activity sensors for estimating behavioral patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caleb P.; Cain, James W.; Cox, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of Global Positioning System (GPS) collars in habitat selection studies provides large numbers of precise location data points with reduced field effort. However, inclusion of activity sensors in many GPS collars also grants the potential to remotely estimate behavioral state. Thus, only using GPS collars to collect location data belies their full capabilities. Coupling behavioral state with location data would allow researchers and managers to refine habitat selection models by using diel behavioral state changes to partition fine-scale temporal shifts in habitat selection. We tested the capability of relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors to estimate behavior throughout diel periods using free-ranging female elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico, USA, 2013–2014. Collars recorded cumulative number of movements (hits) per 15-min recording period immediately preceding GPS fixes at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800 hr. We measured diel behavioral patterns of focal elk, categorizing active (i.e., foraging, traveling, vigilant, grooming) and inactive (i.e., resting) states. Active behaviors (foraging, traveling) produced more average hits (0.87 ± 0.69 hits/min, 4.0 ± 2.2 hits/min, respectively; 95% CI) and inactive (resting) behavior fewer hits (−1.1 ± 0.61 95% CI). We differentiated active and inactive behavioral states with a bootstrapped threshold of 5.9 ± 3.9 hits/15-min recording period. Mean cumulative activity-sensor hits corresponded with observed diel behavioral patterns: hits increased during crepuscular (0600, 1800 hr) observations when elk were most active (0000–0600 hr: d = 0.19; 1200–1800 hr: d = 0.64) and decreased during midday and night (0000 hr, 1200 hr) when elk were least active (1800–0000 hr: d = −0.39; 0600–1200 hr: d = −0.43). Even using relatively unsophisticated GPS-collar activity sensors, managers can

  9. Signs of Facial Aging in Men in a Diverse, Multinational Study: Timing and Preventive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Anthony M; Eviatar, Joseph; Green, Jeremy B; Anolik, Robert; Eidelman, Michael; Keaney, Terrence C; Narurkar, Vic; Jones, Derek; Kolodziejczyk, Julia; Drinkwater, Adrienne; Gallagher, Conor J

    2017-11-01

    Men are a growing patient population in aesthetic medicine and are increasingly seeking minimally invasive cosmetic procedures. To examine differences in the timing of facial aging and in the prevalence of preventive facial aging behaviors in men by race/ethnicity. Men aged 18 to 75 years in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia rated their features using photonumeric rating scales for 10 facial aging characteristics. Impact of race/ethnicity (Caucasian, black, Asian, Hispanic) on severity of each feature was assessed. Subjects also reported the frequency of dermatologic facial product use. The study included 819 men. Glabellar lines, crow's feet lines, and nasolabial folds showed the greatest change with age. Caucasian men reported more severe signs of aging and earlier onset, by 10 to 20 years, compared with Asian, Hispanic, and, particularly, black men. In all racial/ethnic groups, most men did not regularly engage in basic, antiaging preventive behaviors, such as use of sunscreen. Findings from this study conducted in a globally diverse sample may guide clinical discussions with men about the prevention and treatment of signs of facial aging, to help men of all races/ethnicities achieve their desired aesthetic outcomes.

  10. Reduced fatalism and increased prevention behavior after two high-profile lung cancer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Leach, Corinne R; Kaufman, Annette R; Moser, Richard P; Alfano, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services.

  11. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  12. ACTIVATED HOT PRESSING BEHAVIOR OF WC NANOPOWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin GEVORKYAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions of consolidation of nanopowders concerning hot compaction by pressing activated by electric current action are considered. Mechanisms of grain boundary creep-sliding which are sequentially prevalent in a forming of compacted structures under influence of temperature factor and in the presence of a direct electric heating are discussed. Structural-transformational sources and conditions of forming of high physical-mechanical properties of nanopowder refractory solid-state products are described.

  13. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = -9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = -0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  14. Adolescent transformations of behavioral and neural processes as potential targets for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldreth, Dana; Hardin, Michael G; Pavletic, Nevia; Ernst, Monique

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period in development that is marked by a distinct, typical behavioral profile of high rates of exploration, novelty-seeking, and emotional lability. While these behaviors generally assist the adolescent transition to independence, they can also confer vulnerability for excessive risk-taking and psychopathology, particularly in the context of specific environmental or genetic influences. As prevention research depends on the identification of targets of vulnerability, the following review will discuss the interplay among motivational systems including reward-related, avoidance-related, and regulatory processes in typical and atypical adolescent development. Each set of processes will be discussed in relation to their underlying neural correlates and distinct developmental trajectories. Evidence suggests that typical adolescent behavior and the risk for atypical development are mediated by heightened adolescent responsiveness of reward-related and avoidance-related systems under specific conditions, concurrent with poor modulation by immature regulatory processes. Finally, we will propose strategies to exploit heightened reward processing to reinforce inhibitory control, which is an essential component of regulatory processes in prevention interventions.

  15. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity of Raphé Serotonergic Neurons Controls Emotional Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Teissier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function.

  17. Activity of Raphé Serotonergic Neurons Controls Emotional Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teissier, Anne; Chemiakine, Alexei; Inbar, Benjamin; Bagchi, Sneha; Ray, Russell S; Palmiter, Richard D; Dymecki, Susan M; Moore, Holly; Ansorge, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-established role of serotonin signaling in mood regulation, causal relationships between serotonergic neuronal activity and behavior remain poorly understood. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that selectively increasing serotonergic neuronal activity in wild-type mice is anxiogenic and reduces floating in the forced-swim test, whereas inhibition has no effect on the same measures. In a developmental mouse model of altered emotional behavior, increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors correlate with reduced dorsal raphé and increased median raphé serotonergic activity. These mice display blunted responses to serotonergic stimulation and behavioral rescues through serotonergic inhibition. Furthermore, we identify opposing consequences of dorsal versus median raphé serotonergic neuron inhibition on floating behavior, together suggesting that median raphé hyperactivity increases anxiety, whereas a low dorsal/median raphé serotonergic activity ratio increases depression-like behavior. Thus, we find a critical role of serotonergic neuronal activity in emotional regulation and uncover opposing roles of median and dorsal raphé function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventive effects of blueberry extract on behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions in rats submitted to a model of manic behavior induced by ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debom, Gabriela; Gazal, Marta; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; do Couto, Carlus Augustu Tavares; Mattos, Bruna; Lencina, Claiton; Kaster, Manuella Pinto; Ghisleni, Gabriele Codenonzi; Tavares, Rejane; Braganhol, Elizandra; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli; Spanevello, Roselia Maria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of blueberry extract on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Male rats were pretreated with blueberry extract (200mg/kg, once a day for 14days), lithium chloride (45mg/kg, mood stabilizer used as a positive control, twice a day for 14days), or vehicle. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received an injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) or vehicle. In the 15th day, thirty minutes after ketamine administration the hyperlocomotion of the animals was assessed in the open - field apparatus. Immediately after the behavioral analysis brain and blood were collected for biochemical determinations. ketamine treatment induced hyperlocomotion and oxidative damage in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum such as an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase e glutatione peroxidase). Ketamine administration also increased the IL-6 levels in serum in rats. Pretreatment of rats with blueberry extract or lithium prevented the hyperlocomotion, pro - oxidant effects and inflammation induced by ketamine. Our findings suggest that blueberry consumption has a neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced in a preclinical model that mimic some aspects of the manic behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 17956 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments... of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be submitting the... information, please contact Janet Chiancone, (202) 353-9258, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency...

  20. Recruitment in an indicated prevention program for externalizing behavior - parental participation decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222

  1. Using Multiple Outcomes of Sexual Behavior to Provide Insights Into Chlamydia Transmission and the Effectiveness of Prevention Interventions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.

  2. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

  3. Risk behavior and access to HIV/AIDS prevention services in a community sample of homeless persons entering permanent supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric; Henwood, Ben

    2017-05-01

    Homeless persons suffer disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, and moving into permanent supportive housing (PSH) can provide a stable base from which to access needed prevention services. However, little is known about HIV risk or prevention behavior during this critical time of transition. The current study investigated STI and HIV risk and prevention behavior and recent use of prevention and treatment services (i.e., education, testing, medication) among homeless persons preparing to move into PSH. Data come from interviews with 421 homeless adults before they moved into PSH. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active; of those, 75.7% reported unprotected sex. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported past year HIV testing and 40% reported testing for another STI. Fewer than one-third (31%) of respondents reported receiving posttest counseling at their last HIV test. HIV seropositivity was self-reported by 10%. Among those persons who were HIV-positive, 57.1% reported less than 100% antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Among HIV-negative respondents, less than 1% had been prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Less than half (46.4%) of the sample reported any HIV prevention education in the past year. This population of homeless adults about to move into PSH report high rates of HIV risk behavior, but low rates of HIV prevention education and very little PrEP utilization. Further, low rates of ARV adherence among HIV-positive respondents indicate significant risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. Entering PSH is a period of transition for homeless persons when integrated care is critically important to ensure positive health outcomes, but these data suggest that PrEP and other HIV prevention services are poorly accessed among this population. As such, multipronged services that integrate PrEP and other HIV prevention services are needed to prevent transmission and acquisition of HIV in this high-risk, vulnerable population and ensure the

  4. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  5. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kai C.; Liu, Jie J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H 2 DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  6. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  7. Punica granatum (Pomegranate activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  8. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers. PMID:29441150

  9. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2018-01-30

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  10. [Theories of behavior change through preventive and health promotion interventions in occupational therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie

    2005-02-01

    Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.

  11. Male Labor Migrants in Russia: HIV Risk Behavior Levels, Contextual Factors, and Prevention Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B.; Avsukevich, Natalya A.; Chaika, Nikolay A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the dire life circumstances of labor migrants working in Russia are well-known, their HIV risk vulnerability and prevention needs are understudied. Low socioeconomic status, lack of access to services, separation from family, and limited risk awareness all contribute to migrants’ HIV vulnerability. Methods Male labor migrants in St. Petersburg (n=499) were administered assessments of their sexual behavior practices, substance use, and psychosocial characteristics related to risk and well-being. Results Thirty percent of migrants reported multiple female partners in the past 3 months. Condom use was low, ranging from 35% with permanent to 52% with casual partners. Central Asian migrants had very low AIDS knowledge, low levels of substance use, moderate sexual risk, high depression, and poor social supports. Eastern European migrants had higher AIDS knowledge, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk. Discussion Improved HIV prevention efforts are needed to reduce the risk vulnerability of migrants who relocate to high disease prevalence areas. PMID:20690041

  12. Enhancing sibling relationships to prevent adolescent problem behaviors: theory, design and feasibility of Siblings Are Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavior modification techniques used to prevent gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Morris, Heather; Nagle, Cate; Nankervis, Alison

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity is increasing in developed countries, presenting significant challenges to acute care and public health. The aim of this study is to systematically review published controlled trials evaluating behavior modification interventions to prevent the development of GDM. Nine studies were identified involving such techniques as repetition of information, use of verbal and written educational information, goal setting, and planning, in addition to group and individual counseling sessions. Of the 3 trials with GDM incidence as a primary outcome, only 1 showed a significant reduction. GDM was a secondary outcome in 6 studies where the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain was the primary outcome and only 1 trial study determined an effective intervention. The small number of effective interventions highlights a significant gap in evidence to inform maternity health policy and practice.

  14. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Somik; Kumar, A [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Saikia, Jyoti P; Konwar, B K, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-01-29

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to {pi}-{pi}{sup *} and {pi}-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  15. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyerges, Jana R

    2006-01-01

    ...) to modify individual behavior. In Africa, as in many underdeveloped countries, various country-specific studies report that a majority of the population is knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS and how to prevent transmission...

  16. Behavior change in a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention in Dutch primary care: opportunities for intervention content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, P.W.A.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Baan, C.A.; Schelfhout, J.D.M.; Westert, G.P.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of

  17. Theoretical domains: a heuristic for teaching behavioral theory in HIV/STD prevention courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcini, M Margaret; Canin, Lisa; Gandelman, Alice; Skolnik, Heidi

    2004-10-01

    The HIV/STD epidemics have broadened the need for better behavioral intervention programs and highlighted the importance of providing training in behavioral theory to frontline program practitioners. However, there is a lack of effective methods for teaching theoretical concepts to people who may not have a background in behavioral science. This article presents a solution to this challenge by introducing a new heuristic for teaching theory and for placing individual theories/models in a broader context. Using a broad framework, we identify five domains that influence behavior: risk appraisal, self-perceptions, emotions and arousal, relationships and social influence, and environmental and structural factors. Each domain is described, and a brief overview of supporting literature is provided. Following the presentation of domains, we discuss course structure and activities.

  18. Assessing Student Behaviors and Motivation for Actively Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael Edward

    Vision and Change states that one of the major changes in the way we design biology courses should be a switch in approach from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and identifies active learning as a recommended methods. Studies show performance benefits for students taking courses that use active learning. What is unknown is why active learning is such an effective instructional tool and the limits of this instructional method’s ability to influence performance. This dissertation builds a case in three steps for why active learning is an effective instructional tool. In step one, I assessed the influence of different types of active learning (clickers, group activities, and whole class discussions) on student engagement behavior in one semester of two different introductory biology courses and found that active learning positively influenced student engagement behavior significantly more than lecture. For step two, I examined over four semesters whether student engagement behavior was a predictor of performance and found participation (engagement behavior) in the online (video watching) and in-class course activities (clicker participation) that I measure were significant predictors of performance. In the third, I assessed whether certain active learning satisfied the psychological needs that lead to students’ intrinsic motivation to participate in those activities when compared over two semesters and across two different institutions of higher learning. Findings from this last step show us that student’s perceptions of autonomy, competency, and relatedness in doing various types of active learning are significantly higher than lecture and consistent across two institutions of higher learning. Lastly, I tie everything together, discuss implications of the research, and address future directions for research on biology student motivation and behavior.

  19. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K

    2013-01-01

    Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may

  20. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M Frerichs

    Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally

  1. The relationship between radon knowledge, concern and behavior, and health values, health locus of control and preventive health behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.; Probart, C.K.; Dorman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding similarities between health-related and radon-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors may suggest application of effective strategies of radon-related education in targeted populations. A mail survey was returned by 300 randomly selected homeowners in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations (50% response). While 64% were concerned, only 7% tested their homes. The expected association between radon knowledge, radon concern, and information-seeking was identified. In addition, those who tested their homes had greater knowledge and did more information seeking. Health values and radon concern were only weakly related. Environmental concern explained the greatest variance in radon concern (10%). Internal health locus of controls were more likely to have high radon concern. Of the preventive health behaviors, not smoking and seat belt use were the best predictors of variance in radon concern (5%). Segmenting the population is suggested for best educational outcome. Relating information to environmental issues may be helpful. Health-conscious people may need awareness of risks. Issues of self-control and radon testing and reduction may be helpful for some. Synergy between smoke and radon, compounded by smokers lack of concern suggests targeting smokers for education efforts

  2. [Suicidal behavior: a psychiatric emergency situation, suicide prevention: a psychiatric obligation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfersdorf, M; Schneider, B; Schmidtke, A

    2015-09-01

    In German psychiatry suicidal behavior is seen as sign of a psychiatric crisis in a person in the context of psychopathology, psychodynamics and psychosocial situation. Psychiatric disorders are found in up to 90% of people who commit suicide and the time span following the decision to commit suicide is often very short, within 24 h. Suicide prevention is a central duty and obligation in psychiatry and psychotherapy. This article gives an overview on the current state of knowledge on suicide from a clinical point of view.

  3. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT and construal level theory (CLT. We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  4. Promote health or prevent disease? The effects of health-related advertising on eating behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-03-27

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future.

  5. Promote Health or Prevent Disease? The Effects of Health-Related Advertising on Eating Behavior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The health medical costs of colorectal cancer are increasingly higher in Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Administration (NHI) and The Health Promotion Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) in Taiwan encourage individuals to adopt an earnest approach to healthy behavior through advocacy advertising. However, the number of colorectal cancer patients continues to increase annually. Our study explored the effects of health-related advertisements (ads) on healthy behavior intentions as influenced by regulatory focus theory (RFT) and construal level theory (CLT). We conducted an experiment with different public health advocacy ads. A 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention) × 2 (temporal distance: one month vs. one year) × 2 (graphics-text ratio: more pictures and less text vs. fewer pictures and more text) three-factor experiment was adopted. The multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that ads with higher construal levels (i.e., more text) had greater effects with a promotion-oriented regulatory focus. However, no significant differences were found in either attitude toward the ads or behavior intention when the regulatory focus was prevention. In addition, according to the young testers and those who were psychologically distant from colorectal cancer, different temporal distances and different construal levels had no statistically significantly effects on attitudes toward advertising or on behavior intentions. The results revealed that viewers found the information easier to understand when the ads triggered the regulatory focuses of the viewers and applied an appropriate graphics-text ratio, which resulted in favorable health-related advertising effectiveness. Thus, we provide two suggestions regarding the use of health-related advertising for MOHW in the future. PMID:25826394

  6. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: balancing methodological rigor and research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen

    2013-10-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions - such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines - has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of "risk homeostasis," which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  8. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P J

    2013-06-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentary-snacking and healthy intake patterns, as well as more unique or local patterns), child and parental characteristics predicting such patterns (e.g., child gender and maternal educational level), and the relationship of these patterns with overweight and related measures.

  9. Prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Eboneé N; Evenson, Kelly R

    2014-01-01

    The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

  10. Hope and self-regulatory goals applied to an advertising context : promoting prevention stimulates goal-directed behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; Dewitte, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes the existence of two types of hope which differ in terms of self-regulatory goals: prevention hope and promotion hope. Consistent with the functional emotion approach and regulatory focus theory, we show that prevention hope generates more goal-directed behavior compared to

  11. Hope and self regulatory goals applied to an advertising context : promoting prevention stimulates goal-directed behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; Dewitte, S.; Astregaard, S.; Dwight, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes the existence of two types of hope which differ in terms of self-regulatory goals: prevention hope and promotion hope. Consistent with the functional emotion approach and regulatory focus theory, we show that prevention hope generates more goal-directed behavior compared to

  12. Prevention of and Early Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Systems to Support Data-Based Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are at great risk for long-term negative outcomes. Researchers and practitioners alike acknowledge the need for evidence-based, preventive, and early intervention strategies. Accordingly, in this chapter an expanded view of prevention is presented as a series of data driven decisions to guide…

  13. Community-based osteoporosis prevention: Physical activity in relation to bone density, fall prevention, and the effect of training programmes : The Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is based on studies of the ten-year community-based intervention programme entitled, the Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP). The specific aims of the research were to describe the effects of physical activity and training programmes on bone mass and balance performance in adults, to determine whether a fall risk prevention programme could motivate personal actions among the elderly, to ascertain whether the intervention programme could reduce the incidence of forearm ...

