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Sample records for activation patterns underlying

  1. Changes in enzymes activity, substrate utilization pattern and diversity of soil microbial communities under cadmium pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Akmal; WANG Hai-zhen; WU Jian-jun; XU Jian-ming; XU De-fu

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has received increasing attention in recent years mainly because of the public awareness of environmental issues. In this study we have evaluated the effect of cadmium(Cd) on enzymes activity, substrate utilization pattern and diversity of microbial communities in soil spiked with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/kg Cd, during 60 d of incubation at 25℃. Enzyme activities determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 d after heavy metal application(DAA) showed marked declines for various Cd treatments, and up to 60 DAA, 100 mg/kg Cd resulted in 50.1%, 47.4%, and 39.8 % decreases in soil urease, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities,respectively to control. At 60 DAA, substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities determined by inoculating Biolog ECO plates indicated that Cd addition had markedly inhibited the functional activity of soil microbial communities and multivariate analysis of sole carbon source utilization showed significantly different utilization patterns for 80 and 100 mg/kg Cd treatments. The structural diversity of soil microbial communities assessed by PCR-DGGE method at 60 DAA, illustrated that DGGE patterns in soil simplified with increasing Cd concentration, and clustering of DGGE profiles for various Cd treatments revealed that they had more than 50% difference with that of control.

  2. Activity pattern and thermal biology of a day-flying hawkmoth (Macroglossum stellatarum) under Mediterranean summer conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    1992-01-01

    1 The daily activity pattern and aspects of the thermal biology are described for the day-flying hawkmoth, Macroglossum stellatarum L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), while foraging at a flowering population of Lavandula latifolia (Labiatae) under the dry-hot summer conditions of a southeastern Spanish locality. 2 The average abundance of M.stellatarum remained fairly constant from sunrise to about 17.00 hours (GMT), and a distinct peak occurred in the evening (18.00—20.00 hou...

  3. Activity Patterns of Wild Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, L.1758, under Semi-Freedom Conditions, during Autumn and Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez, C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to assess the activity biorhythms of the European rabbit, under semi-freedom conditions between September and March. The study was carried out in a property located in the north of the County of Valladolid (Spain. Nine wild adult animals, 2 males and 7 females, were used. They were marked individually with a microchip (AVID(r. These animals were lodged in a 0.5 ha. enclosure. It was composed of two areas, one smaller where burrows were located and a bigger area, in which animals had fresh food and water. Both areas were separated by a metallic net provided of two passageways, in which, two microchips readers were placed to register animal activity. Each register indicated date, hour and code of the animal that had gone through the passageway. An activity rate was determined as the number of times that the total of the animals went through all the passageways, per hour of each day of the study. A monthly index of activity was also determined by the average of the daily activity rates during each month. It was observed that wild rabbits present a pronounced twilight and night-time activity, with two activity peaks which coincide with the sunrise and sunset. It was also determined that the activity of the animals in central hours of the day was practically null in both sexes. The activity pattern was changing, gradually, in function of the hour of sunrise and sunset on each month of the study. The activity index increased from September on, reaching a maximum peak during December, and decreased gradually until February when this index increased slightly until the finalization of the study on March. This pattern can be associated with the reproductive rhythms of the wild rabbit in the study area, during this period.

  4. Central pattern generation underlying Limulus rhythmic behavior patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon A. Wyse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many behavioral activities of the horseshoe crab Limulus are rhythmic, and most of these are produced in large part by central pattern generators within the CNS. The chain of opisthosomal (‘abdominal’ ganglia controls gill movements of ventilation and gill cleaning, and the prosomal ring of fused ganglia (brain and segmental ‘thoracic’ ganglia controls generation of feeding and locomotor movements of the legs. Both the opisthosomal CNS and the prosomal CNS can generate behaviorally appropriate patterns of motor output in isolation, without movements or sensory input. Preparations of the isolated opisthosomal CNS generate rhythmic output patterns of motor activity characterized as fictive ventilatory and gill cleaning rhythms. Moreover, CNS preparations also express longer-term patterns, such as intermittent ventilation or sequential bouts of ventilation and gill cleaning. Such longer-term patterns are commonly observed in intact animals. The isolated prosomal CNS does not spontaneously generate the activity patterns characteristic of walking, swimming, and feeding. However, perfusion of octopamine in the isolated prosomal CNS activates central pattern generators underlying rhythmic chewing movements, and injection of octopamine into intact Limulus promotes the chewing pattern of feeding, whether or not food is presented. Our understanding of the ability of neuromodulators such as octopamine to elicit or alter central motor programs may help to clarify the central neural circuits of pattern generation that produce and coordinate these rhythmic behaviors [Current Zoology 56 (5: 537–549, 2010].

  5. Pattern Matching under Polynomial Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Butman, Ayelet; Clifford, Raphael; Jalsenius, Markus; Lewenstein, Noa; Porat, Benny; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We consider a class of pattern matching problems where a polynomial transformation can be applied to the pattern at every alignment. Given a pattern of length m and a longer text of length n where both are assumed to contain integer values only, we show O(n log m) algorithms for pattern matching under linear transformations even when wildcard symbols can occur in the input. We then show how to extend the technique to polynomial transformations of arbitrary degree. Next we consider the problem of finding the minimum Hamming distance under polynomial transformation. We show that, for any epsilon > 0, there cannot exist an O(nm^(1-epsilon)) algorithm for additive and linear transformations conditional on the hardness of the classic 3SUM problem. Finally, we consider a version of the Hamming distance problem under additive transformations with a bound k on the maximum distance that need be reported. We give a deterministic O(nk log k) time solution which we then improve by careful use of randomisation to O(n sqrt...

  6. Innovation patterns under the magnifying glass: Firm-level latent class analysis of innovation activities in services

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Innovation is still an obscure concept although many efforts have been made to improve the understanding and measurement of it. The growth of service activities throughout the economy has encouraged scholars, policy makers and executives to explore the determinants and features of the innovation developed by service enterprises. Many empirical studies that form the basis of recent literature on innovation in services have proved the existence of a wide range of innovation patterns, confuting ...

  7. Behavioural activity of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus under semi-natural rearing systems: establishing a seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Díez Valle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of 2 populations of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, L. 1758, consisting of 14 adults (>9 mo of age each (4 males and 10 females, was analysed over 2 consecutive years. Rabbits were captured in the wild and kept in 2 separate enclosures of 0.5 ha, with each enclosure divided into 2 zones: a smaller area where warrens were located (breeding area and a larger area where food and water were provided (feeding area. Seven rabbits in each enclosure were individually tagged with a microchip (2 males and 5 females and, after installing 2 detection devices, it was possible to identify which of the 2 areas they were located in and record the length of time spent in each. To regulate the size of the breeding population, young rabbits produced in the enclosures were captured and removed regularly. Considering the number of movements between areas and the time spent in the feeding area, a circadian activity pattern was found, reporting 2 maximum activity peaks coinciding with twilight (18.35% of the total movements, 6-8 a.m. and daybreak (22.95%, 7-10 p.m. while activity was dramatically decreased during the midday hours (1.86%, 10 a.m.-4 p.m.. Rabbits displayed a seasonal pattern throughout the year, with maximum activity levels during winter (45.76% of the total movements, January-March and spring (42.91%, April-June, which could be related to higher reproductive activity at this time of the year as a higher breeding output was reported in June and September. The levels of activity exhibited by males (13.44% daily activity rate were significantly higher than those displayed by females (9.80%. No significant differences were found regarding time spent on the feeding area in relation to season or gender. The average duration of each foray to the feeding area was higher during the summer, higher for females than males and higher during the middle of the night than the rest of the day.

  8. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  9. Time history speckle pattern under statistical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R. A.; Silva, W. S.; Sáfadi, T.; Nobre, C. M. B.

    2008-05-01

    The dynamic speckle analysis has been done because speckle interference began to be evaluated as an important source of information, especially those related to biological samples under laser beam. The time history speckle pattern, a THSP image, is an approach to analyze, which allows a summary to represent the activity monitored. THSP adoption has compelled the research to evaluate the information and the reliability of its inner pattern. This study presents a statistical approach to analyze the data using white noise tests and cross-spectrum analysis. The data analyzed was a set of THSP from animal sperm samples. The evaluation of white noise among lines was conducted using the Fischer test over eight THSP and the cross-spectral approach has been conducted by comparing the information in each THSP. The results presented that the THSP of the sperm did not behave as a white noise in a global evaluation, and specifically in the Gaussian white noise test over 4096 lines; only six lines presented the behavior of a white noise pattern. The strong rejection of white noise test confirms that the THSP pattern allows reliable information. The results obtained with the cross-spectral analysis presented differences between lines within the same THSP, showing that the information of an inner pattern varies in relation to space, which is against the findings in literature.

  10. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  11. Interplanting Patterns of Cash Crops under Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renjie; DU; Yuejun; QU; Hu; JIN; Haibo; JIANG; Yunchang; DU; Dongyue; ZHOU; Jing; FU; Ping; SHI

    2014-01-01

    At the same time of tending forests,it is necessary to explore the under-forest economic development mode,bring into play production function of economic plants,establish cultivation mode of edible fungus,wild vegetables and medicinal plants under forest,to obtain certain economic benefit in short period. This paper made a preliminary study on significance and existing problems of the under-forest economy,and came up with several interplanting patterns,in the hope of providing a comprehensive operation and cultivation approach for developing the under-forest economy.

  12. Chimera patterns under the impact of noise

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, Sarah A. M.; Claussen, Jens Christian; Schöll, Eckehard; Zakharova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two types of chimera states, i.e., patterns consisting of coexisting spatially separated domains with coherent and incoherent dynamics, in ring networks of Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry-breaking coupling, under the influence of noise. Amplitude chimeras are characterized by temporally periodic dynamics throughout the whole network, but spatially incoherent behavior with respect to the amplitudes in a part of the system; they are long-living transients. Chimera death s...

  13. Chimera patterns under the impact of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Sarah A. M.; Claussen, Jens Christian; Schöll, Eckehard; Zakharova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two types of chimera states, patterns consisting of coexisting spatially separated domains with coherent and incoherent dynamics, in ring networks of Stuart-Landau oscillators with symmetry-breaking coupling, under the influence of noise. Amplitude chimeras are characterized by temporally periodic dynamics throughout the whole network, but spatially incoherent behavior with respect to the amplitudes in a part of the system; they are long-living transients. Chimera death states generalize chimeras to stationary inhomogeneous patterns (oscillation death), which combine spatially coherent and incoherent domains. We analyze the impact of random perturbations, addressing the question of robustness of chimera states in the presence of white noise. We further consider the effect of symmetries applied to random initial conditions.

  14. Universal patterns underlying ongoing wars and terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N F; Restrepo, J A; Becerra, O; Bohorquez, J C; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E M; Zarama, R; Johnson, Neil F.; Spagat, Mike; Restrepo, Jorge A.; Becerra, Oscar; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Suarez, Nicolas; Restrepo, Elvira Maria; Zarama, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We report a remarkable universality in the patterns of violence arising in three high-profile ongoing wars, and in global terrorism. Our results suggest that these quite different conflict arenas currently feature a common type of enemy, i.e. the various insurgent forces are beginning to operate in a similar way regardless of their underlying ideologies, motivations and the terrain in which they operate. We provide a microscopic theory to explain our main observations. This theory treats the insurgent force as a generic, self-organizing system which is dynamically evolving through the continual coalescence and fragmentation of its constituent groups.

  15. Primary succession seen through the shifted patterns of plant traits and soil macrofauna above/under-ground activity, a different ecological perspective towards post mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Jabbar; Mudrak, Ondrej; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    to "late succession species" of the oldest ages such as legumes.We infer that by time passing, thru soil development in older sites, soil medium became more favorable for larval stages and endogeic lifestyle of fauna, in other words, environmental selection and consequently the successful colonization of fauna holding the similar trait (i.e. epigeic activity) ended up in an endogeic community shift towards developed soils under older sites. The shift in CWM value of fauna community clearly shows importance of soil development for a stable colonization and regeneration of migrated communities. Traits related to life history of fauna, e.g. epigeic and endogeic, as well as correlated plant traits instead of plant species communities, i.e. LDMC and plant forms, can be of great value for an enhanced perception of the community pattern dynamics through time and space. The incorporation of trait diversity in primary and secondary successional studies seems to be promising in order to gain a better understanding of the successional changes.

  16. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

    2013-01-31

    understanding of fundamental scientific basis for the irradiation-induced self-organization processes. The fundamental physical mechanisms underlying ordered pattern formation, which include defect production and migration, ion sputtering, redeposition, viscous flow and diffusion, are investigated through a combination of modeling and in situ and ex-situ observations [3,9,11]. In addition, these nanostructured materials exhibit considerable improvement of optical properties [9,12,13]. For example, patterned Ge with a hexagonally ordered, honeycomb-like structure of nanoscale holes possesses a high surface area and a considerably blue-shifted energy gap [9], and oxidation of ordered Ga droplets shows noticeable enhancement of optical transmission [12]. This research has addressed nanopattern formation in a variety of materials under ion bombardment and provided a fundamental understanding of the dynamic mechanisms involved. In addition, have also stared to systematically investigate pattern formation under ion irradiation for more systems with varied experimental conditions and computation, including the collaboration with Dr. Veena Tikare of Sandia National Laboratory with a hybrid computation method at the ending this grant. A more detailed relationship between nanostructure formation and experimental conditions will be revealed with our continued efforts.

  17. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge;

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...

  18. Polar convection patterns under quiet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    Convection electric field patterns at high latitudes appropriate to periods of low geomagnetic activity are presented. The postulate that the global Joule dissipation rate is a minimum is employed to derive characteristic field distributions for the situation when ring current ohmic losses are negligible and the auroral oval enhancement of height-integrated Hall conductivity is small. The fast Fourier transform is introduced to compute Fourier coefficients of discrete field-aligned current data, and the method is shown to be quite useful in this context as a least squares fitting routine. The model calculations demonstrate the approach of the high-latitude ionosphere toward the perfect shielding configuration predicted by the theory for quiet times.

  19. Under-forest Breeding Pattern and the Practice Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhong-ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the development in recent years, China’s under-forest breeding pattern can be divided into four kinds of practice form of under-forest breeding pattern (the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises; the pattern of breeding driven by intermediary economic organizations; the pattern of breeding driven by the professional wholesale market; the pattern of breeding driven by the modern animal husbandry demonstration areas), according to difference in the main body participating in signing the operation contract in breeding pattern. In the production practice of under-forest breeding pattern, the most widely used and successful pattern is the pattern of breeding driven by leading enterprises and its derivative forms.

  20. Behaviour of a few mode fiber modal pattern under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to calculate the interference pattern at the end of a multimode weakly guiding optical fiber under stress. Whenever an optical fiber is under stress, the modal phase in the interference term of the intensity formula changes. Plots of the simulated output of a stressed fiber are presented. For multimode fibers, very complicated patterns result. Under stress, lobes in the pattern are generated, displaced and power is exchanged among them.

  1. Variable pattern contamination control under positive pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, H.M. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Airborne contamination control in nuclear and biological laboratories is traditionally achieved by directing the space ventilation air at subatmospheric pressures in one fixed flow pattern. However, biological and nuclear contamination flow control in the new Biological Research Facility, to be commissioned at the Chalk River Laboratories in 1996, will have the flexibility to institute a number of contamination control patterns, all achieved at positive (above atmospheric) pressures. This flexibility feature, made possible by means of a digitally controlled ventilation system, changes the facility ventilation system from being a relatively rigid building service operated by plant personnel into a flexible building service which can be operated by the facility research personnel. This paper focuses on and describes the application of these unique contamination control features in the design of the new Biological Research Facility. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  3. Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand edu Castel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind. While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  4. Coriolis effects on fingering patterns under rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Gadêlha, Hermes; Miranda, José A

    2008-08-01

    The development of immiscible viscous fingering patterns in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell is investigated. We focus on understanding how the time evolution and the resulting morphologies are affected by the action of the Coriolis force. The problem is approached analytically and numerically by employing a vortex sheet formalism. The vortex sheet strength and a linear dispersion relation are derived analytically, revealing that the most relevant Coriolis force contribution comes from the normal component of the averaged interfacial velocity. It is shown that this normal velocity, uniquely due to the presence of the Coriolis force, is responsible for the complex-valued nature of the linear dispersion relation making the linear phases vary with time. Fully nonlinear stages are studied through intensive numerical simulations. A suggestive interplay between inertial and viscous effects is found, which modifies the dynamics, leading to different pattern-forming structures. The inertial Coriolis contribution plays a characteristic role: it generates a phase drift by deviating the fingers in the sense opposite to the actual rotation of the cell. However, the direction and intensity of finger bending is predominantly determined by viscous effects, being sensitive to changes in the magnitude and sign of the viscosity contrast. The finger competition behavior at advanced time stages is also discussed.

  5. Modeling interconnect corners under double patterning misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Daijoon; Shin, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on March 16th, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on March 28th. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. Interconnect corners should accurately reflect the effect of misalingment in LELE double patterning process. Misalignment is usually considered separately from interconnect structure variations; this incurs too much pessimism and fails to reflect a large increase in total capacitance for asymmetric interconnect structure. We model interconnect corners by taking account of misalignment in conjunction with interconnect structure variations; we also characterize misalignment effect more accurately by handling metal pitch at both sides of a target metal independently. Identifying metal space at both sides of a target metal.

  6. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  7. Pattern-formation under acoustic driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Chemical and metallurgical processes enhanced by high intensity acoustic waves, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, heat exchanger tubes, offshore and vibrating structures, solar thermal collectors, acoustic levitators, microfluidic devices, cycling, musical acoustics, blood flow through veins/arteries, hearing in the mammalian ear, carbon nanotube loudspeakers, etc. The evolution of a myriad of processes involving the oscillation of viscous fluids in the presence of solid boundaries is up to a certain extent influenced by acoustic streaming. In addition to the sound field, viscous energy dissipation at the fluid-solid boundary causes a time-independent fluid circulation, which can lead to a significant enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer at large oscillation amplitudes. A particularly relevant phenomenon that can be notably affected by acoustic streaming is the promotion of sound waves by temperature gradients or viceversa (thermoacoustics), which is at the basis of potentially efficient and environmental friendly engines and refrigerators that have attracted a renewed interest in the last years. In the present manuscript, historical developments and the underlying basic physics behind acoustic streaming and thermoacoustics are reviewed from an unifying perspective.

  8. Expression pattern of immediate early genes in the cerebellum of D1R KO, D2R KO, and wild type mice under vestibular-controlled activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the different motor abilities of D1R knockout (KO), D2R KO and wild-type (WT) mice. To understand the interaction between the cerebellum and the striatal direct and indirect pathways, we examined the expression patterns of immediate early genes (IEG) in the cerebellum of these three genotypes of mice. In the WT naive mice, there was little IEG expression. However, we observed a robust expression of c-fos mRNA in the vermis and hemisphere after running rota-rod tasks. In the vermis, c-fos was expressed throughout the lobules except lobule 7, and also in crus 1 of the ansiform lobule (Crus1), copula of the pyramis (Cop) and most significantly in the flocculus in the hemisphere. jun-B was much less expressed but more preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells. In addition, we observed significant levels of c-fos and jun-B expressions after handling mice, and after the stationary rota-rod task in naive mice. Surprisingly, we observed significant expression of c-fos and jun-B even 30 min after single weighing. Nonetheless, certain additional c-fos and jun-B expressions were observed in three genotypes of the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks 24 h after stationary rota-rod task and on days 1 and 5 after rota-rod tasks, but no significant differences in expressions after the running rota-rod tasks were observed among the three genotypes. In addition, there may be some differences 24 h after the stationary rota-rod task between the naive mice and the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks.

  9. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  10. Variable Patterned Pudendal Nerve Stimuli Improves Reflex Bladder Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Tim M.; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated variable patterns of pudendal nerve (PN) stimuli for reflex bladder excitation. Reflex activation of the bladder has been demonstrated previously with 20–33 Hz continuous stimulation of PN afferents. Neuronal circuits accessed by afferent mediated pathways may respond better to physiological patterned stimuli than continuous stimulation. Unilateral PN nerve cuffs were placed in neurologically intact male cats. PN stimulation (0.5–100 Hz) was performed under isovolumetric conditio...

  11. Interfacial pattern selection in miscible liquids under vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaponenko, Y; Torregrosa, M M; Yasnou, V; Mialdun, A; Shevtsova, V

    2015-11-14

    We explore the peculiar behaviour of an interface between two miscible liquids of similar (but non-identical) viscosities and densities under horizontal vibration with a frequency less than 25 Hz. Significant differences in the structure of the formed patterns were found between microgravity and ground experiments. In a gravity field, a spatially periodic saw-tooth frozen structure is generated in the interface which dissipates at long times. By contrast, under the low gravity conditions of a parabolic flight, the long lived pattern consists of a series of vertical columns of alternating liquids. PMID:26365134

  12. Universal activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Formentin, Marco; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new universal pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent's contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We show this universal behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one's environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns constrain future models of com...

  13. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  14. General Neutrino Mass Matrix Patterns and Its Underlying Family Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Damanik, Asan; Anggraita, Pramudita; Muslim,

    2014-01-01

    Baseon on current experimental results, such as neutrino oscillations and the neutrinoless double beta decays (i.e. data from Super Kamiokande, KamLAND, SNO, etc.), the neutrino mixing matrix can be adequately determined. Though there are still certain parameters that have possibility limits, but based on the current experimental results it is possible to construct a general form of neutrino mass matrix. Starting from this general form of the neutrino mass matrix we put certain conditions in the context of the seesaw mechanism model to determine the possible pattern of the neutrino mass matrix that has a texture zero. From the obtained neutrino mass matrix pattern, there are three class of patterns, where two of the class are known to be realized in literature by the underlying family symmetries of the $D_{4}$ and $A_{4}$ groups, the dihedral and tetrahedral symmetry groups.

  15. Dynamic patterns of academic forum activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show rich dynamic patterns. In this article, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic patterns of 50 thousands of researchers' activities in Sciencenet, the largest multi-disciplinary academic community in China. Through statistical analyses, we found that (i) there exists a power-law scaling between the frequency of visits to an academic forum and the number of corresponding visitors, with the exponent being about 1.33; (ii) the expansion process of academic forums obeys the Heaps' law, namely the number of distinct visited forums to the number of visits grows in a power-law form with exponent being about 0.54; (iii) the probability distributions of time intervals and the number of visits taken to revisit the same academic forum both follow power-laws, indicating the existence of memory effect in academic forum activities. On the basis of these empirical results, we propose a dynamic model that incorporates the exploration, preferential return with memory effect, which can well reproduce the observed scaling laws.

  16. Root activity pattern of eucalyptus camaldulensis dehnhardt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The root activity pattern of a seven-year-old E. camaldulensis was studied by 32P capsule placement technique. The study revealed that nearly two-third of the roots of E. camaldulensis are confined to the top 60 cm of the soil layer. Laterally, one-third of the roots are confined within the 50 cm radial distance from the trunk of the tree and the remaining two-thirds are spread at a radial distance of 75 to 100 cm. (author)

  17. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  18. Pattern of crescendo TWA may disclose the underlying cardiac pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Verrier, Richard L; Nikus, Kjell; Viik, Jari; Lehtinen, Rami; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kaiser, Willi; Kähönen, Mika

    2010-01-01

    We present an exercise test case in which crescendo TWA preceded ventricular tachycardia (VT). The patient was examined due to suspicion of ischemic heart disease. The ST-segment became elevated simultaneously with a distinct alternation in the ST-segment and the first half of the T-wave, and the patient developed polymorphic VT. Coronary angiography disclosed marked stenoses. Earlier reports of TWA in patients with congenital long QT syndrome show a pattern in which the T wave frequently alternates above and below the isoelectric line without concomitant ST-segment changes. In Brugada syndrome patients, the signature ST-T wave pattern is the locus of alternation. Future investigation should elucidate whether specific TWA morphologies may expose underlying heart disease.

