WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation pixe analysis

  1. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  2. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnar, Miloš; Uršič, Mitja; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strlič, Matija

    2006-02-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  3. Analysis of obsidians by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the characterization of obsydian samples from different mineral sites in Mexico, undertaken by an Ion Beam Analysis: PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). As part of an intensive investigation of obsidian in Mesoamerica by anthropologists from Mexico National Institute of Anthropology and History, 818 samples were collected from different volcanic sources in central Mexico for the purpose of establishing a data bank of element concentrations of each source. Part of this collection was analyzed by Neutron activation analysis and most of the important elements concentrations reported. In this work, a non-destructive IBA technique (PIXE) are used to analyze obsydian samples. The application of this technique were carried out at laboratories of the ININ Nuclear Center facilities. The samples consisted of of obsydians from ten different volcanic sources. This pieces were mounted on a sample holder designed for the purpose of exposing each sample to the proton beam. This PIXE analysis was carried out with an ET Tandem Accelerator at the ININ. X-ray spectrometry was carried out with an external beam facility employing a Si(Li) detector set at 52.5 degrees in relation to the target normal (parallel to the beam direction) and 4.2 cm away from the target center. A filter was set in front of the detector, to determine the best attenuation conditions to obtain most of the elements, taking into account that X-ray spectra from obsydians are dominated by intense major elements lines. Thus, a 28 μ m- thick aluminium foil absorber was selected and used to reduce the intensity of the major lines as well as pile-up effects. The mean proton energy was 2.62 MeV, and the beam profile was about 4 mm in diameter. As results were founded elemental concentrations of a set of samples from ten different sources: Altotonga (Veracruz), Penjamo (Guanajuato), Otumba (Mexico), Zinapecuaro (Michoacan), Ucareo (Michoacan), Tres Cabezas (Puebla), Sierra Navajas (Hidalgo), Zaragoza

  4. PIXE AND IXX ANALYSIS OF MUSEUM PAPER-LIKE OBJECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬显慷; 曾先周; 等

    1994-01-01

    The study of paper damage under bombardments of protons and X-rays is reported.An on-demand beam pulsing system is useful for the PIXE analysis of delicate objects.IXX(or PIXE-induced XRF)is more suitable than PIXE in terms of damage to the sample.Some new PIXE and IXX applications of archaeological paper-like samples in recent years are given.

  5. PIXE analysis and imaging of papyrus documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövestam, N. E. Göran; Swietlicki, Erik

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of antique papyrus documents using an external milliprobe is described. Missing characters of text in the documents were made visible by means of PIXE analysis and X-ray imaging of the areas studied. The contrast between the papyrus and the ink was further increased when the information contained in all the elements was taken into account simultaneously using a multivariate technique (partial least-squares regression).

  6. Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)

  7. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Climent Font, Aurelio; Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia; Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia; Rovira Llorens, Salvador; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Verde, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called "Quimbaya's treasure" (QT) and the "Costa Rica collection" (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  8. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Climent Font, Aurelio [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Calle de Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia [Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia [Fundación Museos, Banco Central de Costa Rica, San José (Costa Rica); Rovira Llorens, Salvador [Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Calle Serrano 13, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexici DF 28006 (Mexico); Verde, Ana [Museo de América, Avda. de los Reyes Católicos 6, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called “Quimbaya’s treasure” (QT) and the “Costa Rica collection” (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  9. PIXE and μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action

  10. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S

    1999-04-02

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  11. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and x-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.(Author)

  12. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle. (orig.)

  13. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, E. C.; Baptista, G. B.; De Castro Faria, L. V.; Paschoa, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.

  14. System of pattern analysis of PIXE spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murozono, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Inoue, J.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an analysis system based on the pattern analysis method. By testing the system, several difficulties of the present method have been identified. We found the following solutions for them: pre-selection of candidate elements in a sample and the use of a proper absorber. The pre-selection of the candidate elements will not be a serious drawback in the industrial PIXE, because it will be easy to pre-process the spectra for a few samples in the beginning of the mass processing of samples of the same kind. On the other hand, reduction of the efficiency due to the use of funny filter is significant only in the lower energy region, where we usually do not suffer from insufficient yields of lighter elements in common samples. The selection of the most suitable filter requires PIXE user to be deeply experienced. In particular, it is not easy to choose the best filter to suppress the yield of peak of an abundant element as the absorption edge filter. It will be important task to find a set of suitable combination of representative samples and corresponding filters. Furthermore, the peak profile model should be improved from the simple Gaussian approximation to more realistic ones with exponential tail, flat component below the peak and escape peaks, etc. It is also necessary to develop a theoretical approach for the background shape of the bremsstrahlung. (J.P.N.)

  15. Human hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair is the unique biological material which, because of its growth, reflects the biomedical and environmental history of the subject. Because of convenience in handling and sampling and relatively high concentrations of metals, trace-element analysis of human hair has been applied widely for different purposes. Although even the measurements of the bulk trace element levels contain some information, the real meaning is contained in longitudinal and radial concentration profiles. This is best achievable by X-ray emission spectroscopy measurements. (author) 98 refs

  16. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135o to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  17. Expanding functions of GIT Arf GTPase-activating proteins, PIX Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GIT-PIX complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Li, Xiaobo; Premont, Richard T

    2016-05-15

    The GIT proteins, GIT1 and GIT2, are GTPase-activating proteins (inactivators) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins, and function to limit the activity of Arf proteins. The PIX proteins, α-PIX and β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7, respectively), are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (activators) for the Rho family small GTP-binding protein family members Rac1 and Cdc42. Through their multi-domain structures, GIT and PIX proteins can also function as signaling scaffolds by binding to numerous protein partners. Importantly, the constitutive association of GIT and PIX proteins into oligomeric GIT-PIX complexes allows these two proteins to function together as subunits of a larger structure that coordinates two distinct small GTP-binding protein pathways and serves as multivalent scaffold for the partners of both constituent subunits. Studies have revealed the involvement of GIT and PIX proteins, and of the GIT-PIX complex, in numerous fundamental cellular processes through a wide variety of mechanisms, pathways and signaling partners. In this Commentary, we discuss recent findings in key physiological systems that exemplify current understanding of the function of this important regulatory complex. Further, we draw attention to gaps in crucial information that remain to be filled to allow a better understanding of the many roles of the GIT-PIX complex in health and disease. PMID:27182061

  18. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination; Estudo comparativo entre a tecnica de inducao de raios X por particulas e analise por ativacao com neutrons na determinacao do metal pesado zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). CNPDIA. E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in {mu}g/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university.

  19. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  20. Exploratory analysis of Italian medieval pottery with PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A PIXE analysis has been performed on a small set of potsherds to explore the possibility of application of the method in future systematic analyses of the vast pottery production of medieval Italy for integration in historical and archeological studies. The samples analysed are from the Savona, Liguria and Pisa, Toscany regions, representing pottery types Graffita Arcaica Tirrenica, Ingobbiata Chiara, Ingobbiata Colorata and Maiolica Arcaica. PIXE analyses of Pb and Sn provide characteristic signals to distinguish different glazes. (orig.)

  1. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  2. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  3. PIXE analysis of medieval Romanian silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method is well suited for quick quantitative analysis of surface layers of thick metal alloys, like the silver coins (Romanian, XIVth century) reported here. No measurement with calibration standards is necessary since the elemental composition is deduced directly from known X-ray production cross sections, by correcting for proton energy loss, X-ray attenuation in the sample and detector efficiency; the correction for the secondary X-ray fluorescence was also included. A 3 MeV proton beam delivered by the tandem accelerator in Bucharest struck the silver coin oriented at 45 angle to the beam direction and the X-ray spectra have been taken with a Si(Li) detector at 90 angle relative to the beam direction. The correction scheme developed in this paper can be applied to the quantitative analysis of major constituents assuming that all elements could be detected in the spectra (in our conditions, having an atomic number Z≥15) and they have a homogeneous distribution over the projectile range. The primary X-ray yield of an element dependent on its abundance has been described considering the X-ray production cross sections for the decreasing energy of the projectile and the attenuation of the X-rays leaving the sample in the direction of the detector. The enhancement of the X-rays of those elements having absorption edges just below the emission energies of dominant elements was taken into account, although it gave only a small contribution in our case. Apart from Ag, other analyzed major elements were Cu, Pb, Au, Fe and Pt. The analysis procedure was checked with some thick Cu-Ag samples of known composition. (authors)

  4. PIXE - Analysis for environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness and accuracy of PIXE as an analytical tool in the study of trace elements in environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado are discussed. The report lists actual and forthcoming publications resulting from the study. The mechanism of exchange of elements in solution in water to aerosols has been investigated. For details of the procedure the reader is referred to an earlier report

  5. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  6. Calibration of PIXE-SP system of elementary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The set-up and calibration of the PIXE-SP System of Elementary Analysis located at the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo is described. The PIXE-SP, that operates with 8 MeV alpha beam, has been calibrated for elements with Z >= 11, by means of homemade evaporated standard targets of Al, Si, Bacl2, K2CrO4, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ge, Ag, Sn, and Au. Those targets are thin, homogeneous, and have been calbrated on a microbalance within an average precision of 6%. The overall precision of the PIXE-SP System is estimated in 10% for elements with 16 2 thick, irradiated with a 10 μC electric charge, shows a minimum of about 0,1 ng (approximated 4 ppm) for Mn. The PIXE-SP System has also been intercalibrated with the PIXE located at University of Gent, Belgium, by means of 12 atmospheric aerosol targets collected on two Batelle Cascade Impactors. The analyzed masses of elements with 16 <= Z < 30 agree within 20%. (Author)

  7. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  8. PIXE analysis of Trojan gold jewelry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C. P.; Betancourt, P. P.; Fleming, S.; Floyd, C. R.

    1997-07-01

    Technological advancements in the production of gold jewelry from the Troad in northwest Anatolia in the third millennium BC are investigated by PIXE. Results indicate a higher percentage of Cu at the interface between joined pieces of gold than exists elsewhere on the jewelry, away from joinings. The results indicate the probable use of copper salts as a flux in the manufacture of jewelry with granulation.

  9. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.; Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M.

    2010-06-01

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  10. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE technique was used to analyse the elemental composition of human hair. The PIXE experimental facility used in the Institute of High Energy Physics was described. The methods of sample preparation and elemental quantitative analysis were introduced in detail. The intercomparison material taken for trace element studies form human hair was analysed and the results were in good agreement with the other well established traditional methods. The hair from patients with hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease) was also analysed and compared with that from normal persons. The apparent abnormality of calcium and copper contents in the patient's hair were not observed

  11. Development of 2-dimensional element analysis system with micro PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Shouichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sato, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Asuka; Ishii, Keizo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2001-02-01

    Using a high proton beams focusing to about 1 {mu}m the 2-dimensional distribution of elements can be analyzed by the characteristic x-ray emitted from the irradiated samples in the atmosphere (PIXE). The analysis method of fluorine in the dentin is developed by the Nuclear Reaction Analysis method (NRA) using the nuclear reaction of {sup 19}F(P, {alpha} {gamma}){sup 16}O since the elements lighter than sodium can not be analyzed by the PIXE. This analysis system is used by the researchers of wide areas such as medical science, dentistry, biology, geology and environmental science. The observed data are saved in the FTP-server. Then the experimental data obtained can be owned jointly by the distant researchers through the Internet-system at the real time. This system is opened to the research groups of the inside and the outside of the Institute. (H. Katsuta)

  12. Applicability of PIXE for multielemental analysis in a biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of PIXE for multielemental analysis is demonstrated. The method is used in a major systematic study on hair samples using one target analysis. The pathological state considered is agitated elderly people. The main elements examined are S, K, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Hg and Pb. The minimum detectable limits are 1-10 ppm using 180 μg of dry hair at 25 μe irradiations for elements between K and Br. The significance of differences between the hair elements in control populations and patients suffering from the pathological conditions are investigated. Investigations of possible linear and multiple-correlations between elements in each population are made. The work indicates that some elements do exhibit variation with pathological state, and the multielement PIXE analysis gives useful information about the subject. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  14. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  15. PIXE and ERDA analysis of composites for restorative dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental composites, made of silicates and oxides particles embedded in an organic polymer, replaced largely silver amalgam in dentistry. However they bring in the organism exogenous elements whose biological action is poorly understood. In the mouth element transfer and reactions can take place leading eventually to adverse effects of dental composites. Due to market pressure composites show a dynamic evolution, but they are rather expensive. Recently, Romanian biomaterials offered a low-cost alternative, and control of impurities appeared clinically essential. Sensitive surface multielement analysis required for these problems is rendered by ion beam methods. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used in studies of dental hard tissues and composites. Though highly sensitive for trace elements, PIXE usually fails to observe low Z elements. These can be detected by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). We applied PIXE and ERDA in a study on dental composites at the 8.5 MV HIPNE-HH tandem accelerator. Thick composite samples with a flat surface were prepared by polymerization of 14 commercial materials and of 3 Romanian products. Measurements were performed with: 3 MeV protons, a HP Ge detector, and using 0 or 30 mm Al foil for PIXE; and with 80 MeV 63 Cu10+ ions, using a compact DE(gas)-E(solid) telescope detector for ERDA. Altogether, PIXE spectra evidenced up to 24 elements with Z > 16 (Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ag, Cd, Ba, Nd, Ho, Yb, Hf, Au, Pb, many of them at trace levels), while ERDA detected up to 13 elements with Z < 21 (H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca). Relative concentrations evaluated from the PIXE spectra using X-ray yields calculated for a simplified matrix allowed classification of the 14 biomaterials in two distinct groups: older generations dominated by Z = 17 - 30 elements and recent generations containing one or two elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, Yb (plus Ca in some cases). Composites with close

  16. PIXE analysis: an option for the study of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several techniques have been utilized in studying atmospheric contamination samples. However, each lack some characteristics required for these studies. Spectroscopy of X-rays particularly where excitation models are produced using charged particles (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE), for its high sensitivity, is the one that best fitting itself to the scheme of analysis required. In this paper we report some qualitative results of the atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Mexico City. (Author)

  17. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  18. In-air micro-pixe analysis of tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-PIXE is capable of providing spatial distributions of elements in the micro-meter scale and its application to biology is useful to elucidate the cellular metabolism. Since, in this method, a sample target is usually irradiated with proton or α-particle beams in vacuum, beam heating results in evaporation of volatile elements an shrinking of the sample. In order to avoid these side effects, we previously developed a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis for samples of cultured cells. In addition to these, analysis of exposed tissue samples from living subjects is highly desirable in biological and medical research. Here, we describe a technique of in-air micro-PIXE analysis of such tissue samples. The target samples of exposed tissue slices from a Donryu rat, in which a tumor had been transplanted, were analyzed with proton micro-beams of 2.6 MeV. We report that the shape of cells and the distribution of volatile elements in the tissue sample remain uncharged when using a target preparation based on a freeze-drying method. (author)

  19. Matrix effects in PIXE elemental analysis of thick calculi targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Lekki, Janusz; Nowak, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Erazm M.; Paluszkiewicz, Czeslawa

    1997-02-01

    The PIXE technique for Trace Element Analysis have been applied to the studies of mineral deposits such as kidney stones in human organism. The calculi mainly composed of phosphates, oxalates and uric acid were extracted during surgical operations and were measured at the proton beam as thick targets. Trace elements studies of such samples are influenced by the thick targets matrix effects and by the sample composition changes caused by energy deposition in the target due to the proton beam irradiation. These both difficulties are especially pronounced in the case of the biological samples. In this paper the procedure dealing with the above problems is described, basing on calculations with the use of principal formula for the detected X-ray yields and two complementary techniques for PIXE experiments such as Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Elastic Back Scattering (EBS). A rough estimation of sample chemical composition was achieved by means of the FTIR analysis, which also may serve as a tool for local sample temperature estimation during beam irradiation. Composition of major target elements, needed for beam stopping and X-rays attenuation calculations were determined using the EBS technique applied simultaneously with PIXE. The above approach was used to estimate elemental contents of several samples. Comparison between traditionally calculated and improved results is presented.

  20. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis

  1. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: chenglinbnu@hotmail.com; Ding Xunliang [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng Huangsheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang WenJiang [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China); Fan Changsheng [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China)

    2006-03-15

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  2. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author)

  3. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eight hair strands each of nearly circular cross-section and having approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminium frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved in nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped onto a membrane filter using a micropipette. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Applications of PIXE analysis to studies in cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Shinji; Furuse, Masako; Kitao, Kensuke [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ishihara, Toyoyuki; Shima, Kunihiro; Chiba, Ren

    1992-12-31

    PIXE application to the measurement of cellular elements is outlined on characteristic variations of the contents of yeast, CHO, V79 and MM46 cultured mammalian cells according to environmental changes. Cellular elements from P to Br were successfully analyzed at these cells after cautious preparation of samples in filtration steps with as possible as less deterioration. We confirmed linear relationships between the X-ray yields and these element contents. The experiment was extended to an analysis of cellular substances at molecular level by scanning of specimens. Preliminary results were included. (author).

  5. Elemental imaging of rat epididymis by micro-PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2003-09-01

    The epididymis, a male reproductive organ, which is a highly convoluted duct, plays an important role in transportation of spermatozoa, their maturation, and their storage. Although major elements, such as P, S and K, as well as trace elements, such as Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, are known to be essential for spermatogenesis, detailed distributions of the elements in the epididymis are only poorly understood. In the present study, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se levels in the epididymis were examined in male Wistar rats by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis and in situ multi-elemental distributions of epididymal sections were determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis. The Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the epididymis of the young adult rats were around 30 μg/g wet weight, 2 μg/g wet weight and 1 μg/g wet weight, respectively, and their Mn were less than 0.5 μg/g wet weight. PIXE imaging of P and K exhibited that P and K were higher in the epididymal epithelium. In contrast, more S was detected in the lumen, which is composed of spermatozoa and a fluid. Elemental imagings of the trace elements were unclear compared with the major elements, but information about zinc localization in the epididymis was obtained.

  6. A novel preconcentration technique for the PIXE analysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of using dried algae as a novel preconcentration technique for the analysis of water samples by PIXE was examined. The algae cells were found to contain significant levels of P and S, indicative of phosphorous- and sulfur-containing groups on the cell wall or inside the algae cells which may serve as potential binding sites for metal ions. When C. vulgaris was used on mixed metal solutions, linear responses were observed for Ag+, Ba2+, and Cd2+ in the concentration range from 10 ng/g to 1 μg/g; for Cu2+ and Pb2+ from 10 ng/g to 5 μg/g; and for Hg2+ from 10 ng/g to 10 μg/g. When S. bacillaris was used, linear responses were observed from 10 ng/g up to 10 μg/g for all of the metal cations investigated. The PIXE results demonstrated that metal binding at low concentrations involves replacement of sodium on the cell wall and that at high concentrations magnesium was also replaced. Competitive binding studies indicate that the metal ions, Ag+, Ba2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+, share common binding sites with binding efficiencies varying in the sequence of Pb2+>Cu2+>Ag2+>Cd2+>Ba2+. The binding of Hg2+ involved a different binding site with an increase in binding efficiency in the presence of Ag+. (orig.)

  7. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Hellen C., E-mail: hellencsa@gmail.com; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C.L.

    2015-02-15

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi – São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  8. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p,p'γ)19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  9. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Makanju, O.V. [Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.), Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Haque, A.M.I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Cherubini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Padua (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro]|[Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the {sup 19}F(p,p`{gamma}){sup 19}F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed. (orig.).

  10. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  11. Calibration of a PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols; Calibracion de un sistema PIXE para analisis de aerosoles ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Anguiano, G.; Flores M, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-04-15

    The results of the calibration of the PIXE system for analysis of environmental aerosols in the CNM is presented. The system was calibrated in order to lead to the project study of environmental aerosols using PIXE from the qualitative dimension to the quantitative one. Part of this work it was carried out in collaboration with the expert of the IAEA Dr. D. Crumpton. The calibration of the system it was achieved bombarding thin targets of well-known composition with protons of 2.5 MeV. Using this technique it was determined the absolute elementary concentration in samples of atmospheric aerosols. As an example the calculation of the lead concentration in one of them whose result was of 662 {+-} 49 ng m{sup -3} is presented. This value agrees with the measurements made in the Crocker Nuclear Lab of the UCD. Its are also discussed the reproducibility and precision of the used technique. (Author)

  12. PIXE analysis of tree leaves as a possible comparative integral monitor of particulates in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of obtaing integral comparative data for particulate distribution in urban areas from PIXE analysis of tree leaves is discussed in relation to the leaf gross anatomy, to the diffusion of selected tree species in such areas and to the implementation of experimental techniques necessary to make PIXE analysis effective. Multielemental scans were performed on a small set samples; results are compared to PIXE analysis of typical urban aerosols. The validity of the method and the criteria for yearly relative comparisons of different areas are discissed

  13. PIXE-analysis of powder and liquid uranium-bearing samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhay, O.; Khachatrian, A.; Storizhko, V.Yu.

    2015-05-01

    The article concerns techniques of sample preparation from powder and liquid uranium-bearing materials for the PIXE analysis. Experiment procedure is described for elemental analysis of samples with proton induced X-ray emission. Advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions for successive X-rays filters for PIXE spectra are enlisted. Results of a quantitative analysis of the samples are reported. Their credibility is proved by analysis performed for a standard liquid sample.

  14. PIXE-analysis of powder and liquid uranium-bearing samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article concerns techniques of sample preparation from powder and liquid uranium-bearing materials for the PIXE analysis. Experiment procedure is described for elemental analysis of samples with proton induced X-ray emission. Advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions for successive X-rays filters for PIXE spectra are enlisted. Results of a quantitative analysis of the samples are reported. Their credibility is proved by analysis performed for a standard liquid sample

  15. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  16. Recent PIXE analysis applied to bio-medical and environmental fields in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of minor and trace elements in biological samples is very informative for bio-medical and environmental research. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is a powerful tool for this subject since it can analyze many elements in samples non-destructively at high sensitivity and, with an advantage of micro-beam scanning capability. Recent studies in Japan on the application of PIXE analysis to these fields are introduced. (author)

  17. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He++ beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in human hair. Using an external beam, hair from workers exposed to GaAs was examined. The results are in fairly food agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the PIXE technique in vacuum hair from mentally defective children was analyzed and compared with the hair of normal children. In a similar way, hair from 3200 year old preserved mummy was studied. (orig.)

  19. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.Q.; Zhu, J.J.; Liu, M.T.; Zhou, Z. [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); An, Z., E-mail: anzhu@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, W.; He, Y.H.; Zhao, D.Y. [School of History and Culture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700–B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200–B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites.

  20. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q. Q.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, M. T.; Zhou, Z.; An, Z.; Huang, W.; He, Y. H.; Zhao, D. Y.

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700-B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200-B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites.

  1. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700–B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200–B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites

  2. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173 (Japan); Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T. [Sasaki Taro memorial PIXE Center, Asano-cho 5, Hakodate 040-0076 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K. We also measured {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of {sup 40}K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of {sup 137}Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with {sup 137}Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  3. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  4. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  5. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  6. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  7. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Qing dynasty porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huansheng; He, Wenquan; Tang, Jiayong; Yang, Fujia; Wang, Jianhua

    1996-09-01

    The major and minor chemical compositions and trace element content of white glaze made in Qing dynasty at kuan kiln have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that trace element contents RbSrZr are useful to distinguish the place of production of ancient porcelain. In the porcelain from different kilns situated in a same province, the trace element contents can be different from each other. Determining and comparing the major and minor compositions and trace elemental concentrations in white glaze by PIXE technique, we can distinguish a precious Qing dynasty porcelain made at kuan kiln from a fake.

  8. The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the quantitative analysis of elements in thin samples, in surface layers of thick samples, and in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE analysis method for the determination of elements in thick samples was investigated. The text of the present thesis is arranged under the following headings: physical fundamentals and measuring equipment, quantitative analysis of thin samples, matrix effects at the PIXE analysis of thick samples, matrix correction methods, analysis of 'infinite thick' model substances, PIXE analysis of aerosol filters. (GSCH)

  9. PIXE analysis of Middle Age objects using 68 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, A. E-mail: denker@hmi.de; Blaich, M.C

    2002-04-01

    PIXE with high-energy protons is particularly suited for the analysis of thick objects, especially for heavy elements behind layers that may be several mm thick. A typical application, namely the analysis of brooches from the early Middle Ages, is presented. These objects were covered with a plastic varnish of several mm thickness to prevent further corrosion. Now an analysis of the elements in the brooches was requested. The protective layer could not be removed for any standard analysis without destroying the objects. Therefore high-energy PIXE was used. The measurements and the results are presented.

  10. Analysis of atmospheric aerosols by PIXE: the importance of real time and complementary measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Castanho, Andrea D.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Martins, José Vanderlei; Longo, Karla M.

    1999-04-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used for more than 30 yr in many urban and background air pollution studies. The technique has certainly contributed to the understanding of source-receptor relationship for aerosol particles as well as to aerosol physics and chemistry. In the last few years, where aerosol issues were strongly linked to global climate change through the relationship between aerosol and atmospheric radiation points to new challenges in atmospheric sciences, where PIXE could play an important role. Also the recognition for the inter-relationship between aerosol and liquid and gas phases in the atmosphere makes important to integrate PIXE aerosol analysis with other complementary measurements. The use of Nephelometers and Aethalometers to measure scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosol particles can be done in parallel with particle filter collection for PIXE analysis. Parallel measurements of trace gases using traditional monitors as well as with new techniques such as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) that can provide concentration of O 3, SO 2, NO 3, NO 2, HCHO, HNO 3, Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene, is also important for both urban and remote aerosol studies. They provide information that allows a much richer interpretation of PIXE data. Recently developed instruments that provide real time aerosol data such as the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) PM 10 monitor and automatic real time organic and elemental carbon analyzers provide extremely useful data to complement PIXE aerosol analysis. The concentrations of trace elements measured by PIXE comprise only 10-30% of the aerosol mass, leaving the organic aerosol characterization and measurement with an important role. The aerosol source apportionment provided by PIXE analysis can be extended with other aerosol measurements such as scattering and absorption, estimating for example, the radiative impact of each discriminated aerosol source. The

  11. Analysis of a single strand of hair by PIXE, IXX and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental methods of the analysis of a single strand of hair by PIXE, IXX and SR-XRF, respectively, are compared. IXX and SR-XRF are more suitable than PIXE for the direct analysis of hair due to their nondestructiveness and better sensitivity. The analysis of a few single strands of human hairs, general primate and unknown primate (wildman) in China are presented. The high Fe/Zn ratio in wildman hair is given by different analytical methods, and may be the first scientific evidence of the existence of the Chinese wildman. (orig.)

  12. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer's disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer's disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si3+) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si2+) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease using 5 MeV Si3+ microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  13. PIXE analysis of heavy metals in water samples from a mining area in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: bolormaa@n.cc.titech.ac.jp; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kawasaki, Katsunori [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Watanabe, Makiko [Department of Environment Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    The affect of mining activity on the environment has been long of public concern. The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the Boroo River water samples collected in mining area of Mongolia focusing the determination of heavy metal contents by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The samples were prepared by preconcentration method (water samples treated to form metal-dibenzyldithiocarbamate (DBDTC) complexes and collected on a nuclepore track-etch membrane filter) and irradiated by 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of the results was proved by using certified river water samples. The total dispersions of experimental procedure were evaluated by variance analysis.

  14. Comparison between two computer codes for PIXE studies applied to trace element analysis in amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, I.; Heber, O.; Zajfman, J.; Zajfman, D.; Rosner, B.

    1989-01-01

    Two different methods of analysis applicable for PIXE data are introduced and compared. In the first method Gaussian shaped peaks are fitted to the X-ray spectrum, and the complete analysis can be done on a microcomputer. The second is based on the Bayesian deconvolution method for simultaneous peak fitting and has to be carried out on a larger IBM computer. The advantage of the second method becomes evident for regions of poor statistics or where many overlapping peaks occur in the spectrum. The comparisons between the methods made on PIXE measurements obtained from 55 amniotic fluid samples gave satisfactory agreement.

  15. Analysis of composites for restorative dentistry by PIXE, XRF and ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites used in dentistry bring into the organism elements that may induce adverse biological effects. We applied 3 MeV proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and photon-excited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the qualitative analysis of 10 dental composites and we tested copper-beam elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) on one material. PIXE, and partly XRF, evidenced Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag, Zr, Cd, In, Ba, Yb, Y, Ho, Hf and Pb, many of them at trace levels, while ERDA detected H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al and Si

  16. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  17. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, L., E-mail: laurent.pichon@culture.gouv.f [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre -14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre -14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 {mu}m diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  18. PIXE analysis of nephrite minerals from different deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. W.; Gan, F. X.; Cheng, H. S.

    2011-02-01

    External-beam PIXE was used to determine the major, minor and trace elements of 45 nephrite minerals from 14 different deposits, including China and other countries. Depending on the R∗ value (mole percent of Mg 2+/(Mg 2+ + Fe 2+(3+))) and content of Cr, Co and Ni, two types of nephrite minerals from dolomite and serpentinized ultramafic deposits can be more accurately distinguished. Besides, the nephrite minerals from Xiaomeiling and Wenchuan deposit can be distinguished with others from dolomite deposits, through the content of Sr and Mn/Fe value, respectively. Moreover, depending on the Sr content, clear evidence was given to prove that the raw materials of ancient nephrite artifacts from Liangzhu culture ruins are not from Xiaomeiling nephrite deposit. Furthermore, PIXE as a non-destructive method will be more used to study ancient nephrite artifacts, so these results can provide scientific basis for seeking the provenance of nephrite raw materials.

  19. PIXE analysis of nephrite minerals from different deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.W., E-mail: zwzhang@siom.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gan, F.X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 20043 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-02-15

    External-beam PIXE was used to determine the major, minor and trace elements of 45 nephrite minerals from 14 different deposits, including China and other countries. Depending on the R* value (mole percent of Mg{sup 2+}/(Mg{sup 2+} + Fe{sup 2+(3+)})) and content of Cr, Co and Ni, two types of nephrite minerals from dolomite and serpentinized ultramafic deposits can be more accurately distinguished. Besides, the nephrite minerals from Xiaomeiling and Wenchuan deposit can be distinguished with others from dolomite deposits, through the content of Sr and Mn/Fe value, respectively. Moreover, depending on the Sr content, clear evidence was given to prove that the raw materials of ancient nephrite artifacts from Liangzhu culture ruins are not from Xiaomeiling nephrite deposit. Furthermore, PIXE as a non-destructive method will be more used to study ancient nephrite artifacts, so these results can provide scientific basis for seeking the provenance of nephrite raw materials.

  20. The PIXE analysis of hair of 'wild man' and some animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the geometric shape of the hair, a calculation program was designed for the PIXE analysis of hair samples with different sizes. A comparison analysis of hair was made between 'wild man' and some animals. The measurement shows that one of the hair samples seems to belong to a 'wild man'

  1. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  2. Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Artaxo, Paulo; Crestana, Silvio; Herrmann, Paulo S. P., Jr.

    1999-04-01

    In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1 μg/cm 2. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented.

  3. Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E. E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Flocchini, Robert G.; Artaxo, Paulo; Crestana, Silvio; Herrmann, Paulo S.P. Jr

    1999-04-02

    In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented.

  4. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  5. The PIXE analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of the analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are reported. By using PIXE technology, an appraisal of the jades unearthed from Fuquan hill can be made. The experimental results show that the Fuquan hill's jades can be distinguished into two classes: Xiu jade and soft jade, and they are different to Xiaomeiling' s jade but similar to the soft jade from Hetian, Xinjiang province. Furthermore, by analyzing proportion of iron and magnesium, some information of mineral structure and the color exuding of the jade from Fuquan hill can be obtained without any interference from impurity element

  6. An indirect method to measure the electric charge deposited on insulators during PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinator, M.I.; Cancino, S.A.; Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Morales, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-10-15

    Total charge deposited by a proton beam in an insulator during PIXE analysis has been indirectly determined using a Mylar film coated with cobalt. Elemental concentrations in the samples, pieces of volcanic glass, were obtained and compared to concentrations determined by ICP OES on the same samples. The strong agreement between these results shows the accuracy of the charge determined by this method.

  7. A new method for preparing thin samples of pottery shards for PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method, based on the centrifugal precipitation technique, has been used for preparing thin (1 mg/cm2) uniform and homogeneous samples of pottery shards for PIXE analysis. The reproducibility of the results has been tested on standard Perlman-Asaro samples and ancient Greek pottery shards. The abundances of more than 12 elements can be reliably measured. (orig.)

  8. PIXE analysis of scalp hair from carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianzhou; Yao, Huiying; Mu, Meiyun; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhixing; Chang, Husheng; Ye, Yanqing

    1987-03-01

    Naso-pharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of major malignant tumors and has high incidence in Guangdong, a province in China. For a better understanding of the effect of the geographic district on NPC, 68 scalp hair samples collected from 34 NPC patients who reside near Shanghai far away from Guangdong were analyzed and compared with the hair samples from healthy people by PIXE. With the same technique scalp hair samples from 34 osteoma patients were also analyzed. The experimental data are presented and discussed.

  9. A quantitative basis for hair analysis using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Kou; Akselsson, K. Roland

    1985-09-01

    The PIXE technique offers the possibility of scanning a single hair strand longitudinally with a millimetre proton beam for trace elements. However, the accuracy of the method has been questioned since the quantification of the mass concentration has been a serious problem. In this paper a specific beam-hair-detector geometry is assumed, and the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and the X-ray absorption in a regular hair is calculated. 43 hair segments from 8 individuals, ranging from 45 to 110 μm in in diameter were analyzed giving a mean value of 4.32% (standard deviation 0.25%) for sulphur, and a mean value of 149 ppm (standard deviation 35 ppm) for zinc. It is shown that the correction is important not only for the determination of the absolute elemental concentrations but also for the determination of their relative longitudinal distributions. The secondary corrections accounting for the inhomogeneous elemental distribution over the cross section and the irregular shape and/or the differing mass density of a hair are also calculated. It is concluded that the accuracy and precision of the PIXE method does not become considerably lower when it is applied to single hair strands, and accuracy and precision below 10% may be reached by implementing the procedure described.