  14. [Fundamental role of the workers' representative in preventive safety activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossicini, A; Bindi, L; Casale, M C

    2003-01-01

    With the arrival of Legislative Decree 626/94 which brought into Italian law the EU directives on workers' health and safety at the workplace, our country has also introduced rules that make a break with the past in this area, with the creation of new professional roles. The workers' safety representative takes on a fundamentally important role in the management of prevention, safety and health for workers in their place of employment in accordance with article 19. In fact, before the introduction of this Legislative Decree, the "protection" of workers' health was essentially based on rules and regulations the application of which was left to the exclusive and direct responsibility of the relationship between the employer and doctor, leaving out any participation by the worker. Whereas in the past workers could only be considered the final receivers of instructions about the security measures to apply, with Law 626 the workers themselves became active participants in the assessment of risks at work and consequently in the implementing of all the safety and hygiene measures contributing to the reduction of risk levels. The new regulations now in force assign important tasks to the workers' safety representative; all tasks and responsibilities associated with that role are examined and discussed, especially those relating to rights to information and training, consultation and participation in the process of designing and promoting safety measures. The job of workers' representative today takes on a fundamentally important meaning and role in a self-regulating system of work safety, where he or she has a proper area responsibility, so becoming a reference point for the workers generally.

  15. Antenatal Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for Prevention of Postpartum Depression: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Jeong Jae

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the prevention of postpartum depression (PPD) in "at risk" women. Materials and Methods We recruited 927 pregnant women in 6 obstetric and gynecology clinics and screened them using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Ninety-nine of the screened women who had significantly high scores in BDI (a score above 16) were selected for the study. They were contacted through by telephone, and 27 who had consented to participate in the study were interviewed via SCID-IV-I. Twenty-seven eligible women were randomly assigned to the CBT intervention (n = 15) and control condition (n = 12). All participants were required to complete written questionnaires, assessing demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, negative thoughts, dyadic communication satisfaction, and global marital satisfaction prior to treatment and approximately 1 month postpartum. The 15 women in the CBT condition received 9 bi-weekly 1-hour individual CBT sessions, targeting and modifying negative patterns of thinking and behaviors occurring in the context of the dyadic relationship. Results The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that there were significant differences in all postpartum measures between the 2 groups, indicating that our antenatal intervention with CBT was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving marital satisfaction, which lasted until the postpartum period. Conclusion Our pilot study has provided preliminary empirical evidence that antenatal CBT intervention can be an effective preventive treatment for PPD. Further study in this direction was suggested. PMID:18729297

  16. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  17. Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

  18. Where Is Obesity Prevention on the Map? Distribution and Predictors of Local Health Department Prevention Activities in Relation to County-Level Obesity Prevalence in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Marx, Christine; Yan, Yan; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context The system of local health departments (LHD) in the US has potential to advance a locally-oriented public health response in obesity control and reduce geographic disparities. However, the extent to which obesity prevention programs correspond to local obesity levels is unknown. Objective This study examines the extent to which LHDs across the US have responded to local levels of obesity by examining the association between jurisdiction level obesity prevalence and the existence of obesity prevention programs. Design Data on LHD organizational characteristics from the Profile Study of Local Health Departments and county-level estimates of obesity from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed (n=2,300). Since local public health systems are nested within state infrastructure, multilevel models were used to examine the relationship between county-level obesity prevalence and LHD obesity prevention programming and to assess the impact of state-level clustering. Setting 2,300 local health department jurisdictions defined with respect to county boundaries Participants Practitioners in local health departments who responded to the 2005 Profile Study of Local Health Departments. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of having obesity prevention activities and association with area-level obesity prevalence Results The existence of obesity prevention activities was not associated with prevalence of obesity in the jurisdiction. A substantial portion of the variance in LHD activities was explained by state-level clustering. Conclusions This paper identified a gap in the local public health response to the obesity epidemic and underscores the importance of multilevel modeling in examining predictors of LHD performance. PMID:22836530

  19. Pilot evaluation of HEAL – A natural experiment to promote obesity prevention behaviors among low-income pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreela V. Sharma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Instituting interventions during the prenatal period is optimal for early obesity prevention in the child. Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL is a six-week, multi-component program to promote breastfeeding, healthy dietary habits, cooking skills and physical activity among Medicaid-eligible pregnant-women in Texas. HEAL is integrated into the healthcare system and offered as a standard-of-care for eligible patients. Methods: Preliminary evaluation of this natural experiment conducted from March 2015 through October 2016 informs the initial feasibility, acceptability and effects of the program on participant diet, home nutrition environment, physical activity, and breastfeeding self-efficacy and intentions measured using self-report surveys. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was conducted to evaluate pre- and post-intervention changes, controlling for participants' ethnicity, age, and income level. Interaction effects of session attendance on the outcomes were further assessed. Results: Of the 329 women who enrolled in HEAL, 210 women completed the pre-post assessment (64% retention rate. Pre-to-post intervention, there were significant increases in availability and intake of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy towards consuming more fruits and vegetables, and cooking frequency and skills (p < 0.05, and decreased frequency of eating heat and serve foods (p < 0.05. Significant improvements in physical activity, duration of breastfeeding, perceived benefits and intentions to breastfeed were also observed (p < 0.05. Higher attendance of HEAL sessions was associated with better outcomes. Process evaluation demonstrated 95% fidelity of program implementation. Conclusion: HEAL operationalizes clinic-community linkages and shows promise in improving behaviors during pregnancy. Future research warrants the use of a stringent study design with a control group to determine program efficacy. Keywords: Pregnancy, Obesity prevention, Nutrition

  20. Guanosine prevents behavioral alterations in the forced swimming test and hippocampal oxidative damage induced by acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettio, Luis E B; Freitas, Andiara E; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-12-01

    Guanosine is a guanine-based purine that modulates glutamate uptake and exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, our group demonstrated that this endogenous nucleoside displays antidepressant-like properties in a predictive animal model. Based on the role of oxidative stress in modulating depressive disorders as well as on the association between the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of guanosine, here we investigated if its antidepressant-like effect is accompanied by a modulation of hippocampal oxidant/antioxidant parameters. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to an acute restraint stress protocol, which is known to cause behavioral changes that are associated with neuronal oxidative damage. Animals submitted to ARS exhibited an increased immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and the administration of guanosine (5mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o., positive control) before the exposure to stressor prevented this alteration. Moreover, the significantly increased levels of hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA; an indicator of lipid peroxidation), induced by ARS were not observed in stressed mice treated with guanosine. Although no changes were found in the hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), the group submitted to ARS procedure presented enhanced glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and reduced catalase (CAT) activity in the hippocampus. Guanosine was able to prevent the alterations in GPx, GR, CAT activities, and in SOD/CAT activity ratio, but potentiated the increase in SOD activity elicited by ARS. Altogether, the present findings indicate that the observed antidepressant-like effects of guanosine might be related, at least in part, to its capability of modulating antioxidant defenses and mitigating hippocampal oxidative damage induced by ARS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. β-Adrenergic receptor antagonism prevents anxiety-like behavior and microglial reactivity induced by repeated social defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohleb, Eric S; Hanke, Mark L; Corona, Angela W; Powell, Nicole D; Stiner, La'Tonia M; Bailey, Michael T; Nelson, Randy J; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F

    2011-04-27

    Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immune function and development of psychological disorders including anxiety and depression. Here we show that repeated social defeat in mice increased c-Fos staining in brain regions associated with fear and threat appraisal and promoted anxiety-like behavior in a β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. Repeated social defeat also significantly increased the number of CD11b(+)/CD45(high)/Ly6C(high) macrophages that trafficked to the brain. In addition, several inflammatory markers were increased on the surface of microglia (CD14, CD86, and TLR4) and macrophages (CD14 and CD86) after social defeat. Repeated social defeat also increased the presence of deramified microglia in the medial amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. Moreover, mRNA analysis of microglia indicated that repeated social defeat increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and reduced levels of glucocorticoid responsive genes [glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and FK506 binding protein-51 (FKBP51)]. The stress-dependent changes in microglia and macrophages were prevented by propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Microglia isolated from socially defeated mice and cultured ex vivo produced markedly higher levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide compared with microglia from control mice. Last, repeated social defeat increased c-Fos activation in IL-1 receptor type-1-deficient mice, but did not promote anxiety-like behavior or microglia activation in the absence of functional IL-1 receptor type-1. These findings indicate that repeated social defeat-induced anxiety-like behavior and enhanced reactivity of microglia was dependent on activation of β-adrenergic and IL-1 receptors.

  2. [The social hygienic model of organization of preventive activities concerning rural population of the Omskaia oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berehnoii, V G

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out concerning environmental factors and social hygienic portrait of rural residents. The analysis determined environmental, social and behavioral risk factors of health. The pathologies of risk for rural residents were substantiated. In conditions of degradation of accessibility of medical care to inhabitants residing outside of district centers specified by decreasing of capacity of hospital medical care and decreasing of accessibility of out-patient services, the visiting trips of physicians ’ teams and activities concerning development of hygienic literacy were organized in 2012-2014. This approach permitted ameliorating health indices and organization of medical care for the given category of citizen, including positive results in decreasing of mortality, timely diagnostic of diseases, reduction of number of emergency operations in central district hospitals and attenuation of intensity of impact of regulative risk factors. All this determined in the upshot social and economic effectiveness of advanced model of prevention of health disorders of rural residents.

  3. [Stigma - risk factor and consequence of suicidal behavior : Implications for suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Rüsch, N

    2017-11-16

    Mental illness, previous suicidal behavior and loss of a relative by suicide are strong risk factors for suicidality. Both mental illness and suicide are stigmatized, which is a burden for those affected and potentially contributes to suicidality among stigmatized individuals. Many consequences of stigma, e. g. social isolation, low self-esteem and hopelessness, are well-known predictors of suicidality. Interventions to reduce stigmatization might therefore be an important component of successful suicide prevention. This paper discusses the currently available knowledge regarding this hypothesis. Many studies confirmed the association between the stigmatization of mental illness and suicidality and there is initial evidence for the influence of suicide stigma and suicidality. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of anti-stigma interventions to reduce suicidality and prevent suicide has not yet been tested. Reducing stigma among members of the general population and mental health care professionals as well as programs to support individuals in coping with stigmatization could be important components of successful suicide prevention.

  4. Workplace victimization risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior among active duty military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Laurel L; Williams, Jason; Lattimore, Pamela K; Morgan, Jessica K; Hopkinson, Susan G; Jenkins, Linda; Cartwright, Joel

    2018-04-22

    Workplace victimization is a potential risk factor for suicidal behaviors (SB) among military personnel that has been largely overlooked. This paper examines both the impact of workplace victimization on reported SB and several potential protective factors associated with such suicidal behaviors in a large sample of active duty soldiers. A case-control study was conducted with 71 soldiers who reported SB in the past 12 months, each matched on sociodemographic characteristics to two others without reported suicidal behaviors. A multiple regression model was estimated to assess the effects of risk and protective factors while controlling for other variables. SB was associated with several aspects of victimization, mental health and substance abuse conditions, pain, impulsivity, stressors, negative life events, work-family conflict, active coping behaviors and positive military-related factors. Controlling for other variables, those with SB were more likely to have sought mental health or substance abuse services, to be depressed, anxious, impulsive, and less resilient than non-SB personnel. Study limitations included the use of retrospective self-report data, absence of some known SB predictors, and a population restricted to active duty Army personnel. SB among active duty personnel is associated with victimization since joining the military and is protected by resiliency. These findings suggest that in addition to the usual mental health factors, these additional predictors should be accounted for in SB intervention and prevention planning for active duty personnel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of children's on-task behavior in the prevention of aggressive behavior development and peer rejection: A randomized controlled study of the Good Behavior Game in Belgian elementary classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leflot, G.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.

    2013-01-01

    The role of children's on-task behavior in the prevention of aggressive behavior was assessed among 570 Dutch speaking children followed from second- to third-grade elementary school in Flanders, Belgium. A first objective was to investigate whether individual level variation of on-task behavior

  6. 76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... prevention of suicide among Veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk...

  7. 76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Under OMB Review AGENCY.... Abstract: VA's top priority is the prevention of Veterans suicide. It is imperative to reach these at-risk... families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental health support services. In addition, the surveys...

  8. 77 FR 52341 - Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control; Submitted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-0001; OMB Number 1014-NEW] Information Collection Activity: Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control... the regulations under Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. This notice also provides the... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart C, Pollution Prevention and Control. OMB...

  9. Behavioral Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancies: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A

    2016-05-01

    Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué O. Suárez-Ortiz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS, it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus. Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of

  11. Prediction of BMI by impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaxia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.

  12. Factors determining water treatment behavior for the prevention of cholera in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Male migration and risky sexual behavior in rural India: is the place of origin critical for HIV prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saggurti Niranjan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of male migrants in India indicate that those who are infected with HIV are spreading the epidemic from high risk populations in high prevalence areas to populations in low prevalence areas. In this context, migrant men are believed to initiate and have risky sexual behaviors in places of destination and not in places of origin. The paucity of information on men's risky sexual behaviors in places of origin limits the decision to initiate HIV prevention interventions among populations in high out-migration areas in India. Methods A cross-sectional behavioral survey was conducted among non-migrants, returned migrants (with a history of migration, and active (current migrants in rural areas across two districts with high levels of male out-migration: Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh and Azamgarh district in Uttar Pradesh. Surveys assessed participant demographics, migration status, migration history, and sexual behavior along the migration routes, place of initiation of sex. District-stratified regression models were used to understand the associations between migration and risky sexual behaviors (number of partners, condom use at last sex and descriptive analyses of migrants' place of sexual initiation and continuation along migration routes. Results The average age at migration of our study sample was 19 years. Adjusted regression analyses revealed that active migrants were more likely to engage in sex with sex workers in the past 12 months (Prakasam: 15 percent vs. 8 percent; adjusted odds ratio (aOR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.4; Azamgarh: 19 percent vs.7 percent; aOR=4.0, 95% CI 2.4-6.6 as well as have multiple (3+ sex partners (Prakasam: 18 percent vs. 9 percent; aOR=2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.2; Azamgarh: 28 percent vs. 21 percent; aOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0 than non-migrants. Contrary to popular belief, a high proportion of active and returned migrants (almost 75 percent of those who had sex initiated sex at the place of

  14. [Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Zhou, Q; Wang, D P; Zhang, T; Wang, H J; Song, Y; He, H Z; Wang, M; Wang, P Y; Liu, A P

    2017-06-18

    To analyze associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with dyslipidemia among residents in Wuhai city. Data about social demographic characteristics, life style, health status and other covariate required for analysis in this study was obtained from a cross-sectional study on a total of 11 497 18-79 years old residents in Wuhai City by questionnaire, body mea-surement and laboratory examination. In this study, sedentary behavior and physical activity were evaluated using international physical activity questionnaire long version (IPAQ). IPAQ is widely used all over the world, and its reliability and validity have been tested in Chinese population. 2016 Chinese Guideline for the Management of Dyslipidemia in Adults was used to define dyslipidemia in this study. According to IPAQ scoring protocol, 124 participants were excluded as a result of reporting more than 960 min of physical activity per day. 50.58% of 11 373 participants included in the analysis reported more than 4 hours of sedentary behavior per day in this study, thus 49.42% participants reported no more than 4 hours of sedentary behavior per day; the proportions of these 11 373 participants who reached Low level physical activity, Moderate level physical activity and high level physical activity were 23.43%, 37.29% and 39.28% respectively; and the detection ratios of new cases and prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in Wuhai City were 20.46% and 16.13% respectively. After controlling for confounders in this study, we found out that sedentary behavior increased the risk of new cases of dyslipidemia in women (OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.00-1.36), and increased the risk of prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in both men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.44) and women (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48); as for association of physical activity with dyslipidemia, association was found between high level physical activity and prevalent cases of dyslipidemia in men in this study (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.98), suggested that high

  15. Is running away right? The behavioral activation-behavioral inhibition model of anterior asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Leue, Anja; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    The measurement of anterior electroencephalograph (EEG) asymmetries has become an important standard paradigm for the investigation of affective states and traits. Findings in this area are typically interpreted within the motivational direction model, which suggests a lateralization of approach and withdrawal motivational systems to the left and right anterior region, respectively. However, efforts to compare this widely adopted model with an alternative account-which relates the left anterior region to behavioral activation independent of the direction of behavior (approach or withdrawal) and the right anterior region to goal conflict-induced behavioral inhibition-are rare and inconclusive. Therefore, the authors measured the EEG in a sample of 93 young men during emotional imagery designed to provide a critical test between the 2 models. The results (e.g., a correlation between left anterior activation and withdrawal motivation) favor the alternative model on the basis of the concepts of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition. In addition, the present study also supports an association of right parietal activation with physiological arousal and the conceptualization of parietal EEG asymmetry as a mediator of emotion-related physiological arousal. (Copyright) 2008 APA.

  16. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy B Sirotin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5-10 Hz. During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, ’50 kHz’ were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5−10 Hz and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1-4 Hz. Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations.