  19. Pattern of crescendo TWA may disclose the underlying cardiac pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Verrier, Richard L; Nikus, Kjell; Viik, Jari; Lehtinen, Rami; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kaiser, Willi; Kähönen, Mika

    2010-01-01

    We present an exercise test case in which crescendo TWA preceded ventricular tachycardia (VT). The patient was examined due to suspicion of ischemic heart disease. The ST-segment became elevated simultaneously with a distinct alternation in the ST-segment and the first half of the T-wave, and the patient developed polymorphic VT. Coronary angiography disclosed marked stenoses. Earlier reports of TWA in patients with congenital long QT syndrome show a pattern in which the T wave frequently alternates above and below the isoelectric line without concomitant ST-segment changes. In Brugada syndrome patients, the signature ST-T wave pattern is the locus of alternation. Future investigation should elucidate whether specific TWA morphologies may expose underlying heart disease. PMID:20413129

  20. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    traders, and where their differences lie. Finally, we show how a combined approach can make a significant contribution to the scholarly study of space in West Africa. We argue that continuing dialogue among fields can contribute to a reassessment of development policies.......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...... by historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article...

  1. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Cheng-Ye; Middlestadt Susan E; Zhang Juan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a...

  2. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  3. Categorizing Pedagogical Patterns by Teaching Activities and Pedagogical Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Eriksen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a proposal for a universal pedagogical pattern categorization based on teaching values and activities. This categorization would be more sustainable than the arbitrary categorization implied by pedagogical pattern language themes. Pedagogical patterns from two central patterns languages are analyzed and…

  4. Pattern formation and mass transfer under stationary solutal Marangoni instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Karin; Köllner, Thomas; Linde, Hartmut; Boeck, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Eckert, Kerstin

    2014-04-01

    According to the seminal theory by Sternling and Scriven, solutal Marangoni convection during mass transfer of surface-active solutes may occur as either oscillatory or stationary instability. With strong support of Manuel G. Velarde, a combined initiative of experimental works, in particular to mention those of Linde, Wierschem and coworkers, and theory has enabled a classification of dominant wave types of the oscillatory mode and their interactions. In this way a rather comprehensive understanding of the nonlinear evolution of the oscillatory instability could be achieved. A comparably advanced state-of-the-art with respect to the stationary counterpart seemed to be out of reach a short time ago. Recent developments on both the numerical and experimental side, in combination with assessing an extensive number of older experiments, now allow one to draw a more unified picture. By reviewing these works, we show that three main building blocks exist during the nonlinear evolution: roll cells, relaxation oscillations and relaxation oscillations waves. What is frequently called interfacial turbulence results from the interaction between these partly coexisting basic patterns which may additionally occur in different hierarchy levels. The second focus of this review lies on the practical importance of such convection patterns concerning their influence on mass transfer characteristics. Particular attention is paid here to the interaction between Marangoni and buoyancy effects which frequently complicates the pattern formation even more. To shed more light on these dependencies, new simulations regarding the limiting case of stabilizing density stratification and vanishing buoyancy are incorporated.

  5. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  6. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  7. Dynamic Labyrinthine Pattern in an Active Liquid Film

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We report the generation of a dynamic labyrinthine pattern in an active alcohol film. A dynamic labyrinthine pattern is formed along the contact line of air/pentanol/aqueous three phases. The contact line shows a clear time-dependent change with regard to both perimeter and area of a domain. An autocorrelation analysis of time-development of the dynamics of the perimeter and area revealed a strong geometric correlation between neighboring patterns. The pattern showed autoregressive behavior. The behavior of the dynamic pattern is strikingly different from those of stationary labyrinthine patterns. The essential aspects of the observed dynamic pattern are reproduced by a diffusion-controlled geometric model.

  8. Control of programmed cell death by distinct electrical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbs, Antje; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sava, Irina E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-01

    Electrical activity and sufficient supply with survival factors play a major role in the control of apoptosis in the developing cortex. Coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, which efficiently releases neurotrophins, is essential for the survival of immature neurons. We studied the influence of neuronal activity on apoptosis in the developing cortex. Dissociated cultures of the newborn mouse cerebral cortex were grown on multielectrode arrays to determine the activity patterns that promote neuronal survival. Cultures were transfected with a plasmid coding for a caspase-3-sensitive fluorescent protein allowing real-time analysis of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in individual neurons. Elevated extracellular potassium concentrations (5 and 8 mM), application of 4-aminopyridine or the γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist Gabazine induced a shift in the frequency distribution of activity toward high-frequency bursts. Under these conditions, a reduction or delay in caspase-3 activation and an overall increase in neuronal survival could be observed. This effect was dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, as blockade of this enzyme abolished the survival-promoting effect of high extracellular potassium concentrations. Our data indicate that increased network activity can prevent apoptosis in developing cortical neurons.

  9. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  10. FATTY ACIDS PATTERN OF OLIVE OIL UNDER ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasab Al-Rawashdeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming is considered as a mitigation strategy to face adverse effect of climate change and Consumers’ increasing their need for safe and quality food has motivated this research study. The olive oil of the Roman olive trees (Landrace Olea Europea belong to the Oleaceae family growing under organic farming (in the transition period conditions in Jordan Ajlun area was extracted by traditional method; warming water to the about 60°C and grounded the seeds make as paste then pour in the warmed water then take the oil layer floated at the surface. The oil was analyzed for fatty acids pattern and compared with Romans trees olive oil grown at Burma Agriculture Station which has organic Certificate according to the Japanese Agriculture Standard (JAS since 2007. The separation patterns of fatty acids were done by Gas Chromatography (GC. Results showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid (up to 67.49%, linoleic acid (13.31% and linolenic acid (0.74% in the oil of Romans trees growing in Ajlun area, while the organic olive oil from the Romans olive trees growing at Burma Station showed 68.88% of oleic acid, 11.73% of linoleic acid and 0.67% of Linolenic acid. The analysis also showed that the palmatic saturated fatty acid was 12.54% at Burma Station compared to 11.82% in Ajlun area. The medicinal value of unsaturated fatty acids play great role for reducing cholesterol rate that was found in high level of Romans olive trees (landrace.

  11. Spatial patterns of European droughts under a moderate emission scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoni, J.; Naumann, G.; Vogt, J.

    2015-07-01

    Meteorological drought is generally defined as a prolonged deficiency of precipitation and is considered one of the most relevant natural hazards as the related impacts can involve many different sectors. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of European droughts for the periods 1981-2010, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100, focusing on the projections under a moderate emissions scenario. To do that, we used the outputs of the KNMI-RACMO2 model, which belongs to the A1B family and whose spatial resolution is 0.25° × 0.25°. By means of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET), we computed the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at the 12-month accumulation scale. Thereafter, we separately obtained drought frequency, duration, severity, and intensity for the whole of Europe, excluding Iceland. According to both indicators, the spatial drought patterns are projected to follow what recently characterized Europe: southern Europe, who experienced many severe drought events in the last decades, is likely to be involved by longer, more frequent, severe, and intense droughts in the near future (2041-2070) and even more in the far future (2071-2100). This tendency is more evident using the SPEI, which also depends on temperature and consequently reflects the expected warming that will be highest for the Mediterranean area in Europe. On the other side, less severe and fewer drought events are likely to occur in northern Europe. This tendency is more evident using the SPI, because the precipitation increase is projected to outbalance the temperature (and PET) rise in particular in Scandinavia. Regarding the mid-latitudes, the SPEI-based analyses point at more frequent drought events, while the SPI-based ones point at less frequent events in these regions.

  12. Categorizing Pedagogical Patterns by Teaching Activities and Pedagogical Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is a proposal for a universal pedagogical pattern categorization based on teaching values and activities. This categorization would be more sustainable than the arbitrary categorization implied by pedagogical pattern language themes. Pedagogical patterns from t...

  13. Cannabinoid receptor activation shifts temporally engendered patterns of dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-05-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration--suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55,212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner--suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55,212-2. PMID:24345819

  14. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. I. Linear stability analysis and basic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K

    2001-06-01

    An asymptotic interface equation for directional solidification near the absolute stability limit is extended by a nonlocal term describing a shear flow parallel to the interface. In the long-wave limit considered, the flow acts destabilizing on a planar interface. Moreover, linear stability analysis suggests that the morphology diagram is modified by the flow near onset of the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Via numerical analysis, the bifurcation structure of the system is shown to change. Besides the known hexagonal cells, structures consisting of stripes arise. Due to its symmetry-breaking properties, the flow term induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern, once the instability has become active. The drift velocity is measured numerically and described analytically in the framework of a linear analysis. At large flow strength, the linear description breaks down, which is accompanied by a transition to flow-dominated morphologies which is described in the following paper. Small and intermediate flows lead to increased order in the lattice structure of the pattern, facilitating the elimination of defects. Locally oscillating structures appear closer to the instability threshold with flow than without.

  15. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  16. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  17. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    . This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three......, which involves 30 min for each activity. The results show that feeding and lateral/sternal lying activities are best recognized; walking and rooting activities are mostly recognized by a specific axis corresponding to the direction of the sow's movement while performing the activity (horizontal sidewise......An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen...

  18. Modeling of metal nanocluster growth on patterned substrates and surface pattern formation under ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-11-01

    This work addresses the metal nanocluster growth process on prepatterned substrates, the development of atomistic simulation method with respect to an acceleration of the atomistic transition states, and the continuum model of the ion-beam inducing semiconductor surface pattern formation mechanism. Experimentally, highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO{sub 2} surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well-separated. The first topic is the investigation of this growth process with a continuum theoretical approach to the surface gas condensation as well as an atomistic cluster growth model. The atomistic simulation model is a lattice-based kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag monomers and {approx}1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag monomers. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns. The second topic specifies the acceleration scheme utilized in the metallic cluster growth model. Concerning the atomistic movements, a classical harmonic transition state theory is considered and applied in discrete lattice cells with hierarchical transition levels. The model results in an effective reduction of KMC simulation steps by utilizing a classification scheme of transition levels for thermally activated atomistic diffusion processes. Thermally activated atomistic movements

  19. Reverse inference of memory retrieval processes underlying metacognitive monitoring of learning using multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique

    2016-05-15

    Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require reverse inference, which presupposes specificity of brain activity for the hidden cognitive processes. We investigated whether multivariate pattern classification can provide this specificity. We used a word recall task to create single trial examples of immediate and long term retrieval and trained a learning algorithm to discriminate them. Next, participants performed a similar task involving monitoring instead of recall. The recall-trained classifier recognized the retrieval patterns underlying immediate and long term monitoring and classified delayed monitoring examples as long-term retrieval. This result demonstrates the feasibility of decoding cognitive processes, instead of their content. PMID:26883066

  20. Preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yang; Ke-Qiang, Qiu

    2009-05-01

    Activated carbons especially used for gaseous adsorption were prepared from Chinesefir sawdust by zinc chloride activation under vacuum condition. The micropore structure, adsorption properties, and surface morphology of activated carbons obtained under atmosphere and vacuum were investigated. The prepared activated carbons were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the structure of the starting material is kept after activation. The activated carbon prepared under vacuum exhibited higher values of the BET surface area (up to 1079 m2 g(-1)) and total pore volume (up to 0.5665 cm3 g(-1)) than those of the activated carbon obtained under atmosphere. This was attributed to the effect of vacuum condition that reduces oxygen in the system and limits the secondary reaction of the organic vapor. The prepared activated carbon has well-developed microstructure and high microporosity. According to the data obtained, Chinese fir sawdust is a suitable precursor for activated carbon preparation. The obtained activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent with favorable surface properties. Compared with the traditional chemical activation, vacuum condition demands less energy consumption, simultaneity, and biomass-oil is collected in the procedure more conveniently. FTIR analysis showed that heat treatment would result in the aromatization of the carbon structure. PMID:19534162

  1. Turing patterns and solitary structures under global control

    OpenAIRE

    Pismen, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Striped Turing patterns and solitary band and disk structures are constructed using a three-variable multiscale model with cubic nonlinearity and global control. The existence and stability conditions of regular structures are analysed using the equation of motion of curved boundaries between alternative states of the short-range component. The combined picture of transitions between striped and spotted patterns with changing level of global control is in qualitative agreement with the result...

  2. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  3. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hines Heather M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

  4. Spectral pattern recognition in under-sampled functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtz, R.F.

    1988-08-01

    Fourier optics and an optical bench model are used to construct an ensemble of candidate functions representing variational patterns in an undersampled two dimensional function g(x,y). The known sample function s(x,y) is the product of g(x,y) and a set of unit impulses on the sample point pattern p(x,y) which, from the optical point of view, is an aperture imposing strict mathematical limits on what the sample can tell g(x,y). The laws of optics enforce much needed - and often lacking - conceptual discipline in reconstructing candidate variational patterns in g(x,y). The Fourier transform (FT) of s(x,y) is the convolution of the FT's of g(x,y) and p(x,y). If the convolution shows aliasing or confounding of frequencies undersampling is surely present and all reconstructions are indeterminate. Then information from outside s(x,y) is required and it is easily expressed in frequency terms so that the principles of optical filtering and image reconstruction can be applied. In the application described and pictured the FT of s(x,y) was filtered to eliminate unlikely or uninteresting high frequency amplitude maxima. A menu of the 100 strongest remaining terms was taken as indicating the principle variations patterns in g(x,y). Subsets of 10 terms from the menu were chosen using stepwise regression. By so restricting the subset size both the variance and the span of their inverse transforms were made consistent with those of the data. The amplitudes of the patterns being overdetermined, it was possible to estimate the phases also. The inverse transforms of 9 patterns so selected are regarded as ensembles of reconstructions, that is as stochastic process models, from which estimates of the mean and other moments can be calculated.

  5. Patterns of groundwater quality in sandy aquifers under environmental pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In exploring groundwater quality patterns in sandy phreatic aquifers this thesis follows three fundamental tracks, which are of a methodological, of a conceptual, and of a process based kind. First, in chapter 1 the three principle factors that together determine the groundwater quality distribution

  6. Physical activity patterns in Greenland: A country in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition.......To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition....

  7. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; SAADAT, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns a...

  8. Electrical activity patterns and the functional maturation of the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-11-01

    At the earliest developmental stages, sensory neocortical areas in various species reveal distinct patterns of spontaneous neuronal network activity. These activity patterns either propagate over large neocortical areas or synchronize local neuronal ensembles. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that these spontaneous activity patterns are generated from neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex, in subcortical structures or in the sensory periphery (retina, cochlea, whiskers). At early stages spontaneous periphery-driven and also sensory evoked activity is relayed to the developing cerebral cortex via the thalamus and the neocortical subplate, which amplifies the afferent sensory input. These early local and large-scale neuronal activity patterns influence a variety of developmental processes during corticogenesis, such as neurogenesis, apoptosis, neuronal migration, differentiation and network formation. The experimental data also indicate that disturbances in early neuronal patterns may have an impact on the development of cortical layers, columns and networks. In this article we review our current knowledge on the origin of early electrical activity patterns in neocortical sensory areas and their functional implications on shaping developing cortical networks.

  9. The pattern of genetic hitchhiking under recurrent mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Hermisson, Joachim; Pfaffelhuber, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Genetic hitchhiking describes evolution at a neutral locus that is linked to a selected locus. If a beneficial allele rises to fixation at the selected locus, a characteristic polymorphism pattern (so-called selective sweep) emerges at the neutral locus. The classical model assumes that fixation of the beneficial allele occurs from a single copy of this allele that arises by mutation. However, recent theory (Pennings and Hermisson, 2006a; Pennings and Hermisson, 2006b) has shown that recurren...

  10. Distributed dynamical computation in neural circuits with propagating coherent activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Gong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear. We construct a spatially extended, spiking neural circuit that generates emergent spatiotemporal activity patterns, thereby capturing some of the complexities of the patterns observed empirically. We elucidate what kind of fundamental function these patterns can serve by showing how they process information. As self-sustained objects, localized coherent patterns can signal information by propagating across the neural circuit. Computational operations occur when these emergent patterns interact, or collide with each other. The ongoing behaviors of these patterns naturally embody both distributed, parallel computation and cascaded logical operations. Such distributed computations enable the system to work in an inherently flexible and efficient way. Our work leads us to propose that propagating coherent activity patterns are the underlying primitives with which neural circuits carry out distributed dynamical computation.

  11. Oral Electromyography Activation Patterns for Speech Are Similar in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors determined whether basic patterns of muscle activation for speech were similar in preschool children who stutter and in their fluent peers. Method: Right and left lower lip muscle activity were recorded during conversational speech and sentence repetition in 64 preschool children diagnosed as stuttering (CWS)…

  12. Point Pattern Matching Algorithm for Planar Point Sets under Euclidean Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Point pattern matching is an important topic of computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a point pattern matching algorithm for two planar point sets under Euclidean transform. We view a point set as a complete graph, establish the relation between the point set and the complete graph, and solve the point pattern matching problem by finding congruent complete graphs. Experiments are conducted to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  14. Assessing risk based on uncertain avalanche activity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Fromm, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Avalanches may affect critical infrastructure and may cause great economic losses. The planning horizon of infrastructures, e.g. hydropower generation facilities, reaches well into the future. Based on the results of previous studies on the effect of changing meteorological parameters (precipitation, temperature) and the effect on avalanche activity we assume that there will be a change of the risk pattern in future. The decision makers need to understand what the future might bring to best formulate their mitigation strategies. Therefore, we explore a commercial risk software to calculate risk for the coming years that might help in decision processes. The software @risk, is known to many larger companies, and therefore we explore its capabilities to include avalanche risk simulations in order to guarantee a comparability of different risks. In a first step, we develop a model for a hydropower generation facility that reflects the problem of changing avalanche activity patterns in future by selecting relevant input parameters and assigning likely probability distributions. The uncertain input variables include the probability of avalanches affecting an object, the vulnerability of an object, the expected costs for repairing the object and the expected cost due to interruption. The crux is to find the distribution that best represents the input variables under changing meteorological conditions. Our focus is on including the uncertain probability of avalanches based on the analysis of past avalanche data and expert knowledge. In order to explore different likely outcomes we base the analysis on three different climate scenarios (likely, worst case, baseline). For some variables, it is possible to fit a distribution to historical data, whereas in cases where the past dataset is insufficient or not available the software allows to select from over 30 different distribution types. The Monte Carlo simulation uses the probability distribution of uncertain variables

  15. Motor training increases the stability of activation patterns in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    Full Text Available Learning to be skillful is an endowed talent of humans, but neural mechanisms underlying behavioral improvement remain largely unknown. Some studies have reported that the mean magnitude of neural activation is increased after learning, whereas others have instead shown decreased activation. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate learning-induced changes in the neural activation in the human brain with a classic motor training task. Specifically, instead of comparing the mean magnitudes of activation before and after training, we analyzed the learning-induced changes in multi-voxel spatial patterns of neural activation. We observed that the stability of the activation patterns, or the similarity of the activation patterns between the even and odd runs of the fMRI scans, was significantly increased in the primary motor cortex (M1 after training. By contrast, the mean magnitude of neural activation remained unchanged. Therefore, our study suggests that learning shapes the brain by increasing the stability of the activation patterns, therefore providing a new perspective in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying learning.

  16. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country. PMID:27368795

  17. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  18. Broad-scale recombination patterns underlying proper disjunction in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Fledel-Alon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although recombination is essential to the successful completion of human meiosis, it remains unclear how tightly the process is regulated and over what scale. To assess the nature and stringency of constraints on human recombination, we examined crossover patterns in transmissions to viable, non-trisomic offspring, using dense genotyping data collected in a large set of pedigrees. Our analysis supports a requirement for one chiasma per chromosome rather than per arm to ensure proper disjunction, with additional chiasmata occurring in proportion to physical length. The requirement is not absolute, however, as chromosome 21 seems to be frequently transmitted properly in the absence of a chiasma in females, a finding that raises the possibility of a back-up mechanism aiding in its correct segregation. We also found a set of double crossovers in surprisingly close proximity, as expected from a second pathway that is not subject to crossover interference. These findings point to multiple mechanisms that shape the distribution of crossovers, influencing proper disjunction in humans.

  19. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage. PMID:27337888

  20. Extinction rates under nonrandom patterns of habitat loss

    OpenAIRE

    Seabloom, Eric W.; Dobson, Andy P.; Stoms, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Most models that examine the effects of habitat conversion on species extinctions assume that habitat conversion occurs at random. This assumption allows predictions about extinction rates based on the species–area relationship. We show that the spatially aggregated nature of habitat conversion introduces a significant bias that may lead species-loss rates to exceed those predicted by species–area curves. Correlations between human activity and major compositional gradients, or species richne...

  1. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  2. PHYSIOLOGIC PATTERNS OF SLEEP ON EEG, MASKING OF EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Glukhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic patterns of sleep on EEG can sometimes be similar to epileptiform activity and even to the EEG pattern of epileptic seizures, but they have no connection to epilepsy and their incorrect interpretation may lead to overdiagnosis of epilepsy. These sleep patterns include vertex transients, K-complexes, hypnagogic hypersynchrony, 14 and 6 Hz positive bursts, wicket-potentials, etc. The main distinctive features of acute physiological phenomena of sleep unlike epileptiform activity are stereotyped, monomorphic morphology of waves, which frequently has rhythmic, arcuate pattern, often with change of lateralization, mainly dominated in the first stages of sleep (N1-N2, with their reduction in the deeper stages and transition to delta sleep (N3. The correct interpretation of physiological sharp-wave phenomena of sleep on EEG requires considerable training and experience of the physician. Our review includes a variety of physiological sleep patterns, which can mimic epileptiform activity on EEG, their criteria of diagnostic with demonstration of own illustrations of EEG.

  3. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity...... tasks and may underlie muscle pain development in spite of rather low relative muscle load. Causal mechanisms include a stereotype recruitment of low threshold motor units (activating type 1 muscle fibers) characterized by a lack of temporal as well as spatial variation in recruitment. In contrast...

  4. Physical Activity Patterns among U.S. Adults with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…

  5. Chitosan and polycaprolactone membranes patterned via electrospinning: effect of underlying chemistry and pattern characteristics on epithelial/fibroblastic cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşek, Murat; Capkın, Merve; Karakeçili, Ayşe; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2012-12-01

    Electrospinning was used as an effective route to pattern chitosan (CS) and polycaprolactone (PCL) membranes with submicron fibers having different chemical structure (PCL or PCL/collagen) and physical characteristics (size: between ≈200 and 550 nm; randomly oriented or aligned form). While the PCL fibers with diameters in the same range (≈200 nm) were patterned on both of CS and PCL membranes to evaluate the influence of the underlying membrane chemistry, only CS membranes were patterned with PCL fibers having different sizes simply by changing the electrospinning conditions to investigate the effects of pattern characteristics. Furthermore, collagen was added to the PCL fiber structure to change the chemical composition of the fibers in a cell-attractive way. Two cell lines with different morphologies, fibroblastic MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts and epithelial Madine Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, were cultured on the patterned membranes. The observation of cellular behavior in terms of cell morphology and F-actin synthesis was realized by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy analysis during the first 12 h of culture period. The viability of cells was controlled by MTT assay through 96 h of cell culture. The cell culture studies indicated that the leading aspect for the morphology change on patterned membranes was the fiber orientation. The aligned topography controlled the morphology of cells both on CS and PCL membranes. In the presence of collagen in the fiber structure, F-actin filament synthesis increased for MC3T3-E1 and MDBK cell lines.