  10. A brief overview of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE and ten-year study (1995-2004) of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, W. [Ghent University, Dept. Analytical Chemistry, Gent (Belgium); Dept. Pharm. Sci., University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Karnieli, A. [Remote Sensing Laboratory, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel); Andreae, M.O. [Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis [3]. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following 9 anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of -34%, -25%, +26%, and -40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.5 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other 3 seasons. V and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly heavy oil burning. Trajectory statistics [4], using 1 O-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, was applied to assess the source areas. S originated mostly from southeastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the southeastern part of European Russia. [1] T. B. Johansson, R. Akselsson, S. A. E. Johansson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 84 (1970) 141-143. [2] P. R. Bevington, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969. [3]W. Maenhaut, N. Raes, W. Wang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. 269 (2011) 2693-2698. [4] A. Lupu, W. Maenhaut, Atmos. Environ. 36 (2002) 5607 5618. (author)

  11. A brief overview of the first twenty years (1970-1989) of aerosol analysis by PIXE and ten-year study (1995-2004) of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis [3]. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following 9 anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of -34%, -25%, +26%, and -40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.5 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other 3 seasons. V and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly heavy oil burning. Trajectory statistics [4], using 1 O-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, was applied to assess the source areas. S originated mostly from southeastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the southeastern part of European Russia. [1] T. B. Johansson, R. Akselsson, S. A. E. Johansson, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 84 (1970) 141-143. [2] P. R. Bevington, Data reduction and error analysis for the physical sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969. [3]W. Maenhaut, N. Raes, W. Wang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. 269 (2011) 2693-2698. [4] A. Lupu, W. Maenhaut, Atmos. Environ. 36 (2002) 5607 5618. (author)

  12. PIXE analysis of the obsidian support of two paintings from the Louvre by Murillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Chiappero, P.J. [Dep. Histoire de la Terre, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, USM201, 6I rue Bufon, 75005 Paris (France); Gendron, F.; Gonthier, E. [Dep. de Prehistoire, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, 1 rue Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Meslay, O. [Departement des peintures, Musee du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Poupeau, G. [lnstiut de Recherche sur les Archeomateriaux, UMR 5060 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 3, Maison de l ' Archeologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607, Pessac (France); Tenorio, D. [ININ, km 36 carretera Mexico-Toluca, CP 52045, Edo. Mex. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The very unusual black backings of two paintings by the Spanish master Murillo (1617-1682) representing Passion Scenes, on display at the Louvre museum, have been analyzed by PIXE with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The support proved to be obsidian, a natural volcanic glass widely employed to produce archaeological artefacts, in particular in South and Meso-America. Five archaeological artifacts with similar shape to the paintings called 'obsidian mirrors', originating from Mexico and belonging to the collections of the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, have been analyzed and the composition of four of them showed to be very similar to Murillo obsidians. The comparison with the results obtained on reference obsidian samples from Mexican sources and with data from the literature by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) suggested that the Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Michoacan, Mexico is the source of the obsidian employed for the paintings. A field trip to this area was therefore organized to collect samples whose natural slab shape and chemical composition confirmed the Ucareo provenance hypothesis. The rectangular backing of Murillo paintings are unlikely archaeological artefacts but rather objects specially made after the Spanish conquest by Meso american craftsmen, among which some were exported to Europe where Murillo spent all his life. The observation, in the walls of the church and other Christian monuments in Ucareo, of obsidian inlays, a material of particular significance in the pre-Hispanic culture, underlines the complex intrication of native culture and European influences which are also carried by Murillo paintings. Meanwhile, a third painting on obsidian by Murillo as been identified in the Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas, U.S.A. This study also points out that even if the ranges of elements dosed by PIXE and INAA do not fully overlap, the measurements obtained by both techniques can be efficiently used for provenancing obsidians

  13. PIXE analysis of the obsidian support of two paintings from the Louvre by Murillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very unusual black backings of two paintings by the Spanish master Murillo (1617-1682) representing Passion Scenes, on display at the Louvre museum, have been analyzed by PIXE with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The support proved to be obsidian, a natural volcanic glass widely employed to produce archaeological artefacts, in particular in South and Meso-America. Five archaeological artifacts with similar shape to the paintings called 'obsidian mirrors', originating from Mexico and belonging to the collections of the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, have been analyzed and the composition of four of them showed to be very similar to Murillo obsidians. The comparison with the results obtained on reference obsidian samples from Mexican sources and with data from the literature by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) suggested that the Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Michoacan, Mexico is the source of the obsidian employed for the paintings. A field trip to this area was therefore organized to collect samples whose natural slab shape and chemical composition confirmed the Ucareo provenance hypothesis. The rectangular backing of Murillo paintings are unlikely archaeological artefacts but rather objects specially made after the Spanish conquest by Meso american craftsmen, among which some were exported to Europe where Murillo spent all his life. The observation, in the walls of the church and other Christian monuments in Ucareo, of obsidian inlays, a material of particular significance in the pre-Hispanic culture, underlines the complex intrication of native culture and European influences which are also carried by Murillo paintings. Meanwhile, a third painting on obsidian by Murillo as been identified in the Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas, U.S.A. This study also points out that even if the ranges of elements dosed by PIXE and INAA do not fully overlap, the measurements obtained by both techniques can be efficiently used for provenancing obsidians objects. (Author)

  14. Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and PIXE Analysis of Oligocene-Miocene sediments (Bennett County, South Dakota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei Saleh, F.; Martin, J.; Sidorovskaia, N.; Richter, C.; Hollerman, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present paleo- and rock magnetic results together with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) data from an Oligocene-Miocene aged section in central South Dakota. Sediment samples recovered by the High-Plains Aquifer Drilling Program of the South Dakota Geological Survey retrieved well-preserved core material for paleomagnetic and geochemical analysis. A 250 m long core was retrieved from the Tertiary Arikaree Group, which consists predominantly of fine-grained sandstones and limestones with interbedded silt and clay. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements were carried out at 30 cm resolution on more than 200 discrete samples, and geochemical analysis using PIXE at the Louisiana Accelerator Center on twenty selected samples, with the goal of extracting a geomagnetic polarity time scale and to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Stepwise demagnetization of the natural remnant magnetization yields excellent to poor demagnetization behavior, with a viscous isothermal remnant magnetization drilling overprint effectively removed during the 20 mT demagnetization step. Paleomagnetic data are characterized by normal and reversed inclinations, consistent with the site position in South Dakota. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the sediments correlate well with the observed changes in lithology. PIXE sample preparation procedures and calibration techniques to obtain absolute concentrations of heavy elements in the core samples are discussed. An empirical correlation between susceptibility measurements and concentration of the magnetic materials in the core obtained from PIXE will be presented. The results are promising in augmenting traditional paleomagnetic studies to develop a quantitative relationship between the measured magnetization and the concentration of magnetic materials needed for relative paleointensity studies. The PIXE analysis shows also potential in deciphering paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the

  15. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, D.G., E-mail: dgbeasley@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Le Trequesser, Q. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB, UPR9048) CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Marques, A.C. [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Silva, R.C. da [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans – a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  16. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX leads to activation of the Rac 1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llavero, Francisco; Urzelai, Bakarne; Osinalde, Nerea;

    2015-01-01

    . More specifically, αPIX, a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPases of the Rho family, preferentially Rac 1, mediates PYGM activation in Kit 225 T cells stimulated with IL-2. Using directed mutagenesis, phosphorylation of αPIX Rho-GEF serines 225 and 488 is required for activation...... of the Rac 1/PYGM pathway. IL-2-stimulated serine phosphorylation was corroborated in Kit 225 T cells cultures. A parallel pharmacological and genetic approach identified PKCθ as the serine/threonine kinase responsible for αPIX serine phosphorylation. The phosphorylated state of αPIX was required to...... activate first Rac 1 and subsequently PYGM. These results demonstrate that the IL-2 receptor activation, among other early events, leads to activation of PKCθ. To activate Rac 1 and consequently PYGM, PKCθ phosphorylates αPIX in T cells. The biological significance of this PKCθ/αPIX/Rac 1 GTPase...

  17. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  18. External-beam PIXE analysis of aerosol samples at GIC4117 Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of Beijing Normal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The external-beam facility at GIC4117 tandem accelerator laboratory of Beijing Normal University for PIXE analysis has been introduced, the influence of different aerosol sampling membrane filters on the beam current measurement with a homemade Faraday cup was studied by analysis of a Mn(44.0μg/cm2) MicroMatter standards sample with different filters behind it. Average and the lowest of the external-beam PIXE analysis compared with in-vacuum PIXE over about 360 aerosol samples. External-beam PIXE analysis results of PM2.5 aerosol fractions collected on Teflon filters on daily basis over 2010 at south campus of Beijing Normal University also were shown. (author)

  19. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Fujii, K.; Kakimi, S.; Mizutani, T.; Matsushima, H.; Ishikawa, A.

    1996-12-31

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer`s disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer`s disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si{sup 3+}) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si{sup 2+}) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using 5 MeV Si{sup 3+} microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  20. PIXE analysis of western han dynasty ancient glasses unearthed in Yangzhou city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical composition analysis is one of the most important research aspects to provide scientific proof for the technical origin and development of Chinese ancient glass. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is a kind of multi-element quantitative analysis method with high sensitivity and without destruction of samples. Chemical composition of the Western Han dynasty glass garment flakes, which were excavated from Yangzhou city, was analyzed by PIXE, quantitatively. It was found that these glass flakes were attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass originated in China. These flakes all consist of a glass core and a corroded outer layer with different thickness. There are relatively higher PbO, P2O5 and CaO, while much lower BaO and SiO2 in the corroded layers than in the glass cores. The experimental results were discussed

  1. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  2. Comparative experimental study of PIXE and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIXE and X RF techniques are powerful analysis instruments in the determination of traces of elements. Although the physical processes characteristic X-rays production (ionization-emission) are similar in both methods, the representative background of each technique, responsible of its sensitivity, are different. This is because the interaction between exciter agents and the matter produces different effects. In PIXE, the background is caused by the radiation produced by the braking of the secondary electrons: Bremsstrahlung. In X RF, the background is due to the elastic and inelastic scattering of photons: Rayleigh and Compton effects. In this work, we have compared the results of the analysis of environmental samples using both methods, in order to know the scope of each one and develop them as complementary techniques. (Author)

  3. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  4. Thick-target PIXE analysis of chromium, copper and arsenic impregnated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Lill, J.-O.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    1999-04-01

    Chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) have for decades been used for wood preservation. Of these elements especially arsenic is very toxic. As CCA impregnated wood is still today used for many construction purposes, a monitoring of these metal ions is of great environmental importance. Thick-target PIXE is a powerful method for the determination of trace metals in wood. The TTPIXE method enabled study of variations of the elemental concentrations in lumber treated with CCA impregnation solution. Distribution patterns were obtained for both naturally occurring elements and elements introduced in the treatment process. During the impregnation process a desorption of e.g. alkali metal ions takes place from the wood. The sensitivity of the method is improved by dry ashing of the samples prior to PIXE analysis. The TTPIXE method was calibrated and validated using international certified reference materials (CRM) based on wood material.

  5. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  6. Improved Dynamic Analysis method for quantitative PIXE and SXRF element imaging of complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C. G.; Laird, J. S.; Fisher, L. A.; Kirkham, R.; Moorhead, G. F.

    2015-11-01

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method in the GeoPIXE software provides a rapid tool to project quantitative element images from PIXE and SXRF imaging event data both for off-line analysis and in real-time embedded in a data acquisition system. Initially, it assumes uniform sample composition, background shape and constant model X-ray relative intensities. A number of image correction methods can be applied in GeoPIXE to correct images to account for chemical concentration gradients, differential absorption effects, and to correct images for pileup effects. A new method, applied in a second pass, uses an end-member phase decomposition obtained from the first pass, and DA matrices determined for each end-member, to re-process the event data with each pixel treated as an admixture of end-member terms. This paper describes the new method and demonstrates through examples and Monte-Carlo simulations how it better tracks spatially complex composition and background shape while still benefitting from the speed of DA.

  7. Mineral elements in dental composites by atomic and nuclear analytical methods. II. Improved analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the corrosive environment of the mouth, a diversity of interactions take place at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling. Moreover, the mineral elements of the restorative material may induce a complex response of the organism. The approach of these problems requires sensitive surface elemental analysis of the composite and of the dental enamel and dentine. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is such a method and has been applied in investigations of hard dental tissues; however, it was not used so far in the study of dental composites. We continue our study by evaluating the potential of PIXE for analysis of these materials. Three types of composites with two color shades each have been studied. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons, using a hyperpure Ge detector in a spectroscopic chain connected to a computer. The spectra were processed with the dedicated program Leone. PIXE without additional Al absorbent foil allowed the detection of Z > 14 elements in composites. In two glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr and In in Tetric Ceram (Vivadent); and Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental), after elimination of the escape peaks. In quartz-based Evicrol (Spofa), Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn were seen. Materials with different color shades showed variations of Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu in Evicrol, as contrasted to Tetric Ceram and Valux Plus whose spectra were color-invariant. By its sensitivity and low background, PIXE enables the detection of many trace elements in dental composites; it could serve also in new materials' development and forensic expertise. (authors)

  8. PIXE analysis as a tool for dating of ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sections from the 2037 m long Dye 3 ice core drilled in 1979-1981 in the ice sheet of Southern Greenland were analysed with PIXE. The seven selected sections were from depths between 1778 and 1813 m, which corresponds to a time interval between about 8 500 and 10 000 years B.C. at the end of the last Ice Age. During this time period, fast climatic changes of several degrees centrigrade per century are known to have taken place. The exact time scales of these changes need yet to be verified by renewed measurements using nonconventional stratigraphic dating techniques such as PIXE. The problem is highly relevant for the prediction of climatic changes in our present age. A new sample preparation technique was developed which enables the determination of annual thicknesses of the parts of the ice core representing 10 000-40 000 years before present, where the thickness of the annual ice layers are believed to be less than 2.5 cm. More commonly used techniques of dating, such as measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes δ18O and δD, nitrate, acidity or conductivity all have difficulties in resolving annual cycles in thicknesses of less than about 2 cm. The new technique involves sublimation of 18 cm long ice sections, after which the material contained in the ice is deposited on the thin backing. In this way, the material to be analysed is preconcentrated through the removal of the H2O, while still retaining the spatial distribution pattern of the various water soluble and insoluble components along the ice core. The resulting spatial resolution of the sublimation technique is estimated to be ±1 mm. A PIXE analysis was performed in contiguous millimeter steps across the sublimated ice sections. Estimations of annual ice layer thicknesses were based on the patterns of seasonal variation along the ice sections for several major and minor elements quantified with PIXE. (orig./TW)

  9. Analysis of unsectioned specimens: 2D and tomographic PIXE with STIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Robert M. S.; Lefevre, Harlan W.

    1993-05-01

    Two techniques for quantitative analysis of heterogeneous thick specimens are reviewed. First, a measurement of the total zinc content in the abdomen of a fly is reported. The calculation used to determine the uncertainty in this measurement is detailed. STIM measurements at two different angles were used to determine the possible range of the X-ray production cross section and the X-ray attenuation factors. The abdomen content of zinc was determined to be 0.022( + 0.009, -0.006) (μg. Second, a PIXE-STIM mutomographic determination of metal concentrations in the sting of a scorpion is reviewed. STIM tomography was used to determine the X-ray production cross sections and the X-ray attenuation factors for points inside of the specimen. Details of how this information was then used for reconstructions of PIXE tomographic data are given. Finally, 2D PIXE measurements on a thick section of this sting are reported. On this section the measured concentration of zinc reached 22(± 3)% of dry mass, in satisfactory agreement with the results from tomography, 25(± 3)%.

  10. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  11. Setting up of in-vacuum PIXE system for direct elemental analysis of thick solid environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihawy, M S; Ismail, I M; Halloum, D

    2016-04-01

    Experimental set-up, development, characterization, and calibration of an in-vacuum PIXE system at the tandem accelerator facility of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) is described. The PIXE system calibration involved experimental characterization of the X-ray detector parameters and careful determination of the H-values that control dependence of the detector solid angle with the X-ray energies and correct imperfect values of the detector efficiency. Setting up of an electron flood gun to compensate charge built up and utilization of a beam profile monitor to perform indirect measurement of the beam charge, provide a direct PIXE measurement of thick insulating samples in-vacuum. The PIXE system has been subsequently examined to verify its ability to perform direct PIXE measurements on geological materials. A combination of minimum sample preparation procedures and specific experimental conditions applied enables simple and accurate elemental analysis. Elemental concentrations of several elements heavier than sodium in different reference geological samples, at about 5-10% absolute accuracy for most elements, have been determined. Comprehensive discussion of the obtained elemental concentration values, for most elements of visible X-ray peaks in the PIXE spectra, has been considered. PMID:26803668

  12. Development of in-air micro-PIXE analysis and data sharing systems in JAERI Takasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external scanning ion microbeam system has been developed for in-air micro-PIXE analysis at JAERI Takasaki. The analysis system is widely used for various researches in recent years. The system consists of the external scanning ion microbeam system, a multi-parameter data acquisition system, a file transfer protocol (FTP) server and analysis software. The software of the system provides a graphical user interface for interaction between users and an experimental setup. The server is connected to the Internet and allows remote users to access the experimental data. (author)

  13. Non-destructive analysis of early glass unearthed in south China by external-beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External-beam PIXE was used for the non-destructive analysis of early glasses unearthed from the tombs of Warring States (475-221 BC) and Han Dynasty (BC 206-AD 220) in south China. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system and K2O-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had exactly the same recipe. The source of the K2O flux and the correlation between PbO and BaO are discussed. Some archaeological information is revealed. (author)

  14. Performance of an on-demand excitation system for PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for electrostatic on-demand beam excitation in PIXE analysis has been built and carefully tested. Significantly increased count rate capability without any need for corrections for electronic dead time and with less target deterioration makes the system superior to a traditional system with electronic pile-up rejection. By adding a fast external electronic pulse pile-up rejection system, a pile-up interval of about 250 ns is obtained. The detailed behaviour of the particle beam during deflection and experience from using the system in routine analysis are reported. (Authors)

  15. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340 (Mexico); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, F-30842 Grenoble (France); Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Reyes-Valerio, C. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologi' a e Historia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajin, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlan) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacan, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchan). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data.

  16. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis

  17. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique, E-mail: thassan@tulane.edu [Department of Physics, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh); Shariff, Md. Asad [Tandem Accelerator Facilities division, INST, AERE, Savar (Bangladesh); Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Accelerator Facilities division, AECD (Bangladesh); Fazlul Hoque, A.K.M. [Daffodil International University, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chowdhuri, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  18. Trace element analysis of material scalp hair by external beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) system has been constructed for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Optimization of sample preparation and experimental PIXE set-up produced a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and reliable PIXE analysis procedure. The analytical procedure was evaluated using scalp hair of pregnant women at 16-19 weeks of gestation. The samples were irradiated with 3.5 MeV protons from the Rutgers Nuclear Physics Department's 8 MV Tandem Fn Van de Graaff accelerator. The concentrations of the elements calcium to cadmium in hair are reported for 50 subjects. The analytical procedure is suitable for non-invasive clinical analysis for evaluation of nutritional states and for environmental exposure to toxic metals. (author)

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Various Metalloprotein Compositional Stoichiometries with Simultaneous PIXE and NRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Andrew; Deyoung, Paul; Peaslee, Graham; Sibley, Megan; Warner, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    Stoichiometric characterization has been carried out on multiple metalloproteins using a combination of Ion Beam Analysis methods and a newly modified preparation technique. Particle Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy is a non-destructive ion beam analysis technique well suited to determine the concentrations of heavy elements. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a technique which measures the areal density of a thin target from scattering cross sections of 3.4 MeV protons. A combination of NRA and PIXE has been developed to provide a quantitative technique for the determination of stoichiometric metal ion ratios in metalloproteins. About one third of all proteins are metalloproteins, and most do not have well determined stoichiometric compositions for the metals they contain. Current work focuses on establishing a standard method in which to prepare protein samples. The method involves placing drops of protein solutions on aluminized polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) and allowing them to dry. This technique has been tested for several proteins of known stoichiometry to determine cofactor content and has proven to be a reliable analysis method, accurately determining metal stoichiometry in cytochrome c, superoxide dismutase, concanavalin A, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin.

  20. Determining aerosol particles by in-air micro-IL analysis combined with micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, Wataru, E-mail: kada.wataru@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A new external ion microbeam ion luminescence (micro-IL) imaging system was developed on a microbeam line of a 3 MV single-ended accelerator at the TIARA facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Micro-IL was combined with an in-air micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) system to determine the chemical composition and structures of microscopic airborne particles of several micrometers in size. The hardware and software for the combined in-air micro-IL analysis system, called ion luminescence microscopic imaging and spectroscopy (ILUMIS), were studied. Wavelength-dispersive optics, including a collimator lens, a monochromator, and a photon-counting photomultiplier, were installed on the beam line. The signal processing of the IL photon signals, which were collected as spectra and two-dimensional microscopic images, was examined. Several aerosol particles were characterized to demonstrate the ILUMIS/PIXE combined analysis. The external microbeam ILUMIS analysis method provided a variety of information on the chemical and elemental composition of the micrometer-sized aerosol targets under ambient atmospheric conditions.

  1. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Manzanilla, L.; Miranda, J.; Canetas Ortega, J.; Lopez, C

    1999-04-02

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established.

  2. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established

  3. Efficiency calibration of an HPGe X-ray detector for quantitative PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulware, Stephen J., E-mail: Stephenmulware@my.unt.edu; Baxley, Jacob D., E-mail: jacob.baxley351@topper.wku.edu; Rout, Bibhudutta, E-mail: bibhu@unt.edu; Reinert, Tilo, E-mail: tilo@unt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an analytical technique, which provides reliably and accurately quantitative results without the need of standards when the efficiency of the X-ray detection system is calibrated. The ion beam microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory at the University of North Texas is equipped with a 100 mm{sup 2} high purity germanium X-ray detector (Canberra GUL0110 Ultra-LEGe). In order to calibrate the efficiency of the detector for standard less PIXE analysis we have measured the X-ray yield of a set of commercially available X-ray fluorescence standards. The set contained elements from low atomic number Z = 11 (sodium) to higher atomic numbers to cover the X-ray energy region from 1.25 keV to about 20 keV where the detector is most efficient. The effective charge was obtained from the proton backscattering yield of a calibrated particle detector.

  4. K, L, and M shell datasets for PIXE spectrum fitting and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Siegele, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Routine PIXE analysis programs, like GUPIX, GEOPIXE and PIXAN generally perform at least two key functions firstly, the fitting of K, L and M characteristic lines X-ray lines to a background, including unfolding of overlapping lines and secondly, the use of a fitted primary Kα, Lα or Mα line area to determine the elemental concentration in a given matrix. To achieve these two results to better than 3-5% the data sets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections should be determined to better than 3%. There are many different theoretical and experimental K, L and M datasets for these parameters. How they are applied and used in analysis programs can vary the results obtained for both fitting and concentration determinations. Here we discuss several commonly used datasets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections for K, L and M subshells and suggests an optimum set to obtain consistent results for PIXE analyses across a range of elements with atomic numbers from 5 ⩽ Z ⩽ 100.

  5. Potential of PIXE for the elemental analysis of calcium hydroxide used in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium hydroxide is used in dentistry and generally shows a clinically acceptable biocompatibility. However various commercial assortments show differences in their clinical performances, suggesting that certain aspects of their action are not completely understood and pointing to the necessity of new investigation methods. We report a preliminary study on two types of calcium hydroxide products carried out by thick target PIXE with 3.0 MeV protons, aiming to assess the potential of this method for the analysis of such biomaterials used in endodontic dentistry. (Semi)quantitative analysis was performed by use of reference materials, and relative concentrations of elements with respect to Ca were determined with an accuracy of about 30%; tentative absolute concentrations were also estimated by using Ca as a reference element. In both formulations, a number of trace elements (Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr, and possibly Cu and Pb - probably impurities from the raw materials) were evidenced. These trace elements together with the Ba/Ca ratio are reliable fingerprints for the identification of the materials, and evidenced a different origin for the Ca(OH)2 used in the two specimens. Possible applications of PIXE in dental research may bring relevant compositional insight, and further studies of such materials are suggested. (authors)

  6. Improved PIXE analysis of micro- and trace elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the interactions occurring at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling, the mineral elements of the restorative composite may induce a complex response of the organism. To study such problems, sensitive surface trace element analysis is required. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has a detection limit one order of magnitude lower than XRF and has been used for hard dental tissues, but not yet for dental composites. We evaluated the potential of PIXE in a study of ten types of composites used in restorative dentistry, some of them with two color shades each. The samples were prepared as described for XRF. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons from a van de Graaff tandem linear accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector and collecting the spectra for 1.5-4 hours. The spectra were processed with the program Leone. The proton route in the sample calculated with the Trim program (∼ 50-100 μm) exceeded the size of mineral particles (0.02-30 μm), thus granularity did not affect the analysis. The PIXE analysis detected Z ≥ 19 elements in all composites, and Z≥14 elements in only one low Z material. PIXE detected generally the same dominant elements, but many more trace elements than XRF. Thus both Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer) contained Ba as the major element, but trace elements were Ni, Zn, In, in the first, and Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag in the second. In other glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr, In, and possibly Ti in Tetric Ceram and in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental); Sr, Ba (major), K, Fe, Mn (minor), and traces of Ni, Zn, In, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental); Ba (major) and traces of Fe, Ni, Sr in Surefil (Dentsply). In quartz-based materials we detected: Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn in Evicrol (Spofa); low and trace levels of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu in

  7. PIXE cluster analysis of ancient ceramics from North Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, I.E.; Jamieson, D.N. E-mail: dnj@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Rout, B.; Szymanski, R.; Jamieson, A.S

    2002-05-01

    Tell Ahmar is a place situated on the east bank of the Euphrates river, near the Turkish border. The site was well known as a major trade centre in the Iron Age. From the many potsherds excavated from the site, it is necessary to distinguish pottery imported from outside from that made locally. Therefore a sample of the Iron Age potsherds that were excavated from this site was analyzed with particle induced X-ray emission to identify the characteristic composition of the different sherds. Potsherds from four other places near Tell Ahmar were also analyzed. The samples were irradiated with a scanned 3 MeV proton beam in the Melbourne nuclear microprobe. The composition of all sherds measured by this method was similar. However, cluster analysis of the 12 most abundant elements, ranging from Mn to Ba, revealed that the samples known to be from Tell Ahmar could be distinguished from those known to be from elsewhere.

  8. Analysis of some ancient glass samples unearthed in Sichuan area by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is an effective method for the chemical composition analysis of ancient glass samples without destruction. Chemical composition of the ancient glass samples dated from the Warring States Period (770-476 B.C.) to the Six Dynasties Period (220-589 A.D.), which were unearthed in Sichuan area, was quantitatively determined by the PIXE technique. The results show that the glass Bi (disc) and the glass eye beads of the Warring States Period all belong to the PbO-BaO-SiO2 system. According to the composition and shape, we infer that these glass Bi and eye beads were made in China. Whereas, the chemical compositions of the glass ear pendants and beads of the Six Dynasties Period are varied, including K2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-SiO2 and other glass systems, Based on the obtained results and those from literatures, some questions related to the technical propagation of the ancient Chinese glass are discussed. (authors)

  9. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Módenes, A.N., E-mail: anmodenes@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Espinoza-Quiñones, F.R.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Divalent metal ion removals by Egeria densa biosorbent. • Multielements concentrations in biosorbent samples by PIXE analysis. • Elements mass balance in liquid and solid phase before and after metal removals. • Assessment of the mechanisms involved in Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal by biosorbent. • Confirmation of the signature of ion exchange process in metal removal. -- Abstract: In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2 h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  10. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 degree sign C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis

  11. First study of airborne particulate pollution using PIXE analysis in Habana city, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work reports the results of a first study of elemental composition in airborne particulate matter (fine and coarse) collected at the Municipality of Centro Habana, Havana City, Cuba, using the PIXE technique. At present, there is not any information available about element contents in airborne particulate from this region. A five months sampling campaign was carried out, collecting the samples under an air flux of 20 l/min with a Gent SFU Sampler equipped with a system which allows the aerosol collection in both size fractions simultaneously. A total of 144 aerosol samples were collected. For the PIXE analysis, the samples were irradiated by 2.0 MeV energy protons from a 2 MV Tandetron Accelerator. A total of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently detected with minimum detection limits from 1 ng/m3 to 10 ng/m3 for most of the elements. Enrichment factors were also calculated for both fractions in order to identify the natural and anthropogenic group of elements. The quantitative results obtained have revealed important information that has been used in a first attempt to understand and to characterize the atmospheric pollution of this area. (author)

  12. PIGE-PIXE analysis of medicinal plants and vegetables of pharmacological importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed to the study of elemental constituents of some traditional medicinal plants generally used in curing many diseases and ailments in South-Western Nigeria. Analysis were also carried out on commonly edible vegetables of medicinal and pharmacological importance. PIGE measurements were carried out using 3.5 MeV collimated protons from the 7 MV CN Van-de-Graaff accelerator of INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova), Italy, while the PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the same laboratory. The results show that many of the medicinal plants contain elements of cardinal importance in man's metabolism. The results from the vegetables also show that presence of vital elements that are needed for growth and developments. In addition, some of the toxic elements which include arsenic, cadmium, mercury, etc. were not detected. However, some of the recipes contain trace amounts of lead at very low concentrations. This calls for proper control of dose rates in some samples to prevent the attendant negative cumulative effects. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar Kα X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  14. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, Omidreza, E-mail: okakuee@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, P.O. Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A. [The Library, Museum and Documentation Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran Parliament, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135 Degree-Sign while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K{sub {alpha}} X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  15. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  16. Analysis of ancient Indian silver punch-marked coins by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash.rautray@gmail.com [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India); Nayak, Suman S. [Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 201 North Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801-2302 (United States); Tripathy, Bipin B. [Department of Physics, Silicon Institute of Technology, Patia, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Das, Saubhagyalaxmi [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751005, Orissa (India); Das, Manas R. [Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technical education and Research, SOA University, Jagmohan Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Das, Satya R. [Department of Computer Science, Institute of Technical education and Research, SOA University, Jagmohan Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Chattopadhyay, Pranab K. [Centre for Archaeological Studies and Training, Eastern India, 4 Camac Street (1st Floor), Kolkata 700016 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Seven silver punch-marked coins were analysed using external particle induced X-ray emission technique. The main group of elements like Ag, Cu, Au, Pb and Fe were estimated along with a number of trace/minor elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Rb in the analysed silver coins. Gold was found in all the coins and varied between 0.7% and 6.2% indicating the better economic condition of that civilisation. - Highlights: > The silver punch-marked coins, in the current study, were in use in India between 6th century BC to 6th century AD and have been analysed by in-air PIXE. > These sets of coins have immense archaeological importance because of their very rare availability. > These coins are distinguished from other coins because of the presence of gold as major element. > While the British period coins were fabricated using modern technologies, the punch-marked coins were shaped manually with developed metal technology. > The analysis of punch-marked coins using external PIXE beam has been done for the first time, which is unique of its kind.

  17. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  18. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  19. Study of paleodiet by means of the PIXE analysis of ancient human bones from Teotihuacan; Estudio de paleodieta mediante el analisis PIXE de restos oseos de Teotihuacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvalcaba S, J.L.; Becerra R, V. [IFUNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    This work focuses on the study of the paleodiet of individuals from Teotihuacan corresponding to the end of the Classic period and Mazapa phase. The analysis lies on the chemical composition variability of major and trace elements, such as Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr, and Ba among others, of bone remains. Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE) was used to analyze the individual bone remains and sediments associated to the burial context. The bone remains were stripped of their external layer by mechanical cleaning, then powdered to prepare pellets. The bone and sediment pellets were irradiated using a 3 MeV proton beam and an external beam setup. Elemental concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr and Ba, among other elements, were measured in bones and sediments from the archaeological excavations. An evaluation of the sample preparation, the effects of the archaeological context, as well as the paleodiet results are presented. (Author) 20 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Integration of XRF spectrometer for simultaneous and/or complementary use with PIXE at the external ion beam analysis setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazinic, S.; Cosic, D.; Jaksic, M. [Laboratory for lon Beam Interactions, Division of Experimental Physics, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Migliori, A.; Karydas, A.G. [Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Desnica, V. [Laboratory for Science and Technology in Art, Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia); Mudronja, D. [Natural Science Laboratory, Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Rudjer Boskovic Institute Tandem Accelerator Facility is equipped with a number of end-stations dedicated to ion beam analysis (IBA), modification of materials and nuclear physics experiments. IBA is performed at the: (1) nuclear microbeam, (2) broad-beam in-vacuum and (3) external beam end-stations. Several lBA techniques can be used simultaneously, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) at the external beam end-station, and additionally Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) at the in-vacuum end-station. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a technique complementary to PIXE. Both techniques offer high analytical potential for multi-elemental investigations and material characterization. Due to different excitation mechanisms, PIXE generally exhibits higher sensitivity for lighter elements and XRF for heavier, whereas they also have different in-sample depth sensitivities. Although they use different excitation sources, both techniques can use the same data acquisition modules. With the development of miniature, low power and lightweight X-ray tubes it is possible to incorporate an X-ray source within the IBA setup and combine the two techniques for simultaneous use. In this work, the unification of the PIXE and XRF techniques at the RBI external ion beam analysis setup has been investigated and the results are discussed. This has been done by installing a transmission miniature X-ray tube at the end-station. The tube has been properly positioned in order to irradiate the same spot on the sample as the ion beam used for PIXE/PIGE measurements. Our home made data acquisition system SPECTOR, used regularly for the IBA measurements, has been also used to acquire the XRF spectra. At first, the X-ray tube has been installed at the in-vacuum IBA station, and then to the external beam end-station. Test measurements have been carried out on various standard reference materials using both systems and the

  1. Background considerations in the analysis of PIXE spectra by Artificial Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, R.; Morales, J. R.; Requena, I.; Miranda, J.; Barrera, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the importance of background in PIXE spectra to determine elemental concentrations in atmospheric aerosols using artificial neural systems ANS, two independently trained ANS were constructed, one which considered as input the net number of counts in the peak, and another which included the background. In the training and validation phases thirty eight spectra of aerosols collected in Santiago, Chile, were used. In both cases the elemental concentration values were similar. This fact was due to the intrinsic characteristic of ANS operating with normalized values of the net and total number of counts under the peaks, something that was verified in the analysis of 172 spectra obtained from aerosols collected in Mexico city. Therefore, networks operating under the mode which include background can reduce time and cost when dealing with large number of samples.

  2. Analysis of powdered milk by PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to establish the conditions to analyze elements of Z>15 in powdered milk samples using the PIXE technique. Ten different commercial samples were analyzed: 2 full-cream, 3 half-cream and 5 for infant feeding. They were all purchased in Toluca City, Mexico. Thick targets were prepared and irradiated with 1.5 and 3 MeV protons beam in Mexico's Nuclear Center Tandem Van de Graff Accelerator. The obtained data were analyzed by two computers programs. Iron, the reference element was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of the following elements: phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, calcium, chrome, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, bromine, rubidium, molybdenum and cadmium were evaluated. The concentrations of the first four elements were usually high, whereas those of the other elements remained in some ppm. The experimental conditions set up in this work were suitable for the analysis of powdered milk and can be applied to other organic samples (Author)

  3. Analysis of trace elements in RSSR and its original juice by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has analyzed trace element contents in the flesh of fruit and its original juice of RSSR growing in Gansu province by PIXE method. The analysis data show that RSSR contains the sufficient trace elements, the most past of which are necessary for the human body, for example, K, Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, Mn, Rb, Zn and Sr etc. elements have higher contents, among them, the contents of both K and Ca are quite rich, in total amount of the 13 elements; only their content sum account for above 95% the contents of toxic elements of Pb, As are lower than the level of permit dose. So, the drinks made with RSSR are benefit to the human health

  4. Obsidian sourcing studies in Papua New Guinea using PIXE-PIGME analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerhayes, G.R.; Gosden, C. [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, VIC (Australia); Bird, R.; Hotchkis, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Specht, J.; Torrence, R.; Fullaga, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Div. of Anthropology

    1993-12-31

    Over 100 obsidian samples were analysed using PIXE-PIGME in 1990. These samples were collected during intensive surveys of the source areas around Talasea, Garua Island, and the Mopir area in 1988, 1989 and 1990. A ratio combination of 9 elements were used to separate out groups as per previous studies: F/Na, Al/Na, K/Fe, Ca/Fe, Mn/Fe, Rb/Fe, Y/Zr, Sr/Fe and Zr/Fe. In spite of variations in major elements, the close agreement between results for minor and trace elements concentrations in artefacts and known source material indicates that the provenance of each artefact can be reliably determined. This conclusion provides important validation of the use of ion beam analysis in artefact characterisation. ills.

  5. An elementary analysis on the data quality of trace element determination in hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data quality of trace element determination in human hair by PIXC is fairly improved, when three measures are adopted: 1), The sample is thin homogeneous and smooth, especially the sample thickness is controlled in about 0.1-0.2 mg/cm2 2), A multi function computer program is used for the analysis of compelx X-ray spectra (PAXMF). The PAXMF program not only gives out the net areas of characteristic peaks but also can calculate the concentration of elements in the sample, can subtract the interferences contributed by impurities in 'blank sample' and can provide practical detection limits for the users. 3), System error is corrected by means of determination of trace elements in human hair standard material. 16 trace elements are analysed in human hair sample by PIXE as an intercomprarision. The values of 7 elements (Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb) are in good agreement with the recommended values

  6. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: f.espinoza@terra.com.br; Rizzutto, M.A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Modenes, A.N.; Palacio, S.M.; Silva, E.A.; Rossi, F.L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering - Postgraduate Program - NBQ, West Parana State University, Rua da Faculdade, 645, Jardim Santa Maria, 85903-000 Toledo, Parana (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr{sup 6+} mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  7. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  8. Trace elemental analysis of adenoma and carcinoma thyroid by PIXE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Anjaneyulu, Ch.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Sundareswar, B.; Vijayan, V.

    2002-11-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of normal, adenoma and carcinoma thyroids using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, I, Hg and Pb were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of the elements Ca, Cu, Zn, As, I and Hg are found to be much lower in carcinoma thyroid than those in the normal thyroid while the concentration of the elements K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Sr in carcinoma thyroid are higher than the concentrations in normal thyroid. The lower and higher values of some of the elements in carcinoma thyroid may be attributed to some pathological factors.

  9. Further results from PIXE analysis of inks in Galileo's notes on motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmine, P.; Giuntini, L.; Hooper, W.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    We have recently analysed the inks in some of the folios of Vol. 72 of Manoscritti galileiani, kept at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, which contains a collection of loose handwritten sheets containing undated notes, data from experiments and propositions on the problems of motion from different periods of Galileo's life. This paper reports specific results obtained from the analysis of some of these propositions, which allowed to make a contribution to their chronological attribution and therefore to the solution of some historical controversies. Even in the case where the "absolute" chronological attributions could not be made on the basis of comparison with dated documents, the PIXE results provided useful information to deny or confirm the hypothesis that different propositions were written in the same or in different periods.

  10. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  11. Biomedical applications of PIXE at Fudan University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aspects of the PIXE technique in the Van de Graaff Laboratory of Fudan University are reported. The analytical precision is within 5% when handling with care and within 10% in routine analysis. Some recent applications of PIXE are presented, including the pathogeny analysis of Kashin-Beck's disease and cancer, hair analysis of pregnant women and an unknown primate, and PIXE analysis in DNA study. (author) 69 refs

  12. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Moro, M.V.; Silva, T.F.; Trindade, G.F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Kajiya, E.M.; Campos, P.H.V. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Magalhães, A.G.; Barbosa, M. [Museum of Contemporary Art, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship.

  13. Artificial neural networks applied to quantitative elemental analysis of organic material using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R. [Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Jose Pedro Alessandri 1242, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rcorrea@utem.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Medina Allende s/n Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: chesta@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Morales, J.R. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Dinator, M.I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: mdinator@uchile.cl; Requena, I. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es; Vila, I. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Ecologia, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: limnolog@uchile.cl

    2006-08-15

    An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained with real-sample PIXE (particle X-ray induced emission) spectra of organic substances. Following the training stage ANN was applied to a subset of similar samples thus obtaining the elemental concentrations in muscle, liver and gills of Cyprinus carpio. Concentrations obtained with the ANN method are in full agreement with results from one standard analytical procedure, showing the high potentiality of ANN in PIXE quantitative analyses.