  17. Bidirectional associations between activity-related parenting practices, and child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and body mass index: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; van der Plas, Eline; Thijs, Carel

    2017-07-06

    It has been generally assumed that activity-related parenting practices influence children's activity behavior and weight status. However, vice versa parents may also change their parenting behaviors in response to their perceptions of their child's activity behavior and weight status. This study examined the bidirectional relationships between activity-related parenting practices, and physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and body mass index (BMI) between children's age of 5 and 7 years. Three scales of the Activity-related Parenting Questionnaire (i.e. 'restriction of sedentary behavior', 'stimulation of physical activity', and 'monitoring of physical activity') were completed by 1694 parents of the Dutch KOALA Birth Cohort Study at the child's age of around 5 and again around age 7. Physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior and BMI were measured at both ages as well. Linear regression models were used to estimate the bidirectional associations between each parenting practice and the child's physical activity levels, sedentary screen-based behavior and BMI z-scores. Several parenting practices at age 5 predicted child physical activity, sedentary screen-based behavior, and BMI z-scores at age 7. Restriction of sedentary behavior positively predicted child BMI and sedentary screen-based behavior, whereas this practice negatively predicted child physical activity. In addition, stimulation of physical activity at age 5 was significantly associated with higher levels of child physical activity at age 7. The following child factors at age 5 predicted parenting practices at age 7: Child physical activity positively predicted parental stimulation of physical activity and monitoring activities. Sedentary screen-based behavior was associated with lower parental stimulation to be active. Findings generally revealed that parents and children mutually influence each other's behavior. A reinforcing feedback loop was present between parental stimulation

  18. Activation of the GABAB receptor prevents nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eLobina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that activation of the GABAB receptor, either by means of orthosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, inhibited different nicotine-related behaviors, including intravenous self-administration and conditioned place preference, in rodents. The present study investigated whether the anti-nicotine effects of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, and GABAB PAMs, CGP7930 and GS39783, extend to nicotine stimulant effects. To this end, CD1 mice were initially treated with baclofen (0, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p., CGP7930 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., or GS39783 (0, 25, and 50 mg/kg, i.g., then treated with nicotine (0 and 0.05 mg/kg, s.c., and finally exposed to an automated apparatus for recording of locomotor activity. Pretreatment with doses of baclofen, CGP7930, or GS39783 that did not alter locomotor activity when given with nicotine vehicle fully prevented hyperlocomotion induced by 0.05 mg/kg nicotine. These data extend to nicotine stimulant effects the capacity of baclofen and GABAB PAMs to block the reinforcing, motivational, and rewarding properties of nicotine. These data strengthen the hypothesis that activation of the GABAB receptor may represent a potentially useful, anti-smoking therapeutic strategy.

  19. School environment, sedentary behavior and physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Sara Crosatti; Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Elias, Rui Gonçalves Marques; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2016-09-01

    To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated through binary logistic regression. At school, regardless of age, preschoolers spend relatively more time in sedentary behaviors (89.6%-90.9%), followed by light (4.6%-7.6%), moderate (1.3%-3.0%) and vigorous (0.5%-2.3%) physical activity. The indoor recreation room (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.83) and the playground (OR=0.08; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.80) protect four-year-old schoolchildren from highly sedentary behavior. An inverse association was found between the indoor recreation room and physical activity (OR=0.20; 95%CI 0.00 to 0.93) in five-year-old children. The indoor recreation room (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77), the playground (OR=2.82; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.96) and the recess (OR=1.54; 95%CI 1.35 to 1.77) are factors that increase the chance of six-year-old schoolchildren to be active. The school infrastructure and environment should be seen as strategies to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. The status and predictors of hypertension preventive nutritional behaviors in adolescents based on the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlabi, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Reza; Moshki, Mahdi; Ranaei, Afsaneh; Haji, Alireza; Mehrabi, Rahele

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition is an important factor affecting hypertensive incidence. Since the unhealthiest nutritional behaviors are rooted in childhood attitudes and experiences, applying educational interventions to these age groups will be most useful in the formation of preventive nutritional behaviors. To determine the predictive power of the TPB on hypertension in junior high-school students. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 junior high-school students in Kashmar, Iran in academic year commencing 2-13-2014, selected through random sampling. The participants completed a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of a demographic information form and a section to evaluate the constructs of the TPB. The data collected were analyzed in SPSS-16 using the correlation Wilcoxon statistics test, the one-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis. The mean age of the students was 13.51. A total of 47% of the students had snacked on potato chips and cheese puffs, 45% had eaten high-fat foods and 51.2% had eaten cookies and chocolates within the past week. The variable of behavioral intention predicted 32% of the variations in preventive nutritional behaviors by itself. The Pearson product-moment correlation analysis found that hypertension preventive nutritional behaviors were significantly correlated with attitude (peducation interventions should be developed based on variables such as behavioral intention and its determinants, i.e. attitude, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms.

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. The Shift from Acceptance to Prevention: Hazing Behaviors in the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    predicted that SMs in the older age bracket (40-60+ years) will identify hazing correctly less often than SMs in the younger age brackets (18-39 years...hazing or neutral. Demographic characteristics of the samples (e.g., age , sex, race, or active duty status) did not influence survey findings...they do not consider the consequences when they begin to engage in these types of behaviors. Hazing is dangerous; it can involve sodomy, sexual

  3. Prevention of disorders of behavioral reactions in rats using nootropics with sodium valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using of anticonvulsants can trigger a number of side effects, such as possible changes in behavior and emotional state of people with epilepsy, risk of unwarranted aggression, nervousness, discoordination, sleepiness, encephalopathies. However, the epilepsy itself as a chronic neurological pathology causes cognitive and "epileptic" deficiency, in patients general retardation, sluggishness of mental activity, decreased cognitive abilities de¬velop. Therefore it is advisable to combine anticonvulsants with nootropics with their ability to protect the brain and increase body's resistance to extreme stress, reduce neurological deficits, restore damaged mnestic and mental functions. The author considered the use of nootropics on the background of anticonvulsant sodium valproate (80 mg/kg. Behavioral reactions of white rats in the test "Open field" and muscle tone of white mice in the test "muscle relaxation" were performed on the day 4 nootropics introduction in 1 hour after a single sodium valproate application. It’s shown experimentally that sodium valproate provided systemic depriming action on orientation and exploratory activity of rats: locomotor activity reduced in the number of squares strolled by 62.8% and in the number of vertical uprights by 80%, the amount of peeping into the burrows decreased by 58.7% as compared with the control. In the test "muscle relaxation" sodium valproate reduced muscle strength of mice by 38.6%. Against the background of anticonvulsant application piracetam (500 mg/kg had no effect on the behavioral responses of rats and muscle tone of mice. Citicoline (500 mg/kg increased locomotor activity in the number of squares crossed by 29.7%, in the number of vertical racks – by 20%, and the endurance of mice by 18.6%. Memantine (10 mg/kg in combination with sodium valproate insignificantly decreased (by 8.4% locomotor activity of rats, but increased exploratory activity by 30.5%; withholding of mice on the wire

  4. REFLECTIONS ON BEHAVIORAL CRISES PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland PAULAUSKAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of civilization made crises an inseparable part of our lives. Crises manifest themselves in almost all social areas and organizations, including educational institutions. The goals of the article are to present a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behaviors, and discuss the psycho-social characteristics of emotionally disturbed adolescents situated in a residential special education school in the United States. The article also gives an analysis of their most prevalent behavioral crises, escalation stages, as well as nonviolent crisis prevention and intervention strategies. The methods that were used include scientific literature review, analysis of statistical information supplied from different government sources, review and analysis of student records, as well as the author’s analytical reflections in working with emotionally disturbed youngsters in residential special education schools in the United States.The results of the study indicate that scientists from different fields use different terminology to describe socially nonconforming behaviors. The author presents a theoretical model of normal, deviant and antisocial behavior that could enhance better understanding and identification of high risk situations and conduct leading to serious crises. The analysis of student records revealed that most of the adolescents situated in special education residential schools are diagnosed with a number of mental health problems. This suggests that the currently prevailing care and education paradigm in the special education residential schools should shift to a more comprehensive treatment paradigm. The article also discusses the pros and cons of nonviolent crisis intervention. It is the author’s opinion that all special education schools serving children with emotional disorders should adopt one of the nonviolent crisis intervention models and develop and implement crisis management policies, plans and procedures.

  5. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  6. Agreeableness and activeness as components of conflict behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; Euwema, M C

    Handling social conflict is usually described in terms of 2 dimensions that either cause the behavior (concern for one's own and others' goals) or that result from it (integration and distribution). In contrast, agreeableness and activeness are common factors of modes and taxonomies of conflict

  7. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of

  8. S-adenosyl methionine prevents ASD like behaviors triggered by early postnatal valproic acid exposure in very young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi

    2018-01-16

    A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Activating College Men to Prevent Sexual Violence: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. Candace

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…

  11. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Sexual Behavior and Vaginal Practices During Pregnancy and Postpartum: Implications for HIV Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Drake, Alison L; Matemo, Daniel; Unger, Jennifer A; McClelland, Raymond S; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-02-01

    Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying. Among 1252 women enrolled, 78.4% were married (of whom 15.1% were in polygamous unions), 1.4% had a known HIV-infected partner, and 33.6% had a partner of unknown HIV status. At enrollment, 58.5% reported sex in the past month (94.3% unprotected) and 4.5% reported forced sex. Odds of unprotected sex at enrollment was >11-fold higher in married than in unmarried women (P < 0.001) and lower among women who reported partners of unknown HIV status or HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected partners. Median time to postpartum resumption of sex was 7 weeks (interquartile range 4-12). Prevalence of unprotected sex in the past week increased from 6.6% to 60.0% between 2 and 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing was reported by 60.1% of women at enrollment and prevalence remained stable postpartum; vaginal drying was reported by 17.9% at enrollment and decreased to 6.1% at 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing and drying were associated with forced sex. High rates of unknown partner HIV status, polygamy, and less frequent condom use among pregnant/postpartum women underscore the need for female-controlled HIV prevention interventions. Vaginal washing and drying may present challenges to microbicide use.

  13. Peripubertal exposure to environmental enrichment prevents schizophrenia-like behaviors in the SHR strain animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Camila Mauricio; Peres, Fernanda Fiel; Diana, Mariana Cepollaro; Justi, Veronica; Suiama, Mayra Akimi; Santana, Marcela Gonçalves; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek

    2016-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling mental disorder, in which genetics and environmental factors interact culminating in the disease. The treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits with antipsychotics is currently inefficient and is an important field of research. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been suggested to improve some cognitive deficits in animal models of various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a possible beneficial effect of early and long-term exposure to EE on an animal model of schizophrenia, the SHR strain. Young male Wistar rats (control strain) and SHRs (21 post-natal days) were housed for 6weeks in two different conditions: in large cages (10 animals per cage) containing objects of different textures, forms, colors and materials that were changed 3 times/week (EE condition) or in standard cages (5 animals per cage - Control condition). Behavioral evaluations - social interaction (SI), locomotion, prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI) and spontaneous alternation (SA) - were performed 6weeks after the end of EE. SHRs presented deficits in PPI (a sensorimotor impairment), SI (mimicking the negative symptoms) and SA (a working memory deficit), and also hyperlocomotion (modeling the positive symptoms). EE was able to reduce locomotion and increase PPI in both strains, and to prevent the working memory deficit in SHRs. EE also increased the number of neurons in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. In conclusion, EE can be a potential nonpharmacological strategy to prevent some behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anomalous behavior of the diffusion coefficient in thin active films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Abhik; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Prost, Jacques; Jülicher, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by recent experiments in cell biology, we elucidate the visco-elastic properties of an active gel by studying the dynamics of a small tracer particle inside it. In a stochastic hydrodynamic approach for an active gel of finite thickness L, we calculate the mean square displacement of a particle. These particle displacements are governed by fluctuations in the velocity field. We characterize the short-time behavior when the gel is a solid as well as the limit of long times when the gel becomes a fluid and the particle shows simple diffusion. Active stresses together with local polar order give rise to velocity fluctuations that lead to characteristic behaviors of the diffusion coefficient that differ fundamentally from those found in a passive system: the diffusion coefficient can depend on system size and diverges as L approaches an instability threshold. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient becomes independent of the particle size in this case. (paper)

  15. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  16. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  17. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  18. Pilot trial of a dissonance-based cognitive-behavioral group depression prevention with college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M

    2016-07-01

    Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal information dissemination strategy to promote preventive behaviors in multilayer epidemic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Heman; Sahneh, Faryad Darabi; Scoglio, Caterina; Poggi-Corradini, Pietro; Preciado, Victor M

    2015-06-01

    Launching a prevention campaign to contain the spread of infection requires substantial financial investments; therefore, a trade-off exists between suppressing the epidemic and containing costs. Information exchange among individuals can occur as physical contacts (e.g., word of mouth, gatherings), which provide inherent possibilities of disease transmission, and non-physical contacts (e.g., email, social networks), through which information can be transmitted but the infection cannot be transmitted. Contact network (CN) incorporates physical contacts, and the information dissemination network (IDN) represents non-physical contacts, thereby generating a multilayer network structure. Inherent differences between these two layers cause alerting through CN to be more effective but more expensive than IDN. The constraint for an epidemic to die out derived from a nonlinear Perron-Frobenius problem that was transformed into a semi-definite matrix inequality and served as a constraint for a convex optimization problem. This method guarantees a dying-out epidemic by choosing the best nodes for adopting preventive behaviors with minimum monetary resources. Various numerical simulations with network models and a real-world social network validate our method.

  20. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  1. Gay bathhouse HIV prevention: the use of staff monitoring of patron sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, William J; Sheon, Nicolas; Morris, Joseph A; Binson, Diane

    2013-06-01

    Many HIV prevention interventions have been launched in gay bathhouses and sex clubs since the onset of the AIDS epidemic, such as condom distribution and HIV testing. Perhaps none of these are as intrusive to the venue's environment as what is called "monitoring," which involves staff, during every shift, repeatedly walking throughout the public areas of a bathhouse to check on patrons' sexual behavior. Yet, monitoring has received little evaluation. Between 2002 and 2004, we conducted qualitative interviews with venue managers, staff and patrons in New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. An analysis found that monitoring was influenced by the kinds of space available for sex, suggesting three approaches to monitoring: 1) monitoring all sex in clubs that only had public areas where men had sex ; 2) monitoring some sex in clubs with private rooms for sex; and 3) no monitoring of sex, regardless of the kinds of space for sex. This paper explores each approach as described by club managers, staff, and patrons to understand the potential effectiveness of monitoring as an HIV prevention intervention.

  2. Perceptions of oral health, preventive care, and care-seeking behaviors among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-12-01

    An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being "free" or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  3. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  4. Design of Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences.

  5. Design of Video Games for Children’s Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences. PMID:25364331

  6. Effectiveness of training on preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the female adolescents: Examination of theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Farzaneh; Hosseini Nodeh, Zahra; Rahnavard, Zahra; Arab, Masoume

    2016-01-01

    Since type-2 diabetes is the most common chronic disease among Iranian female adolescents, we applied theory of planned behavior to examine the effect of training to intention to preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among female adolescents. In this experimental study 200 (11-14 year old) girls from 8 schools of Tehran city (100 in each intervention and control group) were recruited based on cluster sampling method during two stages. For intervention group, an educational program was designed based on the theory of planned behavior and presented in 6 workshop sessions to prevent type-2 diabetes. The data were collected before and two months after the workshops using a valid and reliable (α=0.72 and r=0.80) authormade questionnaire based on Ajzens TPB questionnaire manual. The data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test and analysis of covariance. Findings indicate that the two groups were homogeneous regarding the demographic characteristics before education, but the mean score of the theory components (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) was higher in the control group. Also, results showed all of the theory components significantly increased after the education in the intervention group (p=0.000). Training based on the theory of planned behavior enhances the intention to adherence preventative nutritional behaviors for type-2 diabetes among the studied female adolescents.

  7. Obesity prevention for children with physical disabilities: a scoping review of physical activity and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Keith, Rebekah; Swift, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities are at higher risk of obesity, engage in less physical activity and report poorer quality dietary habits than their non-disabled peers. This study reviewed current evidence on interventions designed to facilitate weight management and/or weight-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity and/or healthy eating habits) in children with physical disabilities. A scoping review was performed using established methodology. Data from studies meeting specific inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed using summary statistics, and common characteristics thematically identified. Thirty-four articles were included in the synthesis. No long-term obesity prevention interventions were identified. The majority of research focused upon children with cerebral palsy, and had case study, quasi- or non-experimental designs. All interventions reporting positive outcomes (n = 18) addressed physical activity, with common themes including using motivational strategies for the child and child self-direction. Incremental increases in workload and engaging in strength training for longer than 15 minutes were also effective. Interventions targeting body weight/composition did not report success in the long term. A robust evidence base is lacking for long-lasting obesity interventions for children with physical disabilities. Current research provides some insights into the specific components that should be considered when planning such interventions in the future.

  8. Checking the determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in the housewives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Fatemeh; Shanazi, Hossein; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sedentary life has been recognized as a serious problem in today's Iranian society. Promoting the lifestyle with increased physical activity and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is imperative. The purpose of this study was identifying the determinants of physical activity in the housewives of Nain city in 2012 based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 housewives were selected by simple random sampling method. Data collection tool was a questionnaire designed based on a standardized and fabricated questionnaire and consisted of four parts. The questionnaire included awareness variables, theory of structures, planned behavior, and physical activity. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 18 and associated statistical tests. Findings: The 120 housewives under study had a mean age of 34.58 ± 6.86 years. The mean scores of awareness, attitude, motivation to perform, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control variables were 74.1 ± 18.5, 82.6 ± 12.1, 59.4 ± 21.7, 63.2 ± 21.2, and 48.1 ± 12.9 respectively. There was a significant relationship between the motivation for physical activity among women and knowledge (P = 0.02) attitude (P = 0.04) subjective norms (P = 0.002) perceived behavioral control (P = 0.001), and physical activity (P = 0.04). Conclusions: It seems that the housewives, despite being aware of and having a positive attitude on the benefits of physical activity, had a poor lifestyle. Perhaps further studies can help in finding the causes of this issue and the barriers to physical activity such as the conditions and plan for greater measures for improving physical activity, in order to promote women's health which has a significant role in family and community health. PMID:25250360

  9. Can sports events affect suicidal behavior? A review of the literature and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2009-01-01

    Engagement in sports and physical activity, either actively as an athlete or in a passive way as a spectator, impacts interpersonal behavior and physical and mental health. The study reviews literature on the relationship between sports spectatorship and suicidal behavior to ascertain whether sports spectatorship has an impact on suicidal behavior, either increasing the risk or being a protective factor. The literature was searched via PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Nine studies published between 1986 and 2006 were identified. The reviewed studies focused on the impact of sports events on the societal level, and analyzed data regarding national or local suicide rates. Their results indicate that sports events can have an impact on suicide mortality and morbidity, but this relationship seems to be mediated by age, gender, marital status, and alcohol consumption, as well as the process and outcome of the game (e.g., victory vs. defeat of the favored team). There is some evidence that sports events can reduce the rates of suicide on the societal level; however, there is a lack of studies exploring how sports spectatorship might influence levels of suicide risk in individuals and how mediating variables might operate on the individual level.