  6. How networks communicate: propagation patterns in spontaneous brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anish; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-10-01

    Initially regarded as 'noise', spontaneous (intrinsic) activity accounts for a large portion of the brain's metabolic cost. Moreover, it is now widely known that infra-slow (less than 0.1 Hz) spontaneous activity, measured using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, is correlated within functionally defined resting state networks (RSNs). However, despite these advances, the temporal organization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has remained elusive. By studying temporal lags in the resting state BOLD signal, we have recently shown that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations consist of remarkably reproducible patterns of whole brain propagation. Embedded in these propagation patterns are unidirectional 'motifs' which, in turn, give rise to RSNs. Additionally, propagation patterns are markedly altered as a function of state, whether physiological or pathological. Understanding such propagation patterns will likely yield deeper insights into the role of spontaneous activity in brain function in health and disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting blood oxygen level-dependent: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574315

  7. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  8. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  9. Extraembryonic signals under the control of MGA, Max, and Smad4 are required for dorsoventral patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuhua; Tseng, Wei-Chia; Fan, Xiang; Ball, Rebecca; Dougan, Scott T

    2014-02-10

    In vertebrates, extraembryonic tissues can act as signaling centers that impose a reproducible pattern of cell types upon the embryo. Here, we show that the zebrafish yolk syncytial layer (YSL) secretes a ventralizing signal during gastrulation. This activity is mediated by Bmp2b/Swirl (Swr) expressed under the control of Max's giant associated protein (MGA) and its binding partners, Max and Smad4. MGA coimmunoprecipitates with both Max and Smad4 in embryo extracts, and the three proteins form a complex in vitro. Furthermore, all three proteins bind to a DNA fragment upstream of the bmp2b transcription start site. Targeted depletion of MGA, its binding partners, or Bmp2b/Swr from the YSL reduces BMP signaling throughout the embryo, resulting in a mildly dorsalized phenotype. We conclude that MGA, Max, and Smad4 act in the extraembryonic YSL to initiate a positive feedback loop of Bmp signaling within the embryo. PMID:24525188

  10. Circadian pattern and burstiness in human communication activity

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    The temporal pattern of human communication is inhomogeneous and bursty, as reflected by the heavy tail distribution of the inter-event times. For the origin of this behavior two main mechanisms have been suggested: a) Externally driven inhomogeneities due to the circadian and weekly activity patterns and b) intrinsic correlation based inhomogeneity rooted deeply in the task handling strategies of humans. Here we address this question by providing systematic de-seasoning methods to remove the circadian and weekly patterns from the time series of communication events. We find that the heavy tails of the inter-event time distributions are robust with respect to this procedure indicating that burstiness is mostly caused by the latter mechanism b). Moreover, we find that our de-seasoning procedure improves the scaling behavior of the distribution.

  11. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units. PMID:26353344

  12. Communities in Neuronal Complex Networks Revealed by Activation Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the communities in neuronal networks of the integrate-and-fire type can be identified by considering patterns containing the beginning times for each cell to receive the first non-zero activation. The received activity was integrated in order to facilitate the spiking of each neuron and to constrain the activation inside the communities, but no time decay of such activation was considered. The present article shows that, by taking into account exponential decays of the stored activation, it is possible to identify the communities also in terms of the patterns of activation along the initial steps of the transient dynamics. The potential of this method is illustrated with respect to complex neuronal networks involving four communities, each of a different type (Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'eny, Barab\\'asi-Albert, Watts-Strogatz as well as a simple geographical model). Though the consideration of activation decay has been found to enhance the communities separation, too intense decays tend to y...

  13. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used.

  14. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorely Trish

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.

  15. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  16. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke eOztekin; David eBadre

    2011-01-01

    HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting Ilke Öztekin1* and David Badre2,3 1 Department of Psychology, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA 3 Brown Institute for Brain Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Proactive interference (PI), in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely...

  17. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. PMID:26899302

  18. Discharge pattern of tonically activated motor units during unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerilovsky, L; Struppler, A; Velho, F; Niehage, O

    1990-12-01

    In order to analyse the EMG pattern during unloading of brachial biceps muscle, the interference EMG and single motor unit activity were investigated. The measurements were done on seven healthy subjects with two types of unloading techniques: a) active unloading, when the subjects resisted against an external load (10, 20, 30 and 40 N) which is suddenly released, and b) passive unloading, performed by low inertia torque motors with independently adjustable background extension and suddenly applied flexion torques. Following active unloading the silent period duration, the amplitude of the rebound and its segmentation into consecutive bursts is changing with initial load, whereas the silent period latency remains constant. Following passive unloading the acceleration influences predominantly the amplitude of the rebound, without changing its latency and silent period duration. The initial voluntary activity influences both silent period duration and rebound parameters (latency, amplitude and duration). PMID:2286170

  19. Retrieving binary answers using whole-brain activity pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Eiji Nawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA has been successfully employed to advance our understanding of where and how information regarding different mental states is represented in the human brain, bringing new insights into how these states come to fruition, and providing a promising complement to the mass-univariate approach. Here, we employed MVPA to classify whole-brain activity patterns occurring in single fMRI scans, in order to retrieve binary answers from experiment participants. Five healthy volunteers performed two types of mental task while in the MRI scanner: counting down numbers and recalling positive autobiographical events. Data from these runs were used to train individual machine learning based classifiers that predicted which mental task was being performed based on the voxel-based brain activity patterns. On a different day, the same volunteers reentered the scanner and listened to six statements (e.g., the month you were born is an odd number, and were told to countdown numbers if the statement was true (yes or recall positive events otherwise (no. The previously trained classifiers were then used to assign labels (yes/no to the scans collected during the 24-second response periods following each one of the statements. Mean classification accuracies at the single scan level were in the range of 73.6% to 80.8%, significantly above chance for all participants. When applying a majority vote on the scans within each response period, i.e., the most frequent label (yes/no in the response period becomes the answer to the previous statement, 5.0 to 5.8 sentences, out of 6, were correctly classified in each one of the runs, on average. These results indicate that binary answers can be retrieved from whole-brain activity patterns, suggesting that MVPA provides an alternative way to establish basic communication with unresponsive patients when other techniques are not successful.

  20. Cognitive load and autonomic response patterns under negative priming demand in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemche, Erwin; Sierra-Siegert, Mauricio; David, Anthony S; Phillips, Mary L; Gasston, David; Williams, Steven C R; Giampietro, Vincent P

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups. Evoked haemodynamic responses for basic Stroop/negative priming activations were compared. For basic Stroop to neutral contrast, patients with DPRD differed in the location (inferior vs. superior lobule) of the parietal region involved, but showed similar activations in the left frontal region. In addition, patients with DPRD also co-activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (BA9) and posterior cingulate cortex (BA31), which were also found to be the main between-group difference regions. These regions furthermore showed connectivity with frequency of depersonalization states. Evoked haemodynamic responses drawn from regions of interest indicated significant between-group differences in 30-40% of time points. Brain-behaviour correlations differed mainly in laterality, yet only slightly in regions. A reversal of autonomic patterning became evident in patients with DPRD for cognitive load spans, indicating less effective arousal suppression under cognitive stress - patients with DPRD showed positive associations of cognitive load with autonomic responses, whereas controls exhibit respective inverse association. Overall, the results of the present study show only minor executive cognitive peculiarities, but further support the notion of abnormalities in autonomic functioning in patients with DPRD.

  1. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  2. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  3. Optical imaging of the propagation patterns of neural responses in the rat sensory cortex: comparison under two different anesthetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, N; Ito, S-I; Hirota, A

    2015-01-22

    Although many studies have reported the influence of anesthetics on the shape of somatic evoked potential, none has evaluated the influence on the spatio-temporal pattern of neural activity in detail. It is practically impossible to analyze neural activities spatially, using conventional electrophysiological methods. Applying our multiple-site optical recording technique for measuring membrane potential from multiple-sites with a high time resolution, we compared the spatio-temporal pattern of the evoked activity under two different anesthetic conditions induced by urethane or α-chloralose. The somatic cortical response was evoked by electrical stimulation of the hindlimb, and the optical signals were recorded from the rat sensorimotor cortex stained with a voltage-sensitive dye (RH414). The evoked activity emerged in a restricted area and propagated in a concentric manner. The spatio-temporal pattern of the evoked activity was analyzed using isochrone maps. There were significant differences in the latency and propagation velocity of the evoked activity, as well as the full width at half maximum of optical signal between the two anesthetic conditions. Differences in the amplitude and the slope of the rising phase were not significant. PMID:25301752

  4. Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Hiroya; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2010-07-01

    Turing instability in activator-inhibitor systems provides a paradigm of non-equilibrium self-organization; it has been extensively investigated for biological and chemical processes. Turing instability should also be possible in networks, and general mathematical methods for its treatment have been formulated previously. However, only examples of regular lattices and small networks were explicitly considered. Here we study Turing patterns in large random networks, which reveal striking differences from the classical behaviour. The initial linear instability leads to spontaneous differentiation of the network nodes into activator-rich and activator-poor groups. The emerging Turing patterns become furthermore strongly reshaped at the subsequent nonlinear stage. Multiple coexisting stationary states and hysteresis effects are observed. This peculiar behaviour can be understood in the framework of a mean-field theory. Our results offer a new perspective on self-organization phenomena in systems organized as complex networks. Potential applications include ecological metapopulations, synthetic ecosystems, cellular networks of early biological morphogenesis, and networks of coupled chemical nanoreactors.

  5. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  6. Stress and physiological, behavioral and performance patterns of children under varied air ion levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornof, K. T.; Gilbert, G. O.

    1988-12-01

    The possibility that individual differences in reactivity to stressors are a major factor underlying discordant results reported for air ion studies prompted an investigation of response patterns in school children under both normal indoor air ion levels and moderately increased negative air ion levels (4000±500/cm3). It was hypothesized that the impact of stressors is reduced with high negative air ionization, and that resultant changes in stress effects would be differentially exhibited according to the children's normal degree of stimulus reactivity. A counter-balanced, replicative, withinssubject design was selected, and the subjects were 12 environmentally sensitive, 1st 4th grade school children. In addition to monitoring stress effects on activity level, attention span, concentration to task and conceptual performance, measures were also made of urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels and skin resistance response (SRR) to determine if changes extended to the physiological state. The cold water test was used to add physical stress and enable calculations of Lacey's autonomic lability scores (ALS) as indicators of individual reactivity. The results show main effects for air ions on both physiological parameters, with 48% less change in %SRR ( Pstress tolerance. Strong interactive effects for ALS x air ion condition appeared, with high and low ALS children reacting oppositely to negative air ions in measures of skin resistance level ( P<0.01), wrist activity ( P<0.01) and digit span backwards ( P<0.004). Thus individual differences in autonomic reactivity and the presence or absence of stressors appear as critical elements for internal validity, and in preventing consequent skewed results from obscuring progress in air ion research.

  7. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  8. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: a demographic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (WP as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e., editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  9. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: A demographic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yasseri, Taha; Kerétsz, János

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia (WP) as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e. editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  10. Active spectral sensor evaluation under varying conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant stress has been estimated by spectral signature using both passive and active sensors. As optical sensors measure reflected light from a target, changes in illumination characteristics critically affect sensor response. Active sensors are of benefit in minimizing uncontrolled illumination effe...

  11. Patterns of wildfires and emissions under future climate conditions across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, T. J.; Zhu, Z.; Finney, M.; Riley, K. L.; Jolly, W. M.; Keane, R. E.; Reinhardt, E.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to result in increased wildfire occurrence and greenhouse gas emissions in the conterminous United States. To better understand potential changes and their impacts, we asked: How might such expected changes vary over space and time in the conterminous United States, and across different climate-change scenarios? We quantified baseline patterns of burned area and emissions using burn scars from 2001-2008. Then, we developed a simulation model to assess the influence of climate change on patterns of wildfire ignitions, spread, and emissions. The simulation model was calibrated using historic fire, weather, and climate data and then used to generate projections under the A1B, A2, and B1 climate-change scenarios. We defined typical fire years and extreme fire years as the 50th and 95th percentile of decadal area burned or emissions. Then, we evaluated simulated changes in burned area and emissions among the 2001-2010 and 2041-2050 decades. Across the conterminous United States, our simulations results showed that during a typical fire year, area burned increased 25-52% from 15,700 km2 and emissions increased 20-48% from a baseline level of 56.0 TgCO2-eq. Extreme fire years in the 2041-2050 decade were more extreme than in the baseline period, and area burned increased 65-85% from 31,700 km2 and emissions increased 49-142% from 92.7 TgCO2-eq. Projected changes in fire occurrence and emissions were minimal for the Great Plains, but substantial for the West and certain ecoregions in the East. These results suggest that future wildfire activities could play a larger role in terms of socioeconomic risks and the health and productivity of ecosystems, and that efforts designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will compete with potential carbon losses due to climate-driven increases in wildfire occurrence.

  12. Landscape pattern and transition under natural and anthropogenic disturbance in an arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Tianwei; Cai, Chongfa; Li, Chongguang; Liu, Yaojun; Bao, Yuze; Guan, Wuhong

    2016-02-01

    There is a pressing need to determine the relationships between driving variables and landscape transformations. Human activities shape landscapes and turn them into complex assemblages of highly diverse structures. Other factors, including climate and topography, also play significant roles in landscape transitions, and identifying the interactions among the variables is critical to environmental management. This study analyzed the configurations and spatial-temporal processes of landscape changes from 1998 to 2011 under different anthropogenic disturbances, identified the main variables that determine the landscape patterns and transitions, and quantified the relationships between pairs of driver sets. Landsat images of Baicheng and Tekes from 1998, 2006 and 2011 were used to classify landscapes by supervised classification. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variation partitioning were performed to identify the main driving forces and to quantify the unique, shared, and total explained variation of the sets of variables. The results indicate that the proportions of otherwise identical landscapes in Baicheng and Tekes were very different. The area of the grassland in Tekes was much larger than that of the cropland; however, the differences between the grassland and cropland in Baicheng were not as pronounced. Much of the grassland in Tekes was located in an area that was near residents, whereas most of the grassland in Baicheng was far from residents. The slope, elevation, annual precipitation, annual temperature, and distance to the nearest resident were strong driving forces influencing the patterns and transitions of the landscapes. The results of the variation partitioning indicated complex interrelationships among all of the pairs of driver sets. All of the variable sets had significant explanatory roles, most of which had both unique and shared variations with the others. The results of this study can assist policy makers and planners in implementing sustainable

  13. Mechanisms underlying spontaneous glutamatergic activity in developing mouse retina

    OpenAIRE

    Firl, Alana

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the developing nervous system, spontaneous oscillatory patterns of activity have been observed. The developing murine retina is no exception, where spontaneous activity manifests as spatially correlated waves of depolarizations. These retinal waves propagate between neighboring neurons within retinal layers during the two postnatal weeks just prior to eye-opening and development of the light response. Waves are necessary for the normal patterning of connections of the retinal proje...

  14. Homogeneous temporal activity patterns in a large online communication space

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Moghnieh, Ayman; Meza, Rodrigo; Blat, Josep; López, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    The many-to-many social communication activity on the popular technology-news website Slashdot has been studied. We have concentrated on the dynamics of message production without considering semantic relations and have found regular temporal patterns in the reaction time of the community to a news-post as well as in single user behavior. The statistics of these activities follow log-normal distributions. Daily and weekly oscillatory cycles, which cause slight variations of this simple behavior, are identified. A superposition of two log-normal distributions can account for these variations. The findings are remarkable since the distribution of the number of comments per users, which is also analyzed, indicates a great amount of heterogeneity in the community. The reader may find surprising that only a few parameters allow a detailed description, or even prediction, of social many-to-many information exchange in this kind of popular public spaces.

  15. Turing Patterns in Estuarine Sediments by Microbiological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The use of Turing mechanisms and lattice Lotka-Volterra model (LLV), also by means of the non-extensive statistical mechanics, can mathematically describe well the phenomena of clustering and their associated boundaries with fractal dimensionality, which occurs in various natural situations, among them, biogeochemical processes via microorganisms in estuarine and marine sediments on the planet Earth. The author did an experimental analysis in field work which took into account the spatial and temporal behavior of Turing patterns, in the form of microbial activity within estuarine subsurface sediments. We show we can find the characteristics of clustering and fractallity which are present in the dynamical LLV model and Turing patterns mechanisms, and the non-extensive statistical mechanics could be used to find the q-entropy (Sq), and other non-equilibrium statistical parameters of the studied estuarine (Caraís lagoon) subsurface biogeochemical system. In this paper, the author suggests that such kinds of subsurface ecological systems are of interest to Astrobiology because if we find Turing-type clustered geomorphological patterns, below meter scale, on the near subsurface and inside rocks at the surface of planet Mars, and also find non-equilibrium statistical parameters (temperature, [F], [C], [S], etc.), displaying Turing-type mechanism, in the aquatic environments of the internal seas of planets Jupiter's moon Europa and the internal global ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus, that could mean that possible hypothetical biogeochemical activities are present in such places. This could be a bio-indicator tool. And with further studies we could find the q-entropy Sq to establish better defined statistical mechanical parameters for such environments and to refine models for their evolution, as we do on planet Earth.

  16. Epidermal patterning genes are active during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Silvia; Dolan, Liam

    2003-07-01

    Epidermal cells in the root of Arabidopsis seedling differentiate either as hair or non-hair cells, while in the hypocotyl they become either stomatal or elongated cells. WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABRA2 (GL2) are positive regulators of non-hair and elongated cell development. CAPRICE (CPC) is a positive regulator of hair cell development in the root. We show that WER, GL2 and CPC are expressed and active during the stages of embryogenesis when the pattern of cells in the epidermis of the root-hypocotyl axis forms. GL2 is first expressed in the future epidermis in the heart stage embryo and its expression is progressively restricted to those cells that will acquire a non-hair identity in the transition between torpedo and mature stage. The expression of GL2 at the heart stage requires WER function. WER and CPC are transiently expressed throughout the root epidermal layer in the torpedo stage embryo when the cell-specific pattern of GL2 expression is being established in the epidermis. We also show that WER positively regulates CPC transcription and GL2 negatively regulates WER transcription in the mature embryo. We propose that the restriction of GL2 to the future non-hair cells in the root epidermis can be correlated with the activities of WER and CPC during torpedo stage. In the embryonic hypocotyl we show that WER controls GL2 expression. We also provide evidence indicating that CPC may also regulate GL2 expression in the hypocotyl.

  17. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles....... Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production...... hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...

  18. Opposite patterns of diurnal activity in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Copula sivickisi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garm, A; Bielecki, J; Petie, R; Nilsson, D-E

    2012-02-01

    Cubozoan medusae have a stereotypic set of 24 eyes, some of which are structurally similar to vertebrate and cephalopod eyes. Across the approximately 25 described species, this set of eyes varies surprisingly little, suggesting that they are involved in an equally stereotypic set of visual tasks. During the day Tripedalia cystophora is found at the edge of mangrove lagoons where it accumulates close to the surface in sun-lit patches between the prop roots. Copula sivickisi (formerly named Carybdea sivickisi) is associated with coral reefs and has been observed to be active at night. At least superficially, the eyes of the two species are close to identical. We studied the diurnal activity pattern of these two species both in the wild and under controlled conditions in laboratory experiments. Despite the very similar visual systems, we found that they display opposite patterns of diurnal activity. T. cystophora is active exclusively during the day, whereas C. sivickisi is actively swimming at night, when it forages and mates. At night T. cystophora is found on the muddy bottom of the mangrove lagoon. C. sivickisi spends the day attached to structures such as the underside of stones and coral skeletons. This species difference seems to have evolved to optimize foraging, since the patterns of activity follow those of the available prey items in their respective habitats. PMID:22426630

  19. Root activity distribution pattern of Ganesh pomegranate (Punica granatum) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In one-year old Ganesh pomegranate seedlings raised on a loamy sand (Typic Haplustalf) under rain fed conditions, during winter (January-March) one-half of the active roots (44-51%) resided at 50 cm radial distance. Depth wise, bulk (44-78%) of the roots were found at 15 cm depth. The results indicate that the zone of high root activity is located around 50 cm distance from trunk and applications of fertilizers in this zone may lead to enhanced use efficiency of fertilizers. (author)

  20. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Viall, N. M., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  1. Impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, D.; Rubino, A.; Traverso, P.; Tomasino, M.

    2008-06-01

    Using spectral and statistical analyses of discharges and basin average precipitation rates acquired over the Po River since the early 1800s, we investigate the impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns over northern Italy. Wet and dry periods appear to alternate in accordance with polarized sunspot cycles. Intriguingly, a solar signature on Po River discharges is detected to be highly significant since the late 1800s, before the onset of sunspots hyperactivity established by the middle 1900s. In particular, observed hydrological patterns over northern Italy are significantly correlated, under periods of quiet sunspot activity, with parameters characterizing the Sun's orbital motion, specifically with the time derivative of the solar angular momentum (τ) which is thought to modulate the strength of the solar wind and sunspot dynamics under weak sunspot activity. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is detected as potential link between the Sun and Po River discharges, since it is significantly correlated with both solar activity and the decadal variability in the north Italian climate. In particular, positive (negative) NAO anomalies, which are associated with comparatively lower (higher) Po River discharges, are assessed to alternatively correlate at decadal timescales either with τ or with the Earth's geomagnetic activity (GA), which closely follows sunspot activity. This changing correlation seems to be regulated by the strength of sunspot activity: under periods of quiet sunspot activity, a weakening of the GA-NAO connection and a reinforcement of the τ-NAO connection is observed. In this sense, the strength of solar activity apparently modulates the connection between the NAO and Po River discharges.

  2. Self-organization of voids, gas bubbles and dislocation patterns under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper three examples of self-organization in solids under irradiation are considered on the basis of original mechanisms, namely, the ordering of voids in void lattices under high temperature irradiation, the alignment of gas bubbles in bubble lattices under low-temperature gas atom implantation, and the formation of superdislocations (one-dimensional pile-ups of dislocation loops) and other dislocation patterns in the regimes of medium and high temperature irradiation. The ordering of cavities (i.e.voids or gas bubbles) is shown to arise due to a dissipative interaction between cavities induced by the interstitial dislocation loop absorption and punching, respectively, which represent anisotropic mechanisms of atomic transport. The dislocation patterning is shown to be driven by the dependence of dislocation bias for absorption of self-interstitial atoms on the dislocation arrangement. (author). 57 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  3. Active pauses induce more variable electromyographic pattern of the trapezius muscle activity during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate effects of active and passive pauses and investigate the distribution of the trapezius surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity during computer mouse work. Twelve healthy male subjects performed four sessions of computer work for 10 min in one day...... of the trapezius (pcomputer work with active pause compared with passive one (p... with previous clinical findings, (ii) active pauses contributed to a more variable muscle activity pattern during computer work that might have functional implications with respect to work-related musculoskeletal disorders....

  4. Persulfate persistence under thermal activation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G; Johnson, Reid O'Brien

    2008-12-15

    Contaminant destruction with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate (peroxydisulfate, S2O8(2-)) can be enhanced by activation, which increases the rate of persulfate decomposition to sulfate radicals (SO4*-). This step initiates a chain of radical reactions involving species (including SO4*- and OH*) that oxidize contaminants more rapidly than persulfate does directly. Among current activation methods, thermal activation is the least well studied. Combining new data for environmentally relevant conditions with previously published data, we have computed three sets of Arrhenius parameters (In A and Eact) that describe the rate of persulfate decomposition in homogeneous solutions over a wide range of temperature and pH. The addition of soil increases the decomposition rate of persulfate due to reactions with organic matter and possibly mineral surfaces, but the kinetics are still pseudo-first-order in persulfate and conform to the Arrhenius model. A series of respike experiments with soil at 70 degrees C demonstrate that once the oxidant demand is met, reaction rates return to values near those observed in the homogeneous solution case. However, even after the oxidant demand is met, the relatively short lifetime of the persulfate at elevated temperatures (e.g., >50 degrees C) will limit the delivery time over which persulfate can be effective. PMID:19174915

  5. Market rewards to patterns of increasing earnings: effects of cash flow patterns, accruals manipulation, real activities manipulation and conservative accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Su-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigate whether market rewards to a pattern of increasing earnings vary with certain signals of whether the pattern is genuine or fabricated. Among these signals, I examine growth in cash flows, accrual-based earnings management, earnings management through the manipulation of real operating activities, and conservative accounting. The findings show that market participants assign higher price-earnings multiples to firms when their pattern of increasi...

  6. Surface patterning of GaAs under irradiation with very heavy polyatomic Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, L., E-mail: l.bischoff@hzdr.de; Böttger, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Facsko, S.; Pilz, W.

    2014-08-15

    Self-organization of surface patterns on GaAs under irradiation with heavy polyatomic Au ions has been observed. The patterns depend on the ion mass, and the substrate temperature as well as the incidence angle of the ions. At room temperature, under normal incidence the surface remains flat, whereas above 200 °C nanodroplets of Ga appear after irradiation with monatomic, biatomic as well as triatomic Au ions of kinetic energies in the range of 10–30 keV per atom. In the intermediate temperature range of 100–200 °C meander- and dot-like patterns form, which are not related to Ga excess. Under oblique ion incidence up to 45° from the surface normal, at room temperature the surface remains flat for mon- and polyatomic Au ions. For bi- and triatomic ions in the range of 60° ≤ α ≤ 70° ripple patterns have been found, which become shingle-like for α ≥ 80°, whereas the surface remains flat for monatomic ions.