  14. PIXE and XRF analysis of particulate matter samples: an inter-laboratory comparison

    OpenAIRE

    G. Calzolai; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; MAZZEI F.; Nava, S.; Prati, P.; Valli, G; Vecchi, R.

    2008-01-01

    PIXE and XRF are very effective techniques in atmospheric aerosol investigation, therefore they are extensively used by the authors. In this work an inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained analysing several samples (collected on different substrata) with both techniques is presented: the samples were analysed by PIXE (in Florence, at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of LABEC laboratory) and by XRF (in Genoa and Milan, where two Oxford XRF instruments are operational). The results of...

  15. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  16. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfate determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  17. PIXE application for multi-element analysis of marine micro-algae and measurement of the concentration factor of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., Phaeodactylum sp., etc.) were obtained from the Pacific Ocean of Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and cultured purely in nutritive seawater, PES and artificial seawater, ASP7 as a culture solution. The algae in 5 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate film (pore size: 1.0 μm) by suction filtration. The algae on the film was subjected to PIXE analysis. A 2.9 MeV proton beam bombarded it at 50 nA for 15 minutes. Induced X-ray was measured by Si(Li) detector. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr were determined simultaneously. PIXE can used for multi-element analysis of a sample below 1 mg, so the culture size for algae was 10-250 ml and every apparatus was small and of low cost. Nannochloropsis sp. was given a different culture solution (PES) including Zn2+ from 0.050 to 1.0 mg/l and incubated at 22 deg C, 2000 lux for 10 hours. Zn in Nannochloropsis sp, increased in proportion to the Zn2+ concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factor was given as 1600 ± 100 (wet weight base) and 9000 ± 500 (dry weight base). It was shown that PIXE was a powerful tool for multi-element analysis of micro organisms and the measurement of bioaccumulation. (author)

  18. Elemental Analysis of Soil Samples Using Thick Target-Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (TT-PIXE Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work thick target-proton induced x-ray emission (TT-PIXE technique has been employed for the elemental analysis of soil samples collected from Budha nullah region of Ludhiana city, Punjab. TT-PIXE analysis of samples has been carried out using 3 MeV proton beam from 3 UD pelletron (9SDH2 from NEC, USA facility at the Institute of Physics (IOP, Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The emitted x-rays were detected using Si(Li detector (CANBERRA US, FWHM = 180 eV at 5.9 keV positioned at 90° to the beam line and using suitable electronics. The trace elements 15P, 16S, 19K, 20Ca, 22Ti, 24Cr, 25Mn, 26Fe, 29Cu, 30Zn, 33As, 37Rb, 38Sr, and 82Pb were quantified in the soil samples. The quantitative estimation of PIXE spectrum of the soil samples was performed using GUPIX computer code. The presence of 24Cr, 33As, and 82Pb toxic elements in soils is likely to be due to the pollution caused by seepage of the water at the breached locations of nullah. The present study brings to focus the need to improve the effluent treatment of the industrial wastes and repair of the breached Budha nullah. In comparison to other analytical techniques for elemental analysis, PIXE is sensitive and its multi-elemental character brings advantage to investigators for the determination of minor and trace elements in a variety of soil samples.

  19. Gamma-ray spectroscopic and PIXE analysis of selected samples from the phosphorite deposits of Northwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorite deposits from northwestern Saudi Arabia were analyzed by natural radioactivity measurements to detect the presence of radioactive elements. PIXE was used to obtain an average elemental composition of these deposits. From the analysis of radiations from 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes, the samples were found to contain U, Th and K in concentrations up to 130 ppm, 30 ppm and 2,5 wt%, respectively. PIXE showed the presence of a number of trace elements such as Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y and U in concentrations ranging from a few ppm to several hundred ppm. The occurrence of these radioactive and non-radioactive elements are discussed for their geological significance in the phosphorite deposits. (author)

  20. PIXE analysis of jewels from an Achaemenid tomb (IVth century BC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querré, G.; Bouquillon, A.; Calligaro, T.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ion beam analysis has seldom been applied to gemmology. The privileged location of the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France, close to some of the most prestigious art collections, along with the implementation of the AGLAE IBA facility, have allowed us to initiate several gemmological research programs since 1991. The latest of these deals with a series of Achaemenid jewels (IVth century BC) exhibited in the Louvre museum. The aim of the present research is three-fold: determination of the coloured materials inlayed in gold, composition of the golden alloys and the inlay fixation technique. Analyses have been carried out by PIXE using an external proton beam under conditions set from test experiments on reference gemstones in order to optimise the experimental parameters. Quantitative chemical analysis of both major and trace elements has allowed us to distinguish between 15 types of fine or ornamental stones as well as man-made materials and to identify a peculiar cement technique. We will describe the analytical procedure in detail, then present the main results obtained on coloured inlays and cement and underline a potential drawback of the technique, i.e. a transient colour variation of the target under the impact of the beam, which needs further investigation.

  1. PIXE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Sambaqui do Panaquatira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeoka, R.A.; Appoloni, C.R., E-mail: renatoikeoka@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (CCE/UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Rizzutto, M.A.; Silva, T.F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos; Bandeira, A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The study of cultural heritage of ancient people through fossils, monuments and engines has fundamental importance in the construction of the memory of any society. Such knowledge can be acquired by researches in archaeological sites and the detailed study of the different kind of objects which can be found in these places. This work deals with objects from the Sambaqui of Panaquatira located in Sao Luis do Maranhao (Brazil). Ancient civilizations that inhabited that territory were characterized as fishing populations - catchers - hunters and ceramists. From a selection of 95 pottery fragments of surface; 5 to 10 cm; 20 to 30 cm; 40 to 50 cm; 65 to 70 cm; 80 to 90 cm; 90 to 100 cm; 130 to 140 cm and 160 to 170 cm stratigraphic levels, a representative set was analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology. PIXE measurements were performed with an external beam setup with ~2.4 MeV proton beam in the LAMFI laboratory using three X-ray detectors, two Si-PIN detectors and one HPGe with standard spectrometry electronics; each spectrum was taken for 600s. The spectra analyses were performed with the Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Software (WinQXAS), distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were identified in the different fragments. It was analysed the kind of applied treatment on the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments. From the determination of the elemental composition of the fragments, it was possible to identify that the elements Ti, Mn, Fe and Zn are present in the fragments with larger amounts at concave and convex sides, compared to the ceramic paste, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of these elements. One fragment from the 20-25cm stratigraphy has a lighter colour region which is characterized by containing the highest concentration of the elements Ti, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn. (author)

  2. PIXE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Sambaqui do Panaquatira

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The study of cultural heritage of ancient people through fossils, monuments and engines has fundamental importance in the construction of the memory of any society. Such knowledge can be acquired by researches in archaeological sites and the detailed study of the different kind of objects which can be found in these places. This work deals with objects from the Sambaqui of Panaquatira located in Sao Luis do Maranhao (Brazil). Ancient civilizations that inhabited that territory were characterized as fishing populations - catchers - hunters and ceramists. From a selection of 95 pottery fragments of surface; 5 to 10 cm; 20 to 30 cm; 40 to 50 cm; 65 to 70 cm; 80 to 90 cm; 90 to 100 cm; 130 to 140 cm and 160 to 170 cm stratigraphic levels, a representative set was analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology. PIXE measurements were performed with an external beam setup with ~2.4 MeV proton beam in the LAMFI laboratory using three X-ray detectors, two Si-PIN detectors and one HPGe with standard spectrometry electronics; each spectrum was taken for 600s. The spectra analyses were performed with the Quantitative X-Ray Analysis Software (WinQXAS), distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were identified in the different fragments. It was analysed the kind of applied treatment on the concave and convex sides in relation to the ceramic paste of the fragments. From the determination of the elemental composition of the fragments, it was possible to identify that the elements Ti, Mn, Fe and Zn are present in the fragments with larger amounts at concave and convex sides, compared to the ceramic paste, indicating a different surface treatment that leads to an enrichment of these elements. One fragment from the 20-25cm stratigraphy has a lighter colour region which is characterized by containing the highest concentration of the elements Ti, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn. (author)

  3. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  4. In-vacuum micro-PIXE analysis of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first in-vacuum measurements of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state using proton microbeam have been performed at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen in propane cooled by liquid nitrogen, fractured, carbon coated and transferred onto the cold stage (100 K) in the nuclear microprobe chamber. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. Quantitative results were obtained by standardless method, tested using 20% gelatine standards with added PbCl2. The differences between the concentrations obtained for frozen-hydrated and next freeze-dried specimens and the value calculated on the basis of weighted mass of PbCl2 added to gelatine were statistically insignificant. Leaf tissue of Senecio anomalochrous and larvae of Chysolina pardalina were used as examples of plant and animal tissue. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed the same distribution pattern in both cases

  5. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Technical Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Ma, B. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Q.H. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, P. [Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology, Urumchi 830011 (China); Gan, F.X. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-10-15

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} system, K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} system, Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} system and Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} glass and the K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} glass (including the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  6. Microprobe PIXE analysis of aluminium in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, S.; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Fujii, K.

    1996-04-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), we examined aluminium (Al) in the rat liver, and in the brains (hippocampus) of Alzheimer's disease patients using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobe and proton (2 MeV) microprobe PIXE analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si 2+) have several time's higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. (1) In the rat liver, Al was detected in the cell nuclei, where phosphorus (P) was most densely distributed. (2) We also demonstrated Al in the cell nuclei isolated from Alzheimer's disease brains using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobes. Al spectra were detected using 2 MeV proton microprobes in the isolated brain cell nuclei. Al could not be observed in areas where P was present in relatively small amounts, or was absent. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells.

  7. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P.; Vavpetic, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kreft, I. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kreft@guest.arnes.si; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  8. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  9. Application of PIXE to source identification of Kosa aerosol: analysis of desert soils in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen samples of soil from six areas in three desert regions of China were subjected to X-PIXE and X-ray diffraction analysis. The samples were composed mainly of quartz, feldspar group minerals and calcite. The quartz content differed remarkably depending on the sampling area. Fourteen elements were detected and determined in almost all samples. The concentration ratio Mn/Fe ranged from 0.018 to 0.027 and was almost the same as those values reported previously for airborne mineral dusts and desert soils. Other ratios such as Al/Fe, Si/Fe, K/Fe and Ca/Fe also were in the ranges of the previously reported values for the dusts and soils. Other ratios such as Al/Fe, Si/Fe, K/Fe and Ca/Fe also were in the ranges of the previously reported values for the dusts and soils. Of these ratios, Si/Fe and Ca/Fe showed clear differences among the source regions of soil samples, and it is suggested that these differences can be useful to identify the source region of soil specimens. (orig.)

  10. Two new installations for non-destructive sample analysis: PIXE and PGAA

    OpenAIRE

    Kudejova, Petra

    2005-01-01

    A new Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) set-up has been designed and built at the Tandem Accelerator of the University of Cologne. The PIXE installation is used for the determination of elemental composition of thin samples or sample surfaces. The set-up was calibrated and tested with various types of samples. The experiments have been automated and the standard analogue based acquisition system has been replaced by a digital one based on the XIA DGF-4C modules. A small Peltier-cooled XFla...

  11. p21-activated kinase 2 regulates HSPC cytoskeleton, migration, and homing via CDC42 activation and interaction with β-Pix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pavankumar N G; Radu, Maria; Xu, Ke; Wood, Jenna; Harris, Chad E; Chernoff, Jonathan; Williams, David A

    2016-04-21

    Cytoskeletal remodeling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is essential for homing to the bone marrow (BM). The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac)/cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) effector p21-activated kinase (Pak2) has been implicated in HSPC homing and engraftment. However, the molecular pathways mediating Pak2 functions in HSPCs are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that both Pak2 kinase activity and its interaction with the PAK-interacting exchange factor-β (β-Pix) are required to reconstitute defective ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPC homing to the BM. Pak2 serine/threonine kinase activity is required for stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1α) chemokine-induced HSPC directional migration, whereas Pak2 interaction with β-Pix is required to regulate the velocity of HSPC migration and precise F-actin assembly. Lack of SDF1α-induced filopodia and associated abnormal cell protrusions seen in ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPCs were rescued by wild-type (WT) Pak2 but not by a Pak2-kinase dead mutant (KD). Expression of a β-Pix interaction-defective mutant of Pak2 rescued filopodia formation but led to abnormal F-actin bundles. Although CDC42 has previously been considered an upstream regulator of Pak2, we found a paradoxical decrease in baseline activation of CDC42 in ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPCs, which was rescued by expression of Pak2-WT but not by Pak2-KD; defective homing of ITALIC! Pak2-deleted HSPCs was rescued by constitutive active CDC42. These data demonstrate that both Pak2 kinase activity and its interaction with β-Pix are essential for HSPC filopodia formation, cytoskeletal integrity, and homing via activation of CDC42. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the role of Pak2 in HSPC migration and homing.

  12. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established.

  13. The identification of Chenghua white and blue porcelain by using PIXE and multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major and minor chemical compositions of ancient white and blue porcelain made in Chenghua empire, Ming Dynasty and in Kangxi empire, Qing Dynasty have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that a real precious Chenghua white and blue porcelain made in Ming Dynasty at Kuan Kiln can be distinguished from the fakes made in Kangxi empire, Qing Dynasty

  14. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  15. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  16. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.

    2016-03-01

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  17. Silver surface enrichment controlled by simultaneous RBS for reliable PIXE analysis of ancient coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF) - Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); INSTN/UESMS - CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: lucile.beck@culture.fr; Alloin, E. [Pole d' Archeologie Interdepartemental Rhenan - 2 Allee Thomas Edison ZA Sud - CIRSUD, 67600 Selestat (France); Berthier, C.; Reveillon, S. [INSTN/UESMS - CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Costa, V. [Institut de Restauration et de Recherches Archeologiques et Paleometallurgiques (IRRAP), 60200 Compiegne (France)

    2008-05-15

    Evidence of silver surface enrichment of ancient silver-copper coins has been pointed out in the past years. Surface enrichment can be fortuitous or intentional. In this paper, we have investigated the cleaning procedures usually performed after excavation or in museums. We have shown that chemicals or commercial products routinely used dissolve preferentially the copper phase and consequently contribute to the silver surface enrichment. As a result, surface analyses such as PIXE or XRF can be strongly affected by this effect. By using simultaneously RBS and PIXE, it is possible to check through the silver surface enrichment and then select the reliable measurements, characteristic of the bulk composition. Results on coins recently discovered and mechanically or chemically cleaned are presented.

  18. Instrumentation for PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of instrumentation for PIXE and Rutherford backscattering analysis, including hardware and software needed to perform the analysis, including detectors, analyzers, data acquisition systems and data analysis software. It also provides some information on accelerators needed for these applications

  19. Analysis by PIXE and PIGME of biomineralized tissues in the chiton Clavarizona hirtosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures have been developed to determine, by PIXE and PIGME, the elemental composition of small samples (ca. 1 mg) of biomineralized tissue. The Fe, Ca and P contents of the radula of the chiton C. hirtosa increase considerably from the early to the late stage of mineralization. However, F is absent, indicating that at least in C. hirtosa, Ca and P biomineral deposits are most likely hydroxyapatite rather than fluoroapatite which has been reported in several other species

  20. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeynes, J.C.G., E-mail: J.C.Jeynes@surrey.ac.u [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bailey, M.J. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Coley, H. [Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J.; Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  1. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Priyanka [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, 92, APC Road, 700009 Kolkata (India); Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Calcutta, 92, APC Road, 700009 Kolkata (India)], E-mail: sarmistha_rc@rediffmail.com; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal [UGC-DAE consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Radiation Biology Division, 3/LB Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, 700098 Kolkata (India)

    2010-03-15

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  2. PIXE analysis of trace elements in hair and their correlation with acute cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) technique has been used to analyze trace elements in more than 200 human hair samples from 60 patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases and 28 normal controls. Trace element differences in hair between the patients and the normal controls have been observed. A Van de Graaff accelerator and a Si(Li) semiconductor at Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Sichuan University were used. (author)

  3. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  4. The trace element analysis of ancient Indian coins using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analysis of ancient Indian coins viz. thirty-three punched marked coins (6th century B.C.), fifty-nine coins belonging to Kusanas (78-250 A.D) and twenty-five coins belonging to medieval period (11th-14th century A.D), from India have been analysed using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The elements namely S, Ca, Fe, Ag, Cu, Ni and Pb were detected in most of the punch-marked coins while elements namely S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As and Zn were detected in most of the Kusanas coins and the S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Ag, Sn, Pb were detected in 11th-14th century A.D. coins. Based on the elemental analysis different hypotheses put forward in the earlier literature were examined. This is the first attempt where reasonable number of ancient coins belonging to different periods were analysed by modern non destructive multi-elemental technique such as PIXE and has put the importance of the elemental analysis of ancient Indian coins in the proper perspective

  5. Elemental analysis of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts with external-beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External-beam PIXE has been applied for the determination of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts. Characteristic x-ray spectra from the samples bombarded with protons of 3 MeV have been measured with a HPGe detector. At each sample three spots were irradiated per run. Results of measurements on three fragments of bronze drinking vessels and helmet of Chinese ancient Chou and Shang dynasties (17th-8th century B.C.) are presented. To check the analytical method, we have also made measurements on the elemental composition of some modern coins. The results are discussed. (author)

  6. PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS analysis of Cu-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B., E-mail: binzhang@fudan.edu.cn; Yang, C.; Wang, J.Z.; Shi, L.Q., E-mail: lqshi@fudan.edu.cn; Cheng, H.S.

    2014-08-01

    Cu-doped ZnO films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate at different atmosphere. Microstructure of these films and Cu occupation sites were investigated using PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS. Only 2.9 at.% Cu, no other magnetic impurities (e.g., Fe, Co and Ni) were detected. The ZnO:Cu films possessed the wurtzite ZnO structures and no precipitates (e.g., CuO and Cu{sub 2}O or Cu cluster) were found. Cu atoms were incorporated into ZnO crystal lattice by occupying Zn atomic sites.

  7. Human hair analysis by PIXE: pattern recognition of trace element composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of classifying human hair specimens according to their trace metal composition as determined by PIXE is investigated. Protons of 3.5 MeV were used to analyse 150 samples by energy-dispersive spectrometry using a Si(Li) detector. The methods of the Minimal Spanning Tree and Non-Linear Mapping were used to establish correlation among the specimens. As a result of distinct groupings obtained by these methods it was inferred that these techniques could usefully by applied to environmental pollution studies. (author)

  8. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Katsushi, E-mail: katsu@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan) and School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Komatsu, Hisanori [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiroko [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Osaka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Pereira, Patricia N.R. [School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Department of Operative Dentistry, 302 Brauer, CB 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450 (United States); Bedran-Russo, Ana K. [University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, 801 S. Paulina St., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Nomachi, Masaharu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Osaka, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sato, Takahiro [TARRI, JAEA, Advanced Radiation Technology, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Gunma, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Sano, Hidehiko [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission ({mu}-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by {mu}-PIGE and {mu}-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F

  9. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Katsushi; Komatsu, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Pereira, Patricia N. R.; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Sato, Takahiro; Sano, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  10. Trace element analysis of the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, M.; Yoshida, K.; Moritani, K.; Norizawa, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo, Kyoto (Japan); Enami, K.; Kasajima, H. [Ryukoku Univ., Department of Mechanical and System Engineering, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Ueyama, D. [Ryukoku Univ., Faculty of Intercultural Communication, Otsu, Shiga (Japan); Takada, J.; Matsushita, R. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    1999-07-01

    In order to classify the Otani Collection's Dunhuang and Turfan manuscripts, their trace elements were analyzed by PIXE. The paper samples of these manuscripts were fallen off when they were photographed for a CD-ROM catalog. These samples were very small and their size was less than several millimeters. In addition, some paper fragments dating from the late Edo-era of Japan and the late Qing Dynasty of China, and modern Japanese handmade paper were analyzed using PIXE and NAA. Quite interesting results were obtained when analyzing the trace elements - Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Ba, Pb, La, Sm. It was found that Dunhuang and Turfan papers of the Otani Collection were characterized by its highest iron and bromine content. The reason of the highest iron content probably originates in their making process and/or depends on their preservative environment. On the other hand, it became clear as for the highest bromine content that the origin is from fumigation of methyl bromide. (author)

  11. Differential and scanning-mode external PIXE for the analysis of the painting 'Ritratto Trivulzio' by Antonello da Messina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Novella [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Firenze (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) - Sezione di Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)], E-mail: grassi@fi.infn.it

    2009-03-15

    Extensive PIXE investigations have been performed at the LABEC accelerator laboratory in Florence on the painting 'Ritratto Trivulzio' by Antonello da Messina, one of the great Italian masters of XV Century and a pioneer in modern oil painting. It is well known that a complete and unambiguous characterisation of materials in paintings is often difficult, owing to their complex structure. For the 'Ritratto Trivulzio', the combination of advanced variants of PIXE, such as differential and scanning-mode analysis, provided a relevant contribution to the characterisation of paint layers, in terms of composition and structure, in a totally non-invasive and non-destructive way. Single-spot mode PIXE with external proton beams of about half millimetre diameter was first used for a general characterisation of different areas of the painting. Differential PIXE performed in many spots led to reconstruct the sequence of paints employed by the artist and to estimate in some cases the local paint layer thickness. A second run carried out with the external scanning microbeam facility, using a 3 MeV proton beam of about 80 {mu}m size, was then crucial to clarify some issues raised by the first analysis. In particular, elemental maps from selected areas helped to understand the way some colour shades had been obtained on the red mantle of the portrayed gentleman, using different pigments irregularly distributed on the surface.

  12. Functional analysis of metals distribution in organs of the beetle Chrysolina pardalina exposed to excess of nickel by Micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz Przybyłowicz, J.; Migula, P.; Głowacka, E.; Nakonieczny, M.; Augustyniak, M.

    2003-09-01

    Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution within organs of Chrysolina pardalina beetle feeding on a nickel hyperaccumulating plant species Berkheya coddii, was used to check its ability to cope with excess of nickel and to study quantitative and qualitative relations between nickel and other elements in physiologically important structures. Data analysis was performed using a new PC based version of the GeoPIXE software (GeoPIXE II). The use of micro-PIXE, supported with analysis of electronograms demonstrated mechanism of Ni rejection from the insects' body. Concretions rich in Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Br are formed in Malpighian tubules and in the midgut cells. Organs important for maintaining homeostasis are protected against excess of metals. Malpighian tubules play a crucial role in Ni elimination from hemolymph, further rejected through the digestive tract and in larve also with exuvia during molting. Both used methods proved that midgut cells in adults could regenerate. Such an adaptive mechanism has not been earlier described in adult beetles.

  13. Study of new sheep bone and Zn/Ca ratio around TiAlV screw: PIXE-RBS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports on in vivo particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements combined with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses of new remodeled sheep bone formed around TiAlV screws. The implants (screws) were anodized by a modified TiMaxTM process. The interface between the implant and the bone was carefully investigated. [Zn]/[Ca] in-depth composition profiles as well as Ca, Fe elemental maps were recorded. The thickness of new bone formed around the screw reached 300-400 μm. Osteon and Osteoid phases were identified in the new bone. A higher [Zn]/[Ca] ratio was observed in the new bone as compared to the mature bone. Blood vessels were observed in the bone in close contact with the screw. This study shows the potential of ion beam analysis for biological and biomedical characterization

  14. PIXE analysis of proto-porcelain excavated from the Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Zhejiang Province is an important producing area of proto-porcelain. Huoshaoshan kiln site in Deqing County is the only kiln known currently for firing proto-porcelain from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the late Spring and Autumn Period. Also it is the earliest kiln site unearthed for only firing proto-porcelain so far. It is of great significance for the exploration of Chinese early celadon firing technology. Purpose: The aim is to disclose the elemental characteristics of these proto-porcelains and study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. Methods: We selected 18 samples made at the early period (from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring and Autumn Period), 15 samples made at the middle and last period (the last period of the middle Spring and Autumn Period), and 17 samples made at the last period (the last period of the late Spring and Autumn Period). Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to analyze these samples and measure the chemical compositions of these proto-porcelains. The factor analysis is used to study the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains made in the different periods. Results: The results show that for the raw materials of body and glaze, the proto-porcelains at the last period are different from those at the early period, while the same as those at the middle and last period. Conclusion: PIXE combining with factor analysis can be used to study effectively the sources of the raw materials and relationship between these proto-porcelains. (authors)

  15. PIXE analysis of hilar gland for the evaluation of personal history of exposure to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven autopsied cases were studied for the evaluation of individual history of exposure to environmental contaminants based on the elemental profile of hilar gland by PIXE and lung tissue by AAS. The results well characterized their occupational history, especially from Cr, Al, Si and As detection. Moreover, it might be possible that these analyses would provide data to suspect the chemical form of each element in deposited particles of lung parenchyma, since the solubility could reflect the different profile of element between hilar gland and lung parenchyma. In addition to these retrospective analyses using the materials obtained from autopsies, it is possible to assess the individual risk using small quantity of hilar gland or lung tissue obtained by biopsy or surgical resection. (author)

  16. Trace element analysis of the scalp hair from pregnant women by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of a self-comparison method for each individual, a study on the changes of the elemental concentrations in the scalp hair from pregnant women before and after childbirth was made by PIXE. The hair samples were collected from 10 young mothers about 3 months after the delivery of their first child. In the control group, the hair samples from 11 normal girls were collected and analyzed in the same manner. Experimental results show that no significant changes of the trace element Cu and Zn concentrations in the hair correlated with pregnancy were observed while remarkable changes in the Ca, Fe and Mn concentrations in the hair before and after delivery were found. These results were compared with previously published data on the changes of the corresponding elements during pregnancy in serum

  17. Micro-PIXE analysis in invasive ductal carcinoma tissues after treatment of astaxanthin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements play an important role in a number of biological processes. Astaxanthin, a carotoid pigment found in certain marine plant and animals, has shown anti cancer and anti free radical properties. This work intended to understand the effect of Astaxanthin in breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma) by using micro-PIXE method. For this aim the concentration of trace elements were compared in healthy, cancerous and cancer treated with astaxanthin in the breast and liver tissues of breast cancer bearing mice, using proton induced X-ray emission. Materials and Methods: Proton induced X-ray emission was used In a study intending to compare the concentration of trace elements in breast and liver tissues of mice bearing tumor, three groups of mice: healthy, cancerous, and cancerous treated by astaxanthin, were considered. Astaxanthin was supplied from Research Institute of women, Alzahra University. Results: Comparing the untreated tumor tissue, treatment with Astaxanthm significantly decreased the amount Fe, P, S, and Ca elements level in tumor tissue of the breast cancer. It is also found that the concentrations of those elements in liver of the untreated mice and the liver of treated mice with astaxanthin were fairly equal. Astaxanthln significantly decrease the accumulation of elements in the site of tumor, and caused the breast cancer cell membrane to lose their desire to collect the elements from healthy tissues. Conclusion: The micro -PIXE technique could calculate elemental concentrations in tissues. Changes in metallic elements may affect microenvironment and cell functions, which might led lead to cell degeneration or death, the results shows that astaxanthin reduces vital element concentration in tumor site, thus it could be used as an anti tumor agent.

  18. Element analysis of the eutardigrades Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Nilsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Semi-terrestrial tardigrades are well-known for their tolerance to a variety of environmental extremes, including desiccation, freezing and radiation. Despite several attempts to reveal the genetic and molecular mechanisms behind the resilience of tardigrades, it is still unknown how these animals are able to maintain the integrity of their cellular components under severe stress. Quantitative or qualitative changes in molecular compounds (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins are expected, and have been the main line of research towards understanding the tolerance of tardigrades. In radiation tolerant bacteria, a tolerance mechanism based on manganese has been proposed. We evaluate this hypothesis in tardigrades and provide the first data on element composition in desiccated and non-desiccated specimens of two eutardigrade species, Richtersius coronifer and Milnesium cf. asiaticum. A focused 2 MeV proton microbeam was utilised to determine the elemental content, distributions and concentrations, using the ion beam analytical technique particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. The presence of six elements – phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium and iron – were confirmed in all tardigrade specimens, at levels up to a few mg g–1. However, manganese was found in less than 10% of the analysed specimens, and in low amounts, thus our study provides no evidence for the manganese hypothesis. We also show that the distributions and/or concentrations of some elements differ between the two species as well as between the dehydrated and hydrated state. In particular, very low levels of iron were found in dehydrated M. cf. asiaticum. Our analysis shows that the PIXE technique is a useful tool for investigating questions on the distribution of elements both in dehydrated and hydrated tardigrades.

  19. Determination of metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by X-ray irradiation using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environmental pollution studies, it is very important to detect not only pollutants but also changes induced in organisms in the environment with various environmental stresses such as heavy metal toxicity radiation and agricultural chemicals. In the latter, monitoring is carried out using biological indicators to find out the changes, which have wide spectra from visible like deformity of the body to invisible such as changes in some enzyme activities. Changes of the balance of essential elements could occur in organisms to deal with the stresses. If we detect an elemental balance shift, we may see the environmental pollution in its early stages. Moreover, in the actual environment, combined effects, additive or reductive with coexistent elements or other stresses, is an important subject for investigation. Therefore, measurement of many elements in the biological indicator's simultaneously and determination of the distribution in the organisms are useful in clarifying the action of pollutants at sublethal levels. A small fresh water fish, Medaka can be used as one of the biological-indicators for determination of water quality. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), an inbred strain of Medaka Orizias laptipes was established and has been maintained for the research purposes. Since the genetic background of inbred animals is almost uniform, the individual deviation among animals is very small. This characteristic is very useful to investigate the physiological effects of environmental stresses. We have continued to investigate the balance shift of essential elements induced in the bodies of Medaka by several stresses. In this paper, elemental content in various organs of the X-ray irradiated fish determined by PIXE method are reported in comparison with that of the control fish to observe the effect of the X-rays. Body size of Medaka is about 3 cm long, and the internal organs are very small (about l mm on average). PIXE is the most

  20. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples in an Urban Area in Upstate NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadareski, Benjamin; Ali, Salina; Yoskowitz, Josh; Vineyard, Michael; Labrake, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in the aerosol samples including, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The elemental composition and concentrations of these elements were determined using GUPIX. Many of the elements suggest airborne soils, however we see trace amounts of lead concentrations only at the minimal level of detection around 1 ng / m3. Preliminary results suggest that lead pollution is not significant however; we believe that the trace amounts of lead detected are due to fuel emissions from small aircraft due to the sampling site near an airport. Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in

  1. Unification of PIXE, PIGE and RBS ion beam analysis techniques for use as a single package for sample characterization in environmental and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis techniques of PIXE and PIGE using 2-3 MeV protons have been combined into one software analysis package which includes matrix corrections from PIGE for light elements being iteratively fed back into the matrix corrections for PIXE. This package can run in batch mode analysing hundreds of spectra at a time for elemental concentrations from fluorine to uranium to for concentrations from μg/g to 100%. This software package is called 'doiba' and has been published as an ANSTO external report. Future work is ongoing to include the proton Rutherford Backscattering technique as well into this doiba package particularly for carbon, nitrogen and oxide matrix corrections. (author)

  2. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported1. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  3. Comparative Trace Elemental Analysis in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissues Using PIXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Juma Mulware

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high or low levels of trace metals in human tissues has been studied widely. There have been detectable significant variations in the concentrations of trace metals in normal and cancerous tissues suggesting that these variations could be a causative factor to various cancers. Even though essential trace metals play an important role such as stabilizers, enzyme cofactors, elements of structure, and essential elements for normal hormonal functions, their imbalanced toxic effects contribute to the rate of the reactive oxygen species (ROS and formation of complexities in the body cells which may lead to DNA damage. The induction of oxidative-induced DNA damage by ROS may lead to isolated base lesions or single-strand breaks, complex lesions like double-strand breaks, and some oxidative generated clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs which are linked to cell apoptosis and mutagenesis. The difference in published works on the level of variations of trace metals in different cancer tissues can be attributed to the accuracy of the analytical techniques, sample preparation methods, and inability of taking uniform samples from the affected tissues. This paper reviews comparative trace elemental concentrations of cancerous and noncancerous tissues using PIXE that has been reported in the published literature.

  4. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  5. Pollution assessment in the Trancao river basin (Portugal) by PIXE, EDXRF and isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the inorganic contamination assessment of a river basin and local water resources in order to establish quality standards. PIXE was applied to the elemental determination of the freeze-dried water dry residue and EDXRF was used for the evaluation of elemental content of sediments. To infer the water provenance the electrical conductivity was measured as well as the isotopic composition of surface waters using the 18O/16O ratio. The combined isotopic and elemental composition information enables to establish dominant contamination contributions from the several tributaries. Moreover, the variability observed for certain parameters, associates them with specific basin regions as for instance, dry residue mass, conductivity and Br, or S, Cl and As or Cr, Ni, Zn and Pb which permit to establish both pollution characterisation and their origin (agriculture, industrial, etc.). At certain locations, enhanced concentrations of elements as Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are observed both in sediments and in the surface water. The elemental particular associations also permit to characterise pollution sources

  6. Element analysis by PIXE of environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vast region in the Brazilian central plateau is characterized by a flora denominated Cerrado and a somewhat peculiar fauna. An area of about 13 km2 in this region is maintained as an ecological reserve. A number of scientists, including biologists, chemists, geologists, botanists and physicists are involved in several research projects in this ecological reserve. The present paper deals only with the contribution to the study of soil and particulate matter suspended in natural springs and rainwater of the area, by using the PIXE technique as an analytical tool to determine the metal concentrations in these materials. The concentrations of titanium, zinc, chromium, copper and calcium in relation to iron have been determined in samples of soil and suspended materials in springwater to serve as a basis for future comparisons with similar samples from several origins. Variations in the concentrations of potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, nickel, copper and zinc in relation to iron have been monitored in the suspended matter found in rainwater collected within the area

  7. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [ICTP Fellow on sabbatical leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [lstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported{sup 1}. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  8. Element analysis of teeth from children with and without cystic fibrosis by PIXE-PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research is to determine whether there is a difference in the Ca, P, Fe, F, Mg, and Sr concentrations in teeth from children with and without cystic fibrosis (CF) as a function of age, sex of the child, maternal smoking habit, maternal drinking habit, and fluoridation of water supply. The nuclear analytical methods used were Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton-Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE). The findings are: (1) the concentration of Mg is higher in the teeth of children with cystic fibrosis who took antibiotics other than tetracycline (CF+NT) than in non-cystic fibrosis (NCF) teeth for the 'female' category; (2) P concentration is less in (CF+NT) teeth for the 'age greater than ten' group; (3) Fe concentration is greater for females in the NCF group; (4) Ca and Fe concentrations are lower for CF than for NCF in the 'mother smokes' group; (5) F and Sr concentrations for CF+NT are higher for the 'mother drinks' group than for the 'mother does not drink' group; (6) 'mother smokes' shows a depletion of Ca and Fe compared to 'mother does not smoke' for CF+NT. (7) 'fluoridation of water supply' shows an increase in F, except for NCF teeth. (author)

  9. PIXE analysis of trace elements in human hair of patients with liver disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hairs of cirrhosis, acute viral hepatitis patients and healthy people in Ulaanbaatar, capital city of Mongolia, were analyzed for the presence of heavy elements by PIXE spectrometry using 2.5 MeV proton beam at the Tokyo Institute of Technology Van de Graaff Laboratory. The samples were dissolved in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then a 20μl aliquot was dropped on a Nuclepore Track-etch Membrane. The IAEA Reference Hair IAEA-086 certified reference material was used in order to verify accuracy of the method and the results were in good agreement with the certified values. To determine the interaction among nine elements in hair, correlation coefficients were evaluated for several pairs of elements. in the group of healthy control, no correlation between elements was identified. Opposite to this, the strong positive correlations were observed for Zn and Ca or Fe; Mn and Ca or Ti; Sr and Zn or Fe in the patients hair. In the present study, the mean concentrations of Ca, Ti, As and Sr in Mongolian patients were higher than those in the hair of normal people in Japan, Mongolia, Iran and Indonesia. The levels of Cu, Zn and Mn concentration in hair of normal people were almost the same for all the cohorts. (Author)

  10. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  11. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, F., E-mail: francois.mathis@ulg.ac.b [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Othmane, G. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Vrielynck, O. [Service Public de Wallonie Direction de l' Archeologie (Belgium); Calvo del Castillo, H. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G.; Dupuis, T. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15 4000 Liege (Belgium); Service Public de Wallonie Direction de l' Archeologie (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liege have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one {gamma}-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  12. Elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory with PIXE technique complemented with SEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheletti, M.I., E-mail: micheletti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, UNR, Suipacha 531 (2000), Rosario (Argentina); CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Murruni, L.G. [Servicio Geologico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbusch, M. [CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Graf, M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize surface aerosols at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory located at Pampa Amarilla, near Malarguee city, in the Andes region of Argentina, with experimental sampling techniques used for the first time in a cosmic ray observatory, adding to information provided by the existing Auger aerosol monitors. A good knowledge of the optical attenuation due to aerosols is crucial for a good reconstruction of the signals from cosmic ray showers detected by the fluorescence detectors of the Observatory. Aerosols were collected in filters, during the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring in 2008. Concentrations in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 filters were determined by gravimetric analysis and their elemental composition by the PIXE technique, complemented with SEM/EDX. Low aerosol concentrations were measured during the sampling period. The mean total mass PM10 (=PM2.5 + PM2.5-10 fractions) value was [mean(se)] 9.8(1.0) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 5.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}]. The mean PM10 value during winter was 7(1.1) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}], about half of the 13.1(1.5) [sd = 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}] measured during springtime. The PM2.5 fraction was approximately 30% of the PM10 fraction. PIXE results gave levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe in the analyzed aerosol samples, showing that these elements correspond to 25% and 13% of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 total mass respectively. The rest of the mass was due to the elements with low Z (below 16) which cannot be detected by our X-ray setup. Comparison with SEM/EDX analysis showed that most of them were Si and Al (aluminosilicates). Our results indicate that most of the aerosols at the Auger Observatory would most likely come from the soil of the region. Due to its vast atmospheric monitoring network, the Auger Observatory is an interesting reference site for further atmospheric studies.