  10. Polysaccharides from Wolfberry Prevents Corticosterone-Induced Inhibition of Sexual Behavior and Increases Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Li, Yue; Fung, Sophia Man-Yuk; Sang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Jiangang; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Lycium barbarum, commonly known as wolfberry, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of infertility and sexual dysfunction. However, there is still a scarcity of experimental evidence to support the pro-sexual effect of wolfberry. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on male sexual behavior of rats. Here we report that oral feeding of LBP for 21 days significantly improved the male copulatory performance including increase of copulatory efficiency, increase of ejaculation frequency and shortening of ejaculation latency. Furthermore, sexual inhibition caused by chronic corticosterone was prevented by LBP. Simultaneously, corticosterone suppressed neurogenesis in subventricular zone and hippocampus in adult rats, which could be reversed by LBP. The neurogenic effect of LBP was also shown in vitro. Significant correlation was found between neurogenesis and sexual performance, suggesting that the newborn neurons are associated with reproductive successfulness. Blocking neurogenesis in male rats abolished the pro-sexual effect of LBP. Taken together, these results demonstrate the pro-sexual effect of LBP on normal and sexually-inhibited rats, and LBP may modulate sexual behavior by regulating neurogenesis. PMID:22523540

  11. Mediators and Moderators of a School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Mylien T; Kelly, Brynn M; Haaland, Wren L; Matsumiya, Brandon; Huey, Stanley J; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2016-10-01

    This study tested potential moderators and mediators of an indicated depression prevention program for middle school students, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA). Participants were 120 students randomly assigned to PTA, or a brief, individually administered supportive intervention (Individual Support Program, or ISP). Youths completed measures of depressive symptoms at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-month follow-up. Hierarchical regression was used to test three moderators-ethnic minority status, gender, and baseline depressive symptoms-and three mediators representing functional outcomes targeted by PTA-parent-child communication, attitude towards school, and health behavior. Ethnic minority status did not moderate PTA effects at post-intervention but did moderate PTA effects at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, PTA appeared to be more effective for White participants than ethnic minority youth. Follow-up analyses suggested this moderation effect was due to the tendency of ethnic minority youth, especially those with fewer symptoms at baseline, to drop out by 12 months. Neither gender nor baseline depressive symptoms moderated the effects of PTA. Although PTA improved health behavior and attitudes toward school, there was no evidence that any of these functional outcomes measured mediated the impact of PTA on depressive symptoms. Future directions are discussed.

  12. Communication skills and self-esteem in prevention of destructive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander-Golden, P; Jackson, J E; Crane, K; Schwarzkopf, A B; Lyle, P S

    1989-01-01

    This study demonstrates the long-range effectiveness of SAY IT STRAIGHT training as a school-based program for the prevention of destructive behaviors by comparing juvenile police offenders among trained and untrained 9th-12th graders for 1 1/2 years following training. In the 1984-85 school year, 357 of the 740 9th-12th graders in a southwestern town completed SAY IT STRAIGHT training. Participation was voluntary and required parental permission. During a five-month pretraining period which began with the first day of school, the number of juvenile police offenders was not significantly different among students who would eventually be trained or not be trained. During the following 7 months including summer vacation, there were significantly fewer offenders among the trained students. The following school year and summer vacation there were again significantly fewer offenders among the trained students. During the whole 1 1/2-year study, the untrained students had about 4.5 times as many criminal offenses as the trained students and their offenses were more severe. Finally, 9th, 10th, and 12th graders as well as 11th-grade females who had been trained showed a significant shift toward behavioral intentions reflecting a greater willingness to implement their constructive decisions and feel comfortable doing so. This study extends the applicability of SAY IT STRAIGHT training which previously has been reported to significantly reduce alcohol/drug-related school suspensions among 6th-8th graders.

  13. Neogenin, a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, prevents depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dong; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Zhao, Lu; Lee, Dae-Hoon; Hu, Jin-Xia; Tang, Fu-Lei; Pan, Jin-Xiu; Mei, Lin; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-08

    Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed a role for neogenin to positively regulate Gli1, a crucial downstream transcriptional factor of sonic hedgehog, and expression of Gli1 into neogenin depleted NSCs/NPCs restores their proliferation. Further morphological and functional studies showed additional abnormities, including reduced dendritic branches and spines, and impaired glutamatergic neuro-transmission, in neogenin-depleted new-born DG neurons; and mice with depletion of neogenin in NSCs/NPCs exhibited depressive-like behavior. These results thus demonstrate unrecognized functions of neogenin in adult hippocampal NSCs/NPCs-promoting NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis and preventing astrogliogenesis and depressive-like behavior, and suggest neogenin regulation of Gli1 signaling as a possible underlying mechanism.

  14. The Effectiveness of Transactional Behavior Analytic Group Therapy on the Prevention of Relapse among Detoxified People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mousa Kafi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Addiction Phenomenon among detoxified people is an important therapeutic problem for substance abusers. The aim of this research was the study of effectiveness of transactional behavior analytic group therapy on prevention of relapse of detoxified people. Method: the research design was quasi experimental with witness group. By using of available sampling of detoxified people who referred to government centers for maintenance therapy with Methadone, 24 subjects that divided to two control and witness groups (12 subjects for each group selected of Bojnord city. Each subjects completed the write's relapse prediction scale as pretest. Post test administered after group therapy and after 5 months follow up test administered among two groups. Morphine test has done with follow up test simultaneously. Independent samples t-test and covariance analysis has run for analyzing of data. Results: The results of covariance showed that tempting of substance use was significantly differed in post test and follow up, but there was not significant difference in probability of substance use. Conclusion: Finding of this research showed, the transactional behavior analytic group therapy may be effective in tempting of substance use among detoxified people and it can considered by specialists.

  15. Investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Marya, Rehmani; Rastegar, Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intak...

  16. Multimodal secondary prevention behavioral interventions for TIA and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Lawrence

    Full Text Available Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants; diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants. No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants. There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants; however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants. Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0

  17. Siblings are special: initial test of a new approach for preventing youth behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Solmeyer, Anna R; Hostetler, Michelle L; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Jones, Damon; McHale, Susan M

    2013-08-01

    A growing body of research documents the significance of siblings and sibling relationships for development, mental health, and behavioral risk across childhood and adolescence. Nonetheless, few well-designed efforts have been undertaken to promote positive and reduce negative youth outcomes by enhancing sibling relationships. Based on a theoretical model of sibling influences, we conducted a randomized trial of Siblings Are Special (SIBS), a group-format afterschool program for fifth graders with a younger sibling in second through fourth grades, which entailed 12 weekly afterschool sessions and three Family Nights. We tested program efficacy with a pre- and post-test design with 174 families randomly assigned to condition. In home visits at both time points, we collected data via parent questionnaires, child interviews, and observer-rated videotaped interactions and teachers rated children's behavior at school. The program enhanced positive sibling relationships, appropriate strategies for parenting siblings, and child self-control, social competence, and academic performance; program exposure was also associated with reduced maternal depression and child internalizing problems. Results were robust across the sample, not qualified by sibling gender, age, family demographics, or baseline risk. No effects were found for sibling conflict, collusion, or child externalizing problems; we will examine follow-up data to determine if short-term impacts lead to reduced negative behaviors over time. The breadth of the SIBS program's impact is consistent with research suggesting that siblings are an important influence on development and adjustment and supports our argument that a sibling focus should be incorporated into youth and family-oriented prevention programs. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care

    OpenAIRE

    Mustila, Taina; Keskinen, Päivi; Luoto, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The con...

  19. Physical activity and senior games participation: benefits, constraints, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, David; Henderson, Karla A; Wilson, Beth E

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the article was to examine the physical activity perceptions and behaviors of older adults who were active participants in a statewide senior games (i.e., North Carolina Senior Games; NCSG) program with its focus on year-round involvement through activities in local communities. A random sample of 440 older adults (55 years and older) completed a questionnaire in 2006 about their participation in community-based senior games. A uniqueness of this study is its focus on active older adults, which provides insight into how to maintain physical involvement. Older adults who were most active perceived the most benefits from senior games but did not necessarily have the fewest constraints. This study of NCSG as an organization designed to promote healthy living in communities offered an example of how a social-ecological framework aimed at health promotion can be applied.

  20. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43

  1. Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-infected South African men and women with their partners in a primary care program: implications for couples-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; de Bruyn, Guy; Lurie, Mark N; Modisenyane, Tebogo; Triche, Elizabeth W; Gray, Glenda E; Welte, Alex; Martinson, Neil A

    2012-01-01

    We studied 1163 sexually-active HIV-infected South African men and women in an urban primary care program to understand patterns of sexual behaviors and whether these behaviors differed by partner HIV status. Overall, 40% reported a HIV-positive partner and 60% a HIV-negative or status unknown partner; and 17.5% reported >2 sex acts in the last 2 weeks, 16.4% unprotected sex in the last 6 months, and 3.7% >1 sex partner in the last 6 months. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was consistently associated with decreased sexual risk behaviors, as well as with reporting a HIV-negative or status unknown partner. The odds of sexual risk behaviors differed by sex; and were generally higher among participants reporting a HIV-positive partner, but continued among those with a HIV-negative or status unknown partner. These data support ART as a means of HIV prevention. Engaging in sexual risk behaviors primarily with HIV-positive partners was not widely practiced in this setting, emphasizing the need for couples-based prevention.

  2. Effectiveness of message framing on women's intention to perform cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M; Christensen, Emily M

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of message framing on women's intention to perform cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention behaviors involving handwashing, not sharing food and eating utensils, not kissing a child on the lips and not placing a pacifier in the mouth after it was in a child's mouth. An online panel of women 18-40 years, who were pregnant or planning a pregnancy were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive 1 of 4 CMV fact sheets. The fact sheets were framed as either what could be gained or be lost by following (or not) the recommendations and the likelihood of being affected by CMV (i.e., small chance or one of the most common infections in infants). The questionnaire measured CMV knowledge, participation in CMV risk or prevention behaviors, perceived severity of and susceptibly to CMV, and the perceived control over and the efficacy of recommended prevention behaviors. The dependent variable, intention to modify behavior, was an index score that ranged from 0 to 16 with higher values indicating greater intention. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between all independent variables and overall behavioral intention. The sample included 840 women; 15.5% were familiar with CMV. Behavioral intention was high (M = 10.43; SD = 5.13) but did not differ across the message frames (p = 0.23). Overall, behavioral intention was predicted by CMV knowledge, message credibility, perceived severity of CMV, perceived behavioral control and response efficacy. Significant interactions with gain vs. loss frame were observed for perceived behavioral control (p = 0.03) and response efficacy (p = .003). Framing CMV messages by what women stand to gain or lose interacts with perceived behavioral control and response efficacy to influence behavioral intention. Perceived behavioral control and response efficacy were most predictive of behavioral intention overall regardless of frame. Messaging that focuses

  3. Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: a randomized effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Jane E; Reivich, Karen J; Brunwasser, Steven M; Freres, Derek R; Chajon, Norma D; Kash-Macdonald, V Megan; Chaplin, Tara M; Abenavoli, Rachel M; Matlin, Samantha L; Gallop, Robert J; Seligman, Martin E P

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We evaluated the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program for adolescents (PRP-A), a school-based group intervention that targets cognitive behavioral risk factors for depression. We randomly assigned 408 middle school students (ages 10-15) to one of three conditions: PRP-A, PRP-AP (in which adolescents participated in PRP-A and parents were invited to attend a parent intervention component), or a school-as-usual control. Adolescents completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, cognitive style, and coping at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. PRP-A reduced depression symptoms relative to the school as usual control. Baseline levels of hopelessness moderated intervention effects. Among participants with average and high levels of hopelessness, PRP (A and AP) significantly improved depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and active coping relative to control. Among participants with low baseline hopelessness, we found no intervention effects. PRP-AP was not more effective than PRP-A alone. We found no intervention effects on clinical levels of depression or anxiety. These findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral interventions can be beneficial when delivered by school teachers and counselors. These interventions may be most helpful to students with elevated hopelessness.

  4. Workplace suicide prevention: a systematic review of published and unpublished activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Kathryn; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Lamotagne, Anthony D

    2015-03-01

    There are a number of published studies on workplace suicide prevention activities, and an even larger number of activities that are not reported on in academic literature. The aim of this review was to provide a systematic assessment of workplace suicide prevention activities, including short-term training activities, as well as suicide prevention strategies designed for occupational groups at risk of suicide. The search was based on Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Guidelines. The databases used for the searches were the Cochrane Trials Library and PubMed. A range of suicide prevention websites were also searched to ascertain the information on unpublished workplace suicide prevention activities. Key characteristics of retrieved studies were extracted and explained, including whether activities were short-term training programmes or developed specifically for occupations at risk of suicide. There were 13 interventions relevant for the review after exclusions. There were a few examples of prevention activities developed for at-risk occupations (e.g. police, army, air force and the construction industry) as well as a number of general awareness programmes that could be applied across different settings. Very few workplace suicide prevention initiatives had been evaluated. Results from those that had been evaluated suggest that prevention initiatives had beneficial effects. Suicide prevention has the potential to be integrated into existing workplace mental health activities. There is a need for further studies to develop, implement and evaluate workplace suicide prevention programmes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Survey of osteoporosis preventive behaviors among women in Fasa: The Application of the Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2016-04-01

    self-regulation, social protection of social cognitive theory, and questionnaire of functional feeding and walking were determined to prevent osteoporosis in women. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results: The average age of women was 40/9± 6/2 years. The variables of perceived susceptibility, motivation, social support and self-regulation for walking behavior and variables of perceived sensitivity and self-regulation for feeding behavior were predicted. There was a significant association between walking performance and perceived susceptibility (B=0.252 ,p=0/007, motivation (B=0.235 ,p=0.009, social support (B=0.078 ,p=0.030 and Self-regulation (B=0.105 ,p=0.007. In this study, there was a significant association between nutritional performance and perceived susceptibility (B=0.10,p=0.02, self-regulation (r=0.069 ,p=0.050. The variables under study expressed 29/1% of the variance in walking behavior and 20/2% of the variance in feeding behavior in osteoporosis prevention. Conclusion: The study indicated that perceived susceptibility, motivation, self-regulation and social support, otherwise more people might have osteoporosis preventive behaviors better .Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory can be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis in women and can help to improve and maintain their health.

  6. Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Assess Parental Self-Efficacy for Influencing Children's Dietary, Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Screen Time Behaviors in Disadvantaged Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gisela; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background: According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is central to behavior change. Consequently, parental self-efficacy (PSE) for influencing children's dietary, physical activity (PA), sedentary, and screen time behaviors is important for child obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an…

  7. Experiences about HIV-AIDS preventive-control activities. Discourses from non-governmental organizations professionals and users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Violan, Concepció; Romaguera, Amparo; Mansilla, Rosa; Giménez, Albert; Almeda, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify the experiences of professionals in nongovernmental organizations (NGO) in Catalonia (Spain) working in HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities and potential areas of improvement of these activities and their evaluation. A further aim was to characterize the experiences, knowledge and practices of users of these organizations with regard to HIV infection and its prevention. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted with the participation of both professionals and users of Catalan nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working in HIV/AIDS. Theoretical sampling (professional) and opportunistic sampling (users) were performed. To collect information, the following techniques were used: four focus groups and one triangular group (professionals), 22 semi-structured interviews, and two observations (users). A thematic interpretive content analysis was conducted by three analysts. The professionals of nongovernmental organizations working in HIV/AIDS adopted a holistic approach in their activities, maintained confidentiality, had cultural and professional competence and followed the principles of equality and empathy. The users of these organizations had knowledge of HIV/AIDS and understood the risk of infection. However, a gap was found between knowledge, attitudes and behavior. NGO offer distinct activities adapted to users' needs. Professionals emphasize the need for support and improvement of planning and implementation of current assessment. The preventive activities of these HIV/AIDS organizations are based on a participatory health education model adjusted to people's needs and focused on empowerment. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. A Community-Level Initiative to Prevent Obesity: Results From Kaiser Permanente's Healthy Eating Active Living Zones Initiative in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is

  9. The effect of education based on the theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baghianimoghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the limited studies conducted on the educational interventions to change the preventive behaviors of cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL as well as mothers' critical role in creating and maintaining these behaviors, this study aimed to determine the impact of education based on theory of planned behavior on preventive behaviors of CL in mothers living in endemic city of Natanz. Methods: In this case experimental study, two health care centers in endemic areas of CL were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. Using list of mothers covered by each center, 80 patients were selected by simple random sampling, who were required to complete a questionnaire that has been designed based on the theory of planned behavior, and its reliability and validity had been confirmed in the previous studies. Then 4 sessions were held for the experimental group mothers and 2 training sessions were held for people who influenced them, whereas control group received no interventions. Two months after training intervention, the study data were collected again and were analyzed using the SPSS software (ver. 18 via independent statistical t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Mann Whitney tests. Results: Before the intervention, no significant differences were observed between the mean scores of different constructs of this theory in the two groups (p>0/005. Though after intervention, a significant increase was observed (p<0/005 in the mean score of knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention and action of groups and in control group, only a significant increase was observed in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude (p<0/005. Conclusions: As the findings of the present study revealed, training based on theory of planned behavior can promote preventive behaviors of CL in mothers.