  7. Spatial-Temporal Patterns in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge under Narrow Boundary Conditions in Argon at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-Chen; JIA Peng-Ying; ZHAO Na

    2011-01-01

    @@ Pattern formation phenomena are investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge under narrow boundary conditions in argon at atmospheric pressure.The discharge shows various scenarios with the increasing applied voltage.This is the first observation of alternating single spot and pair spots pattern and of a moving striation pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge system.The spatial-temporal correlations between discharge filaments in these patterns are measured by an optical method.The results show that the zigzag pattern is an interleaving of two sub-structure patterns, which ignites once for each sub-pattern per half cycle of the applied voltage.There is a temporal sequence inversion in consecutive half-cycles for the two sub-patterns.The pattern of alternating single spot and pair spots is also an interleaving of two sub-structure patterns.However, the pair spots sub-pattern ignites twice and the single spot sub-pattern ignites once per half cycle of the applied voltage.%Pattern formation phenomena are investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge under narrow boundary conditions in argon at atmospheric pressure. The discharge shows various scenarios with the increasing applied voltage.This is the first observation of alternating single spot and pair spots pattern and of a moving striation pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The spatial-temporal correlations between discharge filaments in these patterns are measured by an optical method. The results show that the zigzag pattern is an interleaving of two sub-structure patterns, which ignites once for each sub-pattern per half cycle of the applied voltage. There is a temporal sequence inversion in consecutive half-cycles for the two sub-patterns. The pattern of alternating single spot and pair spots is also an interleaving of two sub-structure patterns. However, the pair spots sub-pattern ignites twice and the single spot sub-pattern ignites once per half cycle of the applied voltage.

  8. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  9. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Uspal, W E; Dietrich, S; Tasinkevych, M

    2016-01-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governi...

  10. Hidden Stages of Cognition Revealed in Patterns of Brain Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Pyke, Aryn A; Fincham, Jon M

    2016-09-01

    To advance cognitive theory, researchers must be able to parse the performance of a task into its significant mental stages. In this article, we describe a new method that uses functional MRI brain activation to identify when participants are engaged in different cognitive stages on individual trials. The method combines multivoxel pattern analysis to identify cognitive stages and hidden semi-Markov models to identify their durations. This method, applied to a problem-solving task, identified four distinct stages: encoding, planning, solving, and responding. We examined whether these stages corresponded to their ascribed functions by testing whether they are affected by appropriate factors. Planning-stage duration increased as the method for solving the problem became less obvious, whereas solving-stage duration increased as the number of calculations to produce the answer increased. Responding-stage duration increased with the difficulty of the motor actions required to produce the answer. PMID:27440808

  11. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  12. Spike Train Dynamics Underlying Pattern Formation in Integrate-and-Fire Oscillator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, P. C.; Coombes, S.

    1998-09-01

    A dynamical mechanism underlying pattern formation in a spatially extended network of integrate-and-fire oscillators with synaptic interactions is identified. It is shown how in the strong coupling regime the network undergoes a discrete Turing-Hopf bifurcation of the firing times from a synchronous state to a state with periodic or quasiperiodic variations of the interspike intervals on closed orbits. The separation of these orbits in phase space results in a spatially periodic pattern of mean firing rate across the network that is modulated by deterministic fluctuations of the instantaneous firing rate.

  13. Dynamics of active cellular response under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Zemel, Assaf; Safran, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Forces exerted by and on adherent cells are important for many physiological processes such as wound healing and tissue formation. In addition, recent experiments have shown that stem cell differentiation is controlled, at least in part, by the elasticity of the surrounding matrix. Using a simple theoretical model that includes the forces due to both the mechanosensitive nature of cells and the elastic response of the matrix, we predict the dynamics of orientation of cells. The model predicts many features observed in measurements of cellular forces and orientation including the increase with time of the forces generated by cells in the absence of applied stress and the consequent decrease of the force in the presence of quasi-static stresses. We also explain the puzzling observation of parallel alignment of cells for static and quasi-static stresses and of nearly perpendicular alignment for dynamically varying stresses. In addition, we predict the response of the cellular orientation to a sinusoidally varying applied stress as a function of frequency. The dependence of the cell orientation angle on the Poisson ratio of the surrounding material can be used to distinguish systems in which cell activity is controlled by stress from those where cell activity is controlled by strain. Reference: Nature Physics, vol. 3, pp 655 (2007).

  14. Agro-economic performance of mungbean intercropped in sesame under different planting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of mungbean intercropped in sesame under different geometric arrangements was determined o sandy-clay loam soil at the university of Agriculture, Faisalabad for two consecutive years (2001-02). The planting patterns consisted of 40 cm spaced single rows, 60 cm spaced 3-row strips and 100 cm spaced 4-row strip while mungbean was intercropped in all the three planting patterns and also grown as a sole crop. The result evinced that planting sesame in 100 cm spaced 4-row strips explored the intercropping in sesame. It not only permitted convenient intercropping but also facilitated the harvesting and handling of intercrop without doing any damage to the base crop. Intercropping sesame with mungbean in the pattern of 100 cm spaced 4-row strips appeared to be more convenient, productive and profitable than the monocropped sesame. (author)

  15. Patterns of adolescents' participation in organized activities: are sports best when combined with other activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R; Roth, Jodie L; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally representative sample, to compare activity patterns of adolescents ages 10-18 years (n = 1,711). A cluster analytic technique revealed 5 activity clusters: sports-focused, sports plus other activities, primarily school-based activities, primarily religious youth groups, and low activity involvement. Activity patterns were examined in conjunction with 5 categories of youth development outcomes, including competence (e.g., academic ability), confidence (e.g., self-concept of ability), connections (e.g., talking with friends), character (e.g., externalizing behavior problems), and caring (e.g., prosocial behavior). Results showed that those who participated only in sports had more positive outcomes compared with those who had little or no involvement in organized activities, but less positive outcomes compared with those who participated in sports plus other activities.

  16. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population. PMID:27228619

  17. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Pattern formation in directional solidification under shear flow. II. Morphologies and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietti, Y; Debierre, J M; Bock, T M; Kassner, K

    2001-06-01

    In the preceding paper, we have established an interface equation for directional solidification under the influence of a shear flow parallel to the interface. This equation is asymptotically valid near the absolute stability limit. The flow, described by a nonlocal term, induces a lateral drift of the whole pattern due to its symmetry-breaking properties. We find that at not-too-large flow strengths, the transcritical nature of the transition to hexagonal patterns shows up via a hexagonal modulation of the stripe pattern even when the linear instability threshold of the flowless case has not yet been attained. When the flow term is large, the linear description of the drift velocity breaks down and transitions to flow-dominated morphologies take place. The competition between flow-induced and diffusion-induced patterns (controlled by the temperature gradient) leads to new phenomena such as the transition to a different lattice structure in an array of hexagonal cells. Several methods to characterize the morphologies and their transitions are investigated and compared. In particular, we consider two different ways of defining topological defects useful in the description of patterns and we discuss how they are related to each other.

  19. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I.; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-06-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFPi,j) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFPi,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFPi,i), to obtain the single pulse response (SPRi,j)—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression.

  20. A scanning electron microscopic study of the patterns of external root resorption under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran Sreeja; Chaudhary Minal; Tumsare Madhuri; Patil Swati; Wadhwan Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine if there are qualitative differences in the appearance of external root resorption patterns of primary teeth undergoing physiologic resorption and permanent teeth undergoing pathological root resorption in different conditions. Material and Methods: A total of 40 teeth undergoing external root resorption in different conditions were divided into 4 groups and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy at magnifications ranging fr...

  1. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  2. Analysis of Body Shapes and Physical Activity Dominant Patterns in a Coloring Books Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Martínez Bello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Curriculum materials play an important role in the construction of the concept of the body to the extent that they are transmitters of knowledge, ideas and values. The aim of the study was to analyse whether the images in a collection of coloring books entitled The Boys´ Doodles Book and The girl´s Doodles Book show sexist stereotypes about body models and dominant patterns of physical activity. An independent observational group studied the images of the body through content analysis with a coding scheme using categories (gender, age, somatotype, space and type of physical activity previously adopted by experts. The Boys´ Doodles Book shows an adult man with different body types, while women are not represented. In both books, the bodies do not maintain a preferred location. The Girls´Doodles Book represents a higher percentage of girls with a slender body, while men, who were under-represented, assume different body types. The Girls´Doodles Book tends to represent women in physical activities or sports with an artistic component. In conclusion, the images in both coloring books, promote sexist body shapes and physical activities. It is a warning to parents and mothers, as well as publishing houses, libraries and government agencies to critically analyse underlying patterns on coloring books.

  3. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.

  4. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    CERN Document Server

    Bradshaw, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. 1. cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. all channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. there ...

  5. Activity patterns of predator and prey : a simultaneous study of GPS-collared wolves and moose

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ane; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Andreassen, Harry P.; Arnemo, Jon Martin; Gundersen, Hege; Liberg, Olof; Linnell, John; Milner, Jos M.; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Sand, Håkan; Solberg, Erling J.; Storaas, Torstein

    2011-01-01

    We studied the simultaneous activity patterns of a breeding wolf, Canis lupus, pair and five adult moose, Alces alces, cows from April to November 2004 in a wolf territory in southeastern Norway. All study animals were GPS collared, and we used a total of 8297 fixes to analyse their temporal activity patterns. We examined the daily activity rhythm of the two species and how this varied seasonally through the study period, and investigated the association in activity patterns between the two s...

  6. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Peinado

    potential underlying mechanism that could explain the observed differences in early spontaneous activity patterns.

  7. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  8. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guodong; Yu, Xinxiao; Fan, Dengxing; Jia, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r) functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono) and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined. PMID:27028757

  9. Documenting Western Burrowing Owl Reproduction and Activity Patterns Using Motion-Activated Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [NSTec; Greger, Paul D. [NSTec

    2014-08-01

    We used motion-activated cameras to monitor the reproduction and patterns of activity of the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) above ground at 45 burrows in south-central Nevada during the breeding seasons of 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2005. The 37 broods, encompassing 180 young, raised over the four years represented an average of 4.9 young per successful breeding pair. Young and adult owls were detected at the burrow entrance at all times of the day and night, but adults were detected more frequently during afternoon/early evening than were young. Motion-activated cameras require less effort to implement than other techniques. Limitations include photographing only a small percentage of owl activity at the burrow; not detecting the actual number of eggs, young, or number fledged; and not being able to track individual owls over time. Further work is also necessary to compare the accuracy of productivity estimates generated from motion-activated cameras with other techniques.

  10. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  11. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  12. Ideal free distribution of metabolic activity: Implications of seasonal metabolic-activity patterns on competitive coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2016-10-01

    The seasonal distribution of metabolic activity determines how much individuals experience different aspects of a periodically changing environment. Seasonal metabolic-activity patterns of coexisting species may differ significantly despite their shared environmental conditions, suggesting that interspecific diversification of this trait has a major role in the coexistence of competing species. In the present study the effect of the seasonal distribution of metabolic activity on intra- and interspecific competition is investigated in a consumer-resource model. It is shown that, in a periodically changing environment, for each environmental preference pattern there is an ideal seasonal distribution of metabolic activity, which results in maximum resource utilisation efficiency and competitive superiority. Contrary to the common interpretation of temporal niche segregation, opposing species-specific seasonal preferences are not a sufficient condition for the coexistence of two species on a population dynamical time scale. A necessary and sufficient condition for coexistence is the temporal segregation of the species via different seasonal activity distributions. However, coexistence is evolutionarily stable only if seasonal metabolic activities and preferences are positively correlated. PMID:27189108

  13. Effects of Levy Flights Mobility Pattern on Epidemic Spreading under Limited Energy Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yanqing; Xu, Xiaoke; Han, Zhangang; Di, Zengru

    2010-01-01

    Recently, many empirical studies uncovered that animal foraging, migration and human traveling obey Levy flights with an exponent around -2. Inspired by the deluge of H1N1 this year, in this paper, the effects of Levy flights' mobility pattern on epidemic spreading is studied from a network perspective. We construct a spatial weighted network which possesses Levy flight spatial property under a restriction of total energy. The energy restriction is represented by the limitation of total travel distance within a certain time period of an individual. We find that the exponent -2 is the epidemic threshold of SIS spreading dynamics. Moreover, at the threshold the speed of epidemics spreading is highest. The results are helpful for the understanding of the effect of mobility pattern on epidemic spreading.

  14. Short communication: Assessment of activity patterns of growing rabbits in a flux-controlled chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Olivas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flux-controlled and metabolic chambers are often used for nutritional and environmental studies. However, the potential alterations of animal behaviour and welfare are so far not fully understood. In consequence, this study had 2 main objectives: to assess potential alterations of animal activity pattern and time budget inside a flux chamber, and to assess the importance of the “rearing up” behaviour. To this end, 10 growing rabbits of different ages (from 1 to 5 wk of the growing period were housed inside a flux chamber. Their activity was continuously recorded and assessed, determining the frequency and duration of 8 different behaviours: lying, sleeping, sitting, eating, drinking, walking, rearing up and others. Nocturnal rabbit behaviour and time budget were not altered inside the chamber if compared to previously described rabbit activity under conventional cages. In addition, rabbits in this experiment presented a tendency to perform “rearing up” when housed inside the flux chamber.

  15. Urban-rural differences in daily time-activity patterns, occupational activity and housing characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Brion, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Background There is evidence that rural residents experience a health disadvantage compared to urban residents, associated with a greater prevalence of health risk factors and socioeconomic differences. We examined differences between urban and rural Canadians using data from the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2. Methods Data were collected from 1460 respondents in two rural areas (Haldimand-Norfolk, Ontario and Annapolis Valley-Kings County, Nova Scotia) and 3551 respondents ...

  16. Integrative Inferences on Pattern Geometries of Grapes Grown under Water Stress and Their Resulting Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Fushing; Hsueh, Chih-Hsin; Heitkamp, Constantin; Matthews, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Multiple datasets of two consecutive vintages of replicated grape and wines from six different deficit irrigation regimes are characterized and compared. The process consists of four temporal-ordered signature phases: harvest field data, juice composition, wine composition before bottling and bottled wine. A new computing paradigm and an integrative inferential platform are developed for discovering phase-to-phase pattern geometries for such characterization and comparison purposes. Each phase is manifested by a distinct set of features, which are measurable upon phase-specific entities subject to the common set of irrigation regimes. Throughout the four phases, this compilation of data from irrigation regimes with subsamples is termed a space of media-nodes, on which measurements of phase-specific features were recoded. All of these collectively constitute a bipartite network of data, which is then normalized and binary coded. For these serial bipartite networks, we first quantify patterns that characterize individual phases by means of a new computing paradigm called “Data Mechanics”. This computational technique extracts a coupling geometry which captures and reveals interacting dependence among and between media-nodes and feature-nodes in forms of hierarchical block sub-matrices. As one of the principal discoveries, the holistic year-factor persistently surfaces as the most inferential factor in classifying all media-nodes throughout all phases. This could be deemed either surprising in its over-arching dominance or obvious based on popular belief. We formulate and test pattern-based hypotheses that confirm such fundamental patterns. We also attempt to elucidate the driving force underlying the phase-evolution in winemaking via a newly developed partial coupling geometry, which is designed to integrate two coupling geometries. Such partial coupling geometries are confirmed to bear causal and predictive implications. All pattern inferences are performed with

  17. 75 FR 57103 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... women have equitable access to employment opportunities and that recipients of federal funds do not... use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Issued On: September... Federal Transit Administration Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY:...

  18. Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Piai

    Full Text Available According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat, unrelated (pin, or identical (dog. Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

  19. Quorum activation at a distance: spatiotemporal patterns of gene regulation from diffusion of an autoinducer signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilanji, Gabriel; Langebrake, Jessica; Deleenheer, Patrick; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria in colonies coordinate gene regulation through the exchange of diffusible signal molecules known as autoinducers (AI). This ``quorum signaling'' often occurs in physically heterogeneous and spatially extended environments such as biofilms. Under these conditions the space and time scales for diffusion of the signal limit the range and timing of effective gene regulation. We expect that spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression will reflect physical environmental constraints as well as nonlinear transcriptional activation and feedback within the gene regulatory system. We have combined experiments and modeling to investigate how these spatiotemporal patterns develop. We embed engineered plasmid/GFP quorum sensor strains or wild type strains in a long narrow agar lane, and then introduce AI signal at one terminus of the lane. Diffusion of the AI initiates reporter expression along the length of the lane, extending to macroscopic distances of mm-cm. Resulting patterns are captured quantitatively by a mathematical model that incorporates logistic growth of the population, diffusion of AI, and nonlinear transcriptional activation. Our results show that a diffusing quorum signal can coordinate gene expression over distances of order 1cm on time scales of order 10 hrs.

  20. Characterisation of Evolving Patterns and Underlying Regimes of Hydroclimatic Extremes in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J.; Perdigão, R. A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The dominant factors influencing hydroclimatic extreme events in Europe vary considerably across both time and space. Therefore, it is difficult to discern the dominant processes that govern floods and droughts in Europe. However, by focusing on large-scale physical processes that span beyond the catchment scale and on associated scale interactions, new insights can be gained on the resulting regional spatial patters. By assembling and thoroughly analysing a new unique database, with over 5000 discharge gauging stations in Europe, with key physical principles in mind, a better understanding of the driving processes underlying hydroclimatic extreme events is obtained. For example, by taking into account different time scales, different regimes of the extreme hydrological patterns are identified and linked to large-scale climatic controls. The improved understanding of how hydroclimatic extremes respond to their underlying controls in space and time paves the way for progress in the estimation of regimes and changes in floods and droughts.

  1. Interface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions: from a self-propelled droplet to dynamic pattern evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the instability of a contact line under nonequilibrium conditions mainly based on the results of our recent studies. Two experimental examples are presented: the self-propelled motion of a liquid droplet and spontaneous dynamic pattern formation. For the self-propelled motion of a droplet, we introduce an experiment in which a droplet of aniline sitting on an aqueous layer moves spontaneously at an air-water interface. The spontaneous symmetry breaking of Marangoni-driven spreading causes regular motion. In a circular Petri dish, the droplet exhibits either beeline motion or circular motion. On the other hand, we show the emergence of a dynamic labyrinthine pattern caused by dewetting of a metastable thin film from the air-water interface. The contact line between the organic phase and aqueous phase forms a unique spatio-temporal pattern characterized as a dynamic labyrinthine. Motion of the contact line is controlled by diffusion processes. We propose a theoretical model to inter...

  2. Time Use Patterns between Maintenance, Subsistence and Leisure Activities: A Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-fen, Zhou; Zhen-shan, Li; Dong-qian, Xue; Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government conducted its first time use survey of the activities of Chinese individuals in 2008. Activities were classified into three broad types, maintenance activities, subsistence activities and leisure activities. Time use patterns were defined by an individuals' time spent on maintenance, subsistence and leisure activities each…

  3. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  4. The measurement of sedentary patterns and behaviors using the activPAL™ Professional physical activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies have associated the negative effects of sedentary time and sedentary patterns on health indices. However, these studies have used methodologies that do not directly measure the sedentary state. Recent technological developments in the area of motion sensors have incorporated inclinometers, which can measure the inclination of the body directly, without relying on self-report or count thresholds. This paper aims to provide a detailed description of methodologies used to examine a range of relevant variables, including sedentary levels and patterns from an inclinometer-based motion sensor. The activPAL Professional physical activity logger provides an output which can be interpreted and used without the need for further processing and additional variables were derived using a custom designed MATLAB® computer program. The methodologies described have been implemented on a sample of 44 adolescent females, and the results of a range of daily physical activity and sedentary variables are described and presented. The results provide a range of objectively measured and objectively processed variables, including total time spent sitting/lying, standing and stepping, number and duration of daily sedentary bouts and both bed hours and non-bed hours, which may be of interest when making association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors and health indices. (paper)

  5. Complement activation by ligand-driven juxtaposition of discrete pattern recognition complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, Søren E.; Kjaer, Troels R.; Kidmose, Rune T.; Jensen, Lisbeth; Hansen, Annette G.; Tekin, Mustafa; Jensenius, Jens C.; Andersen, Gregers R.; Thiel, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Defining mechanisms governing translation of molecular binding events into immune activation is central to understanding immune function. In the lectin pathway of complement, the pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins complexed with the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1 and MASP-2 cleave C4 and C2 to generate C3 convertase. MASP-1 was recently found to be the exclusive activator of MASP-2 under physiological conditions, yet the predominant oligomeric forms of MBL carry only a single MASP homodimer. This prompted us to investigate whether activation of MASP-2 by MASP-1 occurs through PRM-driven juxtaposition on ligand surfaces. We demonstrate that intercomplex activation occurs between discrete PRM/MASP complexes. PRM ligand binding does not directly escort the transition of MASP from zymogen to active enzyme in the PRM/MASP complex; rather, clustering of PRM/MASP complexes directly causes activation. Our results support a clustering-based mechanism of activation, fundamentally different from the conformational model suggested for the classical pathway of complement. PMID:25197071

  6. [Soil physical and chemical characteristics under different vegetation restoration patterns in China south subtropical area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bing; Liu, Shi-rong; Cai, Dao-xiong; Lu, Li-hua; He, Ri-ming; Gao, Yan-xia; Di, Wei-zhi

    2010-10-01

    This paper studied the change of soil physical and chemical properties under eleven vegetation restoration patterns (1 kind of secondary forest, 2 kinds of pure coniferous plantations, 5 kinds of evergreen broad-leaved plantations, 2 kinds of conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations, and 1 kind of shrub) typical in Daqingshan of Guangxi. Obvious differences were observed in the soil physical and chemical properties under different vegetation restoration patterns. The soil physical properties were better in secondary forest but poorer in pure conifer plantations. Conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations had lower soil bulk density, and their soil total porosity and water-holding capacity were higher than those in pure plantations. There were no significant differences in the soil porosity among the 5 evergreen broad-leaved plantations. Except that of soil total K, the contents of soil nutrients in secondary forest were higher than those in plantations, and the soil C/N ratio and pH value were relatively lower. Comparing with shrub, the 9 plantations had an obvious change in their soil nutrient contents, e. g. , the increase of soil total N and available K. The 2 pure coniferous plantations had lower soil nutrient contents, but after mixed planted with evergreen broad-leaved trees, their soil nutrient contents increased markedly, and the soil C/N ratio decreased. PMID:21328932

  7. Perfusion patterns of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor lesions under specific molecular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Marcus [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Sourbron, Steven P. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schinwald, Nicole [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Becker, Christoph R.; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Berger, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Berger@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Rationale and objective: The aim of this pilot study was the evaluation of CT perfusion patterns in metastatic GIST lesions under specific molecular therapy with sunitinib or imatinib both in responders and non-responders. Patients and methods: 24 patients with metastatic GIST under tyrosine kinase inhibition were retrospectively evaluated. A total of 46 perfusion and venous phase CT scans were acquired. Volume of distribution, blood flow, blood volume, permeability and hepatic perfusion index measurements of metastatic lesions were carried out. Lesions were classified as 'good response' or 'poor response' to therapy, and perfusion parameters were compared for these two types of lesions. Results: 24 patients were evaluated. In the extrahepatic abdominal lesions (N = 15), good responders showed significant lower perfusion values than poor responders (volume of distribution: 3.3 {+-} 2.0 vs. 13.0 {+-} 1.8 ml/100 ml, p = 0.001). The same tendency was observed in intrahepatic lesions (N = 31) (liver volume of distribution: 2.1 {+-} 0.3 vs. 7.1 {+-} 1.3 ml/100 ml, p = 0.003); (hepatic perfusion index: 24.3 {+-} 7.9 vs. 76.1 {+-} 1.5%, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that there are characteristic perfusion patterns of metastatic GIST lesions showing a good or poor response to molecular pharmacotherapy. Perfusion should be further evaluated in cross-sectional imaging studies as a possible biomarker for treatment response in targeted therapies of GIST.