  13. Elemental analysis of wood materials by external millibeam thick target PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, K.-E.

    2009-07-01

    PIXE (Particle Induce X-ray Emission spectrometry) was used for analysing stem bark and stem wood of Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch. Thick samples were irradiated, in laboratory atmosphere, with 3 MeV protons and the beam current was measured indirectly using a photo multiplicator (PM) tube. Both point scans and bulk analyses were performed with the 1 mm diameter proton beam. In bulk analyses, whole bark and sectors of discs of the stem wood were dry ashed at 550 deg C. The ashes were homogenised by shaking and prepared to target pellets for PIXE analyses. This procedure generated representative samples to be analysed, but the enrichment also enabled quantification of some additional trace elements. The ash contents obtained as a product of the sample preparation procedure also showed to be of great importance in the evaluation of results in environmental studies. Spot scans from the pith of pine wood outwards, showed clearly highest concentrations of manganese, calcium and zinc in the first spot irradiated, or 2-3 times higher than in the surrounding wood. For stem wood from the crown part of a pine this higher concentration level was found in the first four spots/mms, including the pith and the two following growth rings. Zinc showed increasing concentrations outwards in sapwood of the pine stem, with the over-all lowest concentrations in the inner half of the sapwood. This could indicate emigration of this element from sapwood being under transformation to heartwood. Point scans across sapwood of pine and spruce showed more distinct variations in concentrations relative to hearth wood. Higher concentrations of e.g. zinc, calcium and manganese were found in earlywood than in denser latewood. Very high concentrations of iron and copper were also seen for some earlywood increments. The ash content of stem bark is up to and order higher than for the stem wood. However, when the elemental concentration in ashes of bark and wood of the same disc were

  14. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ''fine sgraffito'' and ''Zeuxippus ware'' types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ''Zeuxippus ware'' has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends

  15. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications

  16. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  17. WITS-HEX: A renovated code for analysis of PIXE X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Bauman, S.; Molokomme, T.; Walker, A. J.

    1990-04-01

    The code REX [H.C. Kaufmann and K.R. Akselsson, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18 (1975) 353] and its successor, HEX were developed at Florida State University and University of Lund in the early seventies for quantitative reduction of PIXE spectra. HEX modelled many of the physical processes, including target self-absorption. Lack of adequate documentation and several inherent software related problems hampered widespread adoption and further development. HEX was designed using a hierarchical functional design approach, coded in FORTRAN IV. Its element library and request list are tightly constrained. ANSI standard FORTRAN provides few structured constructs, nor does it support dynamic data structures. HEX has a batch mode of interaction which affords minimal (interim) user interactions. To overcome these limitations we have modernised the program to run on IBM PC compatible computers by using object-oriented design techniques, documented in Program Description Language (pseudo-code) and implemented in a modern programming language, Pascal. Turbo Pascal 5.5 provides an integrated program development environment, a high resolution graphics library, an operating system interface and many software development tools to improve programmer productivity. A menu-based highly interactive screen management library is used for the user interface. A demonstration version is available for user evaluation. Further rigorous testing and the development of user acquired spectra interfacing code will be developed before the first release. The renovated code, WITS-HEX, has extracted the intellectual value embodied in HEX. It will be inherently more stable, reliable, versatile, maintainable and easy to use to facilitate future process modifications.

  18. PIXE, 252Cf-PDMS and radiochemistry applied for soil and vegetable analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to identify the elements present in vegetables and soils using PIXE (particle induced X-rays emission) and 252Cf-PDMS (252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry) techniques in order to estimate the possible influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. In this work, metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from several regions, where different agricultural techniques were employed. Si, Zr, Ce, Th, Sc and Pb identified in the soil samples were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br identified in the tubercles indicate that spray pesticide used on the vegetable leaves was absorbed by them. 232Th and 238U present in the soil were not absorbed by the vegetables. The airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (as CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources present in soil as V+, VCO3, HPO4, Cr+, CrOH+, Mn+, FeH+, Fe(OH)n and in the bioorganic compounds as N+, Ca(China)n+ and CnH+ were identified in vegetables. The metal absorption by the vegetables is not dependent of the metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions such as the elements present in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by vegetables. The absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. The use of pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and the metal speciation

  19. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  20. Dating and classification of Syrian excavated pottery from Tell Saka Site, by means of thermoluminescence analysis, and multivariate statistical methods, based on PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis. The studied pottery were classify into two well defined groups. (author)

  1. 福泉山良渚文化玉器的PIXE分析%The PIXE analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海信; 承焕生; 杨福家; 黄宣佩; 熊樱菲

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results of the analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are reported. By using PIXE technology, an appraisal of the jades unearthed from Fuquan hill can be made. The experimental results show that the Fuquan hill's jades can be distinguished into two classes: Xiu jade and soft jade, and they are different to Xiaomeiling' s jade but similar to the soft jade from Hetian, Xinjiang province. Furthermore, by analyzing proportion of iron and magnesium, some information of mineral structure and the color exuding of the jade from Fuquan hill can be obtained without any interference from impurity element.%报道用质子激发X荧光技术(PIXE)分析福泉山良渚文化玉器的实验结果。采用PIXE方法可以可靠地鉴别福泉山玉器的种类,福泉山玉器中有软玉,也有岫玉。它们与江苏溧阳小梅岭玉在元素含量上差别很大,但软玉与新疆和田出产的软玉很类似。分析福泉山软玉铁镁占位比S,可排除杂质元素干扰,得到矿物结构和沁色信息。

  2. Application of micro-PIXE analysis for a migration history study of Hucho perryi focused on strontium distribution in fish scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhalin taimen, Hucho perryi, is one of the largest freshwater fish in Japan, where it is close to extinction because of indiscriminate fishing, water pollution, and river construction. Interpretable ecological information about the species, however, is scarce. We examined the migration history of H. perryi by analysis of strontium (Sr) content in fish scales using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Sr distributions associated with ridges (growth lines) in the scales, with micro-beam scanning PIXE (micro-PIXE) analyses. Sr levels in the scales of H. perryi collected along the Sarufutsu coast were higher than those of salmonid collected at Shumarinai, a freshwater lake. Micro-PIXE line analyses showed that the scale Sr values of the Shumarinai Lake samples remained consistently low from the edge toward the core of the scales. The Sr values from the Sarufutsu coast samples remained relatively high from the edge toward the core; Sr levels from second to fourth position from the edge were about ten times higher than the mean levels of Shumarinai Lake samples. These results suggested that H. perryi from the Sarufutsu Coast had experienced the marine environment. (author)

  3. Tree-ring analysis by pixe for a historical record of soil chemistry response to acidic air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Allan H.; Kaufmann, Henry C.; Winchester, John W.

    1984-04-01

    Tree cores have been analyzed intact in 1 mm steps, corresponding to time intervals in the rings as short as half a growing season, providing a chronological record of 16 elemental concentrations extending over thirty years back to 1950. Samples were collected in a forested region of western Canada in sandy soil which was impacted by acid-forming gases released by a sulfur recovery sour natural gas plant. Tree core samples of the hybrid lodgepole-Jack pine ( Pinns contorta Loud. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were taken in five ecologically similar locations between 1.2 and 9.6 km from the gas plant stacks. Concentrations of some elements showed patterns suggesting that the annual rings preserved a record of changing soil chemistry in response both to natural environmental conditions and to deposition from sulfur gas emissions, commencing after plant start-up in 1959 and modified by subsequent modifications in plant operating procedures. These patterns were most pronounced nearest the gas plant. Certain other elements did not exhibit these patterns, probably reflecting greater importance of biological than of soil chemical properties. The high time resolution of tree-ring analysis, which can be achieved by PIXE, demonstrates that the rings preserve a historical record of elemental composition which may reflect changes in soil chemistry during plant growth as it may be affected by both natural ecological processes and acidic deposition from the atmosphere.

  4. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  5. Chronological studies of tree-rings from the Amazon Basin using thick target PIXE and proton backscattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tree-core sample (Aspidosperma obscurinervium, popular name: 'pequia marfim') about 161 years old (cut in 1990), from the Ducke Reserve at the Amazon Basin, Manaus, Brazil was analyzed by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering in 136 different spots along its life. Twenty-two elements plus the density of the wood were measured (C, O, H, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Co, Rb, W and Pb). Average C, O, and H results (49.77% ± 0.15%, 44.29% ± 0.14% and 5.95% ± 0.12%, respectively) compare well with literature values for the biomass in the Amazon region. The variability of trace elements along the tree rings showed important features that could be caused by modifications in the environment during the life of the tree. The well behaved variability of some trace elements (like K, P, Mn, Ca, etc.) seems to reflect the physiological response of the tree to external changes in the environment. The concentration of K varied from about 4 up to 2000 ppm in a given period of the life of the tree. The same period also shows important changes in the bulk composition and structure of the rings (e.g. C and density series). Multivariate statistical methods (cluster and factor analyses) were used for data interpretation, helping in the separation of periods of important transformations in the tree. The elemental time series is compared with historical records of regional development and with some global events that could possibly affect the tree. The period of maximum variation in the elemental concentrations appears to be related to the Brazilian rubber boom (1859-1912), responsible for several transformations in the Amazon region. In particular in the Manaus region, large development has occurred in the beginning of the 20th century, which are reflected in the results of this tree-core analysis

  6. Development of a micro-PIXE camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a system of μ-PIXE analysis at the division of Takasaki ion accelerator for advanced radiation application (TIARA) in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute (JAERI), which consists of a microbeam apparatus, a multi-parameter data acquisition system and a personal computer. Elemental analysis in the region of 500 μm x 500 μm can be performed with a spatial resolution of < 0.3 μm and multi-elemental distributions are presented as images on a computer display even during measurement. We call this system a micro-PIXE camera. (author)

  7. Source profile derivation for an arc welding shop using time sequenced sampling and PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Van Den Heever, D. J.; Annegarn, H. J.

    1998-03-01

    Samples of particulate concentration inside a welding shop in Bloemfontein (South Africa) were collected for two weeks during August 1995 using a single stage time sequenced sampler (streaker sampler). Inorganic elemental concentrations (μg/m 3) for 12 metallic rods are melted through electric arc welding to join steel plates. The absence of proper ventilation in the building, due to the closing of doors and windows during winter conditions, results in accumulation of pollutants and in enhanced hazardous conditions for the workers. Analysis of temporal coincidences of elemental concentrations time series formed the basis for extracting the arc welding source profile. Major periodical and episodic contributors to the indoor pollution were qualitatively observed during the sampling period. Due to the hourly time resolution of the sampling, their different time dependence could be identified and isolated. The welding shop activities were found to be characterised by high metal concentrations ([Fe] up to 95 μg/m 3) and variations in the Cu-to-Fe and Mn-to-Fe ratios within 30% over a week period. Cr concentrations up to 7 μg/m 3 were detected over 8-h shift periods. A profile for soil dust in the welding shop air was extracted, and was found to be enriched in Cr, Mn and Fe. This identifies the existence of a secondary source of heavy metal particulate exposure, to which all the workers, not only welders during their shifts, are exposed.

  8. Inside PixInsight

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Warren Keller reveals the secrets of astro-image processing software PixInsight in a practical and easy to follow manner, allowing the reader to produce stunning astrophotographs from even mediocre data. As the first comprehensive post-processing platform to be created by astro-imagers for astro-imagers, it has for many, replaced the generic graphics editors as the software of choice. With clear instructions from Keller, astrophotographers can get the most from its tools to create amazing images. Capable of complex post-processing routines, PixInsight is also an advanced pre-processing software, through which astrophotographers calibrate and stack their exposures into completed master files.This is the most comprehensive resource on PixInsight to date. With screenshots to help illustrate the process, it is a vital guide.

  9. Thin and thick target PIXE analysis of the study of Cu{sup 2+} biosorption mechanism by the Egeria densa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Quinones, F.R.; Módenes, A.N.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil). Departameto de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao; Rizzutto, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: In this work the PIXE technique was used to study of metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass. As biosorbent particulates of Egeria densa biomass was chosen in order to remove divalent copper from an aqueous solution. Several batch copper-sorption experiments were performed by using 0.3 9 of Egeria densa dry biomass into 50 mL of aqueous solution containing 127 mgL{sup -1}Cu{sup 2+} at pH 5. PIXE measurements were performed in thick and thin target samples, which were prepared from treated Egeria densa biosorbents and aqueous solutions, respectively. Element concentration in thick target samples was determined by the Clara software. Based on the mass balance among the major elements in the biosorbent and aqueous solution before and after Cu-removal experiments, ion exchange process is suggested as the main mechanism. (author)

  10. Analysis on the source of raw material of the celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by PIXE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Weijuan; GUO Musen; JIN Wenqing; LI Guoxia; XIE Jianzhong; Guo Min; Lu Xiaoke; GAO Zhengyao; CHEN Huansheng; Zhang Bin; SUN Xinmin

    2004-01-01

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is used to measure the chemical ingredients of seven main elements of each sample of celadon body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City.The PIXE data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method,and the trend cluster diagram is obtained to determine their relation of classification and provenance. The result shows that the producing area of raw material of Ru porcelain bodies is concentrated in Qingliangsi kiln, while that of celadon bodies is slightly scattered in Zhanggongxiang kiln. The raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County is different from that of Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City. The materials of Ru Guan porcelain bodies and Ru Civil porcelain bodies in Qingliangsi kiln are basically the same.

  11. Application of PIXE in pollution control of the Matola River in Mozambique-analysis of fish scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guambe, J.F. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Edouardo Mondlane, C.P. 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Mars, J.A., E-mail: marsja@cput.ac.za [Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Day, J. [Freshwater Research Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2012-02-15

    Since PIXE is able to distinguish concentrations of elements at very small spatial scales, it can be used for estimating levels of metal pollution in biological material. This paper provides a preliminary report of a pilot study on the use of PIXE for the identification and quantification of elements (Al (3 wt%), Si 0.5 wt%), S (1.5 wt%), Cl (15 ppm), Mn (5 ppm), Fe (50 ppm), Ni (3 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Rb (2 ppm), Sr (800 ppm) and Se (3 ppm)) in scales of the estuarine fish Pomadasys kaakan caught in the Matola River upstream from the Maputo estuary and, downstream of an aluminium smelter. Concentrations of both aluminium and sulphur were high (3 wt% and 1.5 wt%, respectively).

  12. Quantitative analysis of a metalloprotein compositional stoichiometry with PIXE and PESA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.D. [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); DeYoung, P.A., E-mail: deyoung@hope.ed [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Ellsworth, L.A.; Kiessel, L.M.; Rycenga, M.J.; Peaslee, G.F. [Department of Chemistry, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    An absolute measurement of the heavy element concentrations in a dried sample of aqueous protein solution has been combined with the absolute measurement of protein molecular concentration in the same sample. The ratio of these two measurements yields the metal-to-protein compositional stoichiometry of the metalloprotein. This combination of two Ion Beam Analysis techniques (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis) allows quantitative assessment of the metal atom to protein ratio in metalloproteins without direct measurement of sulfur atoms within the protein for the first time. While these results only demonstrate success with a single well-known metalloprotein, this combination of measurement ratios holds promise for future Ion Beam Analysis studies of metalloproteins.

  13. Quantitative analysis of a metalloprotein compositional stoichiometry with PIXE and PESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. D.; DeYoung, P. A.; Ellsworth, L. A.; Kiessel, L. M.; Rycenga, M. J.; Peaslee, G. F.

    2010-05-01

    An absolute measurement of the heavy element concentrations in a dried sample of aqueous protein solution has been combined with the absolute measurement of protein molecular concentration in the same sample. The ratio of these two measurements yields the metal-to-protein compositional stoichiometry of the metalloprotein. This combination of two Ion Beam Analysis techniques (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis) allows quantitative assessment of the metal atom to protein ratio in metalloproteins without direct measurement of sulfur atoms within the protein for the first time. While these results only demonstrate success with a single well-known metalloprotein, this combination of measurement ratios holds promise for future Ion Beam Analysis studies of metalloproteins.

  14. External-beam PIXE analysis of Chinese archaic jades and jade minerals%玉石及中国古代玉器的PIXE分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朱武; 承焕生; 干福熹

    2009-01-01

    本文用外束PIXE技术分析了中国古代玉器和玉石的主量、微量元素的种类和含量.实验结果表明,外束PIXE技术在判定古代玉器的玉料来源和区别不同产地玉石方面具有广阔的应用前景.%External-beam proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a high-sensitive, non-destructive and multi-element quantitative analysis method, which can be used to analyze the variety and content of major and trace elements of Chinese archaic jades and jade mineral samples. In this paper, the analysis results of the variety and content of major and trace elements of several Chinese archaic jades and jade mineral samples are presented, which are shown that the external-beam PIXE can be a useful tool for identifying the geological formation of jade minerals and source of Chinese artifacts.

  15. On the characterization of the “Paris” meteorite using PIXE, RBS and micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    “Paris” meteorite is a CM type carbonaceous chondrite, a primitive meteorite whose parent body has been formed in the early stage of the solar system and that has experienced low alterations (thermal and aqueous) since its formation. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and micro-PIXE techniques were used to characterize the elemental content and chemical composition of a “Paris” meteorite fragment from MNHN-France (Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle). As expected for a carbonaceous chondrite, macro-PIXE analysis revealed high overall concentrations in Fe, Si, Mg, while RBS showed 55 at.% of O and 7.7 at.% of C in average. Among the other elements, macro-PIXE analysis shows a relative enrichment of the fragment analyzed in Ca. Besides, a carbonaceous chondrite is a heterogeneous composite of different sized mineral and organic grains. Thus, we used a micro-beam to scan and analyze some micron-sized inclusions. By micro-PIXE analysis, it was possible to identify two types of crystals and an inclusion containing less than 0.1 wt.% of molybdenum

  16. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  17. Role of βPix in the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eStaruschenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases function as molecular switches in cell signaling, alternating between an inactive, GDP-bound state, and active GTP-bound state. βPix is one of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs that catalyze the exchange of bound GDP for ambient GTP. The central goal of this review article is to summarize recent findings on βPix and the role it plays in kidney pathology and physiology. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the signaling mechanisms mediated by βPix. This manuscript provides a review of the various mechanisms whereby βPix has been shown to function within the kidney through a wide range of actions. Both canonical GEF activity and non-canonical signaling pathways mediated by βPix are discussed. Distribution patterns of βPix in the kidney will be also covered. Much has yet to be discerned, but it is clear that βPix plays a significant role in the kidney.

  18. Timepix and FitPix detection system for RBS/C materials analysis

    CERN Document Server

    David-Bosne, Eric; Wahl, Ulrich

    This thesis reports the implementation of a Timepix position sensitive detector in a ion beam facility with a 0.5 mm collimated beam of 2MeV 1H$^{+}$ and 4He$^{+}$ for use in Rutherford Back-scattering Spectrometry channeling (RBS/C). A complete description is given of the methodology used for energy calibration, RBS data analysis and simulation with the FLUX Monte Carlo simulation program. Energy calibration was performed with internal test pulses and resulting resolution and accuracy were verified in two ways. The first time using a triple alpha source with the isotopes $^{239}$Pu, $^{241}$Am and $^{244}$Cm and secondly using a RBS spectrum of a thin film sample of Au/SiO$_{2}$/C. Setup characterization for channeling measurements was performed using single crystals of Si, 6H$^{-}$SiC and SrTiO$_{3}$. An energy resolution of 47.2 keV at 1862 keV for He$^{+}$ and an angular resolution of 0.11 (standard deviation) was achieved. Count rates as high as 2kHz were achieved with a frame rate of 15 frames/s. Higher...

  19. μ-PIXE mapping of archeological glazed pottery from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, H.

    2015-03-01

    μ-PIXE has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work μ-PIXE used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed pottery from Al-Fustat excavation repository have been chosen to represent different chemical compositions (fluxes and colorants) of glaze depending on its color. The chemical compositions with deterioration factors (humidity and temperature) worked together to make chemical changes on the surface of glaze.

  20. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  1. PIXE applications to the toxicological field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C.E.I. dos; Dias, J.F.; Jobim, P.F.C.; Yoneama, M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica; Andrade, V.M. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular; Amaral, L.; Silva, J. da [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Toxicologia Generica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the toxicological properties of some chemical elements in different type of biological samples. lon beam techniques, in particular PIXE, have been successfully used to analyze the elemental composition of food, beverage, plants and animal tissues. In this context, the PIXE line of the lon Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, Brazil) have been used in the last few years to study food and beverage processing and biological specimens exposed to contaminated environment. The aim of this study is to present some of our results using PIXE analysis applied to toxicological research field. For instance, a recent published research [1] investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic effects in tobacco farmers exposed to metal-based formulated pesticides. Levels of Mg, AI, CI, Zn, Cr and Br, elements associated with DNA damage, were higher in the blood samples of tobacco farmers exposed to pesticide than in the non-exposed group. The occupational genotoxicity among copper smelters was also investigated [2]. The elemental content of blood samples were analyzed by PIXE. DNA damage in the peripheral blood Iymphocytes of workers exposed to copper smelter was observed. However, no clear correlation was found between the metal content and DNA damage. [1] F. R. da Silva, J. da Silva, M. C. AlIgayer, C. F. Simon, J. F. Dias, C. E. I. dos Santos, M. Salvador, C. Branco, N. B. Schneider, V. Kahl, P. Rohr, K. Kvitko, J. Hazard. Mat., 225-226 (2012) 81-90. (author)

  2. PIXE applications to the toxicological field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several studies have been carried out in order to investigate the toxicological properties of some chemical elements in different type of biological samples. lon beam techniques, in particular PIXE, have been successfully used to analyze the elemental composition of food, beverage, plants and animal tissues. In this context, the PIXE line of the lon Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, Brazil) have been used in the last few years to study food and beverage processing and biological specimens exposed to contaminated environment. The aim of this study is to present some of our results using PIXE analysis applied to toxicological research field. For instance, a recent published research [1] investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic effects in tobacco farmers exposed to metal-based formulated pesticides. Levels of Mg, AI, CI, Zn, Cr and Br, elements associated with DNA damage, were higher in the blood samples of tobacco farmers exposed to pesticide than in the non-exposed group. The occupational genotoxicity among copper smelters was also investigated [2]. The elemental content of blood samples were analyzed by PIXE. DNA damage in the peripheral blood Iymphocytes of workers exposed to copper smelter was observed. However, no clear correlation was found between the metal content and DNA damage. [1] F. R. da Silva, J. da Silva, M. C. AlIgayer, C. F. Simon, J. F. Dias, C. E. I. dos Santos, M. Salvador, C. Branco, N. B. Schneider, V. Kahl, P. Rohr, K. Kvitko, J. Hazard. Mat., 225-226 (2012) 81-90. (author)

  3. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H., E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Satoh, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Oikawa, S. [National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX{sub GP} FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 {mu}m of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  4. Gold pickings and PIXE analysis. More about the Bronze age gold found in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse (Namur, Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmenbol, Eugene E-mail: ewarmenb@ulb.ac.be

    2004-11-01

    Gold remains a rare material during the whole Bronze Age. It is a metal that circulates amongst the elites exclusively. The exchange of gold artefacts over very long distances is fundamental in the build-up of socio-political relations. Fifty artefacts found during subaquatic excavations in the river Lesse in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse have been submitted to quantitative elemental analysis using PIXE, a method never used before on archaeological material found in Belgium. The results show that there are clearly three groups of artefacts. The first one (discs, 'baskets', pearls) proves of local manufacture, as also suggested by the discovery of two ingots. The second one (gilded rings) could have been locally made too, but is a lot less homogeneous. The third one (filigreed and granulated beads or pin's heads) must be imported and most probably originates in the Mediterranean.

  5. Applications of external beam PIXE at RMIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M.; Bubb, I. F.; Johnston, P. N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W. B.; Short, R. C.

    1998-04-01

    The development of an external Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) facility for the 1 MV Tandetron accelerator based at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology has enabled the analysis of artefacts from the Museum of Victoria. Analyses of antique bullets, Egyptian glass samples, an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils have been carried out. The results from the analysis of antique bullets determined the composition of blue spots on one bullet and aided in the conservation process. External PIXE analysis of two Egyptian glass samples enabled the partial determination of the colouring transition metals. Analysis of an Egyptian wall paint fragment and pigments from soils originating from the archaeological excavation of the town of Ismant el-Kharab as part of the Dakhleh Oasis Project revealed the necessity to find additional pigments to enable identification of the geographical origin of the wall paint.

  6. Nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) applied to analysis of pre hispanic metals of the Templo Mayor at Tenochtitlan; Tecnicas nucleares (PIXE y RBS) aplicadas al analisis de metales prehispanicos del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez U, I.; Tenorio, D.; Galvan, J.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective of determining by means of the utilization of nuclear techniques (PIXE and RBS) the composition and the alloy type of diverse aztec ornaments corresponding to Post classic period, they were manufactured principally with copper and gold such as bells, beads and disks; all they belonging at 9 oblations of Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. It is presented here briefly the historical and archaeological antecedents of the devices as well as the analytical methods for conclude with the results obtained. (Author)

  7. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  8. Provenance studies of amber by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses by Infrared Spectroscopy and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance are suitable to determine the paleobotanic source of amber, but cannot differentiate between beds of the same paleobotanic source. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using an external set-up is presented as a new and non-destructive semiquantitative method for provenance studies of amber. PIXE analysis is focused at inorganic contents of amber, considering that the composition of microscopic inclusions depends on the sedimentation environment and it can be used to determine similarities and differences between amber samples and correlate them with amber beds. Results of analyses on amber samples from several world regions and a group of archaeological samples from Chiapas, Mexico, are presented. Amber from different regions have specific inorganic elemental contents; archaeological samples can be associated with beds, even if they have the same paleobotanic origin. (Author)

  9. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE Analysis and DNA-chain Break study in rat hepatocarcinogenesis: A possible chemopreventive role by combined supplementation of vanadium and beta-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal NB

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Combined effect of vanadium and beta-carotene on rat liver DNA-chain break and Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE analysis was studied during a necrogenic dose (200 mg/kg of body weight of Diethyl Nitrosamine (DENA induced rat liver carcinogenesis. Morphological and histopathological changes were observed as an end point biomarker. Supplementation of vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water and beta-carotene in the basal diet (120 mg/Kg of body weight were performed four weeks before DENA treatment and continued till the end of the experiment (16 weeks. PIXE analysis revealed the restoration of near normal value of zinc, copper, and iron, which were substantially altered when compared to carcinogen treated groups. Supplementation of both vanadium and beta-carotene four weeks before DENA injection was found to offer significant (64.73%, P

  10. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear “Nabor Carrillo”, Autopista México-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico); Espinosa, A.A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004–2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning)

  11. Micro-PIXE analysis of an ancient Egyptian papyrus: Identification of pigments used for the 'Book of the Dead'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a study of colours and inks of an ancient Egyptian papyrus using an external proton microprobe in PIXE mode. Representing the Book of the Dead, this papyrus is dated from the 19th dynasty, New Kingdom (c.1295-1186 BC). Elemental maps were obtained by moving the papyrus under a fixed focused external beam using a motorised support. The maps were compared to photographic pictures taken in visible light. Inks used in the hieroglyph text appeared to be based on carbon (black) and iron oxide (red). Coloured drawings illustrating the text showed a wider palette: hematite, ochre, orpiment, Egyptian blue, verdigris. Most intriguing was the observation in several parts of the drawing of a whitish pigment containing strontium. Deposits of strontium-rich minerals (e.g. strontianite, celestite) have been identified in Egypt. The exact nature and the archaeological implications of this pigment have still to be determined. Finally, fine powder and coarse grains of arsenic oxide were observed, probably remaining from an early preservation treatment against insect attacks after excavation

  12. Micro-PIXE analysis of an ancient Egyptian papyrus: Identification of pigments used for the ``Book of the Dead''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, A.-M. B.; Calligaro, T.; Colinart, S.; Dran, J. C.; Lövestam, N. E. G.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports a study of colours and inks of an ancient Egyptian papyrus using an external proton microprobe in PIXE mode. Representing the Book of the Dead, this papyrus is dated from the 19th dynasty, New Kingdom (c.1295-1186 BC). Elemental maps were obtained by moving the papyrus under a fixed focused external beam using a motorised support. The maps were compared to photographic pictures taken in visible light. Inks used in the hieroglyph text appeared to be based on carbon (black) and iron oxide (red). Coloured drawings illustrating the text showed a wider palette: hematite, ochre, orpiment, Egyptian blue, verdigris. Most intriguing was the observation in several parts of the drawing of a whitish pigment containing strontium. Deposits of strontium-rich minerals (e.g. strontianite, celestite) have been identified in Egypt. The exact nature and the archaeological implications of this pigment have still to be determined. Finally, fine powder and coarse grains of arsenic oxide were observed, probably remaining from an early preservation treatment against insect attacks after excavation.

  13. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  14. PIXE and its applications to biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout this century, industrialized society has seriously affected the ecology by introducing huge amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere as well as marine and soil environments. On the other hand, it is known that these pollutants, in excess of certain levels of concentration, not only put at risk the life of living beings but may also cause the extinction of some species. It is therefore of basic importance to substantially increase quantitative determinations of trace element concentrations in biological specimens in order to assess the effects of pollutants. It is in this field that PIXE plays a key role in these studies, where its unique analytical properties are decisive. Moreover, since the importance of these research has been recognized in many countries, many scientists have been encouraged to continue or initiate new research programmes aimed to solve the worldwide pollution problem. This document presents an overview of those papers reporting the application of PIXE analysis to biological samples during this last decade of the 20th century and recounts the number of PIXE laboratories dedicating their efforts to find the clues of the biological effects of the presence of pollutants introduced in living beings. Sample preparation methods, different kinds of samples under study and the use of complementary analytical techniques are also illustrated. (author). 108 refs

  15. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc. PMID:17613745

  16. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission): A non-destructive analysis method adapted to the thin decorative coatings of antique ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Y. [CNRS, CEMES, BP 94347, 29 rue J. Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, CEMES, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Sciau, Ph., E-mail: philippe.sciau@cemes.fr [CNRS, CEMES, BP 94347, 29 rue J. Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, CEMES, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Bouquillon, A.; Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 14 quai F. Mitterrand, F-75001 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Parseval, Ph. de [Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, GET, 14 av. E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2012-11-15

    Recent trends in study of Greek and Roman potteries have been to develop non-abrasive methods to determine the elemental composition of their thin coatings. This paper investigates the potential of PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) in this field. This technique has been currently used to determine the bulk elemental composition of several types of artifacts because of its fast and simultaneous ability to measure a large number of elements with good accuracy and without any damage to the sample. However, until now it has never been applied to the measurement of the composition of thin layers owing to the difficulty in limiting the depth of analysis to the layer thickness. In this paper, we show, through a comparative study of reference clay pellets and thin coatings of Terra Sigillata ceramics that reducing the energy of the particle beam the problem can be solved. The decrease of proton energy from 3 MeV (standard condition) to 1.5 MeV allowed us to limit the analyzed depth to the coating thickness without significant alteration of the results. Quantitative elemental analysis remains possible and the quality of results is similar to the one obtained from electron microprobe.

  17. Spectroscopy and perturbation analysis of the CO A$^1\\Pi-$X$^1\\Sigma^+$ (2,0), (3,0) and (4,0) bands

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, M L; Heays, A N; de Oliveira, N; Field, R W; Ubachs, W

    2015-01-01

    The (2,0) (3,0) and (4,0) bands of the A$^1\\Pi-$X$^1\\Sigma^+$ system of $^{12}$C$^{16}$O have been re-investigated by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. A VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer, illuminated by synchrotron radiation, was applied to record a jet-cooled spectrum, a room temperature static gas spectrum and a high temperature (900 K) quasi-static gas spectrum, resulting in absolute accuracies of 0.01$-$0.02 cm$^{-1}$ for the rotational line frequencies. Precise laser-based data were included in the analysis allowing for a highly accurate determination of band origins. Rotational levels up to $J=52$ were observed. The data were used to perform an improved analysis of the perturbations in the A$^1\\Pi$, $v=2$, $v=3$, and $v=4$ levels by vibrational levels of the D$^1\\Delta$, I$^1\\Sigma^-$, e$^3\\Sigma^-$, d$^3\\Delta$, and a$'^3\\Sigma^+$ states.

  18. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry, and biomass

  19. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, R.V.; López-Monroy, J., E-mail: raul.diaz@inin.gob.mx, E-mail: jose.lopezm@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Centro Nuclear Nabor Carrillo, Salazar, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A.A., E-mail: miranda@fisica.unam.mx, E-mail: albertoe@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The pollution by atmospheric aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is still presenting issues that require deeper studies. Because of geographical factors, most of the MAMC features, on average, very similar characteristics. These include height above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, resulting in very uniform pollution levels in most of the traditionally studied sites. A site with different characteristics with respect to them, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was selected for the present work. It is located to the West of the MAMC at 2,760 m above sea level (a.s.l.), in contrast to other sites (2,240 m a.s.I); sub-humid area with lush vegetation, influenced by the forest of the 'Desierto de los Leones' National Park. Here, the wind for most part of the day is directed towards the center of the MAMC, joining flows that run from North to South. This prevents the site from receiving influence of pollutants generated in the Northern industrial zone, Xalostoc or Naucalpan. Thus, it is expected that this area should present lower concentration of pollutants than the rest of the MAMC. Therefore, the present work is aimed to study the elemental composition of coarse (PM{sub 10-}2{sub .5}) and fine (PM{sub 2.5}) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1{sup st} , 2004, to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit (SFU) of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were then analyzed with PIXE and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLlT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found for the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil

  20. Dating and classification of Syrian excavated pottery Dating and classification of Syrian excavated pottery from Tell Saka Site, by means of thermoluminescence analysis, and multivariate statistical methods, based on PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques have been utilized for the study of archaeological pottery fragment samples from Tell Saka Site, which is located at 25 km south east of Damascus city, Syria. Four samples were chosen randomly from the site, two from third level and two from fourth level for dating using TL technique and the results were in good agreement with the date assigned by archaeologists. Twenty-eight sherds were analyzed using PIXE technique in order to identify and characterize the elemental composition of pottery excavated from third and fourth levels, using 3 MV tandem accelerator in Damascus. The analysis provided almost 20 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb). However, only 14 elements as follows: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb were chosen for statistical analysis and have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, Cluster and Factor analysis. The studied pottery were classified into two well defined groups. (author)

  1. PIXE elemental mapping on original manuscripts with an external microbeam. Application to manuscripts damaged by iron-gall ink corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remazeilles, Celine E-mail: cremazei@univ-lr.fr; Quillet, Veronique; Calligaro, Thomas; Claude Dran, Jean; Pichon, Laurent; Salomon, Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping and PIXE spot analysis have been performed on three original manuscripts. We observed that the precision of the spot measurements for the analysis of the ink composition is limited by the heterogeneity of the writing. PIXE mapping proved to be a complementary technique which is much more sensitive, and which makes it possible to evaluate the migration of some elements, such as sulphur, iron and calcium around inscriptions.

  2. Ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis direct drive of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complementary techniques of ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are used to provide micro-characterization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets for density uniformity, sphericity, and trace element spatial distributions. ICF target quality control in the laser fusion program is important to ensure that the energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Taylor-Rayleigh instabilities. We obtain 1% density determinations using IMT with spatial resolution approaching two microns. Utilizing PIXE, we can map out dopant and impurity distributions with elemental detection sensitivities on the order of a few ppm. We present examples of IMT and PIXE analyses performed on several ICF targets

  3. Source apportionment by PMF on elemental concentrations obtained by PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manousakas, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Achaia (Greece); E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Diapouli, E. [E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Papaefthymiou, H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Achaia (Greece); Migliori, A.; Karydas, A.G.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R.B. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency, 2400 Seibersdorf (Austria); Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Eleftheriadis, K. [E.R.L., Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important constituent of atmospheric pollution especially in areas under the influence of industrial emissions. Megalopolis is a small city of 10,000 inhabitants located in central Peloponnese in close proximity to three coal opencast mines and two lignite fired power plants. 50 PM{sub 10} samples were collected in Megalopolis during the years 2009–11 for elemental and multivariate analysis. For the elemental analysis PIXE was used as one of the most effective techniques in APM analytical characterization. Altogether, the concentrations of 22 elements (Z = 11–33), whereas Black Carbon was also determined for each sample using a reflectometer. Factorization software was used (EPA PMF 3.0) for source apportionment analysis. The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m{sup 3}), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m{sup 3}), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m{sup 3}), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m{sup 3}), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m{sup 3}), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m{sup 3}). Wind trajectories have suggested that metals associated with emission from the power plants came mainly from west and were connected with the locations of the lignite mines located in this area. Soil resuspension, road dust and power plant emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while traffic/secondary, sea spray and biomass burning become dominant during the cold season.