  10. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  11. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting physical activity through video games based on self-behavioral models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abreu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle, promoting health and preventing various chronic diseases. Despite this evidence, it is known that the younger generations invest much time in sedentary activities such as television viewing, videogames or reading, which potentially can lead to an increase in the prevalence of sedentary behaviors in adulthood. These behaviors have been identified as factors of disturbance in the balance between intake and energy expenditure, contributing to the increasing number of overweight and obese people and, further downstream, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cancer (among others. The emergence of the Exergames (videogames that involve physical activity, either light, moderate or intense and games whose narrative alters pathogenic beliefs, contrary to the potential risk effect of gaming, by combining the playful context of videogames with physical activity (mild to intense. This study discusses some salutogenic principles of a new generation of videogames where virtual and real come together, ipromoting salutogenic behavioral patterns, namely through greater energy expenditure. The ideas are based on theoretical and empirical contributions from health psychology, in addition to the potential of computer technology applicable to traditional videogames and Exergames.

  13. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Liposomal Bupivacaine did not develop mechanical allodynia following exposure to stress, but did develop social avoidance behavior. Neither drug affected stress-induced activation of monocytes in the bone marrow, blood, or brain. Neuroinflammatory responses developed in all treatment groups, as evidenced by elevated IL-1β mRNA levels in the brain and spinal cord after RSD. In this study, psychosocial stress was associated with increased pain sensitivity in mice. Development of mechanical allodynia with RSD was blocked by regional analgesia with local anesthetics, Ropivacaine or Liposomal Bupivacaine. Despite blocking mechanical allodynia, these anesthetic interventions did not prevent neuroimmune activation or social avoidance associated with RSD. These data suggest that stress-induced neuroinflammatory changes are not associated with increased sensitivity to pain following RSD. Thus, blocking peripheral nociception was effective in inhibiting enhanced pain signaling without altering stress-induced immune or behavioral responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 24 Hours of Sleep, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Activity with Nine Wearable Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Mary E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Haskell, William L.; McConnell, Michael V.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Getting enough sleep, exercising and limiting sedentary activities can greatly contribute to disease prevention and overall health and longevity. Measuring the full 24-hour activity cycle - sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) - may now be feasible using small wearable devices. PURPOSE This study compares nine devices for accuracy in 24-hour activity measurement. METHODS Adults (N=40, 47% male) wore nine devices for 24-hours: Actigraph GT3X+, activPAL, Fitbit One, GENEactiv, Jawbone Up, LUMOback, Nike Fuelband, Omron pedometer, and Z-Machine. Comparisons (to standards) were made for total sleep time (Z-machine), time spent in SED (activPAL), LPA (GT3x+), MVPA (GT3x+), and steps (Omron). Analysis included mean absolute percent error, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS Error rates ranged from 8.1–16.9% for sleep; 9.5–65.8% for SED; 19.7–28.0% for LPA; 51.8–92% for MVPA; and 14.1–29.9% for steps. Equivalence testing indicated only two comparisons were significantly equivalent to standards: the LUMOback for sedentary behavior and the GT3X+ for sleep. Bland-Altman plots indicated GT3X+ had the closest measurement for sleep, LUMOback for sedentary behavior, GENEactiv for LPA, Fitbit for MVPA and GT3X+ for steps. CONCLUSIONS Currently, no device accurately captures activity data across the entire 24-hour day, but the future of activity measurement should aim for accurate 24-hour measurement as a goal. Researchers should continue to select measurement devices based on their primary outcomes of interest. PMID:26484953

  15. Bupleurum falcatum prevents depression and anxiety-like behaviors in rats exposed to repeated restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bombi; Yun, Hye-Yeon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated restraint stress in rodents produces increases in depression and anxietylike behaviors and alters the expression of corticotrophinreleasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. The current study focused on the impact of Bupleurum falcatum (BF) extract administration on repeated restraint stress-induced behavioral responses using the forced swimming test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Immunohistochemical examinations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in rat brain were also conducted. Male rats received daily doses of 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (i.p.) BF extract for 15 days, 30 min prior to restraint stress (4 h/day). Hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis activation in response to repeated restraint stress was confirmed base on serum corticosterone levels and CRF expression in the hypothalamus. Animals that were pre-treated with BF extract displayed significantly reduced immobility in the FST and increased open-arm exploration in the EPM test in comparison with controls. BF also blocked the increase in TH expression in the locus coeruleus of treated rats that experienced restraint stress. Together, these results demonstrate that BF extract administration prior to restraint stress significantly reduces depression and anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through central adrenergic mechanisms, and they suggest a role for BF extract in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.

  16. Electrochemical Behavior and Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Natural Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Todorović

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the electrochemical oxidation of a number natural phenolics (salicylic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, quercetin and rutin using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were also studied. A structural analysis of the tested phenolics suggests that multiple OH substitution and conjugation are important determinants of the free radical scavenging activity and electrochemical behavior. Compounds with low oxidation potentials (Epa lower than 0.45 showed antioxidant activity, whereas compounds with high Epa values (>0.45 act as prooxidants.

  17. Internet-delivered eating disorder prevention: A randomized controlled trial of dissonance-based and cognitive-behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithambo, Taona P; Huey, Stanley J

    2017-10-01

    The current study evaluated two web-based programs for eating disorder prevention in high-risk, predominantly ethnic minority women. Two hundred and seventy-one women with elevated weight concerns were randomized to Internet dissonance-based intervention (DBI-I), Internet cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI-I), or no intervention (NI). Both interventions consisted of four weekly online sessions. Participants were assessed at pre- and post intervention. Outcome measures included eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, dieting, thin-ideal internalization, and depression. At postintervention, DBI-I and CBI-I led to greater reductions in body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and depression than NI. In addition, CBI-I was effective at reducing dieting and composite eating pathology relative to NI. No outcome differences were found between the active conditions. Moderation analyses suggested that both active conditions were more effective for ethnic minorities than Whites relative to NI. Results suggest that both DBI-I and CBI-I are effective at reducing eating disorder risk factors in a high-risk, predominantly minority population relative to no intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of a Worksite-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The NHF-NRG In Balance-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Baak, van M.A.; Brug, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Examine the effectiveness of the worksite-based weight gain prevention program Netherlands Heart Foundation-Netherlands Research program weight Gain prevention In Balance, with regard to behavioral changes and corresponding cognitive determinants. METHODS:: A nonrandomized

  19. Discursive constructions of falls prevention : Discourses of active aging versus old age as disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte; Ulrich, Anita; Tanggaard, Lene

    2012-01-01

    information and investment in falls prevention programs, many still drop out or decline to participate in such programs. The study explores how discourses cross swords in the domain of falls prevention. We identify two main discourses in the field: Discourses of active aging opposed to discourses of old age...... as disease. In discourses of active aging falls are constructed as preventable and not necessarily related to old age; in discourses of old age as disease falls are constructed as a disease of old age. Specific agent positions are created within discourses. Discourses of active aging construct self......-responsible citizens who are physically active and motivated to participate in falls prevention programmes; discourses of old age as disease on the other hand construct “fall patients” who accept being passive in the health care system. Older citizens who are not in need of treatment or less physically active...

  20. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Background The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. Objective The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. Methods We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. Results With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Conclusions Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. PMID:28446420

  1. Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...... (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95...

  2. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Umemura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5-/- mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice were less aggressive than ATF5+/+ mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5-/- mice and wild type littermates. ATF5-/- mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley’s social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5-/- mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5-/- mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5-/- mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5-/- mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders.

  3. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Lapmanee

    Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  4. Community-Based Risk Communication Survey: Risk Prevention Behaviors in Communities during the H1N1 crisis, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Han, Jin A; Lee, Tae-Yong; Hwang, Tae-Yoon; Kwon, Keun-Sang; Park, Ki Soo; Lee, Kyung Jong; Kim, Moon Shik; Lee, Soon Young

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors in a community-based population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three urban and two rural communities in Korea. Interviews were conducted with 3462 individuals (1608 men and 1854 women) aged ≥ 19 years during February-March 2010. Influenza-related information including anxiety, preventive behaviors and their perceived effectiveness, vaccination status, past influenza-like illness symptoms, and sources of and trust in information was obtained. Among 3462 participants, 173 reported experiencing influenza-like illness symptoms within the past 12 months. The mean H1N1 preventive behavior score was 25.5 ± 5.5 (out of a possible 40). The percent of participants reporting high perceived effectiveness and high anxiety was 46.2% and 21.4%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, H1N1 preventive behavior scores were predicted by a high (β = 3.577, p < 0.001) or moderate (β = 2.529, p < 0.001) perception of their effectiveness. Similarly, moderate (β = 1.516, p < 0.001) and high (β = 4.103, p < 0.001) anxiety scores predicted high preventive behavior scores. Effective methods of promoting population behavior change may be nationwide campaigns through mass media, as well as education and promotion by health care providers and broadcasters.

  5. A primary health-care intervention on pre- and postnatal risk factor behavior to prevent childhood allergy. The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (PACT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrø, Ola; Oien, Torbjørn; Dotterud, Christian K; Jenssen, Jon A; Johnsen, Roar

    2010-07-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a primary prevention intervention program on risk behavior for allergic diseases among children up to 2 years of age. The setting was in ordinary pre- and postnatal primary health care in Trondheim, Norway. The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim, Norway (PACT) study invited all pregnant women and parents to children up to 2 years of age in the community to participate in a non-randomized, controlled, multiple life-style intervention study. Interventional topics was increased dietary intake of cod liver oil and oily fish for women during pregnancy and for infants during the first 2 years of life, reduced parental smoking and reduced indoor dampness. A control cohort was established prior to the intervention cohort with "follow up as usual". Questionnaires were completed in pregnancy, 6 weeks after birth and at 1 and 2 years of age. Trends in exposure and behavior are described. Intake of oily fish and cod liver oil increased statistically significantly among women and infants in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. There was a low postnatal smoking prevalence in both cohorts, with a trend towards a decreasing smoking prevalence in the control cohort. There was no change in indoor dampness or in behavior related to non- intervened life-style factors. The dietary intervention seemed to be successful. The observed reduced smoking behavior could not be attributed to the intervention program, and the latter had no effect on indoor dampness. (Current Controlled Trials registration number: ISRCTN28090297).

  6. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol rich fractions derived from the pomegranate fruit have been studied for their potential chemopreventive and/or cancer therapeutic effects in several animal models. Although data from in vitro and in vivo studies look convincing, well designed clinical trials in humans are needed to ascertain whether pomegranate can become part of our armamentarium against cancer. This review summarizes the available literature on the effects of pomegranate against various cancers. PMID:23094914

  7. Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Sharifabad, Mohammad Ali Morowati; Rahaei, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic has recently threatened the health of world's population more than ever. Non-pharmaceutical measures are important to prevent the spread of influenza A/H1N1 and to prevent a pandemic. Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing preventive behavioral. This study reports on predictors of students’ preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using variables based on the protection motivation theory (PMT)...

  8. Melatonin reduces motivation for cocaine self-administration and prevents relapse-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vengeliene, Valentina; Spanagel, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone involved in the entrainment of circadian rhythms, which appears dysregulated in drug users. Further, it has been demonstrated that melatonin can modulate the reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse and may therefore play a role in drug addiction. Here, we investigated whether administration of melatonin reduces relapse-like behavior and the motivation to seek cocaine in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to long-term cocaine self-administration training. Thereafter, melatonin effects were assessed on: (1) the motivation to work for cocaine in the break point test, (2) the relapse-like behavior in the cue-induced reinstatement test, (3) the distance traveled in the open field test, and (4) sucrose preference in a two-bottle choice paradigm. Melatonin, 25 or 50 mg/kg, was injected 3-4 h after the dark phase onset, 30 min prior to each test. Both doses of melatonin decreased the number of active pokes in both break point and cue-induced reinstatement tests, demonstrating that melatonin can reduce the cocaine-seeking behavior and the motivation to work for cocaine. Administration of the higher dose of this hormone, however, significantly reduced the number of inactive pokes during the cue-induced reinstatement test and tended to reduce animals' locomotor activity in the open field test. Sucrose preference was unchanged in both vehicle- and melatonin-treated animal groups. Our data suggest that melatonin administration may lower the risk of relapse triggered by cues in cocaine-experienced animals.

  9. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activity by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merom, D.; Pye, V.; Macniven, R.; van der Ploeg, H.; Milat, A.; Sherrington, C.; Lord, S.; Bauman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine older people's participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activities. Methods: Participants comprised 5,681 randomly selected older people (≥ 65. years) who took part in the 2009 New South Wales (Australia) Fall Prevention telephone survey (61% response-rate). The

  11. A review of the literature on preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific literature regarding preventive occupational health and safety activities in small enterprises has been reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research strategy. During the last couple of years, there has been a significant increase...

  12. Principles of Practical Training Organization in a Networking (Development of the Module "Psychological Prevention of Behavioral Disorders and Abnormalities in Development" as Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents principles of inserting study subjects and practices in educational modules running with network organizations (internship sites. We proposed a methodological basis of the modular organization of educational process in the framework of the master's program, combied the activity, competence and psychotechnical approaches. Networking of leading chair and specially selected organizations providing the base for practical training solves the problem of organizing activity-related content of educational module. We discussed the main options for networking with the databases of practice and offered methodological principles of designing the educational practice-oriented module, wherein the main principle is the reflexive and activity character of networking. We proposed activity-based content of educational module "Psychological prevention of behavioral disorders and abnormalities in development", based on the substantial psychological definition of psychoprophylaxis as a directions of professional activity of the psychologist.

  13. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest

  14. Preventing childhood anxiety disorders: Is an applied game as effective as a cognitive behavioral therapy-based program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoneveld, E.A.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of children experience subclinical levels of anxiety and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at preventing anxiety disorders is moderately effective. However, most at-risk children do not seek help or drop out of programs prematurely because of stigma, lack of motivation, and

  15. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First-Year Male Students' Perceptions of a Rape Prevention Program 7 Months after Their Participation: Attitude and Behavior Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.; Tatum, Jerry L.; Godin, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Seven months after seeing The Men's Program, a commonly used rape prevention program, 248 first-year college men responded to four open-ended questions concerning whether or not the program impacted their attitudes or behavior, particularly regarding alcohol related sexual assault. Two thirds of participants reported either attitude or behavior…

  17. The Effect of Education Based on the Health Belief Model on Osteoporosis Prevention Behaviors in Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousaviasl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases and is the silent epidemic of this era. Objectives This study evaluates the effect of education that is based on the health belief model on promoting osteoporosis prevention behaviors among female high school students. Methods In this two-group interventional study, 172 students age 11 to 14 years (experimental group = 86 subjects; control group = 86 subjects were randomly selected from Khorramshahr high schools using multistage sampling. Data were collected before the intervention and two months after its completion using a researcher-made questionnaire with four parts: demographic questions, knowledge questions, questions related to the health belief model constructs, and questions regarding preventive behaviors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 22 software and by applying the Mann-Whitney test, the analysis of covariance procedure, and the Wilcoxon statistical test. Results After the intervention, significant statistical differences were seen between the experimental and control groups in mean scores of knowledge, health belief model constructs, and preventive behaviors. Conclusions The education based on health belief model plays an important role in increasing knowledge and improving osteoporosis prevention behaviors in students.

  18. The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

  19. Effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in rural households of kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors.

  20. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  1. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors. PMID:27462632

  2. Objectively-determined intensity- and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Tineke; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lefevre, Johan

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the independent and joint associations of overall, intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with bioelectrical impedance-determined percent body fat. Physical activity was measured in 442 Flemish adults (41.4 ± 9.8 years) using the SenseWear Armband and an electronic diary. Two-way analyses of covariance investigated the interaction of physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, examined the associations of intensity-specific and domain-specific physical activity and sedentary behavior with percent body fat. Results showed a significant main effect for physical activity in both genders and for sedentary behavior in women, but no interaction effects. Light activity was positively (β = 0.41 for men and 0.43 for women) and moderate (β = -0.64 and -0.41), vigorous (β = -0.21 and -0.24) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) inversely associated with percent body fat, independent of sedentary time. Regarding domain-specific physical activity, significant associations were present for occupation, leisure time and household chores, irrespective of sedentary time. The positive associations between body fat and total and domain-specific sedentary behavior diminished after MVPA was controlled for. MVPA during leisure time, occupation and household chores may be essential to prevent fat gain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  4. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  5. Women's beliefs about male circumcision, HIV prevention, and sexual behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Riess

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing.