  8. A scanning electron microscopic study of the patterns of external root resorption under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindran Sreeja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if there are qualitative differences in the appearance of external root resorption patterns of primary teeth undergoing physiologic resorption and permanent teeth undergoing pathological root resorption in different conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 40 teeth undergoing external root resorption in different conditions were divided into 4 groups and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy at magnifications ranging from 20x to 1000x. Group I: 10 primary molars exfoliated due to physiologic root resorption; Group II: 10 permanent teeth with periapical granulomas showing signs of resorption; Group III:10 permanent teeth therapeutically extracted during the course of orthodontic therapy with evidence of resorption, and Group IV: 10 permanent teeth associated with odontogenic tumors that showed evidence of resorption. RESULTS: In Group I, the primary teeth undergoing resorption showed smooth extensive and predominantly regular areas reflecting the slow ongoing physiologic process. In Group II, the teeth with periapical granulomas showed the resorption was localized to apex with a funnel shaped appearance in most cases. Teeth in Group III, which had been subjected to a short period of light orthodontic force, showed the presence of numerous resorption craters with adjoining areas of cemental repair in some cases. Teeth associated with odontogenic tumors in Group IV showed many variations in the patterns of resorption with extensive loss of root length and a sharp cut appearance of the root in most cases. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed in the patterns of external root resorption among the studied groups of primary and permanent teeth under physiologic and pathological conditions.

  9. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua;

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers sig...

  10. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into

  11. The Self-Made Puzzle: Integrating Self-Assembly and Pattern Formation Under Non-Random Genetic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doursat, René

    On the one hand, research in self-assembling systems, whether natural or artificial, has traditionally focused on pre-existing components endowed with fixed shapes. Biological development, by contrast, dynamically creates new cells that acquire selective adhesion properties through differentiation induced by their neighborhood. On the other hand, pattern formation phenomena are generally construed as orderly states of activity on top of a continuous 2-D or 3-D substrate. Yet, again, the spontaneous patterning of an organism into domains of gene expression arises within a multicellular medium in perpetual expansion and reshaping. Finally, both phenomena are often thought in terms of stochastic events, whether mixed components that randomly collide in self-assembly, or spots and stripes that occur unpredictably from instabilities in pattern formation. Here too, these notions need significant revision if they are to be extended and applied to embryogenesis. Cells are not randomly mixed but pre-positioned where cell division occurs. Genetic identity domains are not randomly distributed but highly regulated in number and position. In this work, I present a computational model of program-mable and reproducible artificial morphogenesis that integrates self-assembly and pattern formation under the control of a nonrandom gene regulatory network. The specialized properties of cells (division, adhesion, migration) are determined by the gene expression domains to which they belong, while at the same time these domains further expand and segment into subdomains due to the self-assembly of specialized cells. Through this model, I also promote a new discipline, embryomorphic engineering to solve the paradox of "meta-designing" decentralized, autonomous systems.

  12. [Characteristics of stable isotopes in soil water under several typical land use patterns on Loess Tableland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Ping; Liu, Wen-Zhao

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the precipitation over the Loess Tableland in Changwu County of Shaanxi Province and the soil water in 0-20 m loess profiles under different land use patterns on the Tableland were sampled, and their isotope compositions were analyzed, aimed to understand the characteristics of stable isotopes in the soil water and the mechanisms of the soil water movement. In the study area, the equation of the local meteoric water line (LMWL) was deltaD = 7.39 delta180 + 4.34 (R2 = 0.94, n = 71), and the contents of the stable isotopes in the precipitation had an obvious seasonal variation of high in winter and spring and low in summer and autumn. The contents of the stable isotopes in the soil water were fell on the underside of the LMWL, and higher than those in the precipitation from July to October, indicating that the soil water was mainly replenished by the precipitation with lower stable isotope contents in summer and autumn. In the soil profiles of different land use patterns, the stable isotope contents in soil water tended to be the same with the increasing soil depth; while under the same land use patterns, the water's stable isotope composition in shallow soil layers changed greatly with time, but changed less with increasing depth. Through the comparison of the stable isotope contents in precipitation and in soil water, it was observed that the piston flow and preferential flow on the Tableland were coexisted in the process of precipitation infiltration, and the occurrence of the preferential flow had a certain relation with land use pattern. Generally, the soil desiccation caused by the negative water balance resulted from the artificial plantations of high water consumption could reduce the probability of preferential flow occurrence, whereas the precipitation infiltration in the form of preferential flow could easily occur on the farmland or natural grassland so that the soil water in deep layers or the ground water could be replenished. PMID

  13. Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP for Face Recognition in Parallel Computation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundavarapu Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - The availability of multi-core technology resulted totally new computational era. Researchers are keen to explore available potential in state of art-machines for breaking the bearer imposed by serial computation. Face Recognition is one of the challenging applications on so ever computational environment. The main difficulty of traditional Face Recognition algorithms is lack of the scalability. In this paper Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP, a new scalable Face Recognition Algorithm suitable for parallel environment is proposed.  Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP is found to be simple and computational inexpensive compare to Local Binary Patterns (LBP. WLAPP is developed based on concept of LAPP. The experimentation is performed on FG-Net Aging Database with deliberately introduced 20% distortion and the results are encouraging. Keywords — Active pixels, Face Recognition, Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP, Pattern computing, parallel workers, template, weight computation.  

  14. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang;

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  15. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Cerqueira, João J.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL) circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA, and BLA-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response.

  16. A Pattern Mining Approach to Sensor-based Human Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhanqing;

    2011-01-01

    in real life because activities can be interleaved and performed concurrently in many different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities in a unified framework. We exploit Emerging Pattern—a discriminative pattern...

  17. Object Relevance Weight Pattern Mining for Activity Recognition and Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmes, Paulito Pedregosa; Pung, Hung Keng; Gu, Tao;

    2010-01-01

    involved in the training process. In this paper, we simplify the activity modeling process by relying on the relevance weights of objects as the basis of activity discrimination rather than on sequence information. For each activity, we mine the web to extract the most relevant objects according...

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Soil Health Under Different Planting Patterns and Soil Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Chun-Juan; CHEN Zhen-Lou; WANG Jun; ZHOU Dong

    2013-01-01

    Soil health assessment is an important step toward understanding the potential effects of agricultural practices on crop yield,quality and human health.The objectives of this study were to select a minimum data set for soil health evaluation from the physical,chemical and biological properties and environmental pollution characteristics of agricultural soil and to develop a soil health diagnosis model for determining the soil health status under different planting patterns and soil types in Chongming Island of Shanghai,China.The results showed that the majority of the farmland soils in Chongming Island were in poor soil health condition,accounting for 48.9% of the survey samples,followed by the medium healthy soil,accounting for 32.2% of the survey samples and mainly distributed in the central and mid-eastern regions of the island.The indicators of pH,total organic carbon,microbial biomass carbon and Cd exerted less influence on soil health,while the soil salinization and nitrate accumulation under a greenhouse cropping pattern and phosphate fertilizer shortage in the paddy field had limited the development of soil health.Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes,hexachlorocyclohexanes and Hg contributed less to soil health index (SHI) and showed no significant difference among paddy field,greenhouse and open-air vegetable/watermelon fields.The difference of the SHI of the three soil types was significant at P=0.05.The paddy soil had the highest SHI values,followed by the gray alluvial soil,and the coastal saline soil was in a poor soil health condition,indicating a need to plant some salt-tolerant crops to effectively improve soil quality.

  19. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  20. Companies’ market penetration and activity patterns in european market

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu NEAMTU; Adina Claudia NEAMTU

    2007-01-01

    The strategy type at the company level has an impact upon the selection and implementation of the strategy at the business level. The international strategy at the company level is different from the international strategy at the business level through the diversification extension degree (both under the products aspect and under the geographic area aspect). The need to adopt an international strategy at the company level appears when the products or services level increases in the sense of i...

  1. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the activities of ß-glucosidase (C cycling, ß-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling), acid phosphatase (P cycling) and arylsulfatase (S cycling) under lettuce (Lactuca sativa), potato (Solanum Tuberosum), onion (Allium cepa L), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Tall f...

  2. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  3. Gene Expression Patterns Underlying the Reinstatement of Plasticity in the Adult Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Tiraboschi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is highly sensitive to experience during early postnatal life, but this phase of heightened plasticity decreases with age. Recent studies have demonstrated that developmental-like plasticity can be reactivated in the visual cortex of adult animals through environmental or pharmacological manipulations. These findings provide a unique opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of adult plasticity. Here we used the monocular deprivation paradigm to investigate large-scale gene expression patterns underlying the reinstatement of plasticity produced by fluoxetine in the adult rat visual cortex. We found changes, confirmed with RT-PCRs, in gene expression in different biological themes, such as chromatin structure remodelling, transcription factors, molecules involved in synaptic plasticity, extracellular matrix, and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Our findings reveal a key role for several molecules such as the metalloproteases Mmp2 and Mmp9 or the glycoprotein Reelin and open up new insights into the mechanisms underlying the reopening of the critical periods in the adult brain.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns Among Latinos in the United States: Putting the Pieces Together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Ham, MS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEstimates of participation in physical activity among Latinos are inconsistent across studies. To obtain better estimates and examine possible reasons for inconsistencies, we assessed 1 patterns of participation in various categories of physical activity among Latino adults, 2 changes in their activity patterns with acculturation, and 3 variations in their activity patterns by region of origin.MethodsUsing data from four national surveillance systems (the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002; the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003; the National Household Travel Survey, 2001; and the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Supplement, 2000, we estimated the percentage of Latinos who participated at least once per week in leisure-time, household, occupational, or transportation-related physical activity, as well as in an active pattern of usual daily activity. We reported prevalences by acculturation measures and region of origin.ResultsThe percentage of Latinos who participated in the various types of physical activity ranged from 28.7% for having an active level of usual daily activity (usually walking most of the day and usually carrying or lifting objects to 42.8% for participating in leisure-time physical activity at least once per week. The percentage who participated in leisure-time and household activities increased with acculturation, whereas the percentage who participated in occupational and transportation-related activities decreased with acculturation. Participation in an active level of usual daily activity did not change significantly. The prevalence of participation in transportation-related physical activity and of an active level of usual daily activity among Latino immigrants varied by region of origin.ConclusionPhysical activity patterns among Latinos vary with acculturation and region of origin. To assess physical activity levels in Latino communities, researchers should

  5. epSICAR: An Emerging Patterns based Approach to Sequential, Interleaved and Concurrent Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Tao, Xianping;

    2009-01-01

    upon the training dataset for complex activities, we build our activity models by mining a set of Emerging Patterns from the sequential activity trace only and apply our models in recognizing sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities. We conduct our empirical studies in a real smart home...

  6. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  7. Bond breaking in a Morse chain under tension: Fragmentation patterns, higher index saddles, and bond healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauguière, F. A. L.; Collins, P.; Ezra, G. S.; Wiggins, S.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the fragmentation dynamics of an atomic chain under tensile stress. We have classified the location, stability type (indices), and energy of all equilibria for the general n-particle chain, and have highlighted the importance of saddle points with index >1. We show that for an n = 2-particle chain under tensile stress the index 2 saddle plays a central role in organizing the dynamics. We apply normal form theory to analyze phase space structure and dynamics in a neighborhood of the index 2 saddle. We define a phase dividing surface (DS) that enables us to classify trajectories passing through a neighborhood of the saddle point using the values of the integrals associated with the normal form. We also generalize our definition of the dividing surface and define an extended dividing surface (EDS), which is used to sample and classify all trajectories that pass through a phase space neighborhood of the index 2 saddle at total energies less than that of the saddle. Classical trajectory simulations are used to study fragmentation patterns for the n = 2 chain under tension. That is, we investigate the relative probability for breaking one bond versus concerted fission of several (two, in this case) bonds. Initial conditions for trajectories are obtained by sampling the EDS at constant energy. We sample trajectories at fixed energies both above and below the energy of the saddle. The fate of trajectories (single versus multiple bond breakage) is explored as a function of the location of the initial condition on the EDS, and a connection made to the work of Chesnavich on collision-induced dissociation. A significant finding is that we can readily identify trajectories that exhibit bond healing. Such trajectories pass outside the nominal (index 1) transition state for single bond dissociation, but return to the potential well region, possibly several times, before ultimately dissociating.

  8. Patterns and variability in seedling carbon assimilation: implications for tree recruitment under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Drew M P; Ibáñez, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Predicting future forests' structure and functioning is a critical goal for ecologists, thus information on seedling recruitment will be crucial in determining the composition and structure of future forest ecosystems. In particular, seedlings' photosynthetic response to a changing environment will be a key component determining whether particular species establish enough individuals to maintain populations, as growth is a major determinant of survival. We quantified photosynthetic responses of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pignut hickory (Carya glabra Mill.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and eastern black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) seedlings to environmental conditions including light habitat, temperature, soil moisture and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) using extensive in situ gas exchange measurements spanning an entire growing season. We estimated the parameters in a hierarchical Bayesian version of the Farquhar model of photosynthesis, additionally informed by soil moisture and VPD, and found that maximum Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)) and electron transport (J(max)) rates showed significant seasonal variation, but not the peaked patterns observed in studies of adult trees. Vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture limited J(max) and V(cmax) for all four species. Predictions indicate large declines in summer carbon assimilation rates under a 3 °C increase in mean annual temperature projected by climate models, while spring and fall assimilation rates may increase. Our model predicts decreases in summer assimilation rates in gap habitats with at least 90% probability, and with 20-99.9% probability in understory habitats depending on species. Predictions also show 70% probability of increases in fall and 52% probability in spring in understory habitats. All species were impacted, but our findings suggest that oak species may be favored in northeastern North America under projected increases in temperature due to superior assimilation rates under

  9. BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the soil fertility, biomass and microbial activity of the soil under forest cover of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Corymbia maculata; Pinus Caribbean var. hondurensis, 40 years old, and a fragment of Semideciduous Forest, located on the campus of the Federal University of Lavras. In soil samples collected in the 0-5 cm layer were determined fertility parameters, basal respiration and microbial biomass carbon. The results showed that for the species E. grandis and E. cloeziana the carbon of biomass microbial content was higher than for any other ecosystem evaluated, and equal to those observed under native forest. In contrast, the ground under Pinus had the lowest microbiological indexes. Under C. maculata and E. pilularis the contents were intermediate for this parameter. The basal respiration of all ecosystems was equal. The fertility level was very low in all types of evaluated vegetation.

  10. Fleet and backup tank sizing under regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Ronald Gerard

    The focus of this study involves logistics issues surrounding the industrial gas business. The industrial gas business is a major industry (approximately $30 billion/year) and has been experiencing substantial growth in recent years. The industrial gas business supports two types of customers. The first type is the traditional merchant customers who rely entirely on the logistics system for product. Their demand is of a stochastic nature. The second type of customers is referred to as customers. These customers have air separation plants on their own sites and they must rely on the logistics system when their separation plant fails. To assist in providing a continuous flow of product, all onsite plants also have a backup tank which can provide sufficient product for relatively short durations of time, 24 to 96 hours of supply. The onsite separation plants are approximately 98% reliable, but when they fail, the customer generally requires a significant amount of product. This type of demand pattern will be defined as impulse stochastic. This study focuses on two areas of the logistics support system. The first part deals with the economic sizing of onsite backup tanks. For a given onsite, we determine the most economical choice for a backup system considering numerous characteristics of the onsite customer as well as the logistics system. In the second part, we develop methods for determining the optimal fleet size under both regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns. The methods provide support for long range forecasting, short-term vehicle reallocation and private verses contract carrier vehicle mix determination. The methods further provide a means to describe the effect future onsite growth will have on distribution as it is related to vehicle fleet size.

  11. Wetting Patterns and Nitrate Distributions in Layered-Textural Soils Under Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-sheng; JI Hong-yan; LI Bei; LIU Yu-chun

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted in different sequence and thickness of the soil layers to investigate the effects of layered-textural soils on wetting patterns and water and nitrate distributions from a surface point source under various combinations of application rate and applied volume. Three layered soils, including a sandy-over-sandy loam (SL), a sandy loam-over-sandy (LS), and a sandy loam-sandy-sandy loam (LSL), and two uniform soils (a uniform sandy loam and a uniform sandy soil) were tested. In the experiments, the application rate was varied from 0.69 to 3.86 L h-1 and the applied volume from 5.7 to 12.1 L. The experimental results demonstrated that the wetting patterns and water and nitrate distributions were greatly affected by the sequence and thickness of soil layers as well as the application rate and volume applied. An interface existing in the layered soils, whether a fine-over-coarse or a coarse-over-fine, had a common feature of limiting downward water movement and of increasing horizontal water movement. For the fine-over-coarse layered soils of LS and LSL, water and nitrate were uniformly distributed at a given depth in the top layer soil. For a coarse-over-fine layered soil of SL, however, water accumulated in the sublayer soil underneath the interface and a zone of lower nitrate concentration was observed. The effect of application rate on water distribution pattern was dependent upon soil layering. A minor influence of application rate on water distribution for the fine-over-coarse layered soils (LS and LSL) than for the uniform soils was found. To obtain a greater wetted depth through selecting the emitters having a smaller application rate, which is a common method in the system design for a uniform soil, may not be necessarily applied for the layered soils.Measurements of nitrate distribution showed that nitrate accumulated toward the boundary of the wetted volume for both the uniform and the layered soils. This suggests the

  12. Patterns for election of active computing nodes in high availability distributed data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer based systems for power plant and research reactors are expected to have high availability. Redundancy is a common approach to improve the availability of a system. In redundant configuration the challenge is to select one node as active, and in case of failure of current active node provide automatic fast switchover by electing another node to function as active and restore normal operation. Additional constraints include: exactly one node should be elected as active in an n-way redundant architecture. This paper discusses various high availability configurations developed by Electronics Division and deployed in power and research reactors and patterns followed to elect active nodes of distributed data acquisition systems. The systems are categorized into two: Active/Passive where changeover takes effect only on the failure of Active node, and Active/Active, where changeover is effective in alternate cycles. A novel concept of priority driven state based Active (Master) node election pattern is described for Active/Passive systems which allows multiple redundancy and dynamic election of single master. The paper also discusses the Active/Active pattern, which uncovers failure early by activating all the nodes alternatively in a redundant system. This pattern can be extended to multiple redundant nodes. (author)

  13. Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Khalili, Zahra; Esalatmanesh, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is an important component of health in old age that provides personal independence, physical ability, and quality of life. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate physical activity and associated factors among the elderly population in Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample was 400 elderly people (aged more than 60 years) living in Kashan, Iran in 2014. The subjects randomly selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from healthcare centers in three regions of Kashan. The sample size differed by gender and residence type. Each participant’s demographic characteristics and level of physical activity were recorded in a questionnaire, and the data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, Pearson correlations, and ordinal regression were used in the data analysis. The significance level for all the tests was P occupation (P health care planning for the elderly. PMID:27621923

  14. Modelling the emergence of spatial patterns of economic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jung-Hun; Frenken, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how spatial configurations of economic activity emerge is important when formulating spatial planning and economic policy. A simple model was proposed by Simon, who assumed that firms grow at a rate proportional to their size, and that new divisions of firms with certain probabilities relocate to other firms or to new centres of economic activity. Simon's model produces realistic results in the sense that the sizes of economic centres follow a Zipf distribution, which is also observed in reality. It lacks realism in the sense that mechanisms such as cluster formation, congestion (defined as an overly high density of the same activities) and dependence on the spatial distribution of external parties (clients, labour markets) are ignored. The present paper proposed an extension of the Simon model that includes both centripetal and centrifugal forces. Centripetal forces are included in the sense that firm divisions are more likely to settle in locations that offer a higher accessibility to other fi...

  15. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  16. Modeling Temporal Activity Patterns in Dynamic Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Galstyan, Aram; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this work is on developing probabilistic models for user activity in social networks by incorporating the social network influence as perceived by the user. For this, we propose a coupled Hidden Markov Model, where each user's activity evolves according to a Markov chain with a hidden state that is influenced by the collective activity of the friends of the user. We develop generalized Baum-Welch and Viterbi algorithms for model parameter learning and state estimation for the proposed framework. We then validate the proposed model using a significant corpus of user activity on Twitter. Our numerical studies show that with sufficient observations to ensure accurate model learning, the proposed framework explains the observed data better than either a renewal process-based model or a conventional uncoupled Hidden Markov Model. We also demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach in predicting the time to the next tweet. Finally, clustering in the model parameter space is shown to result in dist...

  17. Activity patterns of cultured neural networks on micro electrode arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, W.L.C.; Pelt, van J.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid neuro-electronic interface is a cell-cultured micro electrode array, acting as a neural information transducer for stimulation and/or recording of neural activity in the brain or the spinal cord (ventral motor region or dorsal sensory region). It consists of an array of micro electrodes on

  18. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  19. Identification of naphthoylindoles acting on cannabinoid receptors based on their fragmentation patterns under ESI-QTOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekuła, Karolina; Zuba, Dariusz; Stanaszek, Roman

    2012-05-01

    'Herbal highs' have been advertised as legal and natural substitutes to cannabis, but a detailed examination of these products has revealed that the herbal matrix is laced with synthetic substances that mimic the effects of marijuana. Producers select the ingredients based on the results of scientific studies on the affinities of different chemicals to cannabinoid receptors. Naphthoylindoles have turned out to be the most popular class of substances identified in the products. Legal actions taken in order to tackle the problem of uncontrolled access to one substance have usually resulted in the marketing of derivatives or analogues. In the study, the mass spectral behavior of twelve synthetic cannabinoids from the naphthoylindole family under electrospray ionization (ESI) was investigated. LC-QTOFMS experiments were performed in three modes (low fragmentor voltage, high fragmentor voltage with/without collision energy), and they enabled the identification of protonated molecules and main ions. A general fragmentation pattern under this ionization method was proposed, and mechanisms of ion formation were discussed. The developed procedure allowed the determination of substituent groups of the core naphthoylindole structure and distinction between positional isomers. The obtained results were used for the prediction of the ESI-MS spectra for many naphthoylindoles with a high affinity to cannabinoid receptors. Similarities and differences between ESI-MS and electron impact-MS spectra of naphthoylindoles were discussed. The developed identification process was presented on an example of an analysis of an unknown herbal material, in which JWH-007 was finally identified. Knowledge of the fragmentation mechanisms of naphthoylindoles could also be used by other researchers for identification of unknown substances in this chemical family. PMID:22576877

  20. Gully Growth Patterns and Soil Loss under Rainfall at Urban Underground Drainage Construction Site, Uyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.E. Essien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, evaluated and modeled patterns of growth of gully morphometric dimension and soil loss volume under prevailing rainfall on the slopes of land graded for the construction of underground drainage at Uyo but delayed in completion. Land grading at underground (tunnel drainage construction site rendered the exposed surface very impervious but young ephemeral gullies developed due to delays in completion. Data on gully morphometric dimension, soil loss and depth of rainfall were analyzed using SPSS ver. 17 statistical package. Mean gully growth in length, width and depth were different at 2.54±0.86, 0.923±0.29 and 0.41±0.11 m, respectively, yielding 3.87±0.08 m2 as mean volume of soil loss at full stage. Cubic polynomial was best-fit model for growth in length (R2 = 79% and width (R2 = 69% using weekly rainfall for an annual season. All gully sites had constant depth change, better predicted by quadratic (R2 = 13% than linear (R2 = 9% functions. Mean volume of soil loss per unit rainfall amount varied with low, medium and high rainfall amount and was highest at slope bottom (33 cm3/cm and least at the crest (6.99 cm3/cm with R2 = 38-34%. Land grading to impervious sublayer produced constant depth change in all gullies at the sites. The models for morphometric incremental growth and soil loss volume under the rainfall effect was significantly improved (p<0.05 by bifurcating the lumped annual curve into two growth periods in a year: the periods for increasing rainfall (from week 10-30 and for receding rainfall (from week 31-43 in a year and applying quadratic regressing functions on each (R2 = 91-99%. Rainfall was the principal gully factor and construction delays should be avoided.

  1. Using Probabilistic-Risky Programming Models in Identifying Optimized Pattern of Cultivation under Risk Conditions (Case Study: Shoshtar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kelashemi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Telser and Kataoka models of probabilistic-riskymathematical programming, the present research is to determine the optimized pattern of cultivating the agricultural products of Shoshtar region under risky conditions. In order to consider the risk in the mentioned models, time period of agricultural years 1996-1997 till 2004-2005 was taken into account. Results from Telser and Kataoka models showed that due to accepting the risk amounts, most of the optimized amounts suggest the tomato cultivation during the cultivation period of fall, and watermelon cultivation during the cultivation period of spring. On the basis of results, due to allocation of agricultural lands of Shoshtar to tomato and watermeloncultivation and specializing the farming activity in this province,gross profit of agricultural production system can be increasedto 6116047000 and 727782272 thousand Rials, respectively.The results of understudy models were investigated under different income scenarios and probabilistic levels of risk acceptance. Correct policy making in order to offer the suitable equipments for adjusting the effects of lack of certainty and risks due to the climatic unwanted conditions in production process of agricultural products of Shoshtar region improve the life situation of farmers of the mentioned region.