  4. Soluble metals in the atmosphere and their biological implications. A study to identify important aerosol components by statistical analysis of PIXE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, J W

    1990-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis has been applied to time series measurements of aerosol elemental composition from PIXE analysis of filter samples, and principal components have been resolved that represent distinct particle types in an external mixture in the atmosphere. In this study, it is argued that a combination of chemical and statistical analyses of the data may be more powerful in determining chemical species in atmospheric aerosols than studied that employ mainly direct chemical analysis of chemical species in unresolved mixtures of aerosol particle samples. Sulfur is generally associated with mineral dust elements. It is reasoned that the association may represent sulfuric acid coatings on particles that can lead to mineral dissolution and solubilization of significant amounts of aluminum, iron, and other metals. Upon wet or dry deposition to the surface, the fluxes of these metals in biologically-available form may be sufficient to affect primary productivity in the world ocean and cause ecological damage in lakes. As a consequence, the fluxes of biogenic trace gases to the atmosphere may be changed, possibly leading to changes in the tropospheric concentration of ozone. The inputs to lakes of soluble aluminum, which is toxic to fish, may be partly by deposition directly from the atmosphere, thus not limited to leaching of soils by acid deposition. Human inhalation of soluble aluminum and other solubilized mineral metals may account, in part, for the observed geographic pattern of deaths attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that show high rates in cities of the Western US and the southeast region, but low in most of the midwest and northeast.

  5. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  6. Portable XRF and PIXE as complementary techniques for the analysis of old books: study of decorated flyleaves and edges; FRX portatil y PIXE como tecnicas complementarias para el analisis de libros antiguos: estudio de guardas y cantos decorados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torner M, L.; Gonzalez T, C. [Laboratorio de Conservacion, Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, INAH, Paseo dela Reforma y Gandhi s/n Chapultepec Polanco, Mexico DF 11560 (Mexico); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. A.P. 20-364, Mexico DF 01000 (Mexico)]. e-mail: luciatorner@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    Traditionally in the study of ancient books, the binding (leather, parchment, cloth) and their decorations have not the same importance than other parts of the book. Most of the times, paper, inks and internal decorations attract entirely the attention for analytical studies. Nevertheless, it must be considered that the binding keep the book safe and it may be exposed D higher deterioration. Moreover, often it is changed and the historical value of this part of the book is lost. his is also the case of binding's decorations. For these reasons, it is clear that the binding of ancient books must be studied as a part of their material essence. In this work, methodology based on t]he combined use of microscopic and elemental analyses was applied in order to study four types of decorations of guards of books (marbled, colored, splashed, dotted). In particular, this study was focused on Colonial and Mexican books from XVIII and XIX centuries from the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, lNAH. Twelve books and 62 decoration's colors were analyzed in situ, in the library, using a portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy system (XRF) for a quick nondestructive pigment identification and to select a reduced number of books for complementary analyses at the laboratory by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE). By combining these nondestructive techniques, it was possible to identify most of the pigments used in the decorations and to establish a general pattern of use of colorants and pigments in XVIII and XIX centuries for the guard's decorations. This work represents the first study on this topic. (Author)

  7. Pixe method as microanalytical instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE method (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) as analytical method presenting the evolution, the theoretical fundaments, the detection limit, the optimization for operational conditions is evaluated. The applications of the method to air pollution control and aerosol studies in regions such as Antartic, Amazon and other regions are analysed. (M.C.K.)

  8. Analysis of the fly ash from the processing of wood chips in a pilot-scale downdraft gasifier: Comparison of inorganic constituents determined by PIXE and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasification of biomass ultimately generates at least one solid byproduct in which the inorganic constituents of the biomass are concentrated. Given the potential for utilization, or issues with disposal, facile methods are needed for determining the compositions of the fly ashes from recently-available gasifier-based bioenergy systems. Proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were used to characterize the fly ash recovered from a pilot-scale (25 kW) modular bioenergy system operated with wood chips as the feedstock. The composition of the fly ash from the downdraft gasifier showed some similarities to compositions reported for boiler wood ashes, apart from one half of the material being unburned carbon. Although ICP-AES showed greater sensitivity for the analysis of the fly ash, especially for small amounts of heavy metal contaminants, PIXE proved to be a powerful analytical tool for screening of elements from sodium to uranium. Such broad spectrum screenings could prevent the inadvertent land application of unsuspected pollutant elements. Fly ashes from biomass gasification appear to be suitable for use as ash-based fertilizers for forest lands; however, combustion to remove unburned carbon may be advisable. -- Highlights: ► Fly ash composition data for commercial modular bioenergy systems are now reported. ► PIXE analysis better suited for analysis of fly ashes rich in silicates. Fly ashes generated by biomass gasification may be suitable for land application. ► Combustion of biomass-derived fly ashes is recommended before use as soil amendments

  9. Comparison of XRF and PIXE on aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomic, S.; Valkovic, V.; Budnar, M.; Starc, V.; Smit, Z.

    1987-04-01

    Aerosol particles were collected in the Plomin power plant and the Kolektor factory of copper lamellas using a cascade impactor. The results of the elemental analysis of particles performed using two analytical methods, XRF and PIXE, show very good agreement. Concentrations of Ca, Cr, Fe and Cu in aerosols, calculated using both methods, are given and discrepancies discussed.

  10. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  11. Micro-PIXE for the quantitative imaging of chemical elements in single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, R. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, Gradignan (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The aim of this seminar will be to present the recent achievements in this field using micro-PIXE analysis. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) and STIM (Scanning Transmission lon Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STlM analysis will be more specifically highlighted as it provides high spatial resolution imaging (<200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (<0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence or the techniques based on mass spectrometry. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for subcellular imaging of trace elements in the various fields of interest will be presented such as metal-based toxicology, pharmacology, and neuro degeneration [1] R. Ortega, G. Devés, A. Carmona. J. R. Soc. Interface, 6, (2009) S649-S658. (author)

  12. Micro-PIXE for the quantitative imaging of chemical elements in single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The aim of this seminar will be to present the recent achievements in this field using micro-PIXE analysis. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) and STIM (Scanning Transmission lon Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STlM analysis will be more specifically highlighted as it provides high spatial resolution imaging (<200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (<0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence or the techniques based on mass spectrometry. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for subcellular imaging of trace elements in the various fields of interest will be presented such as metal-based toxicology, pharmacology, and neuro degeneration [1] R. Ortega, G. Devés, A. Carmona. J. R. Soc. Interface, 6, (2009) S649-S658. (author)

  13. The potential of PIXE analytical work in water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Ishii, K. [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (JP)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    A method has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in a variety of water samples in our surroundings. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-{mu}m pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film, and in turn heavy metals in trace amounts were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target through the use of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. These three kinds of targets were analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beams. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of {approx}24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of various aqueous sample such as river water, rain water and water leaking from disposal sites of industrial wastes. Hence, the methodology for preparing three types of targets promotes the PIXE analysis to a truly effective means for monitoring a water-pollution problem in our surroundings. (author)

  14. Multi-elemental analysis of atmospheric pollutants and determination of particle size using the PIXE method, a cascade impactor and a filter unit constructed in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents: 1) The methodology and the experimental conditions of the PIXE technique so that it is used as a better option inside the analytical methods in aerosols studies, 2) The development, tests and applications of a cascade impactor of the Batelle type built to determine particle size to use it jointly with the mentioned technique in the determination of the elements concentration according to its size.By this way is fulfilled with the first goal of this extensive project. (Author)

  15. PIXE法及其在食品元素分析中的应用%The Application of PIXE In Food Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文德

    2010-01-01

    @@ 质子荧光分析主要有质子激发X射线荧光分析(ParticIe lnduced X-Ray Emission,PIXE)、外束质子X荧光分析和质子显微镜三种形式.凡是配有小型粒子加速器的实验室都可以开展X荧光分析.

  16. Intra-tumor distribution of metallofullerene using micro-particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the intra tumor distribution of gadlinium containing fullerene (Gd@C82), micro particle induced X-ray emission (Micro-PIXE) analysis were performed. The tumor bearing BALB/c mice were injected Gd@C82 and subcutaneous tumors were taken from 48 h after the intravenous injection. Using the Micro-PIXE method, we could visualize Gd intra tumor distribution. Therefore our results indicate the possibility that Micro-PIXE is useful technique for imaging the bioditribution of Gd, and Gd@C82 is potentially useful Gd carrier for NCT

  17. PIXE in cultural heritage studies: present role and new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, Palais du Louvre, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The non-destructive study of artistic and archaeological objects relies on the use of a large panel of modern analytical tools. Among them, PIXE plays a prominent role due to its almost unique combination of excellent analytical features in terms of sensitivity and accuracy combined with a non-destructive and even non-invasive character. the latter advantage stems from extensive instrumental progress - like the external beam - carried out since the advent of PIXE in the 1970s to account for the precious and unique nature of artworks and archaeological artifacts that preclude any sampling or damage. the situation has however evolved in the recent years as several competing techniques providing non-destructively the chemical composition have arisen, which more or less shake the privileged status of PIXE. On one hand, analytical techniques implemented with tabletop or movable XRF instruments have been massively developed, which allow in situ analysis and represent a progress in terms of artworks safety and flexibility of analysis. On the other hand, access to synchrotron radiation facilities is becoming easier and therefore the use of the powerful X-ray absorption techniques (XANES, EXAFS), that add chemical environment information to the elemental analysis, is progressively gaining popularity. Considering these trends, it seems important to reassess the place of PIXE in the field of art and archaeology and to underline its specific assets. the aim of this article is to pinpoint the situation where PIXE is the best analytical tool with regard to the specificity of art and archaeological items and to stress the new challenges it will have to face. Case studies carried out with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF will illustrate the situations where PIXE exhibits specific advantages: Light element measurement. The high ionization cross section of light elements by charged particles favors the accurate measurement of sodium, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, whose

  18. A βPIX-PAK2 complex confers protection against Scrib-dependent and cadherin-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Scott R; Bell, Jennifer H; Frödin, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    During epithelial morphogenesis, a complex comprising the βPIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor β) and class I PAKs (p21-activated kinases) is recruited to adherens junctions. Scrib, the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila polarity determinant and tumor suppressor Scribble, binds βPIX directly. ...

  19. Comprehensive method to analyze thick insulating samples using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I.M., E-mail: cscientific3@aec.org.sy [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Rihawy, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► A new comprehensive method to analyze directly thick insulating samples by PIXE technique is presented. ► The method is based on the use of an electron flood gun and a beam profile monitor. ► Both accuracy and precision of the experimental procedure were successfully verified using reference material. -- Abstract: In this work, we present a new method to analyze thick insulating samples by PIXE technique. The method is based on the use of both an electron flood gun to compensate the charge build-up at the insulating surface and a beam profile monitor (BPM) to provide a precise indirect measurement of the beam current and accumulated charge. A filament extracted from an ordinary flashlight lamp was used as an electron flood gun. While, a commercial BPM has been adapted in order to carry out charge measurements. The results have revealed the convenience of using BPM for measuring the charge in PIXE measurements. The use of the electron flood gun has given very satisfactory results in term of preventing charge build-up and reducing its contribution to the bremsstrahlung background in the PIXE spectra. The applicability and efficiency of the overall system for elemental analysis were successfully verified using IAEA-Soil-7 reference material where both accuracy and precision were found to be better than 10% in most cases.

  20. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, Jack E., E-mail: jaelma@gmail.com [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry [Louisiana Accelerator Center, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70503 (United States); Briski, Karen P. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209 (United States); Glass, Gary A. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon {sup 12}C(p,p){sup 12}C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  1. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Jack E.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry; Briski, Karen P.; Glass, Gary A.

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12C(p,p)12C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  2. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12C(p,p)12C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition

  3. PIXE facility at Centro Atomico Bariloche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limandri, S.; Rodriguez, L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Olivares, C.; Bernardi, G. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Suarez, S. [lnstituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A Tandem accelerator, NEC Pelletron 5SDH, has been recently installed at Centro Atomico Bariloche, Argentina. This facility provides the local scientific community the opportunity to use nuclear techniques in different fields such as material science, environment (air, soil and food), biology, archaeology, etc.). The ion beam techniques available in our laboratory includes the ones commonly used in material analysis, i. e., PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy), PIGE (proton induced gamma ray emission), channeling and ERDA (elastic recall detection analysis). The line used for material analysis consists of a NEC-RC43 Endstation with setups and detectors for all the techniques above mentioned. This communication includes a description of the system facility and the main associated equipment, in particular that for PIXE measurements. In addition, we show some recent applications of PIXE to the study of archaeological ceramics, smokeless gun powders, and the experimental determination of the efficiency or our SDD detector. The detector efficiency was estimated for energies between 0.27 and 25 keV. The method applied is based on the comparison of X-ray characteristic intensities excited by 2-MeV protons in bulk samples with theoretical predictions. The results are compared with efficiency values obtained by the product of the window transmission and the detector quantum efficiency. Element constituents of black, white, brown and ocher pigments from Aguada Culture (600-900 before present) were studied. The results obtained are compared with measurements performed at the Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica-UFRGS. This study is helpful to interpret the social, political economic and cultural contexts of pre-Inca societies and the interaction among different sites. Traces amounts present in seven smokeless gun powders commonly used in Argentina were determined. The powders were deposited on a carbon tape and the

  4. PIXE in 1980: Summary of the second international conference on particle induced x-ray emission and its analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and its analytical applications was held in Lund, Sweden, June 9-12, 1980. About a hundred papers were presented, including seven invited talks (PIXE and particle scattering, microbeam analysis, applications to aerosols and biological samples). The main impression left by the conference was that both the PIXE method and its applications are in a phase of fast development. Considerable effort has successfully been devoted to optimizing the basic PIXE technique. Also the great advantage of simultaneously getting information about lighter elements and sample mass was reported to have been successfully employed in routine analyses. PIXE, which was initially considered to be a method mainly for thin samples, has also been shown to be competitive for a variety of thick samples. Data from aerosol studies was presented. With the PIXE-method, it is feasible to perform series of measurements over a long period of time, many samples in parallel and/or samples from sites of poor accessibility. However, the advantages of PIXE may be further exploited in aerosol investigations and some promising lines of sampler development were reported. Sample preparation techniques are crucial for applications to biological samples and several laboratories are engaged in such developmental work. However, it was also evident that PIXE is already giving significant contributions to research in biology and medicine

  5. Discriminative study of white porcelains by INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine white porcelains of Xing Kiln, Ding Kiln and Jingxing Kiln are very similar or alike in many aspects, such as typology of the vessel, texture of the body, colors of the body and the glaze. It is difficult for the archaeologists to distinguish the provenance using traditional methods. Nuclear analytical techniques (INAA, PIXE, XRF, SRXRF) have been widely employed for the provenance study of cultural relics in recent years due to their unique advantage, i.e. capable of nondestructive analysis. The element contents in the body and glaze of white porcelain shards with known provenance were determined by INAA and PIXE. In the meanwhile blind samples were prepared and analyzed in the same way. The differences of the element abundance patterns were processed by multivariate statistical analysis. On the basis of the analytical data and the statistical results, the discriminating criteria for provenance identification are obtained and verified by the blind samples.

  6. Environmental control of Tinto and Odiel river basins by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the elemental concentrations of sediments of the rivers Tinto and Odiel, in Huelva, Spain, has been performed using PIXE. Thirteen samples have been collected, seven in the Tinto and six in the Odiel. Concentrations of 19 elements have been determined in each of them. The analysis of the data illustrates the environmental impact of the mining and fertilizer plants in the area. (orig.)

  7. Development of a bio-PIXE setup at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the growing need of an accurate, quantitative method for the analysis of thin biological tissues down to the cell level, a measurement setup and data evaluating system has been developed at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe facility, using its unique capability of the PIXE-PIXE technique. Quantitative elemental concentrations and true elemental maps from C to U can be produced in the case of thin (10-50 μm), inhomogeneous samples of organic matrix with a 2 μm lateral resolution. The method is based on the combined application of on-axis STIM and PIXE-PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. STIM spectra and maps are used to determine the morphology and the area density of the samples. PIXE spectra and maps of an ultra thin windowed and a conventional Be-windowed Si(Li) X-ray detectors are used to quantify concentrations and distributions of elements in the C to Fe (light and medium) and S to U (medium and heavy) atomic number regions, separately. For cross-checking the validation of the obtained data in a few cases RBS technique was used simultaneously. The application of the new bio-PIXE method is shown through an example, the study of the penetration and clearance of ultra-fine particles containing heavy metals (TiO2) of physical bodycare cosmetics in different layers of skin within the frame of the NANODERM EU5 project

  8. Development of a bio-PIXE setup at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Simon, A.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2005-04-01

    On the growing need of an accurate, quantitative method for the analysis of thin biological tissues down to the cell level, a measurement setup and data evaluating system has been developed at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe facility, using its unique capability of the PIXE-PIXE technique. Quantitative elemental concentrations and true elemental maps from C to U can be produced in the case of thin (10-50 μm), inhomogeneous samples of organic matrix with a 2 μm lateral resolution. The method is based on the combined application of on-axis STIM and PIXE-PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. STIM spectra and maps are used to determine the morphology and the area density of the samples. PIXE spectra and maps of an ultra thin windowed and a conventional Be-windowed Si(Li) X-ray detectors are used to quantify concentrations and distributions of elements in the C to Fe (light and medium) and S to U (medium and heavy) atomic number regions, separately. For cross-checking the validation of the obtained data in a few cases RBS technique was used simultaneously. The application of the new bio-PIXE method is shown through an example, the study of the penetration and clearance of ultra-fine particles containing heavy metals (TiO2) of physical bodycare cosmetics in different layers of skin within the frame of the NANODERM EU5 project.

  9. Air pollution studies using PIXE and ICP methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the moss biomonitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) - were applied for assessing environmental situation from the point of view of air polluting along the transect from north to south of the Dambovita County. PIXE analysis at the Tandem Accelerator FN-8 of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics - Horia Hulubei of Magurele, Bucharest, allowed determination of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd and Pb in samples. ICP analyses were made using a Baird ICP2070 - Sequential Plasma Spectrometer in Targoviste and we determined in samples the concentration of Li, B, Na, and Mg together with Cd and Pb. The obtained results will permit to determine the regional extent of heavy metals and toxic elements atmospheric pollution and to identify specially affected areas and local sources of

  10. Air pollution studies using PIXE and ICP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stihi, Claudia; Bancuta, Anca; Popescu, I. V.; Virgolici, M.; Cimpoca, V.; Gugiu, M.; Vlaicu, Gh

    2006-05-01

    In the present work the moss biomonitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) [3] and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) [4] - were applied for assessing environmental situation from the point of view of air polluting along the transect from north to south of the Dambovita County. PIXE analysis at the Tandem Accelerator FN-8 of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics - Horia Hulubei of Magurele, Bucharest, allowed determination of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd and Pb in samples. ICP analyses were made using a Baird ICP2070 - Sequential Plasma Spectrometer in Targoviste and we determined in samples the concentration of Li, B, Na, and Mg together with Cd and Pb. The obtained results will permit to determine the regional extent of heavy metals and toxic elements atmospheric pollution and to identify specially affected areas and local sources of

  11. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  12. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant

  13. Bio material resorption kinetics determination by global physical methods and gradient punctual analysis by P.I.X.E. nuclear method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substitution of tissue or human organ by biomaterials represents a problem, really hard, but which importance and interest justify all the efforts devoted which must also require a range of skills. In this work, we studied two produces of osseous substitution. One, the Coral, is a natural produce which interest, for such use, has been demonstrated in previous work executed in the bosom of our team. The other, the Hydroxyapatite, is a synthetic produce. Its presence in the form of micro crystal in human skeleton justifies its use for such purpose. Just after sterilization, natural Coral and synthetic Hydroxyapatite have been implanted in the femurs of sheep. Regularly, we used to extract the implants from the femurs to study the kinetics of elementary mineral transformation of both the osseous substitutes. For the first time and thanks to the PIXE Method (Particles Induced X-ray Emission), we had measured after implantation at different intervals all alone a cross section, the concentrations of mineral produces. The breakdown according to mineral elements (Ca, P, Sr, Zn, Fe) in the implant, in the receiver site and also at the interface, permitted to show that Kinetics of Coral resorption was faster than the one of Hydroxylapatite; in the same way, the osseous attack was not global but, on the contrary, centripetal. Concurrently, in accordance with time of implantation by spectrometry with atomic emission and inductive coupling, measurements of total concentrations proved the results of analyse through PIXE Method about kinetics of implant's resorption. Moreover, measurements by diffraction of X-rays and by neutronic radioactivation with thermal neutrons permitted respectively to make a satisfactory crystallographic verification of the specimens before and after sterilization. Finally, thanks to those measurements, it was possible to check if no potential contamination, caused by treatment or even by making of implants, was detected. (author). 49 refs., 35 tabs., 85

  14. A study with microbeam PIXE technique needed for the interpretation of data on pollutants in hair obtained with NAA and other bulk concentration analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair metals the analysis of which has been proposed as a practical method for assaying human contamination with metal pollutants, reflect both internal and external contamination. This study is an attempt to distinguish these two components of hair metals, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. Individual hair strands were embedded in a resin combined with a hardener. Each embedded hair strand was cut perpendicular to its axis, into the root, 1-cm and 2-cm segments from the root. The 3 segments were analysed for few elements including As and Pb, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. For each segment, a proton microbeam of 15μ diameter and 500Hz frequency was used to scan the segment cross-section along the long axis. X-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the elements studied. The results, although preliminary, showed that the scanning microbeam PIXE technique may provide important information about elemental concentrations and distribution patterns along hair length and hair cross-section. This may lead to a better understanding of mechanisms responsible for the deposition of elements into hair and thereby to a more rational use of hair analysis as a method for assaying human exposure to element pollutants

  15. Element determination of fine particles in environmental aerosols using PIXE; Determinacion elemental de paticulas finas en aerosoles ambientales usando PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, B. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: gaolivab@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Mexico city is classified as one of the more populated cities of the world which presents a decrease in the air quality and that gives place to a severe problematic in atmospheric pollution. To cooperate in the solution of this problem it is necessary to carry out studies that allow a better knowledge of the atmosphere of the city. This study presents the results of a monitoring campaign of fine particle carried out from September 21 to December 12, 2001 in three sites of the Mexico City center area. The samples were collected every third day with a collector type unit of heaped filters (Gent). The analysis of these samples was carried out in the 2 MV accelerator of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) applying the PIXE technique and with this analysis its were identified in the samples approximately 15 elements in each one of the 3 sites and was calculated the concentration in that its were present. With these results a database was created and by means of it mathematical treatment the Enrichment factor (FE), the time series of each element and the multiple correlation matrix were evaluated. The obtained results showed that the Civil Registration site (Salto del Agua) it was the more polluted coinciding that to a bigger concentration of activities a bigger increase in the pollution is generated. (Author)

  16. Comprehensive method to analyze thick insulating samples using PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, I. M.; Rihawy, M. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we present a new method to analyze thick insulating samples by PIXE technique. The method is based on the use of both an electron flood gun to compensate the charge build-up at the insulating surface and a beam profile monitor (BPM) to provide a precise indirect measurement of the beam current and accumulated charge. A filament extracted from an ordinary flashlight lamp was used as an electron flood gun. While, a commercial BPM has been adapted in order to carry out charge measurements. The results have revealed the convenience of using BPM for measuring the charge in PIXE measurements. The use of the electron flood gun has given very satisfactory results in term of preventing charge build-up and reducing its contribution to the bremsstrahlung background in the PIXE spectra. The applicability and efficiency of the overall system for elemental analysis were successfully verified using IAEA-Soil-7 reference material where both accuracy and precision were found to be better than 10% in most cases.

  17. Characterization of the aeolian aerosol from Cape Verde by k0-INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its location on West Coast of Africa, Cape Verde is highly influenced by Sahara Desert dust events being an optimum place to observe and study the African aeolian aerosol. During 2011, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm (PM10) was sampled in Santiago Island and its chemical composition was evaluated by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study showed the existence of a seasonal intrusion of dust from Africa (that occurred from October to March) characterized by significant increases of PM10, mineral elements and anthropogenic particles concentrations. In 2011, the PM10 health-based air quality guidelines defined by WHO, EU and USEPA were exceeded. Cape Verde PM10 composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (Ca, Ce, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sm, and Ti) and sea (Br, Cl, and Na); and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn). k0-INAA and PIXE were fundamental tools for the determination of airborne chemical elements in Cape Verde. Their multi-elemental capabilities in association with low detection limits made it possible to determine the majority of the element concentrations of environmental interest. (author)

  18. Micro-PIXE analysis of an ancient Egyptian papyrus: Identification of pigments used for the 'Book of the Dead'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, A.-M.B. E-mail: linneaus@wildmail.com; Calligaro, T.; Colinart, S.; Dran, J.C.; Loevestam, N.E.G.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports a study of colours and inks of an ancient Egyptian papyrus using an external proton microprobe in PIXE mode. Representing the Book of the Dead, this papyrus is dated from the 19th dynasty, New Kingdom (c.1295-1186 BC). Elemental maps were obtained by moving the papyrus under a fixed focused external beam using a motorised support. The maps were compared to photographic pictures taken in visible light. Inks used in the hieroglyph text appeared to be based on carbon (black) and iron oxide (red). Coloured drawings illustrating the text showed a wider palette: hematite, ochre, orpiment, Egyptian blue, verdigris. Most intriguing was the observation in several parts of the drawing of a whitish pigment containing strontium. Deposits of strontium-rich minerals (e.g. strontianite, celestite) have been identified in Egypt. The exact nature and the archaeological implications of this pigment have still to be determined. Finally, fine powder and coarse grains of arsenic oxide were observed, probably remaining from an early preservation treatment against insect attacks after excavation.

  19. 3D Micro-PIXE at atmospheric pressure: A new tool for the investigation of art and archaeological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a novel experiment characterized by the development of a confocal geometry in an external Micro-PIXE set-up. The position of X-ray optics in front of the X-ray detector and its proper alignment with respect to the proton micro-beam focus provided the possibility of carrying out 3D Micro-PIXE analysis. As a first application, depth intensity profiles of the major elements that compose the patina layer of a quaternary bronze alloy were measured. A simulation approach of the 3D Micro-PIXE data deduced elemental concentration profiles in rather good agreement with corresponding results obtained by electron probe micro-analysis from a cross-sectioned patina sample. With its non-destructive and depth-resolving properties, as well as its feasibility in atmospheric pressure, 3D Micro-PIXE seems especially suited for investigations in the field of cultural heritage

  20. Detection and quantitative determination by PIXE of the mutagen Sn2+ in yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work was to determine the concentration of Sn2+ ions in cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to correlate their quantity with the genotoxicity of intracellularly accumulated metal ions. The intracellular metal content of yeast cells was determined by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) after cell exposure to SnCl2. To that end, a thick target protocol was developed for PIXE analysis. The samples were irradiated with a 2 MeV proton beam, while the induced X-rays were detected with a high-purity germanium detector. The results of the toxicity of SnCl2 and the PIXE analysis performed with two different yeast strains (haploid and diploid) suggest that the exposure of haploid and diploid yeast to Sn2+ induces DNA lesions and that the absorption depends on the genetic background of each strain

  1. Multi-elemental analysis of atmospheric pollutants and determination of particle size using the PIXE method, a cascade impactor and a filter unit constructed in Mexico; Analisis multielemental de contaminantes atmosfericos y determinacion de tamano de particula utilizando el metodo PIXE, un impactor de cascada y una unidad de filtro construidos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1989-01-15

    This work presents: 1) The methodology and the experimental conditions of the PIXE technique so that it is used as a better option inside the analytical methods in aerosols studies, 2) The development, tests and applications of a cascade impactor of the Batelle type built to determine particle size to use it jointly with the mentioned technique in the determination of the elements concentration according to its size.By this way is fulfilled with the first goal of this extensive project. (Author)

  2. PixMail: Pictures through mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Meera; Sierra, Francisco; Prassinos, Peter

    1989-02-01

    PixMail is a set of procedures for sending pictures through internet mail. The pictures can be sent or received by personal computers, terminals with or without raster capability, and facsimile machines. Optical scanners may be used as input to the picture file and printers may be used as an output device once the raster file is stored in a form used by a paint editor. No additional equipment needs to be purchased by the users to send or receive PixMail (unless facsimile input/output is desired) and it is no more difficult to send or receive than ordinary UNIX mail. PixMail uses the protocols of existing electronic mail for transmission from any ARPAnet or MILnet user to any other.

  3. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollos-Nagy, Katalin; Kovacs, I.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z. E-mail: sznagy@rmki.kfki.hu

    2002-04-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 {mu}g/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 {mu}l aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured.

  4. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 μg/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 μl aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured

  5. Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurement of the Cd content in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) measurements were performed on thin samples prepared from different rabbit tissues, using 3 MeV proton beam for inducing x-rays from the animal tissues. This method is very sensitive and very small amounts of trace elements can be detected. Cadmium, one of the most toxic elements which can be concentrated in animal and human tissues due to environmental pollution, was detected with a limit of 0.7 ppm. The trace element concentrations obtained by PIXE were compared to those measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. PIXE method is proposed for routine analysis at the Veterinary and Food Investigating Service, Budapest, Hungary. (D.Gy.) 6 refs.; 3 figs

  6. PIXE and INAA studies on ancient potteries from Guangfulin relics in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site in Shanghai. From the external features of these potteries, archeologists can classify them into two different cultural types: Liangzhu culture (local culture) and a new culture which might be derived elsewhere, but they can not recognize whether they were produced in the same place. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were used to measure the chemical compositions of the samples and the results were analyzed using multivariate statistics. We found that the two methods can complement each other and their database can be mutually referenced in the study of ancient potteries. Experimental results show that the compositions of the potteries from the two cultural types are different, which means that the materials for ancient potteries of new culture originate from elsewhere. This supports the archaeologists' speculation that a group of ancient people migrated to Shanghai from some other places 4000 years ago.

  7. Coupling of PAK-Interacting Exchange Factor PIX to GIT1 Promotes Focal Complex Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhou-Shen; Manser, Edward; Loo, Tsui-Han; Lim, Louis

    2000-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase PAK is targeted to focal complexes (FCs) through interactions with the SH3 domains of the PAK-interacting exchange factor PIX and Nck. PIX is a Rac GTP exchange factor that also binds the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein known as GIT1. Overexpression of GIT1 in fibroblasts or epithelial cells causes a loss of paxillin from FCs and stimulates cell motility. This is due to the direct interaction of a C-terminal 125-residue domain of GIT1 with paxill...

  8. Leaching from CCA-Treated Wood into Soils: Preliminary PIXE Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. F.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Kuharik, J. C.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Dunnam, F. E.; Huffman, J.

    2003-08-01

    Widespread use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) as a wood preservative has led to increasing public concern regarding possible toxic contamination of areas surrounding CCA-treated structures, e.g., decks, playground equipment, etc. Appreciable leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper into soils adjacent to such structures has been demonstrated via standard techniques of analytical chemistry. The advantages of PIXE [rapid analysis, quick sample turnover, possible lower cost] suggest its application to this area of interest. PIXE studies in our laboratory of CCA-contaminated soil samples show good agreement with previous analyses of As, Cu, Cr, and other heavy-elemental content, with some variability in diffusion rates.

  9. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  10. Review of PIXE Mercury Detection Research at the Louisiana Accelerator Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, C.; Hollerman, W. A.; Lentz, M.; Glass, G. A.; Greco, R. R.; Liao, C.; Doyle, T. W.; Lewis, T. E.

    2003-12-01

    Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) is non-destructive and allows the simultaneous analysis of elements in solid, liquid, and gas samples. When incident energetic ions strike a target, inner shell electrons of these atoms are ejected as they acquire energy from the incident particle. Outer shell electrons then fill vacancies in the inner shell caused by the ionization. This de-excitation is accompanied by the emission of an Auger electron or x-ray. The ratio of the x-ray production to the probability of ejection of an Auger electron is the fluorescence yield, which ranges from a value of nearly 100% for heavy elements to as low a few percent for light elements. The energy of the emitted x-rays depends on the specific elements present in the target. Since each target element has its own set of characteristic energies in the x-ray spectrum, identifying and determining the concentration of elements is possible. Typically 1-3 MeV ions (usually protons) from a small electrostatic accelerator are used for PIXE analysis. This technique is fast and sensitive; typical limits of detection fall below the ng/cm2 region in the case of surface analysis, or ng/mg (ppm) in the case of concentration measurements. PIXE is two orders of magnitude more sensitive than similar electron-based analysis techniques. Over the last several years, the authors have been using PIXE to detect low concentrations of mercury in tree ring samples. For example, southern magnolia (magnolia grandiflora) tree samples, with known concentrations of mercury, were analyzed using PIXE. Recent published results from these measurements indicate that the average mercury absorption percentage was found to be 85+/- 4%. The distribution of mercury was found to be reasonably homogeneous over the sample surface. However, small variations in mercury concentration are most likely caused by the structure of cellulose in the wood. Mercury in the samples appears to be stable to a total integrated charge of 10

  11. Micro-PIXE in plant sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Studies of the role played by elements in fundamental processes in physiology, nutrition, elemental deficiency and toxicity as well as environmental pollution require accurate, quantitative methods with good spatial resolution. the problem of proper measurements of elemental balances and elemental transfers between various levels of biological organisation (from abiotic to biotic systems; along the food chains; within organs and cells) becomes essential for understanding the mechanisms influencing the selection, interaction, distribution and transport of elements. Highly sensitive techniques for bulk elemental analysis are mostly used in these investigations. These techniques usually offer adequate sensitivity, but without spatial resolution. On the other hand, advanced studies of elemental distribution at a cellular level are mostly conducted using techniques with high spatial resolution, but low sensitivity. Ideally, these studies should be conducted on organs and tissues of sizes as far down as the cellular and sub-cellular level. This applies to e.g. future directions in ionomics and metallomics and opens up new, exciting possibilities of studies of trace metal role. The micro-PIXE has been applied in plant sciences for more than thirty years and has reached a high level of maturity. This is one of the few microanalytical, multielemental techniques capable of quantitative studies of elemental distribution at ppm level with with ability to perform quantitative elemental mapping and easy quantification of data extracted from selected micro-areas. Preparation of biological specimens is undoubtedly the crucial and most difficult part of analysis, and only cryotechniques are recommended presently for ali types of microanalytical studies. Established sample preparation protocols will be presented. Most of results are obtained for cryofixed and freeze-dried material but analysis of samples in frozen-hydrated state brings important advantage. Recent

  12. Micro-PIXE in plant sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materiais Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, Somerset West (South Africa); Przybylowicz, W.J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, the Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Kraków (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies of the role played by elements in fundamental processes in physiology, nutrition, elemental deficiency and toxicity as well as environmental pollution require accurate, quantitative methods with good spatial resolution. the problem of proper measurements of elemental balances and elemental transfers between various levels of biological organisation (from abiotic to biotic systems; along the food chains; within organs and cells) becomes essential for understanding the mechanisms influencing the selection, interaction, distribution and transport of elements. Highly sensitive techniques for bulk elemental analysis are mostly used in these investigations. These techniques usually offer adequate sensitivity, but without spatial resolution. On the other hand, advanced studies of elemental distribution at a cellular level are mostly conducted using techniques with high spatial resolution, but low sensitivity. Ideally, these studies should be conducted on organs and tissues of sizes as far down as the cellular and sub-cellular level. This applies to e.g. future directions in ionomics and metallomics and opens up new, exciting possibilities of studies of trace metal role. The micro-PIXE has been applied in plant sciences for more than thirty years and has reached a high level of maturity. This is one of the few microanalytical, multielemental techniques capable of quantitative studies of elemental distribution at ppm level with with ability to perform quantitative elemental mapping and easy quantification of data extracted from selected micro-areas. Preparation of biological specimens is undoubtedly the crucial and most difficult part of analysis, and only cryotechniques are recommended presently for ali types of microanalytical studies. Established sample preparation protocols will be presented. Most of results are obtained for cryofixed and freeze-dried material but analysis of samples in frozen-hydrated state brings important advantage. Recent

  13. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  14. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D. J.; Cutajar, D. L.; George, S. P.; Guatelli, S.; Bucci, J. A.; Enari, K. E.; Miller, S.; Siegele, R.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-06-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences. Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  15. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences.Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30–60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2–5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific

  16. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) present and future. Ryushisen reiki X sen bunsekiho (PIXE) no genjo to shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, M. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering)

    1992-07-10

    The principle of measurement of PIXE are explained. It has in comparison with SEM and EPM, the following characteristics such as; very short measurement and analysis time, developed detection sensitivity for more than 100 elements, no need of pretreatment, undestructive analysis method in the air, possibility of trace element analysis by using micro specimen and information input of chemical bonding condition. Bio-medical applications have been, the microanalysis of multi elements in light element matrix forming living body and the diagnosis of kidney cancer and other diseases. Environmental applications have been, detection of the composition of sea water and the detection of the pollutants of the rivers by elements concentration distribution. It is also applied for managing the amount of impurities in electronic materials and monitoring the emitted elements from fusion reactor. It is used for archaeological analysis such as, analysis of gold fixing in ancient Rome and earthernware analysis of ancient China. As for the chemical bonding condition, the small difference of chemical bonding has been able to be observed clearly as a difference of strength over the multiple spectra, and PIXE has prospects in multiple fields. 24 refs., 21 figs.