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment for Suicide Attempt Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hughes, Jennifer L; Babeva, Kalina N; Sugar, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death. New data indicate alarming increases in suicide death rates, yet no treatments with replicated efficacy or effectiveness exist for youths with self-harm presentations, a high-risk group for both fatal and nonfatal suicide attempts. We addressed this gap by evaluating Safe Alternatives for Teens and Youths (SAFETY), a cognitive-behavioral, dialectical behavior therapy-informed family treatment designed to promote safety. Randomized controlled trial for adolescents (12-18 years of age) with recent (past 3 months) suicide attempts or other self-harm. Youth were randomized either to SAFETY or to treatment as usual enhanced by parent education and support accessing community treatment (E-TAU). Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, or end of treatment period, and were followed up through 6 to 12 months. The primary outcome was youth-reported incident suicide attempts through the 3-month follow-up. Survival analyses indicated a significantly higher probability of survival without a suicide attempt by the 3-month follow-up point among SAFETY youths (cumulative estimated probability of survival without suicide attempt = 1.00, standard error = 0), compared to E-TAU youths (cumulative estimated probability of survival without suicide attempt = 0.67, standard error = 0.14; z = 2.45, p = .02, number needed to treat = 3) and for the overall survival curves (Wilcoxon χ 2 1  = 5.81, p = .02). Sensitivity analyses using parent report when youth report was unavailable and conservative assumptions regarding missing data yielded similar results for 3-month outcomes. Results support the efficacy of SAFETY for preventing suicide attempts in adolescents presenting with recent self-harm. This is the second randomized trial to demonstrate that treatment including cognitive-behavioral and family components can provide some protection from suicide attempt risk in these high-risk youths. Clinical trial registration information

  7. Preliminary effectiveness of surviving the teens(®) suicide prevention and depression awareness program on adolescents' suicidality and self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T

    2011-09-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on students' suicidality and perceived self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors. High school students in Greater Cincinnati schools were administered a 3-page survey at pretest, immediate posttest, and 3-month follow-up. A total of 1030 students participated in the program, with 919 completing matched pretests and posttests (89.2%) and 416 completing matched pretests and 3-month follow-ups (40.4%). Students were significantly less likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to be currently considering suicide, to have made a suicidal plan or attempted suicide during the past 3 months, and to have stopped performing usual activities due to feeling sad and hopeless. Students' self-efficacy and behavioral intentions toward help-seeking behaviors increased from pretest to posttest and were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Students were also more likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to know an adult in school with whom they felt comfortable discussing their problems. Nine in 10 (87.3%) felt the program should be offered to all high school students. The findings of this study lend support for suicide prevention education in schools. The results may be useful to school professionals interested in implementing effective suicide prevention programming to their students. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  8. Regular moderate or intense exercise prevents depression-like behavior without change of hippocampal tryptophan content in chronically tryptophan-deficient and stressed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosung Lee

    Full Text Available Regular exercise has an antidepressant effect in human subjects. Studies using animals have suggested that the antidepressant effect of exercise is attributable to an increase of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; however, the precise mechanism underlying the antidepressant action via exercise is unclear. In contrast, the effect of 5-HT on antidepressant activity has not been clarified, in part because the therapeutic response to antidepressant drugs has a time lag in spite of the rapid increase of brain 5-HT upon administration of these drugs. This study was designed to investigate the contribution of brain 5-HT to the antidepressant effect of exercise. Mice were fed a tryptophan-deficient diet and stressed using chronic unpredictable stress (CUS for 4 weeks with or without the performance of either moderate or intense exercise on a treadmill 3 days per week. The findings demonstrated that the onset of depression-like behavior is attributable not to chronic reduction of 5-HT but to chronic stress. Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents depression-like behavior with an improvement of adult hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and without the recovery of 5-HT. Concomitantly, the mice that exercised showed increased hippocampal noradrenaline. Regular exercise prevents the impairment of not long-term memory but short-term memory in a 5-HT-reduced state. Together, these findings suggest that: (1 chronic reduction of brain 5-HT may not contribute to the onset of depression-like behavior; (2 regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevents the onset of chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior independent of brain 5-HT and dependent on brain adrenaline; and (3 regular exercise prevents chronic tryptophan reduction-induced impairment of not long-term but short-term memory.

  9. Change in explicit and implicit motivation toward physical activity and sedentary behavior in pulmonary rehabilitation and associations with postrehabilitation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevance, Guillaume; Héraud, Nelly; Varray, Alain; Boiché, Julie

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine whether Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) variables and implicit attitudes toward physical activity and sedentary behavior would change during a 5-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program, and (b) to investigate the relationships between behavioral intentions, implicit attitudes, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in postrehabilitation. Out of 142 patients with respiratory disease included in this study, 119 completed 2 questionnaires measuring TPB variables with regard to physical activity and sedentary behavior, and an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitudes toward physical activity in contrast to sedentary behavior. The TPB questionnaires and the IAT were administered at the beginning (Time 1) and the end of the program (Time 2). Six months after the program (Time 3), 62 patients provided self-reported measures of their recreational physical activity and screen-based, leisure-time sedentary behavior. Over the course of pulmonary rehabilitation, perceived behavioral control and intentions toward physical activity increased, as did social norms and perceived behavioral control toward sedentary behavior; implicit attitudes were also more positive toward physical activity. Implicit attitudes at the end of PR (Time 2) were significantly associated with postrehabilitation physical activity (Time 3). TPB variables toward physical activity and sedentary behavior as well as implicit attitudes were enhanced during PR. At 6 months, implicit attitudes were significantly associated with physical activity. These results suggest that motivation, particularly implicit attitudes, should be targeted in future behavioral interventions in order to optimize the effects of rehabilitation on physical activity maintenance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Skin cancer preventive behaviors among rural farmers: An intervention based on protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazadeh, Towhid; Kamran, Aziz; Dargahi, Abdollah; Moradi, Fatemeh; Shariat, Fariba; Rezakhani Moghaddam, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer is a serious public health problem in the world. Its prevalence in many countries has been increased in recent years. This study aimed to assess the effects of a theory-based educational intervention to promote skin cancer preventive behaviors (SCPBs) among rural farmers in Chalderan County, Iran. Methods: This was a quasi-randomized controlled field trial study conducted on 238 rural farmers. The data were collected by a questionnaire containing the constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as well as the items of SCPBs. The differences between the groups before and 3 months after the intervention were determined by independent t-test, paired t-test, and chi-square applying SPSS software. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found in the scores of the PMT constructs between the two groups (p>0.05). However, significant differences were found between the scores of all the variables, as well as SCPBs, in the two groups after the intervention (p<0.05). Conclusion: The PMT was found to be an appropriate framework for designing educational interventions aiming at promoting SCPBs among rural farmers. It was concluded that designing an educational program with a focus on promoting perceived susceptibility increased the level of performing SCPBs among the rural farmers.

  11. Sativex Associated With Behavioral-Relapse Prevention Strategy as Treatment for Cannabis Dependence: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jose M; Soliman, Alexandra; Staios, Gregory; Quilty, Lena; Fischer, Benedikt; George, Tony P; Rehm, Jürgen; Selby, Peter; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug; a substantial minority of users develop dependence. The current lack of pharmacological treatments for cannabis dependence warrants the use of novel approaches and further investigation of promising pharmacotherapy. In this case series, we assessed the use of self-titrated dosages of Sativex (1:1, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]/cannabidiol [CBD] combination) and motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (MET/CBT) for the treatment of cannabis dependence among 5 treatment-seeking community-recruited cannabis-dependent subjects. Participants underwent a 3-month open-label self-titration phase with Sativex (up to 113.4 of THC/105 mg of CBD) and weekly MET/CBT, with a 3-month follow-up. Sativex was well-tolerated by all participants (average dosage 77.5 THC/71.7 mg CBD). The combination of Sativex and MET/CBT reduced the amount of cannabis use and progressively reduced craving and withdrawal scores. THC/CBD metabolite concentration indicated reduced cannabis use and compliance with medication. In summary, this pilot study found that with Sativex in combination with MET/CBT reduced cannabis use while preventing increases in craving and withdrawal in the 4 participants completing the study. Further systematic exploration of Sativex as a pharmacological treatment option for cannabis dependence should be performed.

  12. PREVENTION OF BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND COMPLICATIONS AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1991-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit for open heart surgery initiates a whole body inflammatory reaction (WBIR) resulting in impaired hemostasis and organ dysfunction. Impaired hemostasis appeared to be related to the activation of the contact system (factor XII), which can be inhibited by

  13. Long-term analysis of health status and preventive behavior in music students across an entire university program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.

  14. Social influence and bullying behavior: intervention-based network dynamics of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a social phenomenon and although preventive interventions consequently address social mechanisms, evaluations hardly consider the complexity of peer processes. Therefore, the present study analyzes the efficacy of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program from a social network perspective. Within a pretest-posttest control group design, longitudinal data were available from 328 middle-school students (MAge  = 13.7 years; 51% girls), who provided information on bullying behavior and interaction patterns. The revealed network parameters were utilized to examine the network change (MANCOVA) and the network dynamics (SIENA). Across both forms of analyses, findings revealed the hypothesized intervention-based decrease of bullies' social influence. Hence the present bullying prevention program, as one example of programs that successfully addresses both individual skills and social mechanisms, demonstrates the desired effect of reducing contextual opportunities for the exhibition of bullying behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Neutron activation behavior of NET/ITER divertor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, I.; Weimann, G.; Kny, E.; Kneringer, G.; Reheis, N.

    1995-01-01

    The post-activation behavior of the materials carbon, TZM (99.3 % Mo) and Mo.41Re, as well as of high temperature brazes suitable for their joining after irradiation with 14 MeV neutrons has been evaluated. The activity, dose rate and energy generation after exposure to an ignited fusion plasma is presented for various time steps after shutdown. The impact of the activity and the afterheat production on the handling and storage conditions of retired divertor components is simulated, the required protection for maintenance is discussed. Further the temperature of stored divertor elements after a full time operation in NET was calculated. No major afterheat production will occur and thus no special cooling is to be provided after approximately one month. Taking into account convection and radiation the equilibrium temperature of vertically stored environment/aircooled divertor elements is predicted to be approximately 100 degree C. (author)

  16. Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sara L; Geller, Pamela A; Epperson, C Neill

    Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women's health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins.

  17. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of childhood obesity through motivation to physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Aguilera, Sonia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the current worrying situation in terms of physical activity in our country and the problem that leads us to be below the European average, with the attendant problems of obesity, particularly among children, which follow from this. We analyzed the intervention programs that are being used as PIOBIN plan (The Andalusian Plan for Childhood Obesity, effective from 2007-12, based on a national strategy called Naos Strategy and how different studies support that some intrinsic motivation toward physical activity helps to create lasting habits to the practice. We also carry out an analysis of the different Motivation theories and we base our study on the Self-determination Theory of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000

  19. Optimal Activation of Isopsoralen To Prevent Amplicon Carryover

    OpenAIRE

    Fahle, Gary A.; Gill, Vee J.; Fischer, Steven H.

    1999-01-01

    We compared the efficiencies of activation of the photochemical isopsoralen compound 10 and its resulting amplicon neutralizations under conditions with a UV transilluminator box at room temperature (RT) and a HRI-300 UV photothermal reaction chamber at RT and at 5°C. Our data suggest that use of the HRI-300 reaction chamber at 5°C results in a statistically significantly higher degree of amplicon neutralization.

  20. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Symptoms of Major Depression in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Tonje; Steinsbekk, Silje; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-02-01

    The prospective relation between physical activity and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-defined major depression in middle childhood is unknown, as is the stability of depression. We therefore aimed to (1) determine whether there are reciprocal relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior, on one hand, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition defined symptoms of major depressive disorder, on the other and (2) assess the extent of stability in depressive symptoms from age 6 to 10 years. A community sample of children living in Trondheim, Norway, comprising a total of 795 6-year-old children was followed up at 8 (n = 699) and 10 (n = 702) years of age. Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry and symptoms of major depression were measured through semistructured clinical interviews of parents and children. Bidirectional relationships between MVPA, sedentary activity, and symptoms of depression were analyzed through autoregressive cross-lagged models, and adjusted for symptoms of comorbid psychiatric disorders and BMI. At both age 6 and 8 years, higher MVPA predicted fewer symptoms of major depressive disorders 2 years later. Sedentary behavior did not predict depression, and depression predicted neither MVPA nor sedentary activity. The number of symptoms of major depression declined from ages 6 to 8 years and evidenced modest continuity. MVPA predicts fewer symptoms of major depression in middle childhood, and increasing MVPA may serve as a complementary method to prevent and treat childhood depression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Thyroid screening in pregnancy - a compulsory preventive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scrinic Olesea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obiectives: To assess the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in a group of pregnant women, originating from Dobrogea region of southeastern Romania, considered to be an area without iodine deficiency, including the Black Sea area. Materials and methods: We enrolled 324 pregnant women in different trimesters of pregnancy. Each case was reviewed by a detailed madical history, clinical examination and by serum dosage of thyroid hormones: TSH, FT4, and the antithyroidperoxidase. They were evaluated by comparison with trimester -specific reference range for TSH recommended by American Thyroid Association, then the results were compared with those obtained using the manufacturers reference range. Abortion rate was also analysed. Results: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was different in all the 3 trimesters: subclinical hypothyroidism being the most frequently approx. 24% of all cases; 7% of pregnant women had overt hypothyroidism. Incidence of thyrotoxicosis in entire study cases was approx. 5.5%. The most frecvent thyroid autoimune disorders were Hashimoto thyroiditis: 42 % - I trimester, 26,6% in II trimester and about 12,5 % in III-trimester; Graves disease have an incidence of only 0,9 % (n=3.The difference between reference methods eluded a lower number of cases using manufactures reference range for TSH (P< 0,001, but higher for recommended trimester - specific TSH value, confirming the undervalueted hypothesis. The risk of misclassifying the hypothyroidism is between 3 %-8 %. Conclusion: Necessity for thyroid hormone dosage periodic/trimesterly/ in pregnancy is a preventive measure. The reference values for hormonal dosage requires trimester-specific assessment. The possibility of hormonal disorders during pregnancy is common. The need for specific therapy at diagnosis depends on the nature of hormonal disorder. Further precautions are needed in pregnant women with known autoimmune thyroid disorder or newly diagnosed

  2. Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. Baranova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

  3. Allosteric behavior in the activation of transducin mediated by rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessling-Resnick, M.; Johnson, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    Transducin is a member of the family of regulatory GTP-binding proteins which provide a signal transduction mechanism for many cell surface receptors. These receptors act in a catalytic manner to displace GDP bound to the G protein in exchange for GTP during a process referred to as activation. The authors have studied the steady-state kinetics of the activation of transducin mediated by rhodopsin by employing the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, [ 35 S]-GTPγS. The substrate-velocity curves display remarkable allosteric behavior with a Hill coefficient, n/sub H/ = 2. Lineweaver-Burke plots with respect to reciprocal [transducin] show curvilinearity indicative of positive cooperativity. However, a series of parallel lines are generated by plotting the linear transformation as [transducin] -2 . The double reciprocal plots with respect to [GTPγS] are a series of parallel lines. The initial rate analysis supports a double displacement catalytic mechanism for the molecular interactions between the photon receptor, G protein, and guanine nucleotides. It remains to be determined whether the positive cooperative behavior the authors observe can be assigned to the interaction of multiple transducins with rhodopsin, the presence of an allosteric effector, or hysteresis in the receptor's activity. These unique observations also provide insight into the molecular interactions of members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors

  4. Preventing anaemia in pregnancy - need for intensive IEC Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bhardwaj

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A Study to know the compliance rale of IFA tablets in respect of collection and consumption was carried out in three districts of Himachal Pradesh covering 90 clusters. Out of total women interviewed with childless than one year, only 94.8% had collected IFA tablets. 41.9% and 10% women had consumed these tablets for 60 and 100 days respectively. Majority of women did not consume these tablets with the reason that medicine is taken on ly during illness and as such they don't require these tablets. Intrusive Information, Education and Communication activities are stressed in the paper.

  5. Gene-environment interactions in considering physical activity for the prevention of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn Alissa Bates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, ranks as one of the most feared diseases in the world. Similarly, recent studies suggest that AD may be the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind heart disease and cancer. In the absence of a cure or effective treatment, strategies to prevent or delay the onset and progression of the disease are desperately needed. Decades of research have identified key risk and protective factors including genetic polymorphism in the APOE gene, age and lifestyle factors. Physical activity (PA is emerging as an attractive primary prevention strategy. This review will summarise the latest findings supporting the role of physical activity in the prevention of AD, including possible mechanisms and the influence of genetics on disease prevention. Given that AD and other dementias are recognised as a world health priority, public health strategies are needed to incorporate promoting the health benefits of physical activity across the lifespan.

  6. Prevention of corruption as administrative activity of authorities and the object of prosecutor’s observance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur L. Kozlov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study corruption prevention as administrative activity of state and municipal authorities. Methods dialectical systematic formallegal analysis synthesis statistical and specific sociological methods. Results basing on the study of countercorruption legislation its implementation and acts of prosecutorial response the definition of the concept quotcorruption preventionquot was formulated which refers to administrative activities of state and municipal bodies and their officials aimed at the implementation of legislation on combating corruption. The feature of the preventive component of countercorruption legislation is that it brings together the complex of binding prohibitive and restrictive rules established for the prevention of corruption. Corruption prevention is implemented through a specific type of managerial administrative activity. The legality of this activity is provided by means of prosecutorial supervision over implementation of laws on corruption prevention. Scientific novelty for the first time in the article corruption prevention is viewed not as a criminological category but as an institution of administrative law characterized by the essential features of the state municipal control. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and lawenforcement activities in addressing issues related to combating corruption.

  7. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and obesity through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    Telmisartan shows antihypertensive and several pleiotropic effects that interact with metabolic pathways. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that telmisartan prevents adipogenesis in vitro and weight gain in vivo through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-d...

  8. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P. A. Rasing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative. We conducted a meta-analytic review of the effects of school-based and community-based prevention programs that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy with the primary goal preventing depression, anxiety, or both in high risk adolescents. Articles were obtained by searching databases and hand searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. The selection process yielded 32 articles in the meta-analyses. One article reported on two studies and three articles reported on both depression and anxiety. This resulted in a total of 36 studies, 23 on depression and 13 on anxiety. For depression prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, meta-analysis showed a small effect of prevention programs directly after the intervention, but no effect at 3–6 months and at 12 months follow-up. For anxiety prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, no short-term effect was found, nor at 12 months follow-up. Three to six months after the preventive intervention, symptoms of anxiety were significantly decreased. Although effects on depression and anxiety symptoms were small and temporary, current findings cautiously suggest that depression and anxiety prevention programs based on CBT might have small effects on mental health of adolescents. However, it also indicates that there is still much to be gained for prevention programs. Current findings and possibilities for future research are discussed in order to further

  9. Effects of Behavioral Contingencies on Adolescent Active Videogame Play and Overall Activity: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gregory J; Adams, Marc A; Ramirez, Ernesto R; Carlson, Jordan A; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Dillon, Lindsay; Marshall, Simon J

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of four active videogames (AVGs) varying in behavioral contingencies (behavior-consequence relations) on adolescent AVG play and overall activity levels over 4 weeks. Each AVG, manufactured by SSD/Xavix(®) (Shiseido Co. of Japan, Tokyo, Japan), was coded and scored for the number of positive and aversive behavioral contingencies within the games. "Bowling" and "Tennis" were classified as having "higher contingency scores," and "Boxing" and aerobic fitness training were classified as having "lower contingency scores." Adolescents (n=63; 11-15 years old; 62% male; 38% Hispanic; 44% overweight or obese) were randomized to play one of the four AVGs at home and recorded game play sessions in a paper log. Baseline and week 4 assessments were completed at home; week 1, 2, and 3 assessments were completed by telephone. Accelerometers were worn during baseline and weeks 1 and 4. Accelerometer-measured sedentary and light activity hours/day were stable over time, whereas moderate-vigorous physical activity minutes/day increased in the higher contingency group and decreased in the lower contingency group (interaction effect, 6.43, P=0.024). Reported game play minutes decreased in both groups from week 1 to week 4 (-29.42 minutes, P=0.001). There was some support for the hypothesis that AVGs with more behavioral contingencies, compared with AVGs with fewer behavioral contingencies, result in more physical activity. However, overall AVG play decreased substantially after the first week. Further study is needed to better understand how behavioral contingencies can be used in AVGs to enhance their potential to provide health benefits to game players.