  2. Dietary and Physical Activity Pattern in Fars Province, National Plan of Chronic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Farahmand

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in lifestyle, especially in different aspects of nutrition and physical activity, have been associated with change in the patterns of diseases, from contagious diseases to non-communicable diseases, and with the prevalence of chronic diseases. Accordingly, this study is carried out within the framework of National Plan to Care for Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases with the aim of comparing the dietary patterns and physical activity of people under study in Fars province during 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: Using the WHO Step-by-step Evaluation Model for Risky Factors, the present study determined fifty 20-person clusters, totally 1,000 people within the age group of 15-64 for each year as the research population. After identifying the applicable people, they were visited at their homes and the questionnaires were filled out for them. The necessary analysis was carried out using Version 6 of EPI-info and Version 10 of STATA software.Results: The findings of the present study indicated that men have more intense physical activity than women (p=0.001. The results also indicated a significant increase in consumption of fruit (p=0.01, vegetable (p=0.001, and fish (p=0.001 in 2007 as compared with 2006. The average number of the consumed vegetable units in women was higher than that of men (p=0.01.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the average number of daily consumed units of fruit and vegetable as well as the frequencies of fish consumption per week was lower than the recommended amounts.

  3. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1992-02-01

    The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation.

  4. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-Ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate. PMID:26368561

  5. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (Rs is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC, total soil nitrogen (TN, and soil organic matter (OM at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK. However, soil moisture (SM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days, Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate.

  6. Concentration Dependent Ion-Protein Interaction Patterns Underlying Protein Oligomerization Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batoulis, Helena; Schmidt, Thomas H.; Weber, Pascal; Schloetel, Jan-Gero; Kandt, Christian; Lang, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Salts and proteins comprise two of the basic molecular components of biological materials. Kosmotropic/chaotropic co-solvation and matching ion water affinities explain basic ionic effects on protein aggregation observed in simple solutions. However, it is unclear how these theories apply to proteins in complex biological environments and what the underlying ionic binding patterns are. Using the positive ion Ca2+ and the negatively charged membrane protein SNAP25, we studied ion effects on protein oligomerization in solution, in native membranes and in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that concentration-dependent ion-induced protein oligomerization is a fundamental chemico-physical principle applying not only to soluble but also to membrane-anchored proteins in their native environment. Oligomerization is driven by the interaction of Ca2+ ions with the carboxylate groups of aspartate and glutamate. From low up to middle concentrations, salt bridges between Ca2+ ions and two or more protein residues lead to increasingly larger oligomers, while at high concentrations oligomers disperse due to overcharging effects. The insights provide a conceptual framework at the interface of physics, chemistry and biology to explain binding of ions to charged protein surfaces on an atomistic scale, as occurring during protein solubilisation, aggregation and oligomerization both in simple solutions and membrane systems. PMID:27052788

  7. Temporal patterns of infiltration into a water repellent soil under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phil; Roper, Margaret; Micin, Shayne; Jongepier, Ramona

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency causes substantial economic losses for farmers in southern Australia through impacts on crop growth and weed germination. However, recent research has demonstrated that laboratory measurements of water repellency may not be a reliable indicator of the severity of symptoms experienced in the field. In particular, crop residue retention and minimal soil disturbance led to increased water repellency, but was also associated with higher soil water contents measured at strategic times of the year. Little is known about the temporal patterns of soil water storage close to the soil surface in a water repellent sand. In this research we measured soil water content at a depth of 0.05 m at 15-minute intervals from June 2011 to October 2012, under various treatment combinations of residue retention and soil disturbance. Measurements were made in both 'crop row' and 'crop inter-row' positions. For a rainfall event (9.2 mm) in March 2012, prior to crop seeding, plots previously established with no-till absorbed significantly more water (increase in soil water content of 0.074 v/v) than plots conventionally cultivated (0.038 v/v). In June 2012 (12.6 mm), 4 weeks after crop seeding, tillage was again significant, and there was a significant interaction between tillage and 'row' or 'inter-row' position. These results demonstrate the importance of crop management in modifying the response of water repellent soils to rainfall in the field.

  8. Changing pattern of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin of India under global warming scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Deshpande; B D Kulkarni

    2015-06-01

    Estimation of extremely high rainfall (point or areal) is one of the major components of design storm derivation. The estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) involves selection of heavy rain-storms and its maximization for the moisture content during the rainstorm period. These heavy rain-storms are nothing but the widespread heavy rainfall exceeding a certain threshold value. The present study examines the characteristics of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin selected from present climate and future scenarios simulated by the regional climate model. Such information on heavy rainfall forms the basis for the hydrologic design projects and also for the water management of a river basin. Emphasis is given to severe rainstorms of 1-day duration covering an area of at least 40,000 km2 with spatial average rainfall of at least 5cm. This analysis also provides the information on the temporal changes in the storm factors such as shape, orientation, and movement, and shows that the model can well simulate the rainstorm pattern in terms of its intensity, orientation, and shape of the rainstorm, but overestimates the frequency of such heavy rainstorms. The future scenario indicates increase in rainfall intensity at the center of the rainstorm with decreasing areal spread. Decrease in the frequency of rainstorms is projected under the global warming conditions.

  9. Morphology of gas cavities on patterned hydrophobic surfaces under reduced pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Lv, Pengyu; Liu, Ying; Shi, Yipeng; Lin, Hao; Duan, Huiling

    2015-09-01

    Gas cavities trapped on structured hydrophobic surfaces play important roles in realizing functionalities such as superhydrophobicity, drag reduction, and surface cleaning. The morphology of the cavities exhibits strong dependence on system parameters which impact the performance of these surfaces. In this work, a complete theoretical analysis is presented to predict cavity morphological change under reduced liquid pressure, on a submerged hydrophobic surface patterned with cylindrical pores. Equilibrium solutions are derived for five different phases, namely, (I) pinned recession, (II) depinned recession, (III) Cassie-Baxter, (IV) expansion, and (V) coalescence; their stabilities are also analyzed. A phase map is developed outlining the different regimes with respect to the gas amount and liquid pressure. Importantly, phase (IV) exhibits a complex stability behavior that leads to two possible routes to coalescence, which lends two different mechanisms of cavitation. Accordingly, the threshold pressure for cavitation can be calculated. The theoretical model is supported by direct experimental measurements via confocal microscopy and demonstrates good quantitative accuracy. This work provides a predictive tool for the design of functional structured hydrophobic surfaces.

  10. Dynamical pattern formation in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid under two orthogonal sinusoidal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yépez, L. D.; Carrillo, J. L.; Donado, F.; Sausedo-Solorio, J. M.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamical pattern formation of clusters of magnetic particles in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid, under the influence of a superposition of two perpendicular sinusoidal fields, is studied experimentally. By varying the frequency and phase shift of the perpendicular fields, this configuration enables us to experimentally analyze a wide range of field configurations, including the case of a pure rotating field and the case of an oscillating unidirectional field. The fields are applied parallel to the horizontal plane where the fluid lies or in the vertical plane. For fields applied in the horizontal plane, we observed that, when the ratio of the frequencies increases, the average cluster size exhibits a kind of periodic resonances. When the phase shift between the fields is varied, the average chain length reaches maximal values for the cases of the rotating field and the unidirectional case. We analyze and discuss these results in terms of a weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number. In the case of a rotating field on the vertical plane, we also observe that the competition between the magnetic and the viscous forces determines the average cluster size. We show that this configuration generates a series of physically meaningful self-organization of clusters and transport phenomena.

  11. Changing pattern of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin of India under global warming scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, N. R.; Kulkarni, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    Estimation of extremely high rainfall (point or areal) is one of the major components of design storm derivation. The estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) involves selection of heavy rainstorms and its maximization for the moisture content during the rainstorm period. These heavy rainstorms are nothing but the widespread heavy rainfall exceeding a certain threshold value. The present study examines the characteristics of heavy rainstorms in the Indus basin selected from present climate and future scenarios simulated by the regional climate model. Such information on heavy rainfall forms the basis for the hydrologic design projects and also for the water management of a river basin. Emphasis is given to severe rainstorms of 1-day duration covering an area of at least 40,000 km 2 with spatial average rainfall of at least 5cm. This analysis also provides the information on the temporal changes in the storm factors such as shape, orientation, and movement, and shows that the model can well simulate the rainstorm pattern in terms of its intensity, orientation, and shape of the rainstorm, but overestimates the frequency of such heavy rainstorms. The future scenario indicates increase in rainfall intensity at the center of the rainstorm with decreasing areal spread. Decrease in the frequency of rainstorms is projected under the global warming conditions.

  12. Analysis of volcanic activity patterns using MODIS thermal alerts

    OpenAIRE

    Rothery, Dave A.; Coppola, Diego; Saunders, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    We investigate eruptive activity by analysis of thermal-alert data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) thermal infrared satellite instrument, detected by the MODVOLC (MODIS Volcano alert) algorithm. These data are openly available on a website, and easy to use. We show how such data can plug major gaps in the conventional monitoring record of volcanoes in an otherwise generally poorly-documented region (Melanesia), including: characterising the mechanism of lava effusion...

  13. Activity Patterns in Latissimus Dorsi and Sternocleidomastoid in Classical Singers

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Alan H. D.; Williams, Caitlin; James, Buddug V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the roles of the accessory respiratory muscles, latissimus dorsi (LD), and sternocleidomastoid, in classical singing. Methods Electromyography was used to record the activity of these muscles in six classically trained female singers carrying out a number of singing and nonsinging tasks. Movements of the chest and abdominal walls were monitored simultaneously using inductive plethysmography, and the sound of the phonation...

  14. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  15. Adaptive intesration of local resion information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN ZongLei; TIAN Jie; ZHANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro-vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es-tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat-terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com-bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho-mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat-terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  16. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  17. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.

  18. EXPLORING COMPOUND PROMISCUITY PATTERNS AND MULTI-TARGET ACTIVITY SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound promiscuity is rationalized as the specific interaction of a small molecule with multiple biological targets (as opposed to non-specific binding events and represents the molecular basis of polypharmacology, an emerging theme in drug discovery and chemical biology. This concise review focuses on recent studies that have provided a detailed picture of the degree of promiscuity among different categories of small molecules. In addition, an exemplary computational approach is discussed that is designed to navigate multi-target activity spaces populated with various compounds.

  19. Seasonal activity patterns and diet divergence of three sympatric Afrotropical tortoise species (genus Kinixys)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiselli, Luca

    2003-01-01

    Three species of hinge-back tortoises ( (Kinixys belliana nogueyi, Kinixys erosa, Kinixys homeana) are found in simpatry in the rainforests of the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria (west Africa). The seasonal activity patterns and food habits of these tortoises are studied in the present paper. K. erosa and K. homeana have similar activity patterns, with peaks occurring during the wet season. Kinixys belliana was found only during the wet months. There was no evidence of any specific effect of hu...

  20. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R;

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  1. Changing Pattern of Heavy Rainstorms in Indus Basin of India Under Global Warming Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, N. R.; Kulakarni, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    A major concern of the hydraulic design engineers is to determine a practical value for the design storm where maximum protection against structural failure is required. Design of such structures is based on the extremely large values such as 'Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP)'. The estimation of PMP involves selection of heavy rainstorm, its areal rainfall distribution and maximization of areal rainfall for moisture content. The study attempts to examine the characteristics of heavy rainstorms of Indus basin located in northern parts of India under changing climate and to provide information on heavy rainfall over a large area which serves as a guide in hydrologic design projects in the basin. The Indus river originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash ranges in the Himalaya and flows through India and Pakistan where it meets Arabian sea. Heavy rainstorms occurred in the Indus basin during 1971-2009 are selected and analyzed. Future scenarios of such heavy rainstorms occurring in this basin are projected using regional climate model, PRECIS (Providing REgional Climate for Impact Studies) scenarios for the period 2071-2100. Baseline simulations (1961-1990) generated by this model used to assess the efficiency of the model to generate widespread heavy rainfall in the basin. Primary emphasis is given on the areal distribution of rainfall during severe rainstorms having durations of 24 hours and producing excessive amount of rainfall over an area of at least 25000 square kilometers with rainfall intensity at the centre of rainstorm more than 30cm. Information is also provided on other important storm factors such as its shape, orientation and movement. Fig.1 shows the spatial patterns of severe-most rainstorms from observational data sets, baseline and future simulated datasets from PRECIS. Table gives the average shape factor (ratio of major to minor axis) and average orientation of these rainstorms. In general it is observed that common shape of the

  2. Learned perceptual associations influence visuomotor programming under limited conditions: cues as surface patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffenden, Angela M; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2002-12-01

    The present set of three experiments was designed to extend the findings that visuomotor programming can make use of learned size information under some, but not all, conditions. An association was established between the size of square wooden blocks and a perceptual cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1 the perceptual cue to size was a small two-dimensional drawing of a shape affixed to the top of the blocks (e.g. triangle = large; circle = small, or vice versa). In Experiment 2 size and shape were again associated but this time a pattern of two-dimensional shapes covered the visible surface of the blocks. In Experiment 3 block size was associated with the colour of a small circle affixed to the top of the blocks (e.g. red = large; yellow = small, or vice versa). All of the subjects grasped the blocks, and on other trials estimated the size of the blocks by opening their thumb and finger a matching amount. Consistent with previous reports, in all experiments, the learned associations changed the perceived size of two test blocks halfway in size between the large and small blocks: estimations of the test block matched by shape or colour to the group of large objects were smaller than estimations of the test block matched to the group of small objects. The effect appears to result from relative-size comparisons being made between the medium-sized test blocks and the size category (large or small) associated with the matching shape or colour cue. Despite the significant effect of the learned perceptual associations on manual estimations, no effect on grip scaling was seen when the cues associated with size were single small elements centred on the top of the block (Experiment 1 and Experiment 3). Changes in grip scaling corresponded to the change in perceived size only when the cue to size covered the entire block (Experiment 2), forming a surface pattern. These findings suggest that visuomotor programming is more likely to use learned size information when the cue

  3. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows under...... mechanisms can also contribute to substrate removal, depending on the microbial composition and the previous "history" of the biomass. In this paper the type and the extent of this dynamic response is discussed by review of experimental studies on pure cultures, mixed cultures and activated sludges...... and with main reference to its relevance on population dynamics in the activated sludge. Possible conceptual approaches to storage modelling are also presented, including both structured and unstructured modelling. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Physical activity patterns, aerobic fitness and body composition in Norwegian children and adolescents : The Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...

  5. Modelling spatial patterns of economic activity in the Netherlands

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jung-Hun; Frenken, Koen; Van Oort, Frank; Visser, Evert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how spatial configurations of economic activity emerge is important when formulating spatial planning and economic policy. Not only micro-simulation and agent-based model such as UrbanSim, ILUMAS and SIMFIRMS, but also Simon's model of hierarchical concentration have widely applied, for this purpose. These models, however, have limitations with respect to simulating structural changes in spatial economic systems and the impact of proximity. The present paper proposes a model of firm development that is based on behavioural rules such as growth, closure, spin-off and relocation. An important aspect of the model is that locational preferences of firms are based on agglomeration advantages, accessibility of markets and congestion, allowing for a proper description of concentration and deconcentration tendencies. By comparing the outcomes of the proposed model with real world data, we will calibrate the parameters and assess how well the model predicts existing spatial configurations and decide. The...

  6. Immature pattern of brain activity in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Friberg, L; Lou, H;

    1990-01-01

    Seven girls with Rett syndrome, a progressive degenerative encephalopathy affecting girls, were studied with single photon emission computed tomography and compared with an aged-matched control group of nine normal children. Global cerebral blood flow was significantly lower in Rett syndrome (54 vs...... 69 mL/100 g per minute), and the flows in prefrontal and temporoparietal association regions of the telencephalon were markedly reduced, whereas the primary sensorimotor regions were relatively spared. The flow distribution in Rett syndrome is very similar to the distribution of brain metabolic...... activity in infants of a few months of age. The abnormal regional cerebral blood flow distribution most likely reflects the widespread functional disturbances in the brain of patients with Rett syndrome, whereas computed tomographic and neuropathologic examination only reveal slight changes when compared...

  7. Fibrinogen patterns and activity on substrates with tailored hydroxy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, José Carlos; Rico, Patricia; Moratal, David; Monleón Pradas, Manuel; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-08-11

    The influence of the surface fraction of OH groups on fibrinogen (FG) adsorption is investigated in copolymers of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethylacrylate. The amount of adsorbed FG, quantified by western-blotting combined with image analysis of the corresponding bands, decreases as the hydrophilicity of the substrate increases. The influence of substrate wettability on FG conformation and distribution is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The most hydrophobic substrate promotes FG fibrillogenesis, which leads to a fibrin-like appearance in the absence of any thrombin. The degree of FG interconnection was quantified by calculating the fractal dimension of the adsorbed protein from image analysis of the AFM results. The biological activity of the adsorbed FG is correlated to cell adhesion on FG-coated substrates.

  8. Patterns of EEG Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova M.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews most recent findings on neural activity in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Most of the studies demonstrate decreased connectivity in cortical regions, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and atypical processing of language in people with ASD. It is argued that difficulties in semantic integration are connected to selective insensitivity to language, which is manifested in atypical N400 ERP component. In the article we analyze the data suggesting a strong relationship between ASD and epilepsy and argue that the comorbidity is more prevalent among individuals who have cognitive dysfunction. The EEG profile of people with ASD suggests U-shaped alterations with excess in high- and low-frequency EEG bands. We critically analyze the “broken mirror” hypothesis of ASD and demonstrate findings which challenge this theory.

  9. Conformal Array Pattern Synthesis and Activated Elements Selection Strategy Based on PSOGSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern synthesis and activated element selection for conformal array is investigated based on hybrid particle swarm optimization-gravitational search algorithm (PSOGSA in this paper. With the introduction of PSOGSA algorithm which is a novel hybrid optimization technique, the element excitations are optimized to obtain the desired pattern for conformal array in the case of considering uncoupled and coupled element pattern. Numerical simulation and full-wave electromagnetic calculation verify the advantage and efficiency of our method. Then, a novel strategy of activated element selection based on PSOGSA algorithm is proposed for saving the energy consumption in conformal array.

  10. Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge.

  11. Altered patterns of gene expression underlying the enhanced immunogenicity of radiation-attenuated schistosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P Dillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosome cercariae only elicit high levels of protective immunity against a challenge infection if they are optimally attenuated by exposure to ionising radiation that truncates their migration in the lungs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the altered phenotype of the irradiated parasite that primes for protection have yet to be identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used a custom microarray comprising probes derived from lung-stage parasites to compare patterns of gene expression in schistosomula derived from normal and irradiated cercariae. These were transformed in vitro and cultured for four, seven, and ten days to correspond in development to the priming parasites, before RNA extraction. At these late times after the radiation insult, transcript suppression was the principal feature of the irradiated larvae. Individual gene analysis revealed that only seven were significantly down-regulated in the irradiated versus normal larvae at the three time-points; notably, four of the protein products are present in the tegument or associated with its membranes, perhaps indicating a perturbed function. Grouping of transcripts using Gene Ontology (GO and subsequent Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA proved more informative in teasing out subtle differences. Deficiencies in signalling pathways involving G-protein-coupled receptors suggest the parasite is less able to sense its environment. Reduction of cytoskeleton transcripts could indicate compromised structure which, coupled with a paucity of neuroreceptor transcripts, may mean the parasite is also unable to respond correctly to external stimuli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transcriptional differences observed are concordant with the known extended transit of attenuated parasites through skin-draining lymph nodes and the lungs: prolonged priming of the immune system by the parasite, rather than over-expression of novel antigens, could thus

  12. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  13. Chronic osteomyelitis: bone and gallium scan patterns associated with active disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone and gallium scans are used to assess osteomyelitis patients with prior bone disease. To refine the criteria for interpreting these scans, the data from 136 consecutive patients with clinically suspected osteomyelitis were reviewed. Active osteomyelitis was diagnosed with surgery or biopsy and culture in 49 patients, excluded with the same criteria in 16, and excluded by clinical follow-up for at least 6 months in 71. Five different scintigraphic patterns were found. The true-positive and false-positive ratios, the likelihood ratios, and posterior probabilities for active osteomyelitis in each pattern were calculated. Only one pattern (gallium uptake exceeding bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical uptake) was indicative of active disease. Other patterns slightly raised or decreased the probability of disease. The extent of these changes varies directly with the prior probability of disease, determined from patient-specific factors (e.g., clinical data, laboratory data, findings on plain films) known best by the referring clinician

  14. Size effects on the wave propagation and deformation pattern in copper nanobars under symmetric longitudinal impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the influence of system size on wave propagation and deformation patterns in 〈100〉/{100} copper nanobars with square cross-section under symmetric longitudinal impact loading. Nanobars of longitudinal length 100a with cross-sectional edge lengths h = 10a, 20a, and 40a were impacted on both ends by flyers of size 20a × h × h, where a is the Cu unit cell length, and impact speed 500 m s-1. For reference, quasi-infinite slab samples with periodic cross-sectional edge lengths 10a and 40a were also studied. It was found that the wave propagation speed increases with increasing cross-sectional area and eventually approaches the value obtained for a quasi-infinite sample. Extensive plasticity occurs across the entire length of the nanobars, whereas the quasi-infinite samples remain in the elastic regime and exhibit a vibrating (ringing) behaviour. The deformation pattern in the nanobars is strongly dependent on the cross-sectional area. For the nanobar with h = 10a the material fully reorients from 〈100〉/{100} to 〈110〉/{111} with few stacking faults and twins. Material in the nanobar with h = 20a does not reorient completely; the local crystal deformation is mediated mainly by a partial dislocation activity leading to predominantly non-intersecting stacking faults and twins. Nanobars with h = 40a exhibit behaviour similar to that for the h = 20a case but with greater propensity for intersecting stacking faults.

  15. Brain activation pattern depends on the strategy chosen by zebra finches to solve an orientation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2012-02-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to find food in one of four feeders on the floor of an aviary. This feeder was always in the same place during training and was additionally marked by a distinct pattern. In the test trial the distinctly patterned feeder was interchanged with one of the other feeders, so that the birds had to decide to use either the pattern or the original location for finding food. Half of the birds used one strategy and half used the other. According to the strategy applied, different brain areas were activated, as demonstrated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The hippocampus was activated when spatial cues were used, while in birds orienting using the pattern of the feeder, part of the collothalamic (tectofugal) visual system showed stronger activation. The visual wulst of the lemnothalamic (thalamofugal) visual system was activated with both strategies, indicating an involvement in both spatial and pattern-directed orientation. Because the experimental situation was the same for all zebra finches, the activation pattern was only dependent on the strategy that was voluntarily chosen by each of the birds.

  16. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  17. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L McLellan

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C and hot (27.9-40.1°C days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  18. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C) and hot (27.9-40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  19. Repeated games and direct reciprocity under active linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Traulsen, Arne; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A

    2008-02-21

    Direct reciprocity relies on repeated encounters between the same two individuals. Here we examine the evolution of cooperation under direct reciprocity in dynamically structured populations. Individuals occupy the vertices of a graph, undergoing repeated interactions with their partners via the edges of the graph. Unlike the traditional approach to evolutionary game theory, where individuals meet at random and have no control over the frequency or duration of interactions, we consider a model in which individuals differ in the rate at which they seek new interactions. Moreover, once a link between two individuals has formed, the productivity of this link is evaluated. Links can be broken off at different rates. Whenever the active dynamics of links is sufficiently fast, population structure leads to a simple transformation of the payoff matrix, effectively changing the game under consideration, and hence paving the way for reciprocators to dominate defectors. We derive analytical conditions for evolutionary stability.

  20. Pattern of physical activity among persons with type 2 diabetes with special consideration to daily routine

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Rozina; Younis, Bilal Bin; Masood, Junaid; Tahira, Maham; Khurhsid, Saima

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity is essential in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Physical activity can improve general health, quality of life and diabetes management. The aim and objective of the study was to assess the physical activity trends in daily routine of people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Two hundred persons with diabetes from four different clinical settings were included to access the trends of physical activity using a customized questionnaire EPIC-2. Pattern of physical activit...