  17. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  18. Charge protection characterisation and drift time resolution improvement for GridPix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppert, W.J.C.; Fransen, M.; Bakel, van N.; Graaf, van der H.; Hartjes, F.; Timmermans, J.; Visser, J.; Kluit, R.; Gromov, V.; Zappon, F.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Schmitz, J.; Bilevych, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A GridPix detector is a gaseous detector capable of detecting single primary electrons from ionising particles. Such a detector consists of a pixel chip as active anode covered with a thin layer of silicon rich silicon nitride (SiRN) for protection against discharges. A layer of 8 JlIl1 SiRN, and ac

  19. Investigation of in vivo PIXE effect within superficial tumor model of high-Z metalnanoplatform for PIXE-based proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Seo, Seung Jun; Lee, Ju Hong [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Metallic nanoparticles (MNP) are able to release localized X-ray when activated with high energy proton beam by particle induced X-ray emissions (PIXE) effect. The exploitation of this phenomenon in the therapeutic irradiation of tumors has been investigated. PIXE-based X-ray emission directed at CT-26 tumor cells in vitro, when administered with either gold (average diameter, 2 nm and 13 nm) or iron (average diameter, 14 nm) nanoparticles, increased with MNP solution concentration over the range of 0.1-2 mg/mL. With irradiation by 45-MeV proton therapy (PT) beam, higher concentrations had a decreased cell survival fraction. An in vivo study with tumor regression assay demonstrated significant tumor dose enhancement, thought to be result of the PIXE effect when compared to conventional PT without MNP using a 45 MeV proton beam (p<0.01). These effects were observed for gold and iron MNP, injected in doses of 100-300mg/kg body weight into CT-26 mouse tumor models via tail vein. A therapeutic effective MNP concentration range, in vivo,was estimated at 30-79 {mu}g/g tissue for both gold and iron nanoparticles. The tumor dose enhancement may compensate for an increase in entrance dose associated with conventional PT when treating large, solid tumors with a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) technique. The use of combined high energy Bragg peak PT with PIXE generated by MNP, or PIXE alone may result in new treatment options for infiltrative metastatic tumors and other diffuse inflammatory diseases

  20. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty

  1. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Pan, B.H.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J.; Peng, X.B

    2004-06-01

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

  2. Determination of some heavy metals in wetlands by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the results of the analysis are presented, using the PIXE technique (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), in soil samples of the El Bordo, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, before and after subjecting them to a lixiviation process for the recovering of gold, silver and mercury. This community is part of the mining region nearer to the Zacatecas city municipality, region in which the mining exploitation dates from the colonial time. During almost 350 years the 'yard benefit' method was used or amalgamation with mercury, process that besides having used big quantities of mercury, generated a great quantity of mineral waste calls 'mine wetlands', those that were accumulating, crawled by the rains, toward the streams that end in the prey 'The Pedernalillo'. The dispersion of wetlands them it has extended from the prey until the communities of Tacoaleche, Zoquite, Lampotal and El Bordo, embracing an approximate area of 16 x 2 Km2 and forming with the course of the time an accumulated of several millions of tons. In order to determining if the process of recovery of gold, silver and mercury make soluble to other contained metals in these wastes, samples were gathered in an area of 600 m2 in the community of The Border, Vetagrande, Zacatecas. Half of the samples were subjected to the lixiviation process in a local metal recovery plant and the other part was analyzed without processing. The analysis of both types of samples by means of the PIXE was carried out in the University of Arizona in Tucson. (Author)

  3. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  4. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  5. Deep PIXE: finding diamonds with the proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 the CSIRO Div. of Exploration Geoscience has carried out a program of proton-microprobe (PIXE) analysis aimed at using trace-element data on indicator minerals to discriminate between those from diamondiferous and barren source rocks. The results have provided both important new tools for the exploration industry, and significant new information on the conditions and processes of diamond growth. Cr-pyrope garnet has been used as Ni thermometer while chromites, in partcular their Zn content, has allowed correlation of chromite composition with temperature. The two techniques described provide a significant increase in exploration efficiency, through early recognition and rejection of barren targets and concentration of resources on more promising targets. They also provide direct cost savings in evaluation of ore bodies once they are found. It is estimated that evaluation of a prospect by conventional bulk testing is expensive ($100-500K) and time-consuming; an evaluation by PIXE methods is done quickly for a tiny fraction of that cost. 1 refs., 4 figs

  6. Study of Z > 18 elements concentration in tree rings from surroundings forests of the Mexico Valley using external beam PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calva-Vazquez, G. [Laboratorio de Contaminacion Atmosferica, FES Zaragoza, UNAM, Calzada I. Zaragoza esq., Av. Guelatao s/n, 09230 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Razo-Angel, G. [Laboratorio de Contaminacion Atmosferica, FES Zaragoza, UNAM, Calzada I. Zaragoza esq., Av. Guelatao s/n, 09230 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rodriguez-Fernandez, L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: sil@fisica.unam.mx

    2006-08-15

    The concentration of elements with Z > 18 is measured in tree rings from forests at the surroundings of the Mexico Valley: El Chico National Park (ECP) and Desierto de los Leones National Park (DLP). The analysis was done by simultaneous PIXE-RBS using an external proton beam on tree rings of Pine and Sacred fir (species Pinus montezumae and Abies religiosa, respectively). This study provides information about the elemental concentration in trees of those parks during the years from 1965 to 2003. Typical elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb were detected using PIXE technique while the wood matrix composition (mainly C and O) was determined by RBS. In general, elemental contents present large variations but concentrations oscillate around the mean value during this period of time. Nevertheless, the measurements showed some trends for Fe and Zn in the tree-rings elemental composition that may be correlated to recent volcanic activities in the region. The low Mn contents indicate soil acidification in DLP from 1968 and the forest decline in ECP during the last 15 years.

  7. Programs for visualization, handling and quantification of PIXE maps at the AGLAE facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-11-01

    The external beam setup of the AGLAE facility has been developed in order to combine PIXE with PIGE, EBS and recently IBIL for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. The upgraded external beam end-station integrates five large solid angle X-ray detectors either to reduce the risk of damage on sensitive artworks by decreasing the beam intensity or to routinely acquire elemental maps at various scales. While many programs are available to process PIXE maps acquired with nuclear microprobes, a software to process the major and trace elements PIXE maps point by point using GUPIX is not available. The present paper describes three programs developed for the AGLAE facility to process numerous maps obtained with multiple detectors. AGLAEMAP allows to handle maps and pixel groups within maps, TRAUPIXE to process quantitatively PIXE spectra of all pixels and DATAIMAGING to display the resulting quantitative elemental maps. The benefits of this software suite are demonstrated by processing a dataset acquired on a pellet of geostandard reference material and on a terre mêlée pottery shard sample created by the famous ceramist Bernard Palissy (1510-1589), highlighting chemical elements present in this polychrome ceramic.

  8. Development of regional PIXE facility at Panjab University cyclotron, Chandigarh (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of modifications in the variable energy cyclotron (VEC) Chandigarh along with the installation of Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) setup is presented. A new main magnet power supply of 400A/125V out put with ±10 ppm stability and a new stabilized solid state power supply for RF oscillator has improved the beam characteristics substantially. A new chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge(Li) γ-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A Turbo-Molecular vacuum pump is provided to produce a clean vacuum of the order of 10-8 mbar in the PIXE chamber. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the wheel having 12/24-position target holder. Beam size optimization along with the minimization of background has been done with the help of graphite collimators, thus making the setup suitable for practical applications. Preliminary experiments for the PIXE analysis of aerosol, gunshot residues and kidney stone samples are presented. (author)

  9. PIXE/RBS as a tool to study cementitious materials: Application to the dynamic leaching of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorente, I., E-mail: irene@cenim.csic.e [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Castellote, M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion ' Eduardo Torroja' (IETcc-CSIC), Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Arrabal, R. [Parque Cientifico de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Einstein 13, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ynsa, M.D.; Munoz-Martin, A. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Viedma, P.G. de; Castillo, A.; Martinez, I.; Andrade, C. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion ' Eduardo Torroja' (IETcc-CSIC), Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA), Emilio Vargas, 7, 28043 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The suitability of the application of Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to elemental depth profiling in concrete is analysed, studying hardened samples of concrete prior to and after a dynamic leaching test. A calibration of the data has been done by comparing the results obtained by IBA techniques with those obtained by Chemical and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG/DTA). From PIXE and RBS data relevant information about the migration of minor elements, within the concrete matrix after leaching is obtained.

  10. The influence of matrix composition and ink layer thickness on iron gall ink determination by the PIXE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursic, Mitja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: mitja.ursic@gov.si; Budnar, Milos [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, Jure [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-06-15

    The elemental composition of iron gall inks in historical documents can be effectively studied using the non-destructive proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The in-air proton beam experimental set-up installed at the Microanalytical Centre of the Jozef Stefan Institute was used for this purpose. The aim of the present investigation was to model and evaluate the uncertainties in the analysis due to the incompletely known matrix composition and iron gall ink layer thickness. Estimation of these uncertainties helped in quantifying the accuracy of multi-elemental PIXE analysis of historical documents.

  11. The influence of matrix composition and ink layer thickness on iron gall ink determination by the PIXE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, Mitja; Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož

    2006-06-01

    The elemental composition of iron gall inks in historical documents can be effectively studied using the non-destructive proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The in-air proton beam experimental set-up installed at the Microanalytical Centre of the Jožef Stefan Institute was used for this purpose. The aim of the present investigation was to model and evaluate the uncertainties in the analysis due to the incompletely known matrix composition and iron gall ink layer thickness. Estimation of these uncertainties helped in quantifying the accuracy of multi-elemental PIXE analysis of historical documents.

  12. RECONSTRUCTION OF AR DEPTH PROFILES FROM PIXE MEASUREMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OSIPOWICZ, T; LIEW, SC; LOH, KK; ORLIC, [No Value; TANG, SM; WEBER, T

    1994-01-01

    We report on the application of an iterative maximum likelihood algorithm [1] to the reconstruction of depth profiles from PIXE measurements. PIXE spectra of 450 and 800 keV Ar implanted Al samples were taken at 1.5 and 1.3 MeV He+ energy and at angles ranging from 18 to 83-degrees. The measured Ar

  13. Compositional study of Parthian silver coins using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajivaliei, M., E-mail: mhaji65@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khademi Nadooshan, F. [Department of Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The study of the elemental composition of silver coins minted in the Ecbatana mint houses during the Parthian period can help to elucidate key questions such as provenance of the silver metal and the socio-economic situation of that period. Commercial activity and population growth increased the demand for silver, forcing the Parthian to look for new sources of this metal. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition of some Parthian coins to find any relation between the mines used for extraction of silver and the actual silver coins minted at that time. Using PIXE technique, the metallic elements Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, Au, and Pb were observed. The results show that Parthian's kings used almost two types of mines for their coins.

  14. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, J. [Shanghai Museum, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gao, M.H. [Department of Cultural Relics and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feng, S.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago.

  15. Application of PIXE to study ancient Iranian silver coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaff Laboratory, AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Andami, P.; Dilmaghani, J.; Etezadi, M. [Tamashagah-e-Pool, General Office of Museums, MDFIR, Tehran (Iran)

    1999-07-01

    Ancient Iranian silver coins minted in various parts of the ancient Iran from Transoxiana to Mesopotamia over a time span of 460 years (247BC-208AD) during Parthians dynasty were analysed by PIXE with a 2.2 MeV proton beam. Forty seven silver coins owned by Tamashagah-e-Pool (museum of money) in Tehran were examined in this study. The possible correlation between the composition of coins and the minting time or the minting location of coins has been the prime objective of the present study. Elemental analysis of ancient coins could also reveal the direct relation with the political and economical situation and also with the metallurgy of the minting time. Results on the contents of principal component elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Br, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ba, Au and Pb) are presented and discussed. (author)

  16. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  17. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanisana Devi, R. K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  18. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanisana Devi, R.K., E-mail: bhanisanark@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Kumar, Sanjiv [National Centre for Compositional Characterization of Materials (NCCCM), Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  19. PIXE/PIGE characterization of medieval glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glasses of Ljubljana, related historically to the spread of glassworks in the Venetian style, were studied by a combined PIXE/PIGE method based on the in-air proton beam. The contribution of PIGE was determination of Na, Mg and Al oxides that provided (1) non-ambiguous characterization of the alkali and limestone component, (2) stable concentration evaluation algorithm relying on the normalization of all metal oxides to 100%. The majority of investigated samples form a compact group with small variations due to the alkalis used; a clear distinction from a few imported objects confirms local production. The raw materials in medieval glassworks differ significantly from those of Late Antiquity

  20. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million (ppm).

  1. Improved resolution and sensitivity on the ANSTO microprobe and it's application to {mu}-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, R. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au; Kachenko, A.G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D.D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the improved spatial resolution of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, achieved through the use of a higher brightness ion source for hydrogen. The improved resolution will be demonstrated for applications of {mu}-PIXE. With the higher brightness source, a 3 {mu}m resolution was achieved for {mu}-PIXE elemental analysis. This is illustrated in high resolution images of nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus leaf tissues, where individual cells were clearly visible in the acquired elemental images. The higher resolution images illustrated that Ni was localised in epidermal cell walls.

  2. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  3. Determination of some heavy metals in wetlands by PIXE; Determinacion de algunos metales pesados en jales por medio de PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez O, J.; Rios M, C. [UAZ, 98160 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In this work the results of the analysis are presented, using the PIXE technique (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), in soil samples of the El Bordo, Vetagrande, Zacatecas, before and after subjecting them to a lixiviation process for the recovering of gold, silver and mercury. This community is part of the mining region nearer to the Zacatecas city municipality, region in which the mining exploitation dates from the colonial time. During almost 350 years the 'yard benefit' method was used or amalgamation with mercury, process that besides having used big quantities of mercury, generated a great quantity of mineral waste calls 'mine wetlands', those that were accumulating, crawled by the rains, toward the streams that end in the prey 'The Pedernalillo'. The dispersion of wetlands them it has extended from the prey until the communities of Tacoaleche, Zoquite, Lampotal and El Bordo, embracing an approximate area of 16 x 2 Km{sup 2} and forming with the course of the time an accumulated of several millions of tons. In order to determining if the process of recovery of gold, silver and mercury make soluble to other contained metals in these wastes, samples were gathered in an area of 600 m{sup 2} in the community of The Border, Vetagrande, Zacatecas. Half of the samples were subjected to the lixiviation process in a local metal recovery plant and the other part was analyzed without processing. The analysis of both types of samples by means of the PIXE was carried out in the University of Arizona in Tucson. (Author)

  4. PIXE study on Chinese underglaze-red porcelain made in Yuan Dynasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, the firing and glazed red techniques of producing underglaze-red porcelain began early in the Yuan Dynasty (AD1206-1368). This paper reports the results of the PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese underglaze-red porcelain produced at Kuan kiln (Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province) in the Yuan Dynasty. In this work the elemental composition analysis of the obtained samples was carried out using the PIXE facility of a 3 MeV tandem accelerator at Fudan University. The major, minor and trace elements of the clay body, white and red glazes were determined, and details of the results are presented. The obtained data can be used for identification of precious Chinese Yuan underglaze-red porcelain. (authors)

  5. PIXE study on Chinese underglaze-red porcelain made in Yuan Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Huan-Sheng; ZHANG Zheng-Quan; LIN Er-Kang; HUANG Yun-Peng

    2004-01-01

    In China, the firing and glazed red techniques of producing underglaze-red porcelain began early in the Yuan Dynasty (AD1206~ 1368). This paper reports the results of the PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese underglaze-red porcelain produced at Kuan kiln (Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province) in the Yuan Dynasty. In this work the elemental composition analysis of the obtained samples was carried out using the PIXE facility of a 3 MeV tandem accelerator at Fudan University. The major; minor and trace elements of the clay body, white and red glazes were determined,and details of the results are presented. The obtained data can be used for identification of precious Chinese Yuan underglaze-red porcelain.

  6. Quantitative Zn speciation in a contaminated dredged sediment by μ-PIXE, μ-SXRF, EXAFS spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Laboudigue, Agnès; Manceau, Alain; Sarret, Géraldine; Tiffreau, Christophe; Trocellier, Patrick; Lamble, Géraldine; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Chateigner, Daniel

    2002-05-01

    Dredging and disposal of sediments onto agricultural soils is a common practice in industrial and urban areas that can be hazardous to the environment when the sediments contain heavy metals. This chemical hazard can be assessed by evaluating the mobility and speciation of metals after sediment deposition. In this study, the speciation of Zn in the coarse (500 to 2000 μm) and fine (contaminated sediment dredged from a ship canal in northern France and deposited on an agricultural soil was determined by physical analytical techniques on raw and chemically treated samples. Zn partitioning between coexisting mineral phases and its chemical associations were first determined by micro-particle-induced X-ray emission and micro-synchrotron-based X-ray radiation fluorescence. Zn-containing mineral species were then identified by X-ray diffraction and powder and polarized extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The number, nature, and proportion of Zn species were obtained by a coupled principal component analysis (PCA) and least squares fitting (LSF) procedure, applied herein for the first time to qualitatively (number and nature of species) and quantitatively (relative proportion of species) speciate a metal in a natural system. The coarse fraction consists of slag grains originating from nearby Zn smelters. In this fraction, Zn is primarily present as sphalerite (ZnS) and to a lesser extent as willemite (Zn 2SiO 4), Zn-containing ferric (oxyhydr)oxides, and zincite (ZnO). In the fine fraction, ZnS and Zn-containing Fe (oxyhydr)oxides are the major forms, and Zn-containing phyllosilicate is the minor species. Weathering of ZnS, Zn 2SiO 4, and ZnO under oxidizing conditions after the sediment disposal accounts for the uptake of Zn by Fe (oxyhydr)oxides and phyllosilicates. Two geochemical processes can explain the retention of Zn by secondary minerals: uptake on preexisting minerals and precipitation with dissolved Fe and Si. The second process

  7. Elemental analysis by nuclear reactions in selected mineral assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) as a multi-elemental analytical technique for application in geochemical studies has been investigated. The contribution and unique features of PIXE as compared with other well-established analytical techniques is discussed. One such contribution is the analysis of minute (few microgram) grains of separated mineral phases, where these have a low frequency of occurence on the one hand, and / or require meticulous separation or collection on the other hand, or if variations in composition from grain to grain are meaningful. Mineral separates used in the investigation were selected specifically for their significance in geochemical studies related to the mineralisation of the Witwatersrand goldbearing system. These include gold, zircon and chromite. The success of PIXE in the analysis of gold, zircon, chromite and diamond samples is discussed. Comparisons are made of single grain and bulk (many grain) sample analyses and of PIXE measurements on such samples with instrumental activation analysis (INAA). The contribution of such analysis to the study of the evolution of the Witwatersrand system is discussed. The specific features of PIXE were exploited in a search for superheavy elements. A monazite sample from Malaysia was investigated for the occurrence of the element Z = 126. An upper limit of 110 plus minus 33 ppm for the possible concentration of this superheavy element in monazite is deduced

  8. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  9. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S., E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Goto, S.; Takahashi, C. [Takizawa Laboratory, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Cartier, L. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Nakashima, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata, (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  10. Quantitative PIXE analysis of human uterine myoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S. C.; Chu, T. C.; Lin, H. J.; Hsu, C. C.

    1986-11-01

    Twenty-two samples, taken from eight pathological proved uterine myoma patients, were embedded in paraffin and cut into slices of identical thickness (4.0 μm). After deparaffinization, washing and drying, the slices of myomal tissue and their neighboring myometrial tissue were bombarded by 2.0 MeV proton beams from a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The induced characteristic X-rays were then detected and analyzed using a HPGe detector system. The absolute concentrations of trace elements contained in tumors and normal tissues of human myomal uterus were determined, in reference to a known concentration of doped yttrium. Significant correlations between the concentration of elements, both in tumors and in normal tissues, were found.

  11. PIXE application for measurement of bioaccumulation of lead by marine micro-algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were obtained from the Pacific Ocean of Iwate Pref., Japan and purely cultured in nutritive seawater as a culture solution. The culture size for algae was 10-250 ml and every apparatus was small and of low cost. Marine micro-algae were given in different culture solutions including Pb2+ from 0.01 to 1.0 mg/l. The algae in 5 ml of the culture solution were collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 μm) by suction filtration. The algae on the filter were subjected to PIXE analysis. Concentrations of Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb were simultaneously determined. PIXE can do multi-element analysis for a sample of below 1 mg. The quantity of lead in marine micro-algae increases in proportion to the Pb2+ concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factor (wet weight base) for lead is given as 200±20 ml/g for Nannochloropsis sp. and 1900±400 ml/g for Phaeodactylum sp.. It is shown that PIXE is a powerful tool for the measurement of the bioaccumulation of trace elements. (author)

  12. Twenty-five years of study of the atmospheric contamination by means of proton-induced X-ray emission analysis; Veinticinco anos de estudio de la contaminacion atmosferica mediante microanalisis de rayos X inducidos por particula (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F.; Flores M, J., E-mail: francisca.aldape@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Estudios del Ambiente, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    At the present time, the microanalysis technique PIXE is accepted by the scientific community as one of the basic techniques used in the study of airborne particle matter, due to the multiple qualities that this offers for the study of this type of pollutants. The nuclear techniques have important applications in the study and technology of solid materials, archaeology and biomedical studies, and particularly in the study of the particles suspended in the air where the PIXE technique is more used because provides reliable results for the identification and quantification of chemical elements from the aluminum until the uranium, including all the metallic elements. Among the main reasons that have motivated the study of the particles suspended in the air is the fact that these cause effects in the human health. At the moment, the sanitary problems associated to the particles are a reason of great concern in many countries where in very populated cities the total of particles in suspension often surpasses the limits settled down by the World Organization of the Health. (Author)

  13. Matrix correction for PIXE in biomedical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the programs MATRIX2, STPPWRF2 and MUROFIT, which are used for the calculation of the matrix correction factors, which must be applied to concentrations determined by PIXE (Proton induced X-ray emission). The correction takes into account the slowing down of the protons along their path through the specimen, which causes a decreasing X-ray production along this path. Moreover these X-rays are attenuated penetrating the specimen towards to the X-ray detector. The matrix correction factors regard these effects in dependence on the proton impact energy, the specimen and detector geometry, the specimen composition and the energies of the interesting X-rays. (orig.)

  14. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  15. Characterisation by PIXE RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, G.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.; Sauvage, T.; Kemeny, J. L.; Cazenave, A.; Jallot, E.

    2006-09-01

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl 6V 4 or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl 6V 4 and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl 6V 4 debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  16. The MuPix System-on-Chip for the Mu3e Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Heiko; Dittmeier, Sebastian; Grzesik, Carsten; Hammerich, Jan; Huang, Qinhua; Huth, Lennart; Kiehn, Moritz; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Aeschbacher, Frank Meier; Perić, Ivan; Perrevoort, Ann-Kathrin; Schöning, Andre; Shrestha, Shruti; Bruch, Dorothea vom; Wauters, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Mu3e is a novel experiment searching for charged lepton flavor violation in the rare decay $\\mu^+ \\rightarrow e^+e^-e^+$. Decay vertex position, decay time and particle momenta have to be precisely measured in order to reject both accidental and physics background. A silicon pixel tracker based on $50\\,\\mu$m thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) in a 1 T solenoidal magnetic field provides precise vertex and momentum information. The MuPix chip combines pixel sensor cells with integrated analog electronics and a periphery with a complete digital readout. The MuPix7 is the first HV-MAPS prototype implementing all functionalities of the final sensor including a readout state machine and high speed serialization with 1.25 Gbit/s data output, allowing for a streaming readout in parallel to the data taking. The observed efficiency of the MuPix7 chip including the full readout system is $\\geq99\\%$ in a high rate test beam.

  17. Fixed and free line ratio DT2 PIXE fitting and simulation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Marques, J. P.; Barradas, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    The DATTPIXE software package, which full extent version become operational in 1992, has been largely used both in academic research and for standard analysis. Developments of a new PIXE setup, having an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) EDS high resolution detection system and a CdTe detector, raised the need for a deep revision of the software used to fit PIXE spectra and interpret data. First steps taken in 2007 essentially comprised a new fitting code based on a proven Bayesian inference routine. Meanwhile, fundamental processes associated to PIXE spectra, which became more evident in X-ray Microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS) high resolution EDS spectra, made clear the need for a full new code. Using some of the routines developed in DATTPIXE, the new DT2 package is written in Fortran 2003 and includes both the fitting and data handling codes. DT2 is now designed to include in the fitting model and deal with diagram lines as well as with satellite lines (Radiative Auger Emission (RAE), multi-ionization satellites and even chemically shifted lines) or even lines having other origins such as low energy γ-rays. In this communication we present the new DT2 package and discuss its new features, such as the possibility of fixing or leave free the relative intensity of spectra lines, even if they belong to transitions to the same shell.

  18. Micro PIXE and microNRA: associated tools for materials characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boufleur, L.A.; Dias, J.F.; Amaral, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS/IF/LLI), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Ion beam based analytical techniques are widely used for modification, characterization and analysis of materials. One of the motivations for the continued development and application of these techniques part of its high sensitivity for determining and quantifying trace elements in the order of parts per million (ppm), and create images of their distributions and depth profiles. The elemental characterization of homogeneous samples is performed in, general, by combining two complementary techniques: PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) with stationary beams of the order of mm{sup 2}. However, when there are structures in the sample surface and differences in its elemental distribution, we should use the scanning microbeam system, where it reduces the size of the beam to the order μm2. The association between the techniques remain the same, Micro PIXE provides the spatial distribution of elements with Z> 12 and micro RBS allows the study of multilayer solids, with good selectivity for thin layers of heavy elements on light elements substrates. Despite having lower cross sections, the technique of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA- Nuclear Reaction Analysis) can also be used in the microbeam system. The positive point is that through NRA is possible to determine light elements and their isotopes on any substrate. This study shows the possibility of associating micro PIXE and micro RNA for elemental characterization of materials. As an example, we present the elemental characterization of a human hair. Through the micro RNA was possible to determine the presence of carbon, while micro PIXE showed the presence of elements such as: S, K, Ca and Zn in agreement with other studies reported [1]. Samples were irradiated at the Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica (IF-UFRGS), utilizing the 3MV tandem accelerator. Proton beams with energy of 1,75 MeV were selected for analysis of particular micro regions of the hair sample with

  19. {mu}-PIXE and SAXS studies at the bone-cartilage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.uk; Gundogdu, O. [Umuttepe Campus, University of Kocaeli, 41380, Kocaeli (Turkey); Laklouk, A. [Food Science Department, Al-Fateh Unversity, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, City University, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Micro Proton Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed herein in investigating and quantifying the distribution of a number of essential elements in thin human diseased articular cartilage sections affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Various cations Ca, P and Zn have been reported to play an important role both in the normal growth and remodelling of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as well as in the degenerative and inflammatory processes associated with the disease; they act as co-factors of a class of enzymes known as metalloproteinases which are believed to be active during the initiation, progress and remodelling processes associated with osteoarthritis. Other important enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase are associated with cartilage mineralization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) for mapping of elemental distributions in bone and cartilage has also been employed by the present group and others. In the current investigations using the cSAXS beamline at the Swiss light source, Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) was carried out on decalcified human articular cartilage to explore the structural and organizational changes of collagen networks in diseased articular cartilage.

  20. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachenko, Anthony G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: a.kachenko@usyd.edu.au; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Singh, Balwant [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the {mu}-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, {mu}-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, {mu}-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue

  1. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  2. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  3. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  4. In-depth elemental characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells by means of RBS and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karydas, A.G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA Laborarories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Bogdanovic Radovic, I. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Streeck, C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut Technologie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, C.; Caballero, R.; Rissom, T. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Kanngießer, B. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Jaksic, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Barradas, N.P., E-mail: nunoni@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E. N. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    Thin films based on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} are used as absorber cells in photovoltaic devices. In and Ga graded depth profiles are designed to optimize the solar cell performance. Simultaneous Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with 3 MeV {sup 4}He ions were used in conjunction to determine the depth profile of all the heavy elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorbers and complete solar cells. The RBS and PIXE data from one sample were analyzed synergistically, providing reliable depth profiles that satisfy all the data collected. An uncertainty analysis was done, probing the sensitivity of the analysis to different assumptions. The analytical possibilities of the combined RBS/PIXE alpha beam measurements of the CIGSe thin film solar cells, as well as the uncertainties induced in the quantitative methodology are discussed and critically assessed.

  5. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.re@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giudice, Alessandro Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Angelici, Debora [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra and Museo di Storia Naturale, Universita di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  6. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  7. Trace elements in digestive cancer tissue by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental composition study of digestive cancer tissue with different localizations (esophagus, stomach, colon), by using PIXE analysis, is presented. A number of 20 tumors and normal (control) tissue samples was analyzed. Thin targets were prepared by mineralization with nitric acid of the lyophilized tissue and dropping on 2 μm Mylar foil. The measurements were carried out in vacuum using 3 MeV protons delivered by the Tandem Accelerator in Bucharest, Romania. The following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Although the results show relatively large variations from a sample to another, there were obtained mean ratios of tumor/normal concentrations which are significantly greater than one, in the limit of the standard deviation, for the following elements: K(1.45 ± 0.28), Ca(1.30 ± 0.21), Cr(2.33 ± 0.56), and Zn(1.18 ± 0.15). For other elements determined, no significant difference between the tumor and normal tissues , in the limit of the present standard deviation, was found. (authors)

  8. The bio-PIXE setup on the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    concentration values of the inorganic trace elements in negligible extent. The beam current is measured by a compact beam chopper. The morphology and area density of the samples are determined by analyzing STIM spectra and maps. Different detectors and geometries were tested and finally the application of a surface barrier detector in on-axis geometry was found to be optimal [2]. For cross-checking the validation of the obtained data, in a few cases RBS technique was applied simultaneously to determine the thickness of the sample, the concentration of the matrix elements, and to control the reliability of the beam current measured by the chopper. Signals from all detectors are recorded event by event in list mode. The extraction of pixel information and the imaging is done with a new software package developed for true elemental mapping [3]. The new computer code, based on the upgraded PIXEKLM program, generates off-line quantitative true elemental maps and calculates absolute concentration values considering the varying thickness of the sample. The newly developed bio-PIXE setup proved to be a powerful tool in the analysis of biological samples, and has been successfully applied for studying the penetration and clearance of ultra-fine particles containing heavy metals of physical bodycare cosmetics in the different layers of skin within the frame of the NANODERM EU5 project, and for the investigation of calcium distribution in carotid arteries. This work was supported by the 5FP projects NAS-MICRO-XRF and NANO- DERM as well as the Hungarian Research Foundation under contracts Nos. A080, M041939, M36324. (author)

  9. MuPix7 - A fast monolithic HV-CMOS pixel chip for Mu3e

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, H; Dittmeier, S; Hammerich, J; Hartenstein, U; Huang, Q; Huth, L; Immig, D; Kozlinskiy, A; Aeschbacher, F Meier; Perić, I; Perrevoort, A -K; Schöning, A; Shrestha, S; Sorokin, I; Tyukin, A; Bruch, D vom; Wauters, F; Wiedner, D; Zimmermann, M

    2016-01-01

    The MuPix7 chip is a monolithic HV-CMOS pixel chip, thinned down to 50 \\mu m. It provides continuous self-triggered, non-shuttered readout at rates up to 30 Mhits/chip of 3x3 mm^2 active area and a pixel size of 103x80 \\mu m^2. The hit efficiency depends on the chosen working point. Settings with a power consumption of 300 mW/cm^2 allow for a hit efficiency >99.5%. A time resolution of 14.2 ns (Gaussian sigma) is achieved. Latest results from 2016 test beam campaigns are shown.

  10. PIXE evaluation of relative concentrations of mineral elements in commercial dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the restorative dentistry, the silver amalgam was replaced by composites made of mineral particles grounded in an organic polymer. They bring in the organism exogenous elements whose biological action is poorly understood and who can be involved in adverse effects. Nuclear and atomic methods are suited for multielement analysis and the qualitative analysis of dental composites by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was proved to be relevant for assessment of the detected elements' dental and biological significance. Measurement of concentrations is the necessary next step but confronts with considerable difficulties. Here we report semiquantitative evaluation of relative concentrations of mineral elements in the composites. Disk-shaped samples were prepared by polymerization from 10 types of dental composites and covered with carbon. PIXE was performed with 3 MeV protons from a tandem linear accelerator and a HP Ge detector with 0 and 30 mm Al foil and the beam current was integrated. Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag, Zr, Cd, Ba, Yb, Y, Ho, Hf and Pb were detected, many of them at trace levels. Relative concentrations were evaluated using X-ray yields calculated for a simplified thick target light element matrix, accounting for energy loss of protons and X-ray attenuation. In addition, assumptions on the composition of elements not detected by PIXE were done. According to the relative concentrations, the 10 biomaterials grouped distinctly as those dominated by Z = 17 - 30 elements and those containing one or two elements such as Sr, Zr, Ba, Yb (plus Ca in some cases), respectively. Composites with close levels of one major element (e.g. Ba) were clearly differentiated either by concentration ratios or by trace elements. The results allow for the design of further studies of tooth-composite interactions. (authors)

  11. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  12. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [C2RMF-UMR171 Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, Palais du Louvre Porte des Lions, 75001 Paris (France); Salomon, H. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman Bat B15, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Lahlil, S. [C2RMF-UMR171 Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, Palais du Louvre Porte des Lions, 75001 Paris (France); Lebon, M. [C2RMF-UMR171 Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, Palais du Louvre Porte des Lions, 75001 Paris (France); Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement de Prehistoire, UMR 7194, 1 rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Odin, G.P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L. [C2RMF-UMR171 Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, Palais du Louvre Porte des Lions, 75001 Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave 'La grotte du Renne' in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  13. Trace elements in aero transported solid particles in urban and rural atmosphere using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the present study, multi schedule collectors (type Streaker) were located, in four places selected by their relative location, to possible fountains of identifiable s particles. The cooperation among the Nuclear Laboratory PIXE of the State University of Florida, U.S.A. Permitted the irradiation of the collected samples, using the facilities of the Accelerator Van der Graaff of 4 MeV. The x-rays spectra emission,were valued in the Laboratory LAFNA and the Laboratory PIXE, using the Hex computational code. They were determined among 12 and 15 chemical elements to level of plans, quantity that depends on the place of recollection. The statistical analysis of the data recollected, was carried out applying analysis of factors. This statistical program of analysis, permits the regroup of the elements, depending on the systematic variation of the concentrations. A graphic analysis of distribution was carried out, besides, schedule of the hours of I continuous monitoring. This permits to observe its own singularities. Giving the opportunity to determine, possible fountains of origin of the collected particles. (author)

  14. GridPix detectors: production and beam test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppert, W.J.C.; Bakel, van N.; Bilevych, Y.; Colas, P.; Desch, K.; Fransen, M.; Graaf, van der H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; Kaminski, J.; Schmitz, J.; Schön, R.; Zappon, F.

    2013-01-01

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron

  15. New bounds for the prime counting function \\pi(x)

    OpenAIRE

    Axler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we establish a number of new estimates concerning the prime counting function \\pi(x), which improve the estimates proved in the literature. As an application, we deduce a new result concerning the existence of prime numbers in small intervals.

  16. CdTe detector based PIXE mapping of geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, P.C., E-mail: cchaves@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Taborda, A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, D.P.S. de [Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2611-901 Alfragide (Portugal); Reis, M.A. [Centro de Física Atómica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    A sample collected from a borehole drilled approximately 10 km ESE of Bragança, Trás-os-Montes, was analysed by standard and high energy PIXE at both CTN (previous ITN) PIXE setups. The sample is a fine-grained metapyroxenite grading to coarse-grained in the base with disseminated sulphides and fine veinlets of pyrrhotite and pyrite. Matrix composition was obtained at the standard PIXE setup using a 1.25 MeV H{sup +} beam at three different spots. Medium and high Z elemental concentrations were then determined using the DT2fit and DT2simul codes (Reis et al., 2008, 2013 [1,2]), on the spectra obtained in the High Resolution and High Energy (HRHE)-PIXE setup (Chaves et al., 2013 [3]) by irradiation of the sample with a 3.8 MeV proton beam provided by the CTN 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In this paper we present results, discuss detection limits of the method and the added value of the use of the CdTe detector in this context.

  17. CdTe detector use for PIXE characterization of TbCoFe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier cooled CdTe detectors have good efficiency beyond the range of energies normally covered by Si(Li) detectors, the most common detectors in PIXE applications. An important advantage of CdTe detectors is the possibility of studying K X-rays lines instead the L X-rays lines in various cases since CdTe detectors present an energy efficiency plateau reaching 70 keV or more. The ITN CdTe useful energy range starts at K-Kα (3.312 keV) and goes up to 120 keV, just above the energy of the lowest γ-ray of the 19F(p, p'γ)19F reaction. In the new ITN HRHE-PIXE line, a CdTe detector is associated to a POLARIS microcalorimeter X-ray detector built by Vericold Technologies GmbH (an Oxford Instruments Group Company). The ITN POLARIS has a resolution of 15 eV at 1.486 keV (Al-Kα) and 24 eV at 10.550 keV (Pb-Lα1). In the present work, a TbCoFe thin film deposited on a Si substrate was analysed at the HRHE-PIXE system. The good efficiency of the CdTe detector at 45 keV (Tb-Kα), and the excellent resolution of POLARIS microcalorimeter at 6.403 keV (Fe-Kα), are presented and the new possibilities open to the IBA analysis of systems with traditionally overlapping X-rays and near mass elements are discussed.