  10. Development and validation of the Alzheimer's prevention beliefs measure in a multi-ethnic cohort-a behavioral theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Ganzer, Christine A; Vermeylen, Francoise; Parry, Stephen; Zhu, Jifeng; Lyons, Abigail; Isaacson, Richard; Kim, Sarang

    2017-12-01

    Understanding health beliefs and how they influence willingness will enable the development of targeted curricula that maximize public engagement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk reduction behaviors. Literature on behavioral theory and community input was used to develop and validate a health beliefs survey about AD risk reduction among 428 community-dwelling adults. Principal component analysis was performed to assess internal consistency. Linear regression was performed to identify key predictors of Willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors. The measure as well as the individual scales (Benefits, Barriers, Severity, Susceptibility and Social Norm) were found to be internally consistent. Overall, as Benefits and Barriers scores increased, Willingness scores also increased. Those without prior AD experience or family history had lower willingness scores. Finally, we observed an interaction between age and norms, suggesting that social factors related to AD prevention may differentially affect people of different ages. The Alzheimer Prevention Beliefs Measure provides assessment of several health belief factors related to AD prevention. Age, Family History, Logistical Barriers and total Benefits are significant determinants of willingness to engage in AD risk reduction behaviors, such as seeing a doctor or making a lifestyle change. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Systematic review of behavioral and educational interventions to prevent pressure ulcers in adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Alison M; Blanchard, Jeanine; Garber, Susan L; Vigen, Cheryl Lp; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence A

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcers in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cochrane, Clinical Trials, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched in June 2016. The search combined related terms for pressure ulcers, spinal cord injury, and behavioral intervention. Each database was searched from its inception with no restrictions on year of publication. Inclusion criteria required that articles were (a) published in a peer-reviewed journal in English, (b) evaluated a behavioral or educational intervention for pressure ulcer prevention, (c) included community-dwelling adult participants aged 18 years and older with SCI, (d) measured pressure ulcer occurrence, recurrence, or skin breakdown as an outcome, and (e) had a minimum of 10 participants. All study designs were considered. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Extracted information included study design, sample size, description of the intervention and control condition, pressure ulcer outcome measures, and corresponding results. The search strategy yielded 444 unique articles of which five met inclusion criteria. Three were randomized trials and two were quasi-experimental designs. A total of 513 participants were represented. The method of pressure ulcer or skin breakdown measurement varied widely among studies. Results on pressure ulcer outcomes were null in all studies. Considerable methodological problems with recruitment, intervention fidelity, and participant adherence were reported. At present, there is no positive evidence to support the efficacy of behavioral or educational interventions in preventing pressure ulcer occurrence in adults with SCI.

  12. Behavioral inhibition and activation systems in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina G; Rapport, Lisa J; Meachen, Sarah-Jane; Hanks, Robin A; Lumley, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Personality has been linked to cognitive appraisal and health outcomes; however, research specific to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been sparse. Gray's theory of behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) offers a neurobiologic view of personality that may be especially relevant to neurobehavioral change associated with TBI. The present study examined theoretical and psychometric issues of using the BIS/BAS scale among adults with TBI as well as BIS/BAS personality correlates of TBI. Research Method/Design: Eighty-one adults with complicated-mild to severe TBI and 76 of their significant others (SOs) participated. Measures included the BIS/BAS scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Awareness Questionnaire. Among adults with TBI, BIS/BAS internal consistency reliabilities were similar to those found in normative samples of adults without TBI. The TBI group endorsed significantly higher BAS than did the SO group, and injury severity was positively correlated to BAS. The SO group showed expected patterns of correlation between personality and affect; positive affect was associated with BAS, and negative affect with BIS. In contrast, in the TBI group, BAS was positively correlated to both positive and negative affect. Impaired awareness of abilities moderated the intensity of relationships between BIS/BAS and affect. TBI was associated with relatively intensified BAS (approach behavior) but not BIS (avoidance behavior). The observed pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of TBI-related personality change and with theory regarding the independence of the BIS and BAS systems. The BIS/BAS scale shows promise as a personality measure in TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Jago, Russ; Griffith, Melissa Juliano; Islam, Noemi; Nguyen, Nga; Watson, Kathleen B

    2011-01-01

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. Evaluate outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, and adiposity. Two-group RCT; assessments occurred at baseline, immediately after Diab, immediately after Nano, and 2 months later. Data were collected in 2008-2009, and analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. 133 children aged 10-12 years, initially between 50th percentile and 95th percentile BMI. Treatment group played Diab and Nano in sequence. Control Group played diet and physical activity knowledge-based games on popular websites. Servings of fruit, vegetable, and water; minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity. At each point of assessment: 3 nonconsecutive days of 24-hour dietary recalls; 5 consecutive days of physical activity using accelerometers; and assessment of height, weight, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. A repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted (analyzed in 2009-2010). Children playing these video games increased fruit and vegetable consumption by about 0.67 servings per day (pchange. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. New York inmates' HIV risk behaviors: the implications for prevention policy and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, N

    1996-09-01

    The median incidence rate of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among prisoners is 7 times higher than for the general population. Yet high-risk sexual activity and drug use in US correctional facilities remain unexamined. This study explores inmate perceptions of high-risk behavior in New York state prisons and New York City jails and seeks to generate hypotheses to inform policies and future research. Participants were 22 former New York state prisoners and 28 current New York City inmates. Participants attended one of six focus groups and completed an anonymous questionnaire. Audiotapes of the groups were transcribed and evaluated. A range of consensual and nonconsensual sexual activity occurs among inmates and between inmates and staff. Without official access to latex barriers, prisoners use ineffective makeshift devices, like rubber gloves and used plastic wrap, in attempts to practice safer sex. Prisoners also shoot drugs intravenously with used syringes and pieces of pens and light bulbs. The absence of harm-reduction devices behind bars may create a greater risk of HIV transmission there than in the community. Officials should consider distributing risk-reduction devices to prisoners through anonymous methods.

  16. A primary health-care intervention on pre- and postnatal risk factor behavior to prevent childhood allergy. The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (PACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a primary prevention intervention program on risk behavior for allergic diseases among children up to 2 years of age. The setting was in ordinary pre- and postnatal primary health care in Trondheim, Norway. Methods The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim, Norway (PACT study invited all pregnant women and parents to children up to 2 years of age in the community to participate in a non-randomized, controlled, multiple life-style intervention study. Interventional topics was increased dietary intake of cod liver oil and oily fish for women during pregnancy and for infants during the first 2 years of life, reduced parental smoking and reduced indoor dampness. A control cohort was established prior to the intervention cohort with "follow up as usual". Questionnaires were completed in pregnancy, 6 weeks after birth and at 1 and 2 years of age. Trends in exposure and behavior are described. Results Intake of oily fish and cod liver oil increased statistically significantly among women and infants in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. There was a low postnatal smoking prevalence in both cohorts, with a trend towards a decreasing smoking prevalence in the control cohort. There was no change in indoor dampness or in behavior related to non- intervened life-style factors. Conclusions The dietary intervention seemed to be successful. The observed reduced smoking behavior could not be attributed to the intervention program, and the latter had no effect on indoor dampness. Trial registrations (Current Controlled Trials registration number: ISRCTN28090297

  17. Objectively measured sedentary behavior, physical activity, and plasma lipids in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Burrows, Tracy L; Jones, Rachel A; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Baur, Louise A

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the associations between objectively measured sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and plasma lipids in overweight and obese children. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 126 children aged 5.5-9.9 years. Sedentary behavior, LPA, and MVPA were assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC], and triglycerides [TG]). MVPA was not related to plasma lipids (P > 0.05). Independent of age, sex, energy intake, and waist circumference z-score, sedentary behavior and LPA were associated with HDL-C (β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.04, P = 0.020; β = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.39, P = 0.036, respectively). The strength of the associations remained after additionally adjusting for MVPA (sedentary behavior: β = -0.22, 95% CI -0.44 to 0.006, P = 0.056; LPA: β = 0.19, 95% CI -0.005 to 0.38, P = 0.056, respectively). Substituting at least LPA for sedentary time may contribute to the development of healthy HDL-C levels among overweight and obese children, independent of their adiposity. Comprehensive prevention and treatment strategies to improve plasma HDL-C among overweight and obese children should target reductions in total sedentary time and promote the benefits of LPA, in addition to promoting healthy levels of adiposity, healthy dietary behaviors, and MVPA. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Older Adult Knowledge and Behavior Change in the Stepping On Fall Prevention Program in a Community Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Strommen; Sean E. Brotherson; Zhen Yang

    2017-01-01

    One out of every three Americans age 65 and over falls at least once annually. Fall-related injuries among older adults are a major public health concern, and prevention of falls has emerged as a key issue in avoiding the risks to mobility and health that exist due to falls. Stepping On is an evidence-based fall prevention program designed to help older adults take control of their fall risk factors, explore different behavioral steps, and reduce their fall risk. This study shares findings...

  19. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  20. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  1. The inhibition of the kynurenine pathway prevents behavioral disturbances and oxidative stress in the brain of adult rats subjected to an animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Becker, Indianara R T; Scaini, Giselli; Petronilho, Fabricia; Oses, Jean P; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Ceretta, Luciane B; Zugno, Alexandra I; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João; Barichello, Tatiana

    2018-02-02

    Evidence has shown that the kynurenine pathway (KP) plays a role in the onset of oxidative stress and also in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to use a pharmacological animal model of schizophrenia induced by ketamine to investigate if KP inhibitors could protect the brains of Wistar rats against oxidative stress and behavioral changes. Ketamine, injected at the dose of 25mg/kg, increased spontaneous locomotor activity. However, the inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) were able to reverse these changes. In addition, the IDO inhibitor prevented lipid peroxidation, and decreased the levels of protein carbonyl in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus and striatum. It also increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus, as well as increasing the levels of catalase activity in the PFC and hippocampus. The TDO inhibitor prevented lipid damage in the striatum and reduced the levels of protein carbonyl in the hippocampus and striatum. Also, the TDO inhibitor increased the levels of SOD activity in the striatum and CAT activity in the hippocampus of ketamine-induced pro-oxidant effects. Lipid damage was not reversed by the KMO inhibitor. The KMO inhibitor increased the levels of SOD activity in the hippocampus, and reduced the levels of protein carbonyl while elevating the levels of CAT activity in the striatum of rats that had been injected with ketamine. Our findings revealed that the KP pathway could be a potential mechanism by which a schizophrenia animal model induced by ketamine could cause interference by producing behavioral disturbance and inducing oxidative stress in the brain, suggesting that the inhibition of the KP pathway could be a potential target in treating schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-08-06

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of screening for alcohol misuse for improving health outcomes, the accuracy of various screening approaches, the effectiveness of various behavioral counseling interventions for improving intermediate or long-term health outcomes, the harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions, and influences from the health care system that promote or detract from effective screening and counseling interventions for alcohol misuse. These recommendations apply to adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and adults aged 18 years or older. These recommendations do not apply to persons who are actively seeking evaluation or treatment of alcohol misuse. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. (Grade B recommendation)The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care settings to reduce alcohol misuse in adolescents. (I statement)

  3. Influence of Teachers' Personal Health Behaviors on Operationalizing Obesity Prevention Policy in Head Start Preschools: A Project of the Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Monica Kazlausky; Nigg, Claudio R; Fialkowski, Marie K; Braun, Kathryn L; Li, Fenfang; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To quantify the Head Start (HS) teacher mediating and moderating influence on the effect of a wellness policy intervention. Intervention trial within a larger randomized community trial. HS preschools in Hawaii. Twenty-three HS classrooms located within 2 previously randomized communities. Seven-month multi-component intervention with policy changes to food served and service style, initiatives for employee wellness, classroom activities for preschoolers promoting physical activity (PA) and healthy eating, and training and technical assistance. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) classroom scores and teacher questionnaires assessing on knowledge, beliefs, priorities, and misconceptions around child nutrition and changes in personal health behaviors and status were the main outcome measures. Paired t tests and linear regression analysis tested the intervention effects on the classroom and mediating and moderating effects of the teacher variables on the classroom environment. General linear model test showed greater intervention effect on the EPAO score where teachers reported higher than average improvements in their own health status and behaviors (estimate [SE] = -2.47 (0.78), P teacher health status and behaviors included in a multi-component policy intervention aimed at child obesity prevention may produce a greater effect on classroom environments. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.

  5. Understanding the Implications of Neural Population Activity on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, John

    Learning how neural activity in the brain leads to the behavior we exhibit is one of the fundamental questions in Neuroscience. In this dissertation, several lines of work are presented to that use principles of neural coding to understand behavior. In one line of work, we formulate the efficient coding hypothesis in a non-traditional manner in order to test human perceptual sensitivity to complex visual textures. We find a striking agreement between how variable a particular texture signal is and how sensitive humans are to its presence. This reveals that the efficient coding hypothesis is still a guiding principle for neural organization beyond the sensory periphery, and that the nature of cortical constraints differs from the peripheral counterpart. In another line of work, we relate frequency discrimination acuity to neural responses from auditory cortex in mice. It has been previously observed that optogenetic manipulation of auditory cortex, in addition to changing neural responses, evokes changes in behavioral frequency discrimination. We are able to account for changes in frequency discrimination acuity on an individual basis by examining the Fisher information from the neural population with and without optogenetic manipulation. In the third line of work, we address the question of what a neural population should encode given that its inputs are responses from another group of neurons. Drawing inspiration from techniques in machine learning, we train Deep Belief Networks on fake retinal data and show the emergence of Garbor-like filters, reminiscent of responses in primary visual cortex. In the last line of work, we model the state of a cortical excitatory-inhibitory network during complex adaptive stimuli. Using a rate model with Wilson-Cowan dynamics, we demonstrate that simple non-linearities in the signal transferred from inhibitory to excitatory neurons can account for real neural recordings taken from auditory cortex. This work establishes and tests

  6. Nonfatal road traffic injuries: can road safety campaigns prevent hazardous behavior? An Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetti, R; Messina, G; Quercioli, C; Vencia, F; Genco, L; Di Bartolomeo, L; Nante, N

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a widespread problem and are very difficult to prevent. The purpose of this study was to verify whether intensive versus basic road safety education programs are associated with different incidence and severity of nonfatal road injuries. The study had an ecological design and involved Local Health Authority One (LHA1) in Salerno, Italy, which includes 20 municipalities. Data on nonfatal road injuries occurring in the periods June to August 2003 and June to August 2008 were obtained from trained operators through the information system of the emergency department. All 20 municipalities received a basic community road safety education program (publicity campaign using bill-posting, brochures, mass media communication with press conferences, articles in local papers, radio and television interviews, and a dedicated LHA1 web site), and 12 municipalities also received an intensive education campaign (in secondary schools, community conferences, and activities organized by police and firefighters). The incidence and severity of nonfatal road traffic injuries were compared between June to August 2003 (before the campaign) and June to August 2008. The total number of injuries in all 20 municipalities in 2003 and 2008 was 907 and 755, respectively. The incidence of injuries decreased in the study period both in the 8 municipalities where only the basic campaign was run (difference in incidence = -0.4; P = .053) and in the 12 municipalities where the intensive campaign was implemented (difference in incidence = -0.5; P road safety education. This does not mean that such campaigns are useless (they are important to raise awareness) but that they should be supplemented with complementary activities in order to be really effective.

  7. Do mothers affect daughter's behaviors? Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate 169 Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads and their associations with health behaviors for eating healthy, engaging in physical activity, daughters perceived body weight, time spent with computer/video, and time viewing television. Female students aged 10-14 years were selected from private and public schools in the State of Kuwait. Results demonstrated that daughters exhibited similar behaviors to their mothers in their perceived eating behavior, physical activity, computer/video game use, and TV screen time. Future research is essential to determine the role of mothers in effective health behavior intervention strategies for female Kuwaiti adolescents.

  8. Preventive Activities of Preliminary Investigation Bodies in Respect of Crime Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Timko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the prevention of victimization by the investigation and inquiry divisions of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation. It defines the main forms and methods of working with the victim during the investigation of a crime aimed at reducing the possibility of again becoming a victim of criminal assault. The organizational and legal directions of victimological prevention are analyzed, the necessity of developing effective mechanisms for assessing the activities of the units of internal affairs agencies in crime prevention is justified.

  9. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  10. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  11. Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected thr...

  12. Preventing childhood anxiety disorders: Is an applied game as effective as a cognitive behavioral therapy-based program?

    OpenAIRE

    Schoneveld, E.A.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Granic, I.

    2018-01-01

    A large proportion of children experience subclinical levels of anxiety and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at preventing anxiety disorders is moderately effective. However, most at-risk children do not seek help or drop out of programs prematurely because of stigma, lack of motivation, and accessibility barriers. Applied games have received increased attention as viable alternatives and have shown promising results, but direct comparisons between applied games and the gold-standard ...