  1. LEISURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH OVERWEIGHT: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY AMONG ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between individual leisure activities (television viewing, video viewing, computer games, listening to music, board games, musical instrument playing, reading, arts, crafts, socializing, clubs or scouts, sports, outdoor activities) and being overweight using logistic regression and latent class analysis in a cohort of Finnish twins responding to self-report questionnaires at 11–12 (N=5184), 14, and 17 years. We also studied activity patterns (“Active and ...

  2. Acquisition of enhanced natural killer cell activity under anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, C M; Lorden, J F; Hiramoto, R N; Ghanta, V K

    1992-01-01

    An increase in natural killer (NK) cell activity can be conditioned with a one trial learning paradigm to demonstrate the interaction between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. In order to demonstrate learning possibilities during 'non-conscious' state, mice were anesthetized with a ketamin/rompun mixture and underwent one trial learning with odor cue as the conditioned stimulus (CS) preceding the unconditioned stimulus (US). The results indicated that mice that were exposed to camphor odor cue under the influence of anesthesia can associate the signal with the poly I:C unconditioned stimulus and were able to recall the conditioned response upon reexposure to the CS. Secondly, the conditioned association made in a conscious state can be recalled by exposure to the same olfactory odor cue in a 'non-conscious' state. The increase in the conditioned change in NK cell activity of both situations was significantly higher than the control group. The results demonstrate that learning can take place and the learned response can be recalled under the reduced awareness caused by anesthesia. The findings we report are unusual and novel in that they demonstrate that the CNS can learn new associations under conditions where the host is apparently unaware of the signals being linked. Anesthesia combined with the long interstimulus interval indicates that certain neuronal pathways in the CNS are receptive to second signals (elicited by the US) even when the second signal is separated by one day. This means the conditioned learning of a physiological response can take place unconsciously at a separate level and under situations where the host is totally unaware of the events which the brain is processing and linking as incoming information.

  3. Foraging Activity Pattern Is Shaped by Water Loss Rates in a Diurnal Desert Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Porter, Warren P; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2016-08-01

    Although animals fine-tune their activity to avoid excess heat, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of such behaviors. As the global climate changes, such understanding is particularly important for projecting shifts in the activity patterns of populations and communities. We studied how foraging decisions vary with biotic and abiotic pressures. By tracking the foraging behavior of diurnal desert spiny mice in their natural habitat and estimating the energy and water costs and benefits of foraging, we asked how risk management and thermoregulatory requirements affect foraging decisions. We found that water requirements had the strongest effect on the observed foraging decisions. In their arid environment, mice often lose water while foraging for seeds and cease foraging even at high energetic returns when water loss is high. Mice also foraged more often when energy expenditure was high and for longer times under high seed densities and low predation risks. Gaining insight into both energy and water balance will be crucial to understanding the forces exerted by changing climatic conditions on animal energetics, behavior, and ecology. PMID:27420785

  4. The comparition of Personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in males with with drug abuse disorder under Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    samere asadi; Majid Mahmod allilo; jafar bahadorikhosroahhi; maryam KHORSAND

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the difference between personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in men with drug abuse disorder under Treatment. Method: in this casual- comparative research, 80 men ( 40 males with drug abuse under Treatment and 40 of normal males) that were selected with available sampling .Groups were matched in terms of demoghraphy characteristics ( age, sexuality, education level and marital status) and were valued with means of Eysenk ...

  5. Dynamics of firing patterns, synchronization and resonances in neuronal electrical activities: experiments and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qishao Lu; Huaguang Gu; Zhuoqin Yang; Xia Shi; Lixia Duan; Yanhong Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in the experimental and theore-tical study of dynamics of neuronal electrical firing activi-ties are reviewed. Firstly, some experimental phenomena of neuronal irregular firing patterns, especially chaotic and sto-chastic firing patterns, are presented, and practical nonlinear time analysis methods are introduced to distinguish deter-ministic and stochastic mechanism in time series. Secondly, the dynamics of electrical firing activities in a single neu-ron is concerned, namely, fast-slow dynamics analysis for classification and mechanism of various bursting patterns, one- or two-parameter bifurcation analysis for transitions of firing patterns, and stochastic dynamics of firing activities (stochastic and coherence resonances, integer multiple and other firing patterns induced by noise, etc.). Thirdly, different types of synchronization of coupled neurons with electri-cal and chemical synapses are discussed. As noise and time delay are inevitable in nervous systems, it is found that noise and time delay may induce or enhance synchronization and change firing patterns of coupled neurons. Noise-induced resonance and spatiotemporal patterns in coupled neuronal networks are also demonstrated. Finally, some prospects are presented for future research. In consequence, the idea and methods of nonlinear dynamics are of great significance in exploration of dynamic processes and physiological func-tions of nervous systems.

  6. Unification of soil feedback patterns under different evaporation conditions to improve soil differentiation over flat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanxin; Zhu, A.-Xing; Meng, Lingkui; Burt, James E.; Du, Fei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Guiming

    2016-07-01

    Detailed and accurate information on the spatial variation of soil types and soil properties are critical components of environmental research and hydrological modeling. Early studies introduced a soil feedback pattern as a promising environmental covariate to predict spatial variation over low-relief areas. However, in practice, local evaporation can have a significant influence on these patterns, making them incomparable at different locations. This study aims to solve this problem by examining the concept of transforming the dynamic patterns of soil feedback from the original time-related space to a new evaporation-related space. A study area in northeastern Illinois with large low-relief farmland was selected to examine the effectiveness of this idea. Images from MODIS in Terra for every April-May period over 12 years (2000-2011) were used to extract the soil feedback patterns. Compared to the original time-related space, the results indicate that the patterns in the new evaporation-related space tend to be more stable and more easily captured from multiple rain events regardless of local evaporation conditions. Random samples selected for soil subgroups from the SSURGO soil map show that patterns in the new space reveal a difference between different soil types. And these differences in patterns are closely related to the difference in the soil structure of the surface layer.

  7. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  8. Patterns of regional brain activation associated with different forms of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M; Ghez, C; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J; Mentis, M; Nakamura, T; Antonini, A; Eidelberg, D

    2000-07-14

    To examine the variations in regional cerebral blood flow during execution and learning of reaching movements, we employed a family of kinematically and dynamically controlled motor tasks in which cognitive, mnemonic and executive features of performance were differentiated and characterized quantitatively. During 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) scans, twelve right-handed subjects moved their dominant hand on a digitizing tablet from a central location to equidistant targets displayed with a cursor on a computer screen in synchrony with a tone. In the preceding week, all subjects practiced three motor tasks: 1) movements to a predictable sequence of targets; 2) learning of new visuomotor transformations in which screen cursor motion was rotated by 30 degrees -60 degrees; 3) learning new target sequences by trial and error, by using previously acquired routines in a task placing heavy load on spatial working memory. The control condition was observing screen and audio displays. Subtraction images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping to identify significant brain activation foci. Execution of predictable sequences was characterized by a modest decrease in movement time and spatial error. The underlying pattern of activation involved primary motor and sensory areas, cerebellum, basal ganglia. Adaptation to a rotated reference frame, a form of procedural learning, was associated with decrease in the imposed directional bias. This task was associated with activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. New sequences were learned explicitly. Significant activation was found in dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In this study, we have introduced a series of flexible motor tasks with similar kinematic characteristics and different spatial attributes. These tasks can be used to assess specific aspects of motor learning with imaging in health and disease. PMID:10882792

  9. Spike Pattern Structure Influences Synaptic Efficacy Variability under STDP and Synaptic Homeostasis. II: Spike Shuffling Methods on LIF Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zedong; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    Synapses may undergo variable changes during plasticity because of the variability of spike patterns such as temporal stochasticity and spatial randomness. Here, we call the variability of synaptic weight changes during plasticity to be efficacy variability. In this paper, we investigate how four aspects of spike pattern statistics (i.e., synchronous firing, burstiness/regularity, heterogeneity of rates and heterogeneity of cross-correlations) influence the efficacy variability under pair-wise additive spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and synaptic homeostasis (the mean strength of plastic synapses into a neuron is bounded), by implementing spike shuffling methods onto spike patterns self-organized by a network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons. With the increase of the decay time scale of the inhibitory synaptic currents, the LIF network undergoes a transition from asynchronous state to weak synchronous state and then to synchronous bursting state. We first shuffle these spike patterns using a variety of methods, each designed to evidently change a specific pattern statistics; and then investigate the change of efficacy variability of the synapses under STDP and synaptic homeostasis, when the neurons in the network fire according to the spike patterns before and after being treated by a shuffling method. In this way, we can understand how the change of pattern statistics may cause the change of efficacy variability. Our results are consistent with those of our previous study which implements spike-generating models on converging motifs. We also find that burstiness/regularity is important to determine the efficacy variability under asynchronous states, while heterogeneity of cross-correlations is the main factor to cause efficacy variability when the network moves into synchronous bursting states (the states observed in epilepsy). PMID:27555816

  10. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source ap

  11. Scenario Analysis on Climate Change Impacts of Urban Land Expansion under Different Urbanization Patterns: A Case Study of Wuhan Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Ke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban land expansion plays an important role in climate change. It is significant to select a reasonable urban expansion pattern to mitigate the impact of urban land expansion on the regional climate in the rapid urbanization process. In this paper, taking Wuhan metropolitan as the case study area, and three urbanization patterns scenarios are designed to simulate spatial patterns of urban land expansion in the future using the Partitioned and Asynchronous Cellular Automata Model. Then, simulation results of land use are adjusted and inputted into WRF (Weather Research and Forecast model to simulate regional climate change. The results show that: (1 warming effect is strongest under centralized urbanization while it is on the opposite under decentralized scenario; (2 the warming effect is stronger and wider in centralized urbanization scenario than in decentralized urbanization scenario; (3 the impact trends of urban land use expansion on precipitation are basically the same under different scenarios; (4 and spatial distribution of rainfall was more concentrated under centralized urbanization scenario, and there is a rainfall center of wider scope, greater intensity. Accordingly, it can be concluded that decentralized urbanization is a reasonable urbanization pattern to mitigate climate change in rapid urbanization period.

  12. Energetic costs, underlying resource allocation patterns, and adaptive value of predator-induced life-history shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinke, K.; Hülsmann, S.; Mooij, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied costs and benefits of life history shifts of water fleas (genus Daphnia) in response to infochemicals from planktivorous fish. We applied a dynamic energy budget model to investigate the resource allocation patterns underlying the observed life history shifts and their adaptive value unde

  13. Deciphering molecular mechanism underlying hypolipidemic activity of echinocystic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Lai, Peng; Du, Jun-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that a triterpene mixture, consisting of echinocystic acid (EA) and oleanolic acid (OA) at a ratio of 4 : 1, dose-dependently ameliorated the hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat/high cholesterol diets. This study was aimed at exploring the mechanisms underlying antihyperlipidemic effect of EA. Molecular docking simulation of EA was performed using Molegro Virtual Docker (version: 4.3.0) to investigate the potential targets related to lipid metabolism. Based on the molecular docking information, isotope labeling method or spectrophotometry was applied to examine the effect of EA on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) in rat liver microsomes. Our results revealed a strong affinity of EA towards ACAT and DGAT in molecular docking analysis, while low binding affinity existed between EA and HMG-CoA reductase as well as between EA and cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Consistent with the results of molecular docking, in vitro enzyme activity assays showed that EA inhibited ACAT and DGAT, with IC50 values of 103 and 139  μ M, respectively, and exhibited no significant effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. The present findings suggest that EA may exert hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting the activity of ACAT and DGAT. PMID:24669228

  14. Deciphering Molecular Mechanism Underlying Hypolipidemic Activity of Echinocystic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that a triterpene mixture, consisting of echinocystic acid (EA and oleanolic acid (OA at a ratio of 4 : 1, dose-dependently ameliorated the hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat/high cholesterol diets. This study was aimed at exploring the mechanisms underlying antihyperlipidemic effect of EA. Molecular docking simulation of EA was performed using Molegro Virtual Docker (version: 4.3.0 to investigate the potential targets related to lipid metabolism. Based on the molecular docking information, isotope labeling method or spectrophotometry was applied to examine the effect of EA on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT in rat liver microsomes. Our results revealed a strong affinity of EA towards ACAT and DGAT in molecular docking analysis, while low binding affinity existed between EA and HMG-CoA reductase as well as between EA and cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Consistent with the results of molecular docking, in vitro enzyme activity assays showed that EA inhibited ACAT and DGAT, with IC50 values of 103 and 139 μM, respectively, and exhibited no significant effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. The present findings suggest that EA may exert hypolipidemic effect by inhibiting the activity of ACAT and DGAT.

  15. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  16. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were reco

  17. Motives for Using Facebook, Patterns of Facebook Activities, and Late Adolescents' Social Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and…

  18. Friendship Characteristics and Activity Patterns of Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Coster, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared perceptions of adolescents' friendships between adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents, examined factors associated with friendship qualities, and investigated the adolescents' reports on the activities they did with friends and how activity patterns differed by gender. Ninety-one…

  19. Individual activity patterns and the meaning of residential environments for inter-ethnic contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Aafke; Bolt, Gideon; Dijst, Martin; van Kempen, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Past research has indicated that the ethnic composition of residential neighborhoods influences inter-ethnic contact. However, little attention has been paid to individual activity and travel patterns which encompass encounters with others at physical and virtual activity sites, such as sports clubs

  20. Relation Between Muscle Activation Pattern and Pain : An Explorative Study in a Bassists Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldendorp, Kees H.; van de Werk, Pieter; Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Otten, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the muscle activation patterns in relation to pain complaints in bassists studied during a musical task. This study was based on the assumption that pain complaints are caused by increased muscle activation during playing or relaxation and/or faster onset of fatigue of muscles.

  1. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  2. Towards Rock-paper-scissors patterns in the Optional Public Goods Game under random mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Valverde, Pablo A; Stock, Eduardo V

    2016-01-01

    Social dilemmas concern a natural conflict between cooperation and self interests among individuals in large populations. The emergence of cooperation and its maintenance is the key for the understanding of fundamental concepts about the evolution of species. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in this framework, here we study the Optional Public Good Games with focus on the effects of diffusive aspects in the emergent patterns of cyclic dominance between the strategies. Differently from other works, we showed that rock-paper-scissors (RPS) patterns occur by introducing a simple kind of random mobility in a lattice sparsely occupied. Such pattern has been revealed to be very important in the conservation of the species in ecological and social environments. The goal of this paper is to show that we do not need more elaborated schemes for construction of the neighbourhood in the game to observe RPS patterns as suggested in the literature. As an interesting additional result, in this contribution we ...

  3. Patterns of Attendance of Children Under 12 Years at School Dental Service in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, SPL; Baros, H; O’Grady, MJ; Kendall, GE; Messer, LB; Slack-Smith, LM

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of attendance at School Dental Service (SDS) and reasons for attendance (treatment or prevention) for children in the Perth Metropolitan Area, in particular investigating the first year of SDS attendance and attendance until the year the child turned 12. The first 150 SDS records located for children from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were used for this study. Patterns of attendance of children at SDS were described...

  4. Mining frequent patterns for AMP-activated protein kinase regulation on skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yi-Ping

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has emerged as a significant signaling intermediary that regulates metabolisms in response to energy demand and supply. An investigation into the degree of activation and deactivation of AMPK subunits under exercise can provide valuable data for understanding AMPK. In particular, the effect of AMPK on muscle cellular energy status makes this protein a promising pharmacological target for disease treatment. As more AMPK regulation data are accumulated, data mining techniques can play an important role in identifying frequent patterns in the data. Association rule mining, which is commonly used in market basket analysis, can be applied to AMPK regulation. Results This paper proposes a framework that can identify the potential correlation, either between the state of isoforms of α, β and γ subunits of AMPK, or between stimulus factors and the state of isoforms. Our approach is to apply item constraints in the closed interpretation to the itemset generation so that a threshold is specified in terms of the amount of results, rather than a fixed threshold value for all itemsets of all sizes. The derived rules from experiments are roughly analyzed. It is found that most of the extracted association rules have biological meaning and some of them were previously unknown. They indicate direction for further research. Conclusion Our findings indicate that AMPK has a great impact on most metabolic actions that are related to energy demand and supply. Those actions are adjusted via its subunit isoforms under specific physical training. Thus, there are strong co-relationships between AMPK subunit isoforms and exercises. Furthermore, the subunit isoforms are correlated with each other in some cases. The methods developed here could be used when predicting these essential relationships and enable an understanding of the functions and metabolic pathways regarding AMPK.

  5. Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature- staged liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

    1991-09-01

    The general objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the use of highly dispersed catalysts for the pretreatment of coal by mild hydrogenation, (2) to identify the active forms of the catalysts under reaction conditions and (3) to clarify the mechanisms of catalysis. The ultimate objective is to ascertain if mild catalytic hydrogenation resulting in very limited or no coal solubilization is an advantageous pretreatment for the transformation of coal into transportable fuels. The experimental program will focus upon the development of effective methods of impregnating coal with catalysts, evaluating the conditions under which the catalysts are most active and establishing the relative impact of improved impregnation on conversion and product distributions obtained from coal hydrogenation. Liquefaction experiments of solvent-treated and untreated Blind Canyon (DECS-6) and Texas lignite (DECS-1) have been performed using ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM) and bis (dicarbonylcyclopentadienyl) iron (CPI) as catalyst precursors using temperature-staged conditions (275{degrees}C, 30 min; 425{degrees}C, 30 min). Solid state {sup 13}C NMR analysis was carried out for each coal and for selected residues. 12 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of

  7. Hippocampal CA2 activity patterns change over time to a larger extent than between spatial contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Emily A; Diehl, Geoffrey W; Sparks, Fraser T; Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA2 subregion has a different anatomical connectivity pattern within the entorhino-hippocampal circuit than either the CA1 or CA3 subregion. Yet major differences in the neuronal activity patterns of CA2 compared with the other CA subregions have not been reported. We show that standard spatial and temporal firing patterns of individual hippocampal principal neurons in behaving rats, such as place fields, theta modulation, and phase precession, are also present in CA2, but that the CA2 subregion differs substantially from the other CA subregions in its population coding. CA2 ensembles do not show a persistent code for space or for differences in context. Rather, CA2 activity patterns become progressively dissimilar over time periods of hours to days. The weak coding for a particular context is consistent with recent behavioral evidence that CA2 circuits preferentially support social, emotional, and temporal rather than spatial aspects of memory. PMID:25569350

  8. Soil Enzyme Activities under Agroforestry Systems in Northern Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Fuxu; Chen Ping

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented the enzyme characteristics of catalase, sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase under agroforestry systems in northern Jiangsu Province. The results show that soil enzyme activities reduce gradually from top to bottom layer of the soil profile, and the fluctuations of catalase and urease are smaller than those of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase. Soil enzyme activities differe significantly in different samples, and the order is arranged as poplar-crop intercropping segment (A, D) > paulownia-crop intercropping segment (B, C) > CK. Furthermore, soil enzyme activities increase with intercropping age. On the other hand, in the same plot, there are closer relationships between enzymes in the soil samples. Catalase, alkaline phosphatase and urease are negatively related, while alkaline phosphatase and urease are positively related (except in samples B and C). In addition, the enzyme activities have a close relationship with the fertilizers. Catalase is positively correlated with the soil pH value (r = 0.854, 0.804, 0.078 and 0.082, respectively), and is negatively correlated with total N (r = -0.201, -0.529, -0.221 and -0.821, respectively), total P (r = -0.143, -0.213, -0.362 and -0.751, respectively) and available P (r = -0.339, -0.351, -0.576, and -0.676, respectively). Sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase are negatively correlated with the pH value, while positively correlated with the other fertilizers (r ≈ 1). The authors suggest that enzyme activity will be a great potential as an indicator of soil quality.

  9. Relationship between BOLD amplitude and pattern classification of orientation-selective activity in the human visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Frank; Harrison, Stephenie A.; Dewey, John A.; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Orientation-selective responses can be decoded from fMRI activity patterns in the human visual cortex, using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). To what extent do these feature-selective activity patterns depend on the strength and quality of the sensory input, and might the reliability of these activity patterns be predicted by the gross amplitude of the stimulus-driven BOLD response? Observers viewed oriented gratings that varied in luminance contrast (4, 20 or 100%) or spatial frequency ...

  10. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, Lammina G; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Hut, Roelof A; Hoffmann, Ilse E; Millesi, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Aboveground activity started on average 3.9 h (SD 0.6 h, n = 37 days) after civil twilight at dawn and ended on average 3.2 h (SD 0.9 h, n = 37 days) before civil twilight at dusk. Between onset and offset of activity, 54% was spent aboveground, of which 73% was spent foraging. Activity patterns were influenced by photoperiod, rainfall, and by reproductive state. During mating, reproductively active males started activity earlier than females and reproductively inactive males. For females, time spent foraging was high during lactation. The midpoint of daily activity was at 12:16 h (SD 0.37 h, n = 37 days). Activity patterns of European ground squirrels thus appear robustly positioned in the middle of the photoperiod. PMID:15129824

  11. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Lopes; André Moreira; Vanessa Mitchell; Vitor Teixeira; Renata Barros; Hugo Valente; Mariana Bessa; Tânia Cordeiro; Patrícia Padrão; Susana Santos; Pedro Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant po...

  12. Pattern, Growth and Aging in a Colony of Clustering Active Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subir K.

    2016-01-01

    Via molecular dynamics simulations, we study the kinetics in a phase separating active matter model. Quantitative results for the isotropic bicontinuous pattern formation, its growth and aging, studied, respectively, via the two-point equal-time density-density correlation function, the average domain length and the two-time density autocorrelation function, are presented. Both the correlation functions exhibit basic scaling properties, implying self-similarity in the pattern dynamics, for wh...

  13. Adaptive integration of local region information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro- vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es- tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat- terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com- bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho- mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat- terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  14. Global feedback control of Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S.; Nakao, H.; Mikhailov, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Results of the first systematic study on feedback control of nonequilibrium pattern formation in networks are reported. Effects of global feedback control on Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor system have been investigated. The feedback signal was introduced into one of the parameters of the system and was proportional to the amplitude of the developing Turing pattern. Without the control, the Turing instability corresponded to a subcritical bifurcation and hysteresis effects were observed. Sufficiently strong feedback control rendered, however, the bifurcation supercritical and eliminated the hysteresis effects.

  15. Sensory Patterns, Obesity, and Physical Activity Participation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Lisa Mische; Foster, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a public health concern for the population in general and for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. The purpose of this study was to understand relationships between sensory patterns, obesity, and physical activity engagement of children with ASD (N = 77) sampled from a specialized community-based swimming program. This retrospective correlational study analyzed program data. Results show that almost half (42.2%) of the children were overweight or obese, and sensory avoiding behaviors were related to higher body mass index (BMI). Children participated in few formal and informal physically active recreation activities. Sensory seeking behaviors were associated with increased participation in informal activities, and higher BMI was associated with less participation in both formal and informal activities. Practitioners should consider sensory processing patterns and BMI when developing community-based programs to promote physical activity of children with ASD. PMID:27548863

  16. Mirrored patterns of lateralized neuronal activation reflect old and new memories in the avian auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Elizabeth M; Maeda, Rie K; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2016-08-25

    In monolingual humans, language-related brain activation shows a distinct lateralized pattern, in which the left hemisphere is often dominant. Studies are not as conclusive regarding the localization of the underlying neural substrate for language in sequential language learners. Lateralization of the neural substrate for first and second language depends on a number of factors including proficiency and early experience with each language. Similar to humans learning speech, songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor early in development. Here, we show mirrored patterns of lateralization in the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex (the caudomedial nidopallium [NCM]) in sequentially tutored zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata​) in response to their first tutor song, learned early in development, and their second tutor song, learned later in development. The greater the retention of song from their first tutor, the more right-dominant the birds were when exposed to that song; the more birds learned from their second tutor, the more left-dominant they were when exposed to that song. Thus, the avian auditory cortex may preserve lateralized neuronal traces of old and new tutor song memories, which are dependent on proficiency of song learning. There is striking resemblance in humans: early-formed language representations are maintained in the brain even if exposure to that language is discontinued. The switching of hemispheric dominance related to the acquisition of early auditory memories and subsequent encoding of more recent memories may be an evolutionary adaptation in vocal learners necessary for the behavioral flexibility to acquire novel vocalizations, such as a second language. PMID:27288718

  17. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical Report of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, is published any time as a prompt report as occasion requires. In this report, the title, names of reporters and summary of each of 53 researches which were carried out under the visiting research program in the first half of 1983 are given. The titles are, for example, a mechanism for the anodic oxidation of GaAs, gamma-gamma perturbed angular correlation study of relaxation phenomena, the studies on the genesis of volcanic rocks by partition of trace elements, neutron activation analysis of geochemical standard rock samples, studies on the changes of elements in the fur of rats with various disease, neutron activation analysis on glacier ice strata and glaciegla lake sediments in Nepal Himalayas, low temperature irradiation effects on bcc metals, organ and its subcellular distribution of manganese ion in animals, structure analysis of orthorhombic BaTiO3 by profile analysis method, regional distribution of Mn, Zn and Cu in human brain, neutron diffraction study of Mn-Ni alloy, structural change of KCoF3 in the vicinity of the critical region, activation analysis of trace elements in tumor tissues (thyroid) and so on. (Kako, I.)