  18. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, Zoë; Belton, David; Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson

    2008-01-01

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  19. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubleday, Zoe [Marine Research Laboratories, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)], E-mail: zoeanned@utas.edu.au; Belton, David [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, University of Melbourne (School of Physics), Melbourne 3010 (Australia); Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson [Marine Research Laboratories, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2008-01-15

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  20. Structures of cyanobacteriochromes from phototaxis regulators AnPixJ and TePixJ reveal general and specific photoconversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narikawa, Rei; Ishizuka, Takami; Muraki, Norifumi; Shiba, Tomoo; Kurisu, Genji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2013-01-15

    Cyanobacteriochromes are cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors that share a bilin-binding GAF domain with photoreceptors of the phytochrome family. Cyanobacteriochromes are divided into many subclasses with distinct spectral properties. Among them, putative phototaxis regulators PixJs of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (denoted as AnPixJ and TePixJ, respectively) are representative of subclasses showing red-green-type and blue/green-type reversible photoconversion, respectively. Here, we determined crystal structures for the AnPixJ GAF domain in its red-absorbing 15Z state (Pr) and the TePixJ GAF domain in its green-absorbing 15E state (Pg). The overall structure of these proteins is similar to each other and also similar to known phytochromes. Critical differences found are as follows: (i) the chromophore of AnPixJ Pr is phycocyanobilin in a C5-Z,syn/C10-Z,syn/C15-Z,anti configuration and that of TePixJ Pg is phycoviolobilin in a C10-Z,syn/C15-E,anti configuration, (ii) a side chain of the key aspartic acid is hydrogen bonded to the tetrapyrrole rings A, B and C in AnPixJ Pr and to the pyrrole ring D in TePixJ Pg, (iii) additional protein-chromophore interactions are provided by subclass-specific residues including tryptophan in AnPixJ and cysteine in TePixJ. Possible structural changes following the photoisomerization of the chromophore between C15-Z and C15-E are discussed based on the X-ray structures at 1.8 and 2.0-Å resolution, respectively, in two distinct configurations. PMID:23256156

  1. Air quality study by PIXE method and mosses as bioindicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of different atomic and nuclear methods to environmental monitoring. Mosses are particularly effective biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal contamination because of their bioaccumulative properties. These plant groups are amenable to biomonitoring because they are widespread, easy to handle and they lack a cuticle and root system thus reflecting directly atmospheric heavy metal deposition. The ability of moss to accumulate elements in very high concentrations aids chemical analyses of the tissues and may facilitate the detection of elements present in very low concentrations in the environment. High bioaccumulation ability, particularly for heavy metals, where metal concentrations reflect deposition without the complication of additional uptake via a root system, is a chief reason for using moss in air pollution monitoring. Our study was focused on the town of Targoviste and neighboring area, where industrial activity is the main source of pollutants. The main polluting industries in the area under investigation include: a stainless steel mill (Targoviste), cement and related materials production (Fieni), glass and lighting sources production (Targoviste, Fieni), chemicals makers (Targoviste, Doicesti), coal mining and thermal power station (Doicesti), oil drilling (Targoviste, Moreni, Gaiesti). Determination in the samples of environmentally important elements like: Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni and Zn, was carried out using the PIXE method by means of a 3 MeV proton beam extracted from the TANDEM accelerator at IFIN-HH Magurele, Bucharest. The quality of the chemical analyses will be checked by means of appropriate international certified reference materials. The authors of the project expect to extend their study beyond these few towns to the entire Dambovita County. The results of the study will be used for establishing correlations between environmental and epidemiological data in the examined area. (authors)

  2. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-07-01

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins.

  3. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulapakorn, T. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@gmail.com [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Singkarat, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-07-15

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins.

  4. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins

  5. Evaluation of cryoanalysis as a tool for analyzing elemental distribution in “live” tardigrades using micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, E.J.C., E-mail: charlotta.nilsson@nuclear.lu.se [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Pallon, J., E-mail: jan.pallon@nuclear.lu.se [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Przybylowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Wang, Y.D., E-mail: yaodongw@hotmail.com [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Jönsson, K.I., E-mail: ingemar.jonsson@hkr.se [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Although heavy on labor and equipment, thus not often applied, cryoanalysis of frozen hydrated biological specimens can provide information that better reflects the living state of the organism, compared with analysis in the freeze-dried state. In this paper we report a study where the cryoanalysis facility with cryosectioning capabilities at Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, South Africa was employed to evaluate the usefulness of combining three ion beam analytical methods (μPIXE, RBS and STIM) to analyze a biological target where a better elemental compositional description is needed – the tardigrade. Imaging as well as quantification results are of interest. In a previous study, the element composition and redistribution of elements in the desiccated and active states of two tardigrade species was investigated. This study included analysis of both whole and sectioned tardigrades, and the aim was to analyze each specimen twice; first frozen hydrated and later freeze-dried. The combination of the three analytical techniques proved useful: elements from C to Rb in the tardigrades could be determined and certain differences in distribution of elements between the frozen hydrated and the freeze-dried states were observed. RBS on frozen hydrated specimens provided knowledge of matrix elements.

  6. Elemental distribution patterns in the skins of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) from a mass stranding in South Africa, analysed using micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, M.; Botha, A.; Thornton, M.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    Several studies revealed that anthropogenic activities often cause toxic concentrations of some elements, such as mercury, which bio-accumulate through the marine food chain, impacting negatively on the health of animals in the top trophic levels, such as a variety of marine mammals. Moreover, analysis of cetacean skin has been reported to be a reliable, long-term and mostly non-invasive method to monitor bio-accumulation of chemicals in cetacean populations. Several elements, including trace elements, occur naturally in cetacean skin, although nothing is known about their distribution patterns and little about safe base line concentrations. In May 2009, 42 false killer whales (FKWs) beached and died at Kommetjie in the Western Cape of South Africa. Skin samples of these FKWs were collected and analysed to determine elemental distribution patterns. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the major, as well as detectable trace elements were determined in skin samples from ten randomly selected FKW individuals, using micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis. Results revealed differences between the distribution patterns of elements in the skin sections. Fe, for example, was found to be concentrated in the dermal papillae, whereas the highest Zn concentrations occurred in the epidermis and particularly in the epidermal papillae. Since these essential elements mediate factors such as host immunity, from skin integrity to humoral immunity, knowledge of their typical distribution patterns can be of great value in studies of bio-accumulation. This is the first report of micro-PIXE being employed to study elemental distribution in cetacean skin and the resulting elemental distribution maps can serve as reference in future environmental pollution studies.

  7. The PixFEL project: development of advanced X-ray pixel detectors for application at future FEL facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Pancheri, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.; Mendicino, R.; Benkechkache, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    The PixFEL project aims to develop an advanced X-ray camera for imaging suited for the demanding requirements of next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities. New technologies can be deployed to boost the performance of imaging detectors as well as future pixel devices for tracking. In the first phase of the PixFEL project, approved by the INFN, the focus will be on the development of the microelectronic building blocks, carried out with a 65 nm CMOS technology, implementing a low noise analog front-end channel with high dynamic range and compression features, a low power ADC and high density memory. At the same time PixFEL will investigate and implement some of the enabling technologies to assembly a seamless large area X-ray camera composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. A pixel matrix with active edge will be developed to minimize the dead area of the sensor layer. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be explored to build a four-side buttable readout chip with small pixel pitch and all the on-board required functionalities. The ambitious target requirements of the new pixel device are: single photon resolution, 1 to 104 photons @ 1 keV to 10 keV input dynamic range, 10-bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, 1 kevent in-pixel memory and 100 μm pixel pitch. The long term goal of PixFEL will be the development of a versatile X-ray camera to be operated either in burst mode (European XFEL), or in continuous mode to cope with the high frame rates foreseen for the upgrade phase of the LCLS-II at SLAC.

  8. Characterisation by PIXE-RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)]. E-mail: geoffroy.guibert@he-arc.ch; Irigaray, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Moretto, Ph. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 5797, Le Haut Vigneau, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches par Irradiation, CNRS Orleans France, 3A rue de la ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Kemeny, J.L. [CHU, Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Universite d' Auvergne, 63100 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cazenave, A. [Institut Calot, 62608 Berck sur Mer Cedex (France); Jallot, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  9. A PIXE/PIGE study of gold mineralisation in lateritic terrain, Tanami Desert, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Moort, J.C.; Li, X. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia). Geologic Department

    1997-12-31

    Proton induced X-ray and {gamma}-ray emission (PIXE/PIGE) have been used to analyze major and trace elements in a suite of 140 core samples from around of the Jim`s Find South gold anomaly in the Tanami desert, located in heavily weathered terrain. Simultaneous analyses were obtained for 30 elements, ranging in atomic number from {sup 3}Li to {sup 90}Th. The method was chosen because of its speed and the wide range of determination, its flexibility, precision and low detection limits. The regolith powder samples were treated by hot aqua regia before making them into pills. The PIXE/PIGE data of the acid insoluble residue give three factor analysis clusters. The first cluster comprises the elements F, Al, K, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, Rb, W and Au and is essentially related to sericitic wallrock alteration. The second cluster consists of Ti, As, Y, Zr, and Nb and is largely related to resistant minerals. The third cluster consists of Na, Ca and Sr and is interpreted to comprise elements in weatherable minerals such as feldspar and thus represents weathering intensity. While the Rb/K ratio and the product of As x Cu x Ni provide the best surface expression of the gold mineralisation, the Rb/AI ratio provides the best expression of the sericitic alteration around the ore body. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  10. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corregidor, V., E-mail: vicky.corregidor@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal); Oliveira, A.R. [CCR-Centro de Conservação e Restauro, R. do Ginjal, 11, 2950-685 Palmela (Portugal); Rodrigues, P.A. [LATR, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2695-066 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken’s workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist’s works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings.

  11. Micro-PIXE analyses of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryo-micro-PIXE system and methodology of microanalysis of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections is described. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen by metal–mirror method and sections of 20–50 micron thickness were prepared. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. The results of repetitive analyses of standards prepared from gelatin–glycerol solution with added known concentrations of K, Ni, Cu, Zn were in good agreement with expected, calculated values. Mass losses and changes of elemental composition were monitored. Elemental maps obtained for frozen-hydrated semi-thick section of Ni hyperaccumulator Senecio coronatus showed excellent preservation of leaf morphology and the distribution of elements. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed similar distribution pattern in both cases. It is clear, however, that freeze-drying induces some distortion of cell morphology and specimen shrinkage

  12. The role of micro-NRA and micro-PIXE in carbon mapping of organic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekraszewicz, L.A.B. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M.; Jobim, P.F.C. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amaral, L. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F., E-mail: jfdias@if.ufrgs.br [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-01

    This study reports the work developed in the Ion Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil) in order to implement the micro-NRA technique for the study of light elements in organic tissues. In particular, the work was focused on nuclear reactions employing protons and alphas with carbon. The (p,p) resonances at 0.475 and 1.734 were investigated. The (α,α) resonance at 4.265 MeV was studied as well. The results indicate that the yields for the 0.475 and 1.734 MeV resonances are similar. Elemental maps of different structures obtained with the micro-NRA technique using the 1.734 MeV resonance were compared with those obtained with micro-PIXE employing a SDD detector equipped with an ultra-thin window. The results show that the use of micro-NRA for carbon at 1.734 MeV resonance provides good results in some cases at the expense of longer beam times. On the other hand, micro-PIXE provides enhanced yields but is limited to surface analysis since soft X-rays are greatly attenuated by matter.

  13. Micro-PIXE mapping of mineral distribution in mature grain of two pearl millet cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis-Ndimba, R.; Kruger, J.; Taylor, J. R. N.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) was used to map the distribution of several nutritionally important minerals found in the grain tissue of two cultivars of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). The distribution maps revealed that the predominant localisation of minerals was within the germ (consisting of the scutellum and embryo) and the outer grain layers (specifically the pericarp and aleurone); whilst the bulk of the endosperm tissue featured relatively low concentrations of the surveyed minerals. Within the germ, the scutellum was revealed as a major storage tissue for P and K, whilst Ca, Mn and Zn were more prominent within the embryo. Fe was revealed to have a distinctive distribution pattern, confined to the dorsal end of the scutellum; but was also highly concentrated in the outer grain layers. Interestingly, the hilar region was also revealed as a site of high accumulation of minerals, particularly for S, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, which may be part of a defensive strategy against infection or damage. Differences between the two cultivars, in terms of the bulk Fe and P content obtained via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), concurred with the average concentration data determined from the analysis of micro-PIXE spectra specifically extracted from the endosperm tissue.

  14. A PIXE/PIGE study of gold mineralisation in lateritic terrain, Tanami Desert, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray and γ-ray emission (PIXE/PIGE) have been used to analyze major and trace elements in a suite of 140 core samples from around of the Jim's Find South gold anomaly in the Tanami desert, located in heavily weathered terrain. Simultaneous analyses were obtained for 30 elements, ranging in atomic number from 3Li to 90Th. The method was chosen because of its speed and the wide range of determination, its flexibility, precision and low detection limits. The regolith powder samples were treated by hot aqua regia before making them into pills. The PIXE/PIGE data of the acid insoluble residue give three factor analysis clusters. The first cluster comprises the elements F, Al, K, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, Rb, W and Au and is essentially related to sericitic wallrock alteration. The second cluster consists of Ti, As, Y, Zr, and Nb and is largely related to resistant minerals. The third cluster consists of Na, Ca and Sr and is interpreted to comprise elements in weatherable minerals such as feldspar and thus represents weathering intensity. While the Rb/K ratio and the product of As x Cu x Ni provide the best surface expression of the gold mineralisation, the Rb/AI ratio provides the best expression of the sericitic alteration around the ore body

  15. Trace elements in human cancerous and healthy tissues: A comparative study by EDXRF, TXRF, synchrotron radiation and PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt; Magalhaes, T. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Becker, M.; Bohlen, A. von [Institute for Analytical Sciences (ISAS), Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    It is known that trace elements play an important role in a number of biological processes. These include the activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions, competition between elements and metal proteins for binding positions and modifications in the permeability of cellular membranes. These elements may also influence carcinogenic processes, thus the knowledge of trace element concentrations in healthy and neoplastic tissues might help in diagnostic and in the etiology and development of cancer. This work intends to give an overview of the achieved results in the analysis of several healthy and neoplastic human tissues, using multi-elemental techniques. The described measurements were carried out by means of synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A brief description of each method is given and the analytical results discussed and compared. There is a good agreement between the results obtained with the several techniques for the same tissue. However, the behavior of the elements is not always the same for the several analyzed tissues.

  16. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  17. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S., E-mail: chris@freemantle.co.za [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd.), P.O. Box 27559, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  18. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century

  19. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, X.M. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China); Guo, M.S. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China)

    2005-10-15

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  20. Calibration of PIXE yields using binary thin films on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meersschaut, J., E-mail: Johan.Meersschaut@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Carbonel, J.; Popovici, M. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zhao, Q.; Vantomme, A. [IKS, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IKS, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    We describe the use of binary thin films on Si to calibrate the yields in proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements. Besides of the element to be calibrated, the standards also contain a common reference element. The incorporation of a common reference element allows one to eliminate errors in the accumulated beam charge during the calibration of the PIXE set-up. The binary calibration standards allow us to determine the response function with an accuracy close to 1%. As an example, we will perform the calibration for Fe and Co, and we will determine the Co concentration in Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x} thin films.

  1. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes

  2. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  3. PIXE facility at Centro Atómico Bariloche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limandri, S.; Olivares, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Bernardi, G.; Suárez, S.

    2014-01-01

    A 1.7 MeV tandem accelerator has been recently installed at Centro Atómico Bariloche, Argentina. This communication includes a brief description of the system facility with the main associated equipment, in particular that used for PIXE measurements. The X-ray detector efficiency was experimentally determined by comparing X-ray characteristic spectra with theoretical predictions. The knowledge of this parameter allows us to perform quantification without standards with good precision.

  4. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppert, W.J.C., E-mail: wkoppert@nikhef.nl [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bakel, N. van [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bilevych, Y. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Colas, P. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desch, K. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fransen, M.; Graaf, H. van der; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaminski, J. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Schmitz, J. [University of Twente, Mesa Institute for Nanotechnology, Enschede (Netherlands); Schön, R.; Zappon, F. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-21

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip.

  5. Preliminary experiments: High-energy alpha PIXE in archaeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, Thomas, E-mail: T.Dupuis@ulg.ac.b [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G.; Mathis, F. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Marchal, A.; Philippe, M.; Garnir, H.-P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes the work realized at the 'Centre Europeen d'Archeometrie' to highlight the utility of high-energy alpha PIXE in the particular field of archaeometry and to introduce the developments done and to be done to complete the knowledge of high-energy alpha PIXE. It starts with the comparison of the yield and the noise background between several alpha particle beams and the comparison between alpha particle and proton beams on different thick and thin references. After, this paper depicts the developments done at the 'Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie' to perform such high-energy experiments, first on standards and later on cultural heritage objects. Moreover, it introduces the problematics of such beams for the quantification in PIXE by the intermediary of the knowledge of the ionization and X-ray production cross-sections and also the developments done to answer to this serious lack in the databases.

  6. Environmental applications of PIXE at the Institute of Physics, UNAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, C.; Mireles, A.; Andrade, E. [IFUNAM, AP 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Zolezzi R, H. [Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, UNAM, CU, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx

    2007-07-01

    The particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE), developed by Johansson and colleagues in Lund, Sweden, in the 70's has been used since then in a high number of studies requiring detection and quantification of trace elements at high sensitivity (better than I mg/kg). PIXE is grouped among the nuclear analytical techniques because the samples are bombarded with particles (protons generally) accelerated in an accelerator. When protons interact with matter an X-Ray spectrum is produced by the deexcitation of atoms in the sample. From this spectrum the elements contained in the sample as well as their concentrations can be determined. In this work we describe the PIXE technique and several applications in the environmental field developed at the Institute of Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (IFUNAM). These practical applications include field studies for analyses of suspended particles in air using tree leaves, irrigation water quality based on heavy metal analyses, and analyses of trace elements in plants cultivated in waste water irrigated soil. (Author)

  7. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppert, W. J. C.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Colas, P.; Desch, K.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N. P.; Kaminski, J.; Schmitz, J.; Schön, R.; Zappon, F.

    2013-12-01

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip.

  8. PIXE/RBS Studies on Ancient Pottery from Jinsha Ruins Site of Chengdu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinsha Ruins Site, Chengdu, China, spanned the age from late Shang Dynasty to Western Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1200-B.C.650), was generally considered as the inheritance of Sanxingdui Culture. This paper focuses on the studies of the pottery unearthed from Jinsha. PIXE and RBS experimental setup was preliminarily established and these techniques were employed to find the elemental composition of those collected shards. From the results of factor analysis,the differences can be seen among pottery shards from different stratums, which may suggest that the clay gathered from different sites was used in different periods. The authors also found that there was no obvious assemblage phenomenon in the factor analysis among the pottery shards from different pits, this may be the evidence for 'no special clay for special use'. (authors)

  9. Color Tuning in Red/Green Cyanobacteriochrome AnPixJ: Photoisomerization at C15 Causes an Excited-State Destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Narikawa, Rei; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Matysik, Jörg

    2015-07-30

    Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are cyanobacterial phytochrome-like photoreceptors that carry a single or several GAF (cGMP phosphodiesterase/adenylyl cyclase/FhlA) domains in a repetitive manner. Unlike phytochromes that photoswitch between red-absorbing 15Z Pr and far-red-absorbing 15E Pfr states, CBCRs exhibit a much wider spectral activity. One of the best-characterized CBCRs, the phototaxis regulator PixJ of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, AnPixJ can adopt two thermally stable photoreversible states, a red-absorbing dark state (Pr) and a green-absorbing photoproduct (Pg). Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy on AnPixJ assembled in vitro with uniformly (13)C- and (15)N-labeled phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophore identifies changes of the electronic structure of the chromophore between the two states. Results are compared with the data from red- and far-red-absorbing forms of the complete sensory module of cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 aiming at a conceptual understanding of the distinct photoproduct (Pg vs Pfr) absorbances upon Pr photoconversion. The PCB chromophore in the Pr state of both photosensors exhibits very similar spectral features. The photoconversion of Cph1 and the red/green switching AnPixJ C15-Z/E photoisomerization result in a very similar chemical-shift difference (Δδ) pattern having, however, opposite sign. The persistence of this pattern confirms the identity of the photochemical isomerization process, while the difference in its sign demonstrates that the same electronic factors drive into opposite direction. It is proposed that the LUMO energy of the 15E photoproduct is stabilized in Cph1 but destabilized in AnPixJ leading to opposite color shifts upon phototransformation. PMID:26115331

  10. Visualization of trace-element zoning in fluorapatite using BSE and CL imaging, and EPMA and μPIXE/μPIGE mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Munnik, Frans; Götze, Jens; Rhede, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, zonation patterns of trace elements in fluorapatite are discussed that were visualized using four analytical techniques, namely back-scattered electrons (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and micro-proton-induced X-ray/gamma ray emission (μPIXE/μPIGE) mapping. Each method demonstrates the in-grain compositional variations in a slightly different way. Both BSE and CL provide qualitative data, and the internal textures are displayed in most detail. Additionally, CL points to specific elements enriched in certain growth zones. Qualitative EPMA maps show detailed zonation patterns for specific elements (with high spatial resolution), which are in general correspondence with the patterns observed in BSE and CL images. The μPIXE/μPIGE maps are fully quantitative and the detection limits are relatively low compared to EPMA mapping. In present spot measurements μPIXE demonstrates lower detection limits than EPMA, however, the latter could be considerably improved by extending the acquisition times. There is no significant overlap of REE (rare earth elements) peaks in the acquired μPIXE energy spectra, however, when multiple REEs are present with sufficiently high concentrations, peak deconvolution may pose some difficulties. Spatial resolution of μPIXE/μPIGE images is not sufficiently high to reflect minor textural features, which also result from the greater interaction depth of the proton beam. However, major growth zones are distinguishable. Even though each method has their advantages and limitations, when applied together, they provide an almost complete characterization of compositional variability in trace-element-bearing minerals.

  11. Study of medieval enamelling on gilded objects combining SEM-EDAX and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of fragments of metallic artefacts from the medieval period excavated from Ciudad Real in Spain has been studied. The objects are gilded copper buckles with a champleve enamelling decoration. The composition of predominantly blue-coloured enamels has been analysed using three non-destructive techniques, SEM-EDAX (scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Analyses show that Co is responsible for the blue colour. The results of the two techniques are compared, as well as the main components which constitute the enamel. Analyses suggest that Cu is responsible for red colour. (orig.)

  12. Study of medieval enamelling on gilded objects combining SEM-EDAX and PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamon, J.; Barrio, J.; Arroyo, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), SECYR Laboratory, Departamento de Arqueologia y Prehistoria, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, P.C.; Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A set of fragments of metallic artefacts from the medieval period excavated from Ciudad Real in Spain has been studied. The objects are gilded copper buckles with a champleve enamelling decoration. The composition of predominantly blue-coloured enamels has been analysed using three non-destructive techniques, SEM-EDAX (scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Analyses show that Co is responsible for the blue colour. The results of the two techniques are compared, as well as the main components which constitute the enamel. Analyses suggest that Cu is responsible for red colour. (orig.)

  13. Compositional and structural studies of the bone-cartilage interface using PIXE and SAXS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W., E-mail: W.kaabar@surrey.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Laklouk, A. [Al-Fateh University, Tripoli-Libya (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Bunk, O. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Baily, M. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Farquharson, M.J. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, David [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-21

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) analysis has been employed in investigating the presence of number of essential anions and cations in thin sections of diseased human articular cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Distribution maps for Ca, P, K and S in diseased sections show marked alterations in the concentrations of these at the bone-cartilage interface compared to normal tissue. For a decalcified section of human articular cartilage, organisational changes of the collagen network were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The established gradual reorientation of collagen fibres from vertical to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface is observed to be heavily disrupted in OA.

  14. Estimation of trace elements in some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ramana Murty, G.A.V. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ravi Kumar, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lakshminarayana, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seshi Reddy, T. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: sbr-r@yahoo.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751 005, Orissa (India)

    2006-08-15

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials.

  15. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  16. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.)

  17. The scrapers of obsidian from Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Typology and tools function with the application of the Sem, PIXE and NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 50 years have been enormous changes and the archaeology has been benefited with the technology development, as computation, the advancements in nuclear physics, the electron microscopy, the particle accelerator and the DNA analysis. As first approach to studied material it was realized in cabinet the morphological and technological analysis to establish a typology and to know the manufacturer process of the scrapers (tool used for to scrape a cavity after cutting its lance-shaping leaves at the maguey core obtaining so the sap commonly named hydromel at the Hidalgo state region in Mexico). On the other hand the studies which carried out in the ININ consist in the functional analysis of use traces in scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and stereoscopic to know about the type of work which were addressed the scrapers. Also were carried out the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with the purpose to know the obsidian site which was supplied the Dominion population. (Author)

  18. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  19. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  20. Chemical Identification of Archaeological Obsidian from Lagartero, Chiapas, Mexico, Using Main and Trace Elements Determined by PIXE. Chapter 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis has been used for determination of minor and trace element concentrations of archaeological obsidian samples, which were collected at the site at Lagartero, Chiapas, Mexico. Samples of Mexican and Guatemalan sources were also analysed. Statistical treatments such as principal component analyses were applied to the data set. Obsidians from Lagartero were identified as coming from the Guatemalan sources of Ixtepeque and El Chayal, with one sample from Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Mexico. These results indicate that there was contact between the population of Lagartero and other Mayans or Mesoamericans. (author)

  1. Characterization of a millefiori glass find from Aquincum by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzonyi, I., E-mail: uzonyi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); Csontos, K.; Verebes, A. [Budapest History Museum, Aquincum Museum H-8211 Budapest, Zahony u. 4. (Hungary); Cserhati, C. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen H-4032 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/B (Hungary); Csedreki, L.; Kis-Varga, M.; Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    Research has been focused on the analysis of archaeological glasses from the Roman age and medieval times. Study of ancient millefiori type glasses from the collection of Hungarian Museums has been started. A test measurement, carried out on a glass fragment supposedly part of a dish, was performed by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods. Complementary analytical data were obtained for texture and composition. Results suggest that Roman and Mesopotamian techniques were used together. Our data contribute to data bases of millefiori glasses.

  2. The PixFEL project: Progress towards a fine pitch X-ray imaging camera for next generation FEL facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    The INFN PixFEL project is developing the fundamental building blocks for a large area X-ray imaging camera to be deployed at next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities with unprecedented intensity. Improvement in performance beyond the state of art in imaging instrumentation will be explored adopting advanced technologies like active edge sensors, a 65 nm node CMOS process and vertical integration. These are the key ingredients of the PixFEL project to realize a seamless large area focal plane instrument composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. In order to minimize the dead area and reduce ambiguities in image reconstruction, a fine pitch active edge thick sensor is being optimized to cope with very high intensity photon flux, up to 104 photons per pixel, in the range from 1 to 10 keV. A low noise analog front-end channel with this wide dynamic range and a novel dynamic compression feature, together with a low power 10 bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, has been realized in a 110 μm pitch with a 65 nm CMOS process. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be also explored in the future to build a four-side buttable readout chip with high density memories. In the long run the objective of the PixFEL project is to build a flexible X-ray imaging camera for operation both in burst mode, like at the European X-FEL, or in continuous mode with the high frame rates anticipated for future FEL facilities.

  3. Accelerator based techniques for aerosol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN (Florence, Italy) an external beam facility is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols. Examples regarding recent monitoring campaigns, performed in urban and remote areas, both on a daily basis and with high time resolution, as well as with size selection, will be presented. It will be evidenced how PIXE can provide unique information in aerosol studies or can play a complementary role to traditional chemical analysis. Finally a short presentation of 14C analysis of the atmospheric aerosol by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for the evaluation of the contributions from either fossil fuel combustion or modern sources (wood burning, biogenic activity) will be given. (author)

  4. Pre-Hispanic ceramics analyzed using PIXE and radiographic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, S.C., E-mail: sclima@mae.usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Added, N.; Barbosa, M.D.L.; Trindade, G.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fleming, M.I.D.A. [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Ceramics objects are the most common artifacts found during excavation of archaeological sites and often depicts cultural habits and manufacturing technologies of the culture. The determination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the ceramic objects such as the ceramic porosity, addition of tempers in the clay, main chemical components and the trace elements present in the ceramic can reveal many aspects about the manufacturing processes used by the culture, its degree of development, the provenance of the raw materials and the exchange networks. Also the radiography can help to investigate the manufactured processes, the size of the tempers used and the conservation status of the artifacts. In this present work two non-destructive techniques, radiography and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) were used to characterize one set of thirty-six pre-Hispanic ceramic pieces from the Chimu Culture conserved in the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP). The PIXE analyses performed in the external beam setup at LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos) allowed measure the principal chemical elements such as Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe and Ca, present in this group of pieces. X-ray imagings allowed identify the manufacture processes, the granularity of the tempers used, as well as the similarity and the differences between the pieces studied.

  5. VeloPix ASIC for the LHCb VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cid Vidal, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full detector readout at 40 MHz. LHCb will run without a hardware trigger and all data will be fed directly to the software triggering algorithms in the CPU farm. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight silicon hybrid pixel detector with 55 um square pixels, operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb luminosity requirements. VeloPix is a binary pixel chip with a matrix of 256 x 256 pixels, covering an area of 2 cm^2. It is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, and is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s/ASIC, resulting in a data rate of more than 16 Gbit/s. Combining pixels into groups of 2x4 super-pixels enables the use of shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combine...

  6. Pre-Hispanic ceramics analyzed using PIXE and radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramics objects are the most common artifacts found during excavation of archaeological sites and often depicts cultural habits and manufacturing technologies of the culture. The determination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the ceramic objects such as the ceramic porosity, addition of tempers in the clay, main chemical components and the trace elements present in the ceramic can reveal many aspects about the manufacturing processes used by the culture, its degree of development, the provenance of the raw materials and the exchange networks. Also the radiography can help to investigate the manufactured processes, the size of the tempers used and the conservation status of the artifacts. In this present work two non-destructive techniques, radiography and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) were used to characterize one set of thirty-six pre-Hispanic ceramic pieces from the Chimu Culture conserved in the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP). The PIXE analyses performed in the external beam setup at LAMFI (Laboratório de Análise de Materiais por Feixes Iônicos) allowed measure the principal chemical elements such as Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe and Ca, present in this group of pieces. X-ray imagings allowed identify the manufacture processes, the granularity of the tempers used, as well as the similarity and the differences between the pieces studied.

  7. PIXE facility at Centro Atómico Bariloche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limandri, S. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Olivares, C. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Rodriguez, L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Bernardi, G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Suárez, S., E-mail: suarez@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. E. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)

    2014-01-01

    A 1.7 MeV tandem accelerator has been recently installed at Centro Atómico Bariloche, Argentina. This communication includes a brief description of the system facility with the main associated equipment, in particular that used for PIXE measurements. The X-ray detector efficiency was experimentally determined by comparing X-ray characteristic spectra with theoretical predictions. The knowledge of this parameter allows us to perform quantification without standards with good precision. We show some recent applications of PIXE in archaeology and forensic science done at our laboratory. In the archaeological field we determined elements constituent of pastes and black, white, brown and ocher pigments from Aguada Portezuelo Culture (600–900 AD). This study allowed us to infer about the presence of psilomelante mineral (a mineral with barium) as precursor of some black pigments. In the forensic field we determined trace elements that are present in seven gunpowders commonly used in Argentina. We note that any gunpowder can be distinguished by the presence of trace elements.

  8. The scrapers of obsidian from Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Typology and tools function with the application of the Sem, PIXE and NAA techniques; Los raspadores de obsidiana del senorio de Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Tipologia y funcion de herramientas con la aplicacion de tecnicas de SEM, PIXE y NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde R, S.V.; Mandujano A, C

    2000-07-01

    In the last 50 years have been enormous changes and the archaeology has been benefited with the technology development, as computation, the advancements in nuclear physics, the electron microscopy, the particle accelerator and the DNA analysis. As first approach to studied material it was realized in cabinet the morphological and technological analysis to establish a typology and to know the manufacturer process of the scrapers (tool used for to scrape a cavity after cutting its lance-shaping leaves at the maguey core obtaining so the sap commonly named hydromel at the Hidalgo state region in Mexico). On the other hand the studies which carried out in the ININ consist in the functional analysis of use traces in scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and stereoscopic to know about the type of work which were addressed the scrapers. Also were carried out the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with the purpose to know the obsidian site which was supplied the Dominion population. (Author)

  9. Bio-PIXE. Theory and applications. Chapter 5. Application to the clinics. (1) Trace elements in sera from patients with acute myocardial infarction and renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yoshinori [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-12-01

    Recent interests in trace element metabolism in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients led authors to measure serum concentrations of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb , etc. by PIXE. Subjects were 24 AMI patients and 22 healthy normal adults. Serum sample after mixed with silver nitrate, a 10 {mu}l portion, was dropped onto the polypropylene film and dried for PIXE target, to which 2.9 MeV proton beam was irradiated. Characteristic X-rays were detected by Si(Li) detector for multi-channel analysis and data processing with SAPIX program. Fe, Zn and Se concentrations were found higher in patients. In addition, serum trace metals were similarly measured in 45 patients of renal dysfunction with heamodialysis (HD), 14 patients without dialysis (RD) and 27 healthy normal adults (N). Significant differences observed were: Mg in HD > RD; Al in RD > HD and N; Si in HD > N; P in HD and RD > N; Zn in HD and RD < N, and HD < RD; Se in HD < RD; Br in HD < RD and N, and RD > HD and N. PIXE was concluded useful for analysis of serum trace elements for further investigations. (K.H.)

  10. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  11. Application of micro-PIXE and imaging technology to life science (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The joint research on 'Application of micro-PIXE and imaging technology to life science' supported by the Inter-organizational Atomic Energy Research Program, had been performed for three years, from 2006FY to 2009FY. Aiming to apply in-air micro-PIXE analytical system to life science, the research was consisting of 7 collaborative themes related to beam engineering for micro-PIXE and applied technology of element mapping in biological/medical fields. The system, so-called micro-PIXE camera, to acquire spatial element mapping in living cells was originally developed by collaborative research between the JAEA and the department of engineering of Tohoku University. This review covers these research results. (author)

  12. SR XRF and micro-PIXE studies on ancient metallurgy of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough microscopic investigation by SR XRF and micro-PIXE brings insight into the probable techniques used in the manufacture of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets, one of the most spectacular archaeological finds ever on the territory of Romania. (orig.)

  13. SR XRF and micro-PIXE studies on ancient metallurgy of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, Bogdan; Vasilescu, Angela [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest, Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Radtke, Martin [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Reinholz, Uwe; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent [Laboratoire du Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Paris (France); Oberlaender-Tarnoveanu, Ernest [National History Museum of Romania (MNIR), Bucharest, sector 3 (Romania)

    2012-11-15

    A thorough microscopic investigation by SR XRF and micro-PIXE brings insight into the probable techniques used in the manufacture of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets, one of the most spectacular archaeological finds ever on the territory of Romania. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Omar, E-mail: omar.lozanogarcia@unamur.be [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mejia, Jorge [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Centre (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences - NARILIS, University of Namur - UNamur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints)

  15. Concentration profiles in paint layers studied by differential PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si; Ursic, M.; Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trcek-Pecak, T.; Seme, B. [University of Ljubljana, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Erjavceva 23, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Smrekar, A. [National Gallery of Slovenia, Puharjeva 9, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Langus, I. [National Museum of Slovenia, Presernova 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nemec, I.; Kavkler, K. [ZVKDS Restoration Centre RS, Poljanska 40, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-05-15

    Differential PIXE measurements varying the proton energy were used to probe the concentration profiles of metal-based pigments in paint layers. The algorithms developed earlier for metal targets were improved and enhanced to include light elements; the necessary information on chemical compounds has to be provided by complimentary methods. The de-convolution method employs slicing the target into layers characterized by mean production depths; the matrix inversion is replaced by a min {chi}{sup 2} problem. Two different methods of normalization are used: setting the sum of weight fractions of particular compounds to unity, and direct measurements of the projectile number, in our case through the argon line excited in the air. The efficiency of the two methods was compared for paint layers in frescoes, showing that smother concentration profiles are obtained using the measured proton numbers. Conversion of the layer areal densities into geometrical thicknesses is discussed.