  13. Development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to measure factors influencing women's breast cancer prevention behaviors (ASSISTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaee-Pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Pashaei, Tahereh; Gholami, Ali; Ponnet, Koen

    2016-07-22

    Breast cancer preventive behaviors have an extreme effect on women's health. Despite the benefits of preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer, they have not been implemented as routine care for healthy women. To assess this health issue, a reliable and valid scale is needed. The aim of the present study is to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new scale, called the ASSISTS, in order to identify factors that affect women's breast cancer prevention behaviors. A multi-phase instrument development method was performed to develop the questionnaire from February 2012 to September 2014. The item pool was generated based on secondary analyses of previous qualitative data. Then, content and face validity were applied to provide a pre-final version of the scale. The scale validation was conducted with a sample of women recruited from health centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The construct validity (both exploratory and confirmatory), convergent validity, discriminate validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest analysis of the questionnaire were tested. Fifty-eight items were initially extracted from the secondary analysis of previous qualitative data. After content validity, this was reduced to 49 items. The exploratory factor analysis revealed seven factors (Attitude, supportive systems, self-efficacy, information seeking, stress management, stimulant and self-care) containing 33 items that jointly accounted for 60.62 % of the observed variance. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a model with appropriate fitness for the data. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.85, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.71 to 0.98; which is well above the acceptable thresholds. The findings showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for assessing factors affecting women's breast cancer prevention behaviors that can be used both

  14. NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediates fatigue-like behaviors in mice via neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziteng; Ma, Xiujuan; Xia, Zhenna; Chen, Jikuai; Liu, Yangang; Chen, Yongchun; Zhu, Jiangbo; Li, Jinfeng; Yu, Huaiyu; Zong, Ying; Lu, Guocai

    2017-09-01

    Numerous experimental and clinical studies have suggested that the interaction between the immune system and the brain plays an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The NLRP3 inflammasome is an important part of the innate immune system. This complex regulates proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) maturation, which triggers different kinds of immune-inflammatory reactions. We employed repeated forced swims to establish a model of CFS in mice. NLRP3 knockout (KO) mice were also used to explore NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the mechanisms of CFS, using the same treatment. After completing repeated swim tests, the mice displayed fatigue-like behaviors, including locomotor activity and reduced fall-off time on the rota-rod test, which was accompanied by significantly higher mature IL-1β level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum. We also found increased NLRP3 protein expression, NLRP3 inflammasome formation and increased mature IL-1β production in the PFC, relative to untreated mice. The NLRP3 KO mice displayed significantly moderated fatigue behaviors along with decreased PFC and serum IL-1β levels under the same treatment. These findings demonstrated the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the mechanism of swimming-induced fatigue. Future therapies targeting the NLRP3/IL-1β pathway may have significant potential for fatigue prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Brain innate immunity regulates hypothalamic arcuate neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Wagner L; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H; Stern, Javier E

    2015-04-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake, is unknown. We show that lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which we found to be expressed in ARC microglia, inhibited the firing activity of the majority of orexigenic agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons, whereas it increased the activity of the majority of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons. Lipopolysaccharide effects in agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y (but not in proopiomelanocortin) neurons were occluded by inhibiting microglia function or by blocking TLR4 receptors. Finally, we report that inhibition of hypothalamic microglia altered basal food intake, also preventing central orexigenic responses to ghrelin. Our studies support a major role for a TLR4-mediated microglia signaling pathway in the control of ARC neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

  16. Male preventive health behaviors: perceptions from men, women, and clinical staff along the U.S. Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer B; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Lacy-Martinez, Charles R; Dunne-Sosa, Andrea M; Coe, M Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Mexican American males have higher levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, higher body mass indexes, and a higher prevalence of diabetes than do non-Hispanic White males. They are the least likely Hispanic subgroup to be insured, to have recently visited a physician, or to have preventive exams. To explore factors related to the use of preventive exams among mature men, and specifically among Mexican American men residing along the Arizona, United States/Sonora, Mexico border, information on barriers and motivating factors to male participation in preventive screening exams was collected. Interviews were conducted with mature men and women from a single border community and with clinical staff from three different border communities who deliver services to similar populations. Responses were triangulated. Common themes identified include health education/information/advertisement and female/family support as motivating factors and machismo/denial/fatalism as a barrier to male health-seeking behavior.

  17. Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

  18. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  19. The role of physical / sports activitys as an burnout prevention for special and rehabilitation educators

    OpenAIRE

    Heric, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Diploma thesis contains an overview of literature concerning the topic of how the sport/physical activity effects the phenomenon of professional burnout with special educatiors. I would like to explore the causes for and the signs of professional burnout, does sport/physical activity have a pozitive influence on an individual and if it is possible to prevent professional burnout with the help of sport/physical activity. I have found out that numerous stress factors at work, wich every ed...

  20. Understanding thermally activated plastic deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Alomari, A.; Murty, K. L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding micromechanics of plastic deformation of existing materials is essential for improving their properties further and/or developing advanced materials for much more severe load bearing applications. The objective of the present work was to understand micromechanics of plastic deformation of Zircaloy-4, a zirconium-based alloy used as fuel cladding and channel (in BWRs) material in nuclear reactors. The Zircaloy-4 in recrystallized (at 973 K for 4 h) condition was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing at a constant cross-head velocity at temperatures in the range 293 K-1073 K and repeated stress relaxation tests at 293 K, 573 K, and 773 K. The minimum in the total elongation was indicative of dynamic strain aging phenomenon in this alloy in the intermediate temperature regime. The yield stress of the alloy was separated into effective and athermal components and the transition from thermally activated dislocation glide to athermal regime took place at around 673 K with the athermal stress estimated to be 115 MPa. The activation volume was found to be in the range of 40 b3 to 160 b3. The activation volume values and the data analyses using the solid-solution models in literature indicated dislocation-solute interaction to be a potential deformation mechanism in thermally activated regime. The activation energy calculated at 573 K was very close to that found for diffusivity of oxygen in α-Zr that was suggestive of dislocations-oxygen interaction during plastic deformation. This type of information may be helpful in alloy design in selecting different elements to control the deformation behavior of the material and impart desired mechanical properties in those materials for specific applications.

  1. Dietary behaviors related to cancer prevention among pre-adolescents and adolescents: the gap between recommendations and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is thought to play an important role in cancer risk. This paper summarizes dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and compares these recommendations to the dietary behaviors of U.S. youth ages 8-18. Methods We identified cancer prevention-related dietary recommendations from key health organizations and assessed dietary consumption patterns among youth using published statistics from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and other supplemental sources. Results Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, recommend limiting sugary foods and beverages, red and processed meats, sodium, and alcohol, and recommend avoiding foods contaminated with carcinogens. However, youth typically do not meet the daily recommendations for fruit, vegetable, or whole grain consumption and are over-consuming energy-dense, sugary and salty foods. Conclusions A large discrepancy exists between expert recommendations about diet and cancer and actual dietary practices among young people and points to the need for more research to better promote the translation of science into practice. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating policies and interventions at the community, state and national levels for aligning the diets of youth with the evolving scientific evidence regarding cancer prevention.

  2. Older Adult Knowledge and Behavior Change in the Stepping On Fall Prevention Program in a Community Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Strommen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One out of every three Americans age 65 and over falls at least once annually. Fall-related injuries among older adults are a major public health concern, and prevention of falls has emerged as a key issue in avoiding the risks to mobility and health that exist due to falls. Stepping On is an evidence-based fall prevention program designed to help older adults take control of their fall risk factors, explore different behavioral steps, and reduce their fall risk. This study shares findings from evaluation efforts conducted with 182 older adult participants in Stepping On from 2013 to 2015. Older adults in the program demonstrated (1 high satisfaction with program quality; (2 positive impacts on knowledge related to fall risk factors and prevention; and (3 substantial followthrough on behavioral steps designed to minimize fall risk. Program participants also shared positive feedback on the program in response to open-ended questions. Implications of the findings for fall risk reduction and programs to enhance fall prevention among older adults are discussed. Programs designed to reduce fall risk factors and enhance quality of life can be a critical tool to assist older adults, educators, and community leaders in addressing this public health issue.

  3. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Associated With Risk of Progression From Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Bowers, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The identification of important modifiable factors could help prevent T2DM in this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of physical...... activity and television watching and other sedentary behaviors, and changes in these behaviors in the progression from GDM to T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 4554 women from the Nurses' Health Study II who had a history of GDM, as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women......'s Health Study. These women were followed up from 1991 to 2007. EXPOSURES: Physical activity and television watching and other sedentary behaviors were assessed in 1991, 1997, 2001, and 2005. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURE: Incident T2DM identified through self-report and confirmed by supplemental...

  4. Activation of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens promotes sucrose-reinforced cued approach behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M. Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety.

  5. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Ezquer, R G; Brunini, C; Conicet; Meza, A; Mosert, M; Radicella, S M

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly.

  7. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Azpilicueta, F.; Mosert, M.; Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly. (author)

  8. Incorporating AIDS prevention activities into a family planning organization in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Murad, R

    1990-01-01

    Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA in two operations research projects. The activities included: (1) informative talks given both to the general public and to members of target groups by PROFAMILIA's community marketing (CM) program field workers (or instructors); (2) the establishment of condom distribution posts in meeting places of target groups; and (3) mass-media information campaigns on AIDS prevention. Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales. A radio campaign that promoted condom use for AIDS prevention did not affect public perceptions about the condom and did not jeopardize PROFAMILIA's image.

  9. Estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness during longwall mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Wojtecki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground longwall mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently being carried out under increasingly difficult geological and mining conditions. Mining depth, dislocations and mining remnants are the main factors responsible for the most significant rockburst hazard, which can be minimized via the use of active and passive rockburst prevention. Active rockburst prevention in longwalls is usually based on blasting, in order to either destress local stress concentrations in the rock mass or to fracture the thick layers of strong roof rocks to prevent or minimize the impact of high energy tremors on excavations. The accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is particularly important when mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which are associated with high levels of this hazard. The efficiency of blasting applied for this purpose is typically evaluated from the seismic effect, which is calculated based on seismic monitoring data and the weight of the charged explosive. This method, as used previously in the Czech Republic, was adopted in the present study to analyze conditions occurring in a Polish hard coal mine in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Parameters of long hole destress blastings in roof rocks (torpedo blastings from the face of the assigned longwall in coal seam no. 507 were correct a success according to the seismic effect method and corresponded to observations made in situ. The analytical method presented enables the rapid estimation of destress blasting effectiveness and could also be useful when determining appropriate active rockburst prevention.

  10. Vitamin D treatment during pregnancy prevents autism-related phenotypes in a mouse model of maternal immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillermot, Stephanie; Luan, Wei; Meyer, Urs; Eyles, Darryl

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to infection is a recognized environmental risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders of developmental origins such as autism or schizophrenia. Experimental work in animals indicates that this link is mediated by maternal immune activation (MIA) involving interactions between cytokine-associated inflammatory events, oxidative stress, and other pathophysiological processes such as hypoferremia and zinc deficiency. Maternal administration of the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in mice produces several behavioral phenotypes in adult offspring of relevance to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we investigated whether some of these phenotypes might also present in juveniles. In addition, given the known immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of vitamin D, we also investigated whether the co-administration of vitamin D could block MIA-induced ASD-related behaviors. We co-administered the hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1α,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25OHD), simultaneously with poly(I:C) and examined (i) social interaction, stereotyped behavior, emotional learning and memory, and innate anxiety-like behavior in juveniles and (ii) the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in maternal plasma and fetal brains. We show that like adult offspring that were exposed to MIA, juveniles display similar deficits in social approach behavior. Juvenile MIA offspring also show abnormal stereotyped digging and impaired acquisition and expression of tone-cued fear conditioning. Importantly, our study reveals that prenatal administration of 1,25OHD abolishes all these behavioral deficits in poly(I:C)-treated juveniles. However, prenatal administration of vitamin D had no effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in dams or in fetal brains suggesting the anti-inflammatory actions of vitamin D are not the critical mechanism for its preventive actions in this ASD

  11. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Although girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Data from 1,866 eighth-grade girls from six field centers across the United States participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed-model analysis of variance examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. High-active girls were taller, had lower body mass indices and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parent-child communication processes: preventing children's health-risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A

    2006-01-01

    Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.

  13. Risk Perception of HIV/AIDS and Low Self-Control Trait: Explaining Preventative Behaviors Among Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Safooreh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Fathi, Behrouz; Shirzadi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: In spite of developed countries there are progressive trend about HIV/AIDS and its’ aspects of transmission in the low socio-economic societies. The aim of this was to explain the youth's behavior in adopting HIV/AIDS related preventive behaviors in a sample of Iranian university students by emphasizing on fear appeals approaches alongside examining the role of self-control trait for explaining adoption on danger or fear control processes based on Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Methods: A sample of 156 randomly selected university students in Jolfa, Iran was recruited in a predictive cross-sectional study by application of a researcher-designed questionnaire through self-report data collection manner. Sexual high risk behaviors, the EPPM variables, self-control trait, and general self-efficacy were measured as theoretical framework. Results: Findings indicated that 31.3% of participants were in the fear control process versus 68.7% in danger control about HIV/AIDS and also the presence of multi-sex partners and amphetamine consumption amongst the participants. Low self-control trait and low perceived susceptibility significantly were related to having a history of multi-sex partners while high level of self-efficacy significantly increased the probability of condom use. Conclusion: Findings of the study were indicative of the protective role of high level of self-control, perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy factors on youth's high-risk behaviors and their preventative skills as well. PMID:26573026

  14. Effectiveness of nurse-led patient-centered care behavioral risk modification on secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Yan; Choi, Kai-Chow; Ho, Ka-Ming; Yu, Sau-Fung

    2018-04-22

    Despite establishment of advocacies centered on using patient-centered care to improve disease-related behavioral changes and health outcomes, studies have seldom discussed incorporation of patient-centered care concept in the design of secondary cardiac prevention. This review aimed to identify, appraise, and examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of nurse-led patient-centered care for secondary cardiac prevention in patients with coronary heart disease. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials focusing on nurse-led patient-centered care for secondary cardiac prevention was conducted. Primary outcomes were behavioral risks (e.g. smoking, physical activity), secondary outcomes were clinically relevant physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipoproteins), health-related quality of life, mortality, and self efficacy. Twenty-three English and seven Chinese electronic databases were searched to identify the trials. The studies' eligibility and methodological quality were assessed by two reviewers independently according to the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Statistical heterogeneities of the included studies were assessed by Higgins I2 and quantitative pooling was performed when studies showed sufficient comparability. 15 articles on 12 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Methodological quality of the included studies was fair. Based on the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool for experimental studies, the included studies had met a mean of six criteria out the ten in this appraisal tool. The meta-analyses of the included studies revealed that nurse-led patient-centered care had significantly improved patients' smoking habits, adherence toward physical activity advices, and total cholesterol level with medical regime optimization, in short- to medium-term. The intervention was also favorable in improving the patients' health-related quality of life in several domains of

  15. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide prevents fat gain following the cessation of voluntary physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Sevage, Joseph A; Childs, Thomas E; Grigsby, Kolter B; Booth, Frank W

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) could prevent acute increases in body fat and changes in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue following the sudden transition from physical activity to physical inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? AICAR prevented fat gains following the transition from physical activity to inactivity to levels comparable to rats that remained physically active. AICAR and continuous physical activity produced depot-specific changes in cyclin A1 mRNA and protein that were associated with the prevention of fat gain. These findings suggest that targeting AMP-activated protein kinase signalling could oppose rapid adipose mass growth. The transition from physical activity to inactivity is associated with drastic increases in 'catch-up' fat that in turn foster the development of many obesity-associated maladies. We tested whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) treatment would prevent gains in body fat following the sudden transition from a physically active state to an inactive state by locking a voluntary running wheel. Male Wistar rats were either sedentary (SED) or given wheel access for 4 weeks, at which time rats with wheels continued running (RUN), had their wheel locked (WL) or had WL with daily AICAR injection (WL + AICAR) for 1 week. RUN and WL + AICAR prevented gains in body fat compared with SED and WL (P RUN and WL + AICAR compared with SED and WL groups (P run, and that together, continuous physical activity and AICAR could, at least initially in these conditions, exert similar inhibitory effects on adipogenesis in a depot-specific manner. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  16. Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Longitudinal Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  17. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Fukai

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study.A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808. The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385 created by random allocation.Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population. The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time.Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases.

  18. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  19. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  20. The role of health behavior in preventing dental caries in resource-poor adults: a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew; Switzer-Nadasdi, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a highly prevalent, yet preventable disease that is commonly overlooked in the adult population. It is strongly related to health-related behaviors and knowledge, and therefore, is potentially receptive to a behavioral health intervention. However, prevention strategies that target health behaviors in adults are fundamentally different from those in children, whom most current intervention strategies for dental caries target. This study attempts to pilot design, implement, and assess health behavior intervention tools for adults, in order to improve their oral health. To increase knowledge about dental caries by 80% and increase positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors by 80% in low-income adult participants at Interfaith Dental Clinic by piloting novel interventional and educational tools based on the Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior. A convenience sample of newly registered participants to the Interfaith Dental Clinic between August 2011 and May 2013, were interviewed on each participant's first appointment, exposed to the interventional tools, and subsequently interviewed at their next appointment. A control group, comprised of participants who had completed their caries care as deemed by the clinic and had not been exposed to the interventional tools, were also interviewed on their last appointment before graduating the clinic's program. A total of 112 participants were exposed to the intervention, and forty-two participants comprised the control group. Follow-up for the intervention group was 20.5% (n = 23). Knowledge about the cause of caries increased by 29.9%, and positive self-reported oral hygiene behaviors increased by 25.4%. A Wilcoxon rank sum test showed no significance between the interview scores of the post-intervention group and that of the control group (p = 0.18 for knowledge, p = 0.284 for behaviors). Qualitative results show the vast majority of participants blamed diet for cause of caries, that this participant

  1. Opportunities and supporting activities to promote preventive maintenance of NPPs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, A.; Shinkawa, T.; Sakurada, M.

    1998-01-01

    With increase of the number of NPPs and operation history, enhancement of the safety regulation is becoming important for such long-operated NPPs. Centering on the comprehensive preventive maintenance, periodic safety reviews by utilities and its review and evaluation by MITI are in progress. The first reviews have not revealed essential and critical indications to be newly implemented. This means that the most of activities to secure reliability and safety have been done steadily. The present paper addresses the mechanism of on-going preventive maintenance and its essential elements: opportunities to identify issues and problems, and supporting activities to promote decision-makings on feedback, upgrading and modernization of NPPs. (author)

  2. Older People's Perspectives on Health, Physical Activity and Nutritional Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Alizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approaches for investigating health-promoting lifestyle generally focus on physical activ­ity and regular diet. To explore the perspectives of Iranian elders regarding health, healthy eating and