  18. Unsupervised classification of neocortical activity patterns in neonatal and pre-juvenile rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eCichon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible communication within the brain, which relies on oscillatory activity, is not confined to adult neuronal networks. Experimental evidence has documented the presence of discontinuous patterns of oscillatory activity already during early development. Their highly variable spatial and time-frequency organization has been related to region specificity. However, it might be equally due to the absence of unitary criteria for classifying the early activity patterns, since they have been mainly characterized by visual inspection. Therefore, robust and unbiased methods for categorizing these discontinuous oscillations are needed for increasingly complex data sets from different labs. Here, we introduce an unsupervised detection and classification algorithm for the discontinuous activity patterns of rodents during early development. For this, firstly time windows with discontinuous oscillations vs. epochs of network silence were identified. In a second step, the major features of detected events were identified and processed by principal component analysis for deciding on their contribution to the classification of different oscillatory patterns. Finally, these patterns were categorized using an unsupervised cluster algorithm. The results were validated on manually characterized neonatal spindle bursts, which ubiquitously entrain neocortical areas of rats and mice, and prelimbic nested gamma spindle bursts. Moreover, the algorithm led to satisfactory results for oscillatory events that, due to increased similarity of their features, were more difficult to classify, e.g. during the pre-juvenile developmental period. Based on a linear classification, the optimal number of features to consider increased with the difficulty of detection. This algorithm allows the comparison of neonatal and pre-juvenile oscillatory patterns in their spatial and temporal organization. It might represent a first step for the unbiased elucidation of activity patterns

  19. Wet and Dry Tribological Behaviors of Circular Islandic Protrusion Patterns on M2 Steel Discs under Spinning Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hing-Yin MA; DONG Guangneng; LI Jian; MENG HUA; Chiu-Kam MOK

    2008-01-01

    Under spinning conditions, lubricant on islandic spot patterned M2 steel disc experiences centrifugal and tangential force components. Depending upon the relative position of the spots and the flow of lubricant, accumulation of lubricant in front of patterned islandic spots creates thrusting to mating part and subsequently reduces contact between the mating couple. Whilst wear debris is likely to be spun off the plateau of the spots to their neighbouring valleys so as to reduce wear.Hence, it gives favorable tribological characteristics. Aiming at verifying such mechanisms, studies were performed on M2 steel disc specimens slid with ASSAB 17 tool steel pin. The M2 steel disc specimens were respectively (I) machined with non-patterned (NP), (ii) etched to produce in-lined (INE) islandic patterns, and (iii) etched to produce staggered (STE) islandic spot patterns. Results indicated that the INE patterned discs gave most favorable wear characteristics, the NP of the worse characteristics whilst the STE ranged in the middle. However, the actual contact mechanism leads to the descending sequence of favorable friction behaviors nominally as: NP, INE and STE.

  20. Sleeping under the Ocean: Despite Total Isolation, Nuclear Submariners Maintain Their Sleep and Wake Patterns throughout Their Under Sea Mission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Trousselard

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of isolation, inadequate exposure to light and specific shift work on the subjective and objective measurements of sleep and alertness of submariners.A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with the polysomnography recorded twice during the mission.Setting: Shift and night work with prolonged (70 days social isolation from the real world (with no phone or Internet contact with families or friends during a routine mission aboard the "Téméraire" French Strategic Submarine with Ballistic Nuclear missiles (SSBN. Participants: 19 submariners working on a 24-hour shift for three days in a row schedule. Interventions: The participants attended two polysomnographic (PSG recordings of night sleep on Day 21 (D21 and Day 51 (D51 of the 70-day patrol; urine cortisol levels were also taken after sleep, and subjective assessments of sleep, sleepiness, mood and anxiety on D21 and D51. The light and temperature on board were also recorded.PSG analyses showed that sleep did not significantly vary in length (total sleep time or in quality between D21 and D51. The mariners reported the same subjective sleep, sleepiness, anxiety or mood (except for a slightly worse score for confusion on D51. Blood cortisol levels did not vary significantly.These results show that humans living in an isolated environment for more than two months with this specific shift schedule do not suffer from any significant effects on sleep, sleepiness and confusion between D21 and D51, when they follow an organized regular shift pattern with controlled light and temperature.

  1. Multivoxel Patterns Reveal Functionally Differentiated Networks Underlying Auditory Feedback Processing of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N.;

    2013-01-01

    human participants were vocalizing monosyllabic words, and to present the same auditory stimuli while participants were passively listening. Whole-brain analysis of neural-pattern similarity revealed three functional networks that were differentially sensitive to distorted auditory feedback during...... vocalization, compared with during passive listening. One network of regions appears to encode an “error signal” regardless of acoustic features of the error: this network, including right angular gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and bilateral cerebellum, yielded consistent neural patterns across...... presented as auditory concomitants of vocalization. A third network, showing a distinct functional pattern from the other two, appears to capture aspects of both neural response profiles. Together, our findings suggest that auditory feedback processing during speech motor control may rely on multiple...

  2. The association between technology type and diffusion pattern under duopolistic competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsou Ching-Shih

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many firms consider adopting new technologies as a means for enhancing competitive advantages. Therefore, the subject of technology diffusion has been studied by many researchers from different disciplines in order to explore the diffusion profiles throughout the industry or the country. The argument has frequently been made that the pattern of diffusion associated with most new technologies will typically have certain characteristics. In general, the diffusion pattern within an industry will depend on the competitive arena and technology characteristics. Based on a duopolistic game-theoretic model, this paper tries to explore the association between technology type and diffusion pattern. The results show that the cost-reducing technologies are adopted sequentially within a duopoly. On the other hard, strategic technologies diffuse over time or in a swarm. Although both technologies might be adopted sequentially, the rate for strategic technologies is faster than that for cost-reducing technologies. .

  3. Damage pattern and damage progression on breakwater roundheads under multidirectional waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comola, F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Martinelli, L.;

    2014-01-01

    characteristics. The damage progression is observed dependent on significant wave height and peak wave period, but not on the directional spreading and the spectral width of the incident waves. Combining the results of both damage pattern and damage progression, a stability formula for the distribution of damage......An experimental model test study is carried out to investigate damage pattern and progression on a rock armoured breakwater roundhead subjected to multidirectional waves. Concerning damage pattern, the most critical sector is observed to shift leeward with increasing wave period. Taking angles...... relative to mean wave direction, the critical sector is observed in the sector 10°–55° for short waves and in the sector 100°–145° for long waves. A probabilistic approach is developed to predict for one typical roundhead geometry the damage distribution depending on the incomingwaves and structural...

  4. Experimental study of segregation patterns in binary granular mixtures under vertical vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We report the experimental observations of the segregation patterns in initially well mixed copper and glass spheres subjected to a vertical sinusoidal vibration at different values of acceleration ? and frequency f. A segregation phase diagram is obtained, which includes Brazil nut (BN), Reversed-BN (RBN) and "sandwich" segregation patterns at different ? and f. The stable RBN segregation is experimentally found for the first time, in which large heavy particles move down to the bottom and form the lower-layer while small particles rise to the top and form an upper-layer. The boundary values (?, f), which separate regions of different patterns, depend on system's initial condition, i.e. hysteresis exists.

  5. Decoding pressure stimulation locations on the fingers from human neural activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsuk; Chung, Yoon Gi; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2016-11-01

    In this functional MRI study, we investigated how the human brain activity represents tactile location information evoked by pressure stimulation on fingers. Using the searchlight multivoxel pattern analysis, we looked for local activity patterns that could be decoded into one of four stimulated finger locations. The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the thalamus were found to contain distinct multivoxel patterns corresponding to individual stimulated locations. In contrast, the univariate general linear model analysis contrasting stimulation against resting phases for each finger identified activations mainly in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), but not in SMG or in thalamus. Our results indicate that S1 might be involved in the detection of the presence of pressure stimuli, whereas the SMG and the thalamus might play a role in identifying which finger is stimulated. This finding may provide additional evidence for hierarchical information processing in the human somatosensory areas. PMID:27631540

  6. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  7. Activity Patterns of Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Revealed by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle A.; Whisson, Desley A.; Holland, Greg J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting) and active (grooming, feeding and moving) behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA]) for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species. PMID:24224050

  8. Activity patterns of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus revealed by accelerometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Ryan

    Full Text Available An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting and active (grooming, feeding and moving behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA] for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species.

  9. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns. PMID:21516657

  10. Ramadan major nutrient patterns are associated with anthropometric measurements and physical activity in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Akhoundan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During Ramadan fasting quantity and quality of dietary intake may change. There was no data on nutrient patterns in Ramadan fasting. The purpose of this study was to identify Ramadan major nutrient patterns among those who fast in Tehran, Iran. 510 fasting people aged 18-65 years and BMI 18.5-40 Kg/m2 were recruited in our study by 2-stage cluster sampling method in June-July 2014. Data on the socio-demographic and physical activity level were collected by questionnaire. Usual diet during Ramadan was estimated by valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. Three nutrient patterns derived by conducting principal component factor analysis on 30 major nutrients. Micronutrient and fiber pattern which characterized by high intake of vitamin K, total fiber, iron, manganese, magnesium, β-carotene, folate, vitamin B12, potassium and calcium was adversely associated with weight (b=-0.16, P= 0.004. High protein pattern had great loadings on protein, riboflavin, phosphorous and zinc which physical activity level was decreased by tertiles of this pattern (b=0.13, P=0.02. High carbohydrate pattern which presented high positive loadings on carbohydrate and thiamin and negative loading on total fat, poly unsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids was positively associated with BMI (b= 0.12, P=0.03. Adherence to different Ramadan nutrient patterns is associated with weight, BMI and physical activity level. People on high in carbohydrate may have a higher BMI and low micronutrient density diet that should be considered in Ramadan fasting nutrition educational programs.

  11. Optimal-sampling Active Interference Cancellation under the Minimax Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In industry and academia, researchers have given more and more attention to Cognitive Radio (CR. The key idea of CR is to make it possible for a wireless system to find the vacant spectrum and transfer data without interfering with licensed users (LUs. Then, OFDM is proposed as a candidate signaling technology for such applications. However, the sidelobe interference of subcarriers has become a problem. In this letter, a method for sidelobe suppressing in OFDM systems is proposed and investigated. The proposed method is based on sampling in optimal locations with optimal weights in Active Interference Cancellation (AIC. By means of this technique, the maximum interference of the target spectrum is minimized. The proposed method can be used to minimize the maximum interference to licensed users in OFDM-based cognitive radio systems. Additionally, this method can be combined with other algorithms, such as Cancellation Carriers (CCs and Subcarrier Weighting (SW, to enhance their performance under the minimax criterion.

  12. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is published any time by summarizing in the form of an interim report the data required for research and experiment such as the results of the functional test on various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste management, and the report of study meetings in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, the conspicuous results obtained halfway in research, new techniques, discussion on other papers and reports and others. In this report, the gists of 71 papers on the research activities under visiting research program performed in the second half of 1984 are collected, and the subject number, the title of research reporters, and the summary of report for each research are given. (Kako, I.)

  13. Objective assessment of levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2013-01-01

    Background:To study in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effect of gender and body mass index on this activity.Methods:Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 years participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000......) wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-weekperiod. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data.A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time...... high body mass index tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.99....

  14. Exergy Analysis of Human Respiration Under Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Itizo Yanagihara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of the human body under physical activity. A model of the respiratory system and a model of the thermal system were used for this purpose. These models consider heat and mass transfers in lungs, tissues and blood. Each component of these models is represented by a uniform compartment governed by equations for diffusion, convection, O2 consumption, CO2/heat generation and heat and mass transfer with the environment. The models allow the calculation of the exergy destruction in the lung and tissues, and the contribution of each entropy generation mechanism in the total generation. Furthermore, a discussion is proposed regarding the efficiency of the human body under physical exercise.

  15. Impact of time-activity patterns on personal exposure to black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Dons, Evi; Int Panis, Luc; Van Poppel, Martine; Theunis, Jan; Willems, Hanny; Torfs, Rudi; Wets, Geert

    2011-01-01

    Time-activity patterns are an important determinant of personal exposure to air pollution. This is demonstrated by measuring personal exposure of 16 participants for 7 consecutive days: 8 couples of which one person was a full-time worker and the other was a homemaker; both had a very different time-activity pattern. We used portable aethalometers to measure black carbon levels with a high temporal resolution and a PDA with GPS-logger and electronic diary. The exposure to black carbon differs...

  16. Differences in activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Miquet, E. E.; Otero, I.; Rodríguez, D.; Darias, J. G.; Combarro, A. M.; Contreras, O. R.

    2013-02-01

    We outline the main differences in the activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle) patterns. The activity is detected in two sorts of culture mediums. The optical setup and the experimental procedure are presented. The experimentally obtained images are processed by the temporal difference method and a qualitative assessment is made with the time history of speckle patterns of the sample. The main differences are studied after changing the culture medium composition. We conclude that the EC medium is suitable to detect the E. coli bacterial presence in early hours and that Mueller Hinton agar delays some additional hours to make possible the assessment of bacteria in time.

  17. Tracking linguistic features underlying lexical variation patterns: A case study on Tuscan dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montemagni, Simonetta; Wieling, Martijn; Côté, Marie-Hélène; Knooihuizen, Remco; Nerbonne, John

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the application of hierarchical spectral partitioning of bipartite graphs in the study of lexical variation in Tuscany based on the data from a regional linguistic atlas. This method makes it possible not only to identify existing patterns of lexical variation in Tuscany

  18. Effects of Target Attributes on Children's Patterns of Referential Under- and Overspecification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Monique; Johnston, Judith R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of object attributes on children's descriptive patterns in a referential communication task. Thirty preschoolers described object pairs that were selected by the experimenter. The targets were defined by shared size or colour, and differed on the non-target dimension in half of the trials. The children also completed a…

  19. Spatial stabilization and intensification of moistening and drying rate patterns under future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Yann; Joussaume, Sylvie; Bony, Sandrine; Braconnot, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Precipitation projections are usually presented as the change in precipitation between a fixed current baseline and a particular time in the future. However, upcoming generations will be affected in a way probably more related to the moving trend in precipitation patterns, i.e. to the rate and the persistence of regional precipitation changes from one generation to the next, than to changes relative to a fixed current baseline. In this perspective, we propose an alternative characterization of the future precipitation changes predicted by general circulation models, focusing on the precipitation difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. We show that in a business-as-usual emission pathway, the moistening and drying rates increase by 30-40 %, both over land and ocean. As we move further over the twenty-first century, more regions exhibit a significant rate of precipitation change, while the patterns become geographically stationary and the trends persistent. The stabilization of the geographical rate patterns that occurs despite the acceleration of global warming can be physically explained: it results from the increasing contribution of thermodynamic processes compared to dynamic processes in the control of precipitation change. We show that such an evolution is already noticeable over the last decades, and that it could be reversed if strong mitigation policies were quickly implemented. The combination of intensification and increasing persistence of precipitation rate patterns may affect the way human societies and natural ecosystems adapt to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean basin, in Central America, in South Asia and in the Arctic.

  20. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  1. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses. PMID:26504353

  2. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activation Underlies the Perception of Emotions, While Precuneus Activation Underlies the Feeling of Emotions during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabei, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.

  3. Functional activity of human hepatocytes under traumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, M V; Stein, G I; Shashkov, B V; Kudryavtsev, B N

    1998-03-01

    Absorption and fluorescent cytophotometry techniques were applied to studies of RNA as well as of total glycogen and its fractions as the parameters of functional activity of the hepatocytes in patients with severe mechanical trauma, both with and without autointoxication (AI). Slides were stained with gallocyanine-chromalums to determine the RNA content and were processed by the fluorescent PAS-reaction for the glycogen content. To trace the dynamics of RNA and glycogen contents in the liver punction biopsies were done in the same patients. A quick increase in the RNA content took place in both groups of patients at the first period (within the first 3 days) of traumatic disease. At the second period of disease the hepatocyte RNA content in patients without AI was found to decrease up to the initial level whereas that in patients with AI increased on the average by 36% of the initial values. The total glycogen content in hepatocytes of all the patients changed insignificantly in the course of disease but its labile fraction in patients with AI decreased to 70% of the total. The increase of hepatocyte synthetic activity and the maintenance of the high glycogen level are indicative of the large compensatory potential of the liver that enables it to carry an intensive functional load under AI conditions. PMID:9570502

  4. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book carries a large number of summary studies made by using the Research Reactor (KUR) or the Critical Assembly (KUCA). These studies include low temperature irradiation effect on iron-alloy and ceramics, study on the influence of the neutron irradiation on the low temperature strength of various welded joint of dissimilar materials, effects of neutron irradiation on superconducting properties under stress in superconducting wires, neutron activation analysis and photo-emission phenomena from gamma-ray irradiated rock-forming minerals, study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors, distribution and mobility of ions of metal elements in stem, activation analysis of high purity metals, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of superionic conductor, neutron spectrometry with CR-39 track detector, geochemical study on trace element abundances in island arc igneous rocks, experiment for measurement of neutron flux distribution in a tight pitch-lattice with a dy-wir, reactor rate distribution measurement of tight pitch lattice core with internal blanket, measurement of the foil reaction rates in a critical core, and many more. (N.K.)

  5. Differences of fire activity and their underlying factors among vegetation formations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xystrakis F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate and weather play an important role in shaping fire activity patterns by controlling fuel productivity and fire spread, respectively. Additionally, climate is a key factor controlling primary productivity while different climate zones are expected to support different vegetation formations, that on their turn, include different fuel types. The use, therefore, of an underlying phytogeographical framework would provide more comprehensive outputs in exploring fire activity patterns at national scales, instead of using administrative units that could include various types of non-ecological divisions. Within this concept, we examined the recent fire activity of the main forest formations occurring in Greece and we explored their relationships with various weather parameters and indexes. Correlations of number of fires with weather variables, especially among the vegetation formations that summarize most of the human influence were lax, yet burned area showed significant correlations mainly with fire season precipitation totals. The precipitation related variables generally outperformed the temperature-related variables in correlating with both number of fires and burned area. Climatic indexes, which embody the combined effects of precipitation and air temperature, reflected improved correlations, but not to the extent that could allow for the promotion of their use in further modeling.

  6. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

  7. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  8. Experimental Evolution under Fluctuating Thermal Conditions Does Not Reproduce Patterns of Adaptive Clinal Differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Ary A; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Moghadam, Neda Nasiri; Loeschcke, Volker

    2015-11-01

    Experimental evolution can be a useful tool for testing the impact of environmental factors on adaptive changes in populations, and this approach is being increasingly used to understand the potential for evolutionary responses in populations under changing climates. However, selective factors will often be more complex in natural populations than in laboratory environments and produce different patterns of adaptive differentiation. Here we test the ability of laboratory experimental evolution under different temperature cycles to reproduce well-known patterns of clinal variation in Drosophila melanogaster. Six fluctuating thermal regimes mimicking the natural temperature conditions along the east coast of Australia were initiated. Contrary to expectations, on the basis of field patterns there was no evidence for adaptation to thermal regimes as reflected by changes in cold and heat resistance after 1-3 years of laboratory natural selection. While laboratory evolution led to changes in starvation resistance, development time, and body size, patterns were not consistent with those seen in natural populations. These findings highlight the complexity of factors affecting trait evolution in natural populations and indicate that caution is required when inferring likely evolutionary responses from the outcome of experimental evolution studies. PMID:26655772

  9. ENSO Teleconnection Pattern Changes over the Southeastern United States under a Climate Change Scenario in CMIP5 Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong teleconnection exists between the sea surface temperature (SST over the tropical Pacific and the winter precipitation in the southeastern United States (SE US. This feature is adopted to validate the fidelity of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 in this study. In addition, the authors examine whether the teleconnection pattern persists in the future under a global warming scenario. Generally, most of the eight selected models show a positive correlation between November SST over Niño 3 region and December–February (DJF mean daily precipitation anomalies over the SE US, consistent with the observation. However, the models with poor realization of skewness of Niño indices fail to simulate the realistic teleconnection pattern in the historical simulation. In the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5 run, all of the models maintain positive and slightly increased correlation patterns. It is noteworthy that the region with strong teleconnection pattern shifts northward in the future. Increased variance of winter precipitation due to the SST teleconnection is shown over Alabama and Georgia rather than over Florida under the RCP8.5 scenario in most of the models, differing from the historical run in which the precipitation in Florida is the most attributable to the eastern Pacific SST.

  10. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation patterns, HDBR and diuretic treatment produced different effects on the cortical responses, with HDBR affecting anterior cingulate cortex and right insula regions, whereas diuretic treatment affected primarily the right insula alone, but in a direction that was opposite to HDBR. The data indicate that physical deconditioning can induce rapid functional changes within the cortical circuitry associated with baroreflex unloading, changes

  11. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises the tempora......The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises...... to a fully realised example of information seeking activity. The core contribution of the proposed method is in supporting the analysis of activity with respect to both macro and micro level temporal interactions between variables....

  12. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  13. Detecting stable phase structures in EEG signals to classify brain activity amplitude patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusely RUIZ; Guang LI; Walter J. FREEMAN; Eduardo GONZALEZ

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining an electrocorticograms (ECoG) signal requires an invasive procedure in which brain activity is recorded from the cortical surface. In contrast, obtaining electroencephalograms (EEG) recordings requires the non-invasive procedure of recording the brain activity from the scalp surface, which allows EEG recordings to be performed more easily on healthy humans. In this work, a technique previously used to study spatial-temporal patterns of brain activity on animal ECoG was adapted for use on EEG. The main issues are centered on solving the problems introduced by the increment on the interelectrode distance and the procedure to detect stable frames. The results showed that spatial patterns of beta and gamma activity can also be extracted from the EEG signal by using stable frames as time markers for feature extraction. This adapted technique makes it possible to take advantage of the cognitive and phenomenological awareness of a normal healthy subject.

  14. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garreth Prendergast

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  15. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.

  16. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs. PMID:27026634

  17. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Corder, Kirsten; Esther M F van Sluijs; Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J.; Stephen, Allison M.; Bamber, Diane J.; Dunn, Valerie J; Ian M Goodyer; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. DESIGN: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations b...

  18. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in adolescents: daily associations and hourly patterns 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Ridgway, Charlotte L.; Steele, Rebekah M; Prynne, Celia J.; Stephen, Alison M.; Bamber, Diane J.; Dunn, Valerie J; Ian M Goodyer; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between breakfast consumption and physical activity (PA) is inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to investigate daily associations and hourly patterns of PA and breakfast consumption in British adolescents. Design: Daily PA [accelerometry-derived moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and breakfast consumption (diet diary) were measured simultaneously over 4 d in 860 adolescents (boys: 43.4%; mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 0.5 y). Associations between MVPA and breakfa...

  19. Diurnal-activity Patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) in Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p

  20. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  1. Seasonal activity patterns and diet divergence of three sympatric Afrotropical tortoise species (genus Kinixys)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiselli, Luca

    2003-01-01

    Three species of hinge-back tortoises ( (Kinixys belliana nogueyi, Kinixys erosa, Kinixys homeana) are found in simpatry in the rainforests of the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria (west Africa). The seasonal activity patterns and food habits of these tortoises are studied in the present paper. K. erosa

  2. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Cortical Activation Patterns: Can Training Change Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments the neuronal mechanisms of sex differences in mental rotation were investigated. In Experiment 1 cortical activation was studied in women and men with similar levels of mental rotation ability (high, and average to low), who were equalized with respect to general intelligence. Sex difference in