  16. PIXE microanalysis in human cells: physiology and pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, P.; Llabador, Y.; Ortega, R.; Simonoff, M.; Razafindrabe, L. (Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Bordeaux/Gradignan, 33 - Gradignan (France))

    1993-04-01

    The micro-PIXE technique has been regularly carried out for more than two years to provide elemental distributions in human cells. Using this technique in the framework of cellular biology, two research axes have been developed: The cellular pharmacology of chemotherapeutic agents and the physiology of ionic cellular exchanges. These studies are based upon in vitro experimental models of human cells, either under the form of isolated cultured cells or as part of well-structured tissues. The aim of this paper is to present the experimental procedures and methodological aspects of cellular and subcellular quantitative mapping. Cell processing, identification of intracellular structures, quantitatives results and beam damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples issuing from the above-mentioned studies. (orig.).

  17. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Omar; Mejia, Jorge; Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye; Toussaint, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints).

  18. 安全卫士——Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cisco Secure PIX Firewall 506是具有世界水平的Cisco Secure PIX Firewall系列的一员,它提供所有的防火墙级的防护和对IP安全(IPsec)虚拟专网(VPN)的兼容性,使您可以用最严密的方法来保护您的内部网络,阻止外部世界的侵犯。

  19. Caracterização do TimePix3 e de sensores resistentes à radiação para upgrade do VELO

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente Barreto Pinto, Mateus; Ribeiro Polycarpo Macedo, Erica

    The LHCb experiment located at CERN, Switzerland, studied the difference between matter and antimatter, successfully acquiring data since 2009. The experiment will undergo an upgrade on its detectors to allow operation with higher luminosity, increasing the data acquired by about 10 times. In this thesis, prototypes for the new detectors were studied for the vertex detector (VELO) detector upgrade. Different types of sensors were tested and characterized to determine whether they satisfy the requirements of the upgrade. The, relatively new, TimePix3 readout chip, which is a prototype for future VELO read-out chip, called VELOPix, was used for the tests of the sensors. The analysis of the most important characteristics of TimePix3, relative to VELOPix, and the tests of the sensors are presented. Also, a comparison between different methods of calibration is performed for the proposed TimePix3. The results obtained in this thesis shows that some of the prototypes meet successfully the critical requirements (rad...

  20. Study of the spatial distribution of mercury in roots of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) by micro-pixe spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Cristina; Wang, Yaodong; Doronila, Augustine; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Siegele, Rainer; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-01-01

    Localization of Hg in root tissues of vetivergrass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated by micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry to gain a better understanding of Hg uptake and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. Tillers of C. zizanioides were grown in a hydroponic culture for 3 weeks under controlled conditions and then exposed to Hg for 10 days with or without the addition of the chelators (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. These treatments were used to study the effects of these chelators on localization of Hg in the root tissues to allow better understanding of Hg uptake during its assisted-phytoextraction. Qualitative elemental micro-PIXE analysis revealed that Hg was mainly localized in the root epidermis and exodermis, tissues containing suberin in all Hg treatments. Hg at trace levels was localized in the vascular bundle when plants were treated with a mercury solution only. However, higher Hg concentrations were found when the solution also contained (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. This finding is consistent with the observed increase in Hg translocation to the aerial parts of the plants in the case of chemically induced Hg phytoextraction. PMID:24933909

  1. Quantitative elemental determination of the particulate matter in the atmosphere of Pachuca city and the Real del Monte village, Hidalgo by means of PIXE technique; Determinacion elemental cuantitativa de la materia particulada en la atmosfera de la ciudad de Pachuca y el poblado de Real del Monte, Hidalgo, mediante la tecnica PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasso G, C.L. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    All the pollutants that are generated so much of anthropogenic activities as natural cause effects to the health, and of course its increase the atmospheric pollution. Today in day for the great advance of the technology other pollutants are even generated but noxious to the human being's health, such it is the case of the particles, which are also called particulate matter airborne (MPA). This has motivated, to establish control measures leaning in collection strategies and certified analysis techniques, accurate and reliable. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) they have been carried out studies on particulate matter airborne. In 1991 it was installed, calibrated and validated the nuclear technique of atomic origin based on proton beams known as PIXE. The characterization of the (MPA) it is carried out applying this technique and the collection by means of Dichotomous collectors (SFU). The thesis work that is presented next, includes the topic of the atmospheric pollution by particulate matter airborne (MPA) in a mining region, inside the Hidalgo State. The study was carried out during the 1998 winter season, only embracing the whole month of March in alternate days giving a total of 112 samples. Two sites that are highly active in the mining were studied, these are: the Real del Monte town and the Hidalgo state capital: Pachuca. Four samples per day were collected beginning to the 7:00 am--7:00 pm (daytime period) and concluding to the 7:00 pm -7:00 am (nocturne period). The characterization of its elementary content is carried out using the X-ray emission induced by particles technique (PIXE) that is a nuclear technique able to analyze 23 chemical elements beginning from the Al to the Pb, it requires of a very small sample quantity, it is very sensitive and it is not destructive. This characterization one carries out so much for fraction PM{sub 2.5} (fine) like as PM{sub 10} (thick) in both sites, also it was analyzed the temporary

  2. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, S., E-mail: suene@if.usp.br [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Santos, I.D.A.O.; Oliveira, A.F.; Shie, J.N. [São Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Sarkis, J.E.S.; Oliveira, T. [Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Laboratory of Chemical Characterization (LCQ), Center for Chemistry and the Environment - CQMA, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients’ chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  3. In situ analysis of human teeth by external PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, Tapash R., E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.co [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2-188-1 Samduk-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India); Das, Saubhagyalaxmi [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Rautray, Alekh C. [ARASMIN, G. Udayagiri, Kandhamal, Orissa 762100 (India)

    2010-07-15

    The elemental profiles of the enamel, cementum and caries of human teeth were analysed by the external proton induced X-ray emission studies. Ten elements namely P, Ca, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr and Pb were estimated in the present study. P and Ca were found to be the major elements whereas all other elements were found in trace level. It was observed that the respective concentrations of elements namely P, Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb in enamel are more than those in cementum. Concentration of P ranged between 6.37% and 25% whereas Ca ranged between 12.94% and 43.36%.

  4. A PIXE mini-beam setup at the bonn cyclotron for archeometric metal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J.; Beier, Th.; Diehl, U.; Lambrecht, D.; Mommsen, H.; Pantenburg, F. J.

    1990-04-01

    The exact analysis of the elemental composition at and around a soldering joint of an antique piece of jewelry can elucidate the joining technologies and give hints of the genuineness of the object. As analytical method we use PIXE, which is nondestructive, multielemental and with fundamental parameter calculations gives absolute concentration values. To obtain the necessary spot size of the H 2+ beam at the Bonn cyclotron we use a piezo-controlled diaphragm, whose demagnified image is focussed on the target by two magnetic quadrupole triplets. With an electrostatic deflector the beam spot of 0.1 × 0.3 mm 2 size can be moved 2 mm in each direction on the target. With a laser beam, which simulates the ion beam, an irregularly shaped archeological object can be positioned. The laser is also used to obtain the alignment of the target surface to the ion beam direction and the small beam size makes it easier to find a flat part on the surface of the object; both of these are important preconditions for using the fundamental parameter method. A scan over a joint of modern gold alloys demonstrates the ability to detect soldering joints. The analysis of four pieces of Roman gold jewelry found in the area of Cologne and Bonn shows examples of brazing with a solder as well as diffusion soldering.

  5. Ultrastructural characterization of soft tissues surrounding implanted hip prosthesis by complementary PIXE and TEM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallot, E. E-mail: edouard.jallot@uni-reims.fr; Benhayoune, H.; Kilian, L.; Balossier, G.; Bonhomme, P.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J.L

    1999-08-01

    We study soft tissues surrounding hip prostheses from three different patients. We evaluate the elemental composition of different fragments. The tissues are examined by means of two complementary methods in such analysis: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled with X-ray microanalysis (Energy Dispersive X-ray, EDX). These methods allow to determine locally at 'macro' and 'micro' level the chemistry of soft tissues. The findings confirmed the presence of metal in soft tissue near the three different hips. The tissues' composition undergoes important modifications with a systematic elevation of trace metal in patients with failed implants. We observe a corrosion which causes the continual release of particles into the tissues. Corrosion alters the shape size and chemical composition of wear particles embedded in soft tissue around the failed hip. EDX analysis showed that the wear particles contained varying quantities of titanium and aluminium. This phenomenon may be related with the variation of time of contact with soft tissues for each particle and Ti solubility.

  6. Ultrastructural characterization of soft tissues surrounding implanted hip prosthesis by complementary PIXE and TEM methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallot, E.; Benhayoune, H.; Kilian, L.; Balossier, G.; Bonhomme, P.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    We study soft tissues surrounding hip prostheses from three different patients. We evaluate the elemental composition of different fragments. The tissues are examined by means of two complementary methods in such analysis: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled with X-ray microanalysis (Energy Dispersive X-ray, EDX). These methods allow to determine locally at `macro' and `micro' level the chemistry of soft tissues. The findings confirmed the presence of metal in soft tissue near the three different hips. The tissues' composition undergoes important modifications with a systematic elevation of trace metal in patients with failed implants. We observe a corrosion which causes the continual release of particles into the tissues. Corrosion alters the shape size and chemical composition of wear particles embedded in soft tissue around the failed hip. EDX analysis showed that the wear particles contained varying quantities of titanium and aluminium. This phenomenon may be related with the variation of time of contact with soft tissues for each particle and Ti solubility.

  7. Microprobe analysis, iono- and photo-luminescence of Mn2+ activated ZnGa2O4 fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic ZnGa2O4 fibres have been grown by the laser floating zone technique with different pulling rates. In fibres activated with manganese ions, the room temperature photo- and iono-luminescence is dominated by an intense green emission which is observed by the naked eye. The green band is due to an overlap of the 4T1 → 6A1 intraionic transitions of the Mn2+ ions in different sites in the gallate host. The fibres’ photoluminescence spectra have been found to be dependent on the excitation energy. Additionally, the intensity of the green photo- and iono-luminescence is strongly sensitive to the measurement temperature and proton irradiation time. Micro PIXE analysis was used in order to verify the homogeneous distribution of the Mn luminescence activators and determine its concentration as well as for verification of impurity contents that may have been incorporated during the fibres growth. The potential of ionoluminescence measurements for characterization of optical materials is discussed

  8. Microprobe analysis, iono- and photo-luminescence of Mn2+ activated ZnGa2O4 fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N. F.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Alves, L. C.; Sobolev, N. A.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.; Costa, F. M.; Monteiro, T.

    2013-07-01

    Cubic ZnGa2O4 fibres have been grown by the laser floating zone technique with different pulling rates. In fibres activated with manganese ions, the room temperature photo- and iono-luminescence is dominated by an intense green emission which is observed by the naked eye. The green band is due to an overlap of the 4T1 → 6A1 intraionic transitions of the Mn2+ ions in different sites in the gallate host. The fibres' photoluminescence spectra have been found to be dependent on the excitation energy. Additionally, the intensity of the green photo- and iono-luminescence is strongly sensitive to the measurement temperature and proton irradiation time. Micro PIXE analysis was used in order to verify the homogeneous distribution of the Mn luminescence activators and determine its concentration as well as for verification of impurity contents that may have been incorporated during the fibres growth. The potential of ionoluminescence measurements for characterization of optical materials is discussed.

  9. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    van Beuzekom, M; Campbell, M; Collins, P; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Llopart, X; Poikela, T; Wyllie, K; Zivkovic, V

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and fl exibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identi fi cation of fl avour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require signi fi cant modi fi cation to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm 2 chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-thresho...

  10. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuzekom, M. van, E-mail: martinb@nikhef.nl [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Collins, P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gromov, V.; Kluit, R. [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Llopart, X. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Poikela, T. [University of Turku, Department of Information Technology, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Wyllie, K. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Zivkovic, V. [Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-11

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and flexibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identification of flavour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require significant modification to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm{sup 2} chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-threshold measurements, time-stamping and sparse readout. It must in addition be low power, radiation hard, and immune to single event upsets. In order to cope with the datarates and use the pixel area most effectively, an on-chip data compression scheme will integrated. This paper will describe the requirements of the LHCb VELO upgrade, and give an overview of the digital architecture being developed specifically for the readout chip.

  11. Trace elements in human alveolar macrophages studied by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.; Roelandts, I.; Corhay, J. L.; Radermecker, M.; Delavignette, J. P.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the metal content of alveolar macrophages by PIXE from 94 subjects divided into two groups as follows: group (1) — subjects with non-occupational exposure to industrial dust: 30 healthy volunteers (controls), 16 patients suffering from lung cancer; group (2) — 48 healthy steel workers from the Liège area (blast-furnace [ n=29] and coke oven [ n=19]). We hope to define more precisely the influence of carcinoma, smoking habit, pathology and occupational exposure in the steel industry on the macrophage metal content. This study has shown: (a) an Fe and Sr increase and a Br decrease in the macrophages of smokers (especially in heavy smokers): (b) a significant Fe, Ti, Br and Cu increase and a trend to Pb, Cr, As and Sr increase in macrophages of healthy steel workers (especially blast-furnace workers) in comparison with non-exposed controls; (c) a significant Fe, Br, Cu and Zn increase and a trend to Pb, As and Ni increase in macrophages of non-exposed patients with lung cancer by comparison with non-exposed controls. The mechanism of metal change could be explained by professional exposure and endogenous changes (protein synthesis, inflammation, bronchial bleeding, …)

  12. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Griffin, W.L.; Win, T.T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  14. LePIX: First results from a novel monolithic pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a monolithic pixel sensor developed in the framework of the LePIX project aimed at tracking/triggering tasks where high granularity, low power consumption, material budget, radiation hardness and production costs are a concern. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This maintains the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, but offers charge collection by drift from a depleted region and therefore an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional undepleted MAPS. Measurement results obtained with the first prototypes from laser, radioactive source and beam test experiments are described. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the capability of the device to separate the peaks in the spectrum of a 55Fe source. We will also highlight the interaction between pixel cell design and architecture which points toward a very precise direction in the development of such depleted monolithic pixel devices for high energy physics

  15. Micro-PIXE investigation of bean seeds to assist micronutrient biofortification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvitanich, Cristina, E-mail: crc@mb.au.dk [Centre for Carbohydrate Recognition and Signalling, Department of Molecular Biology Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Blair, Matthew W.; Astudillo, Carolina [CIAT - Centro International de Agricultura Tropical, Cali (Colombia); Orlowska, Elzbieta; Jurkiewicz, Anna M.; Jensen, Erik O.; Stougaard, Jens [Centre for Carbohydrate Recognition and Signalling, Department of Molecular Biology Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    This study compares the distribution and concentrations of micro- and macronutrients in different bean cultivars with the aim of optimizing the biofortification, a sustainable approach towards improving dietary quality. Micro-PIXE was used to reveal the distribution of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, P, S in seeds of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus). Average concentrations of elements in different tissues were obtained using ICP-AES. The highest concentrations of Zn in the studied beans were found in the embryonic axis, but an increased concentration of this element was also detected in the provascular bundles of the cotyledons. The first layer of cells surrounding provascular bundles accumulated high concentrations of Fe, while the next cell layer had an increased concentration of Mn. The analysis showed that the provascular bundles and the first cell layers surrounding them could have a significant role in the storage of important seed micronutrients - Zn, Fe, and Mn. This information has important implications for molecular biology studies aimed at seed biofortification.

  16. Manganese accumulation in the leaf mesophyll of four tree species: a PIXE/EDAX localization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D R; Bakkaus, E J; Perrier, N; Baker, A J M; Woodrow, I E; Batianoff, G N; Collins, R N

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the spatial distribution of excess manganese (Mn) in the leaves of tolerant plants. Recently, the first such study of a Mn hyperaccumulator showed that the highest localized Mn concentrations occur in the photosynthetic tissue. This is in contrast to reports based on localization of foliar accumulation of other heavy metals. Here, four tree species, Gossia bidwillii, Virotia neurophylla, Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla, which hyperaccumulate or strongly accumulate Mn, were studied. Cross-sectional foliar Mn localization was carried out in situ using proton-induced X-ray emission/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (PIXE/EDAX). All four species contained photosynthetic tissues with multiple palisade layers. These were shown to be the primary sequestration sites for Mn. Mn was not detected in the epidermal tissues. The findings of this study demonstrate a concurrence of three traits in four tree species, that is, accumulation of excess Mn in the leaves, its primary sequestration in the photosynthetic tissues, and multiple-layer palisade mesophyll.

  17. Determination of selenium and zinc in hair and serum of companion animals by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the concentration of selenium and zinc in hairs, sera and feeds using a Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis. In the pre-treatment of animal hair, it was shown that the radio-frequency heating (FR) ashing method using the Teflon container for tightly sealing and nitric acid is advantageous compared to the conventional wet ashing methods with Kjeldahl flask. The Se concentrations of the sera and hairs in cats were found to be higher than those in dogs (Mann-Whitney's U-test; p<0.01, p<0.05). In the case of dogs and cats fed the diets that have almost the same content of Se, the sera in cats were higher (p<0.05) in Se concentration than in dogs. Therefore, we supposed that the high Se levels of tissues may be characteristics of cats. A significant correlation (r=0.71, p<0.01) between Se concentrations of canine sera and hairs was found. In cats, moreover, a significant correlation (r=0.82, p<0.05) was observed between Ze concentrations of sera and hairs. It was shown that evaluation of selenium and zinc content in serum is possible by measurement of those in animal hair. (author)

  18. Application of PIXE in medical study. Environmental minerals and neurodegenerative disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S. [Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical College, Wakayama (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Comparative study on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia (PDC) in the Kii Peninsula of Japan and Guam was conducted to evaluate the participatory role of environmental minerals in the pathogenesis of the above neurodegenerative diseases, using particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry and morphometric-statistical analysis. A significantly high content of Al in the hippocampus and spinal cord or Kii and Guamanian ALS/PD cases was found with a positive correlation for Fe and Cu, and a negative correlation for Zn. The numbers of hippocampal neurons in Guamanian PDC, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease were significantly decreased with a high Al content. Al content significantly and positively correlated with the number of Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampus of ALS cases and controls in both foci, especially in Guamanian cases. The slope of best linear regression of Guamanian cases was markedly steeper than that of Japanese cases (p < 0,001), Morin staining for Al showed green fluorescence on the nucleolus, cytoplasm, and NFT in the hippocampus of Kii ALS cases. These findings suggest that Guamanian and Kii people have a predisposition to develop ALS/PDC precipitated by their geological/geochemical environmental status, i.e., a prolonged low intake or Ca and Mg together with excess exposure to Al and other environmental minerals. (author)

  19. Nuclear analysis methods in monitoring occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing industrialisation of the world has come an increase in exposure to hazardous chemicals. Their effect on the body depends upon the concentration of the element in the work environment; its chemical form; the possible different routes of intake; and the individual's biological response to the chemical. Nuclear techniques of analysis such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), have played an important role in understanding the effects hazardous chemicals can have on occupationally exposed workers. In this review, examples of their application, mainly in monitoring exposure to heavy metals is discussed

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  1. The kinetics of Fe and Ca for the development of radiation-induced apoptosis by micro-PIXE imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the interactions between the induction of radiation-induced apoptosis and trace elements kinetics, human leukemia cells were irradiated in vitro by 60Co γ rays, after which the cells were evaluated for the detection of apoptosis and trace element (Fe and Ca) imaging by micro-PIXE camera was carried out. In the early phase of apoptosis, high accumulation of Fe was observed in the cytosol. In the mid to end phase, the Fe accumulation was diminished; instead, Ca accumulated in the nucleus. The releasing of cytochrome-C agreed with the Fe accumulation. The caspase-3 and -8 activity agreed with the nuclear Ca accumulation in nucleus. There appear to be two steps for the development of apoptosis: (1) the signaling from cytosol to nucleus by cytochrome-C represented by Fe and (2) the degeneration of the nucleus by caspase represented by the nuclear Ca accumulation

  2. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology II. Characterization of Chinese pottery exported to the Islamic world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    1992-02-01

    The early 9th century A.D. trade links between China's Tang dynasty and the Western world, by land along the caravan routes of the Silk Road and by sea via India and the Gulf, encouraged a taste for many kinds of Chinese ceramics among the affluent societies of the Islamic empire. Using PIXE analysis to determine the primary composition and minor element patterns of the clay fabrics of a wide range of pottery recovered from the Islamic city of Siraf (in southern Iran), we have established clear differences between Chinese wares imported to that region and a variety of imitative wares of local origin. Parallels and contrasts are drawn between our data and those obtained by Chinese scholars in recent years for the products of various Tang kiln sites, particularly for a series of distinctive stonewares from Tongguan (Hunan province).

  3. pix-1 controls early elongation in parallel with mel-11 and let-502 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Martin

    Full Text Available Cell shape changes are crucial for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, epidermal cell shape changes transform ovoid embryos into vermiform larvae. This process is divided into two phases: early and late elongation. Early elongation involves the contraction of filamentous actin bundles by phosphorylated non-muscle myosin in a subset of epidermal (hypodermal cells. The genes controlling early elongation are associated with two parallel pathways. The first one involves the rho-1/RHOA-specific effector let-502/Rho-kinase and mel-11/myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit. The second pathway involves the CDC42/RAC-specific effector pak-1. Late elongation is driven by mechanotransduction in ventral and dorsal hypodermal cells in response to body-wall muscle contractions, and involves the CDC42/RAC-specific Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF pix-1, the GTPase ced-10/RAC and pak-1. In this study, pix-1 is shown to control early elongation in parallel with let-502/mel-11, as previously shown for pak-1. We show that pix-1, pak-1 and let-502 control the rate of elongation, and the antero-posterior morphology of the embryos. In particular, pix-1 and pak-1 are shown to control head, but not tail width, while let-502 controls both head and tail width. This suggests that let-502 function is required throughout the antero-posterior axis of the embryo during early elongation, while pix-1/pak-1 function may be mostly required in the anterior part of the embryo. Supporting this hypothesis we show that low pix-1 expression level in the dorsal-posterior hypodermal cells is required to ensure high elongation rate during early elongation.

  4. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  5. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  6. The complementarity of PIXE and synchrotron induced X-ray methods for the characterisation of combustion sources contributing to urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current knowledge of fine-particle airborne pollution concentrations and constituents with diameters below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is limited. Sources are both natural and man-made. Here we describe two types of experiments performed using the advanced photon source facility at Chicago, and compare the results with PIXE analysis on the same fine particle filters. These are firstly broad beam (2 mm) studies with tuned synchrotron beam energies to help resolve over-lapping X-rays, and secondly highly focused X-ray beam studies (0.2 μm) of individual fine particles from airborne pollution combustion sources

  7. Determination of trace element profiles in coarse-grained minerals by external millibeam PIXE - A schorl tourmaline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindroos, A.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick-target PIXE technique was applied to direct analysis of trace elements in tourmaline minerals. Analyses of these minerals with conventional wet-chemical methods are difficult and time consuming. The PIXE analyses were carried out in air with a collimated proton beam. As the technique was used in combination with a polarizing microscope it provided excellent control over the spots analyzed. A scanning device was developed for remote-controlled spot analyses across the surface of the samples. Several scans were run across polished sections of multicrystal schorl-tourmaline aggregates. Pellets of crushed and ground tourmaline samples were also analyzed. The method was calibrated against USGS standard reference materials. The precision of the method varied between 1 and 10 % and the detection limits were 1-10 ppm for most of the elements analyzed. Different sets of X-ray absorbers were used to improve the sensitivity and reliability of the method for the elements of interest. The concentrations of fourteen elements were calculated from their X-ray yields and the fluorine content was simultaneously determined using the 109.8 keV gamma line. The tourmaline samples were taken from a complex granite pegmatite on the Kimito island in SW Finland. They were found to contain mainly elements with Z < 33 (lighter than As. Relatively high concentrations of Fe, Zn, Ga and F were observed. Zinc was found to be a geochemically important minor element in schorl with a concentration ranging from 0.10 to 0.28 %. The pellets were found to contain inclusions of other minerals.

  8. μPIXE for a μBrain: The vinegar fly's brain, antenna, sensilla hairs and eye ion concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Anja; Barapatre, Nirav; Sachse, Silke; Reinert, Tilo

    2011-10-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is used as model organism to study a variety of different scientific purposes. Thus, our laboratory studies the olfactory system by neurobiological experiments. These techniques are often disruptive and need to compensate or exchange the body fluid, the lymph, with an artificial Ringer's solution in defined compartments of the fly. The solution mainly contains Na, Cl, K and Ca and is to keep physiological conditions. Therefore, the knowledge about the ion concentrations in the respective Drosophila lymph is required for a correct mixture of the ions. This paper presents the spatially resolved concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in lyophilised head cryosections of Drosophila by using quantitative μPIXE at the ion beam facility LIPSION in Leipzig. The PIXE maps enable a detailed analysis of particular regions of interest down to a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. We quantified the ion concentrations especially in the brain, the antenna and its sensilla hairs acting as the olfactory organ of the fly, in the compound eye and in the mouthparts. The averaged element concentrations of these main compartments are (in descending order): P: 90 mM, K: 81 mM, S: 38 mM, Cl: 18 mM, Ca: 4.9 mM, Fe: 1.4 mM, Zn: 1.2 mM, Cu: 0.06 mM. Certain structures or cavities possess a remarkably high concentration of particular elements and might reflect the different functions of the compartments. An example presented in more detail is the composition of the compound eye. Conclusively, our findings on the ion concentrations might be useful for the mixture of the Drosophila Ringer's solution to ensure physiological conditions in experiments.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  10. ePix: a class of architectures for second generation LCLS cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, A.; Caragiulo, P.; Markovic, B.; Herbst, R.; Reese, B.; Herrmann, S. C.; Hart, P. A.; Segal, J.; Carini, G. A.; Kenney, C. J.; Haller, G.

    2014-03-01

    ePix is a novel class of ASIC architectures, based on a common platform, optimized to build modular scalable detectors for LCLS. The platform architecture is composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters per column. It also implements a dedicated control interface and all the required support electronics to perform configuration, calibration and readout of the matrix. Based on this platform a class of front-end ASICs and several camera modules, meeting different requirements, can be developed by designing specific pixel architectures. This approach reduces development time and expands the possibility of integration of detector modules with different size, shape or functionality in the same camera. The ePix platform is currently under development together with the first two integrating pixel architectures: ePix100 dedicated to ultra low noise applications and ePix10k for high dynamic range applications.

  11. Discrimination of fake Chenghua Blue-and-White porcelains from the original ones by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results obtained by PIXE technique on some fake Ming-Chenghua Blue-and-White porcelains made in the early period of Ching dynasty were reported. The chemical composition of both body and glaze were measured, and by choosing a set of proper parameters, the author can distinguish the fake ones from the original Chenghua Blue-and-White porcelains

  12. Characterisation of early medieval frescoes by μ-PIXE, SEM and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the VIII-IX century frescoes of the Longobard temple of Cividale del Friuli in Italy with noninvasive sampling and, for the first time in such a context, with high chemical and spatial sensitivity techniques (PIXE, SEM and Raman). Results demonstrate richness of manufacturing details and integrate in a substantial way the historic and artistic framework of this early medieval monument

  13. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F.J

    2004-06-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  15. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier, E-mail: Francois-Xavier.Le-Bourdonnec@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr [Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux (IRAMAT), Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie (CRP2A), UMR 5060, CNRS-Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cédex (France); Poupeau, Gérard [Institut de Recherche sur les Archéomatériaux (IRAMAT), Centre de Recherche en Physique Appliquée à l’Archéologie (CRP2A), UMR 5060, CNRS-Université Bordeaux Montaigne, Maison de l’Archéologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607 Pessac Cédex (France); UMR 7194 CNRS et Département de Préhistoire du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Place du Trocadéro, 75016 Paris (France); Boussofara, Ridha, E-mail: ridha57@yahoo.fr [The National Heritage Institute, 4 Place du Château, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia); and others

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  16. Ten-year study of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE: Time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas for anthropogenic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenhaut, Willy, E-mail: Willy.Maenhaut@UGent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, BE-9000 Gent (Belgium); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Karnieli, Arnon [Remote Sensing Laboratory, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sde Boker Campus 84990 (Israel); Andreae, Meinrat O. [Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, D-55020 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    From January 1995 through December 2004 aerosol samples were collected at Sde Boker, Israel, with a Gent stacked filter unit sampler. The collections were done according to a 2–2–3 day schedule, which resulted in about 150 samples per year. The samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, for black carbon (BC) by a light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following nine anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Se, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of −34%, −25%, −47%, +26%, and −40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.6 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other three seasons. Vanadium and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly oil burning. Trajectory statistics, using 10-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, were applied to assess the source areas. Sulphur originated mostly from south-eastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the south-eastern part of European Russia, whilst the source picture for Zn was rather unclear. The other six anthropogenic elements and BC seemed to originate mainly from regional sources.

  17. Ten-year study of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE: Time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas for anthropogenic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From January 1995 through December 2004 aerosol samples were collected at Sde Boker, Israel, with a Gent stacked filter unit sampler. The collections were done according to a 2–2–3 day schedule, which resulted in about 150 samples per year. The samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, for black carbon (BC) by a light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following nine anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Se, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of −34%, −25%, −47%, +26%, and −40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.6 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other three seasons. Vanadium and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly oil burning. Trajectory statistics, using 10-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, were applied to assess the source areas. Sulphur originated mostly from south-eastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the south-eastern part of European Russia, whilst the source picture for Zn was rather unclear. The other six anthropogenic elements and BC seemed to originate mainly from regional sources

  18. Influence of the zinc and manganese doping on the kinetics of resorption of a hydroxyapatite implant and study on matrix effects in the used P.I.X.E. nuclear method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we study hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with zinc or manganese and the compound of 75% hydroxyapatite, 25% tricalcic phosphate. The ceramics were implanted in the cortical femur of sheep. The global evolution of mineral concentrations in the implants with the time after implantation was studied by neutronic radioactivation. We studied matrix effects in P.I.X.E. (Particles Induced X-rays Emission) with Alpha parameter method. By measurements at two different energies, we determine a correction factor of the slowing down of incident protons and of the X rays absorption in matrix. So, the P.I.X.E. analysis allow us a scanning of mineral concentrations at the bone-implant interface at different time after implantation. The transformation of the hydroxyapatite matrix has been studied by X-rays by X-rays diffraction. (author)

  19. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  20. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  1. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  2. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents dev...... population globally sensitive to specific world issues. The models discuss the dynamics of population in response to such issues. All the models presented in the thesis can be combined for a systematic analysis of illicit activities.......Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis...

  3. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  4. Influence of the zinc and manganese doping on the kinetics of resorption of a hydroxyapatite implant and study on matrix effects in the used P.I.X.E. nuclear method; Influence du dopage en zinc et en manganese sur la cinetique de resorption d`un implant d`hydroxyapatite et etude des effets de matrice dans la methode nucleaire P.I.X.E. utilisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallot, E.

    1997-01-16

    In this work we study hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite doped with zinc or manganese and the compound of 75% hydroxyapatite, 25% tricalcic phosphate. The ceramics were implanted in the cortical femur of sheep. The global evolution of mineral concentrations in the implants with the time after implantation was studied by neutronic radioactivation. We studied matrix effects in P.I.X.E. (Particles Induced X-rays Emission) with Alpha parameter method. By measurements at two different energies, we determine a correction factor of the slowing down of incident protons and of the X rays absorption in matrix. So, the P.I.X.E. analysis allow us a scanning of mineral concentrations at the bone-implant interface at different time after implantation. The transformation of the hydroxyapatite matrix has been studied by X-rays by X-rays diffraction. (author).

  5. INAA and PIXE of atmospheric and combustion aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, J; Havránek, V; Smolík, J; Schwarz, J; Veselý, V; Kugler, J; Sýkorová, I; Santroch, J

    1999-01-01

    Using instrumental neutron activation analyses and photon-induced x-ray emission techniques for analysis of size-fractionated atmospheric and combustion aerosols and other emission samples arising from fluidized-bed combustion of North Bohemian lignites up to 42 elements were determined in all samples types. This allowed the evaluation of element enrichment, time trends, and inter-element correlations and the performance of factor analysis of various fractions of atmospheric aerosols. The data obtained on mass and element size distributions of aerosols and emission samples obtained upon lignite combustion in an experimental scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor without and with added hydrated lime and limestone were used to elucidate the mechanism of abatement of toxic trace and matrix elements from flue gas. PMID:10676497

  6. Application of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to the study of problems in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIXE technique has been successfully applied to study crime related problems in forensic science. The experimental arrangements and various practical problems involved are discussed. Consistency and reproducibility checks are presented. The results from the gun-shot residue profiles of the associated elements about the bullet hole obtained for various firing distances showed that the sensitivity of the PIXE technique could play a vital role in forensic science in assigning the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used. PIXE runs on other forensic related specimens demonstrate its usefulness in indetification and evaluation of vital parameters related to a crime. The reliability and the importance of the PIXE method in solving criminal and related problems in forensic science are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  8. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  9. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  10. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  11. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  12. Application of an ePix100 detector for coherent scattering using a hard X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Marcin; Feng, Yiping; Song, Sanghoon; Zhu, Diling; Carini, Gabriella; Herrmann, Sven; Nishimura, Kurtis; Hart, Philip; Robert, Aymeric

    2016-09-01

    A prototype ePix100 detector was used in small-angle scattering geometry to capture speckle patterns from a static sample using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) hard X-ray free-electron laser at 8.34 keV. The average number of detected photons per pixel per pulse was varied over three orders of magnitude from about 23 down to 0.01 to test the detector performance. At high average photon count rates, the speckle contrast was evaluated by analyzing the probability distribution of the pixel counts at a constant scattering vector for single frames. For very low average photon counts of less than 0.2 per pixel, the `droplet algorithm' was first applied to the patterns for correcting the effect of charge sharing, and then the pixel count statistics of multiple frames were analyzed collectively to extract the speckle contrast. Results obtained using both methods agree within the uncertainty intervals, providing strong experimental evidence for the validity of the statistical analysis. More importantly it confirms the suitability of the ePix100 detector for X-ray coherent scattering experiments, especially at very low count rates with performances surpassing those of previously available LCLS detectors. PMID:27577772

  13. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  14. Application of PIXE technique to studies on global warming/cooling effect of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, the importance of global warming has been recognized worldwide. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the global warming/cooling effects. The physicochemical properties of aerosol particles are fundamental to understanding such effects. In this study, the PIXE technique was applied to measure the average chemical properties of aerosols. Micro-PIXE was also applied to investigate the mixing state of the individual aerosol particle. The chemical composition data were used to estimate the optical properties of aerosols. The average values of aerosol radiative forcing were -1.53 w/m2 in Kyoto and +3.3 w/m2 in Nagoya, indicating cooling and warming effects respectively. The difference of radiative forcing in the two cities may be caused by the large difference in chemical composition of aerosols

  15. Reliable cool-down of GridPix detectors for cryogenic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schön, R., E-mail: rolfs@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bilevych, Y. [Physics Institute, University of Bonn, Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Bakel, N. van [National Institute for Subatomic Physics Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-21

    In this paper we present thermal cycling experiments of GridPix radiation imaging detectors, in view of a potential application in a cryogenic experiment. The robustness of the GridPix detector is studied for various grid designs, as well as various mechanical and thermal surroundings. The grid design variations had insignificant effect on the grid strength. A low cool-down rate as well as good thermal contact are crucial for the durability of the grid. Further, additional strengthening at the grid edges proved necessary to maintain the integrity of the structure during thermal cycling, which was done using globtop adhesive. The combination of these measures led to 100% survival rate after thermal cycling down to −130 °C.

  16. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10−12 g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created

  17. PIXE study on inhibition effect of sodium alginate to the absorption of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xinpei [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1992-12-31

    The sodium alginate extracted from sargassum of South China Sea significantly inhibited the absorption of Sr in human gastrointestinal tract. Because of the identical metabolism dynamics of radioactive Sr and stable Sr, oral medication experiments have been performed by using stable Sr as a tracer. Fifteen adult healthy subjects (10 males and 5 females) were involved and divided into two groups. Concentrations of Sr, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in serum and urine (24 hours) at different times after oral medications were measured by PIXE. It was found from the PIXE results that Sr in serum and in urine were reduced (78 +/- 8.9)% and (78 +/- 11)% respectively by sodium alginate. A reasonable dosage of sodium alginate had little influence to the absorption of Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn. (author).

  18. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); LOTRIČ Metrology, Selca 163, SI-4227 Selca (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primož, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomić, Sergej [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Čolić, Miodrag [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Medical Faculty, University of Niš, Boulevard of Dr. Zoran Djindjić 81, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Beran, Alfred [Dipartimento di Oceanografia Biologica, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10{sup −12} g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created.

  19. Silver surface enrichment in ancient coins studied by micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, F.J., E-mail: fjager@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Moreno-Suárez, A.I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Scrivano, S.; Ortega-Feliu, I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Gómez-Tubío, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-J. Andalucía), C/ Thomas Alva Edison 7, E-41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The surface enrichment of archeological silver–copper alloys, either intentional or due to corrosion processes, has been known for many years. The most used non-destructive techniques, such as particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are surface techniques, with penetration depths typically ranging from a few microns to a few tens of microns. Therefore, these techniques could produce results which are not representative of the bulk composition of the alloy. In order to gain insight into the silver enrichment process and the effects on the data obtained with these techniques, a set of silver roman denarii were cross sectioned and analyzed at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores micro-PIXE facility. Elemental maps show silver surface enriched layers up to 250 μm thick. Besides, silver-enriched surface layers are not found for alloys with 96–98 wt.% Ag.

  20. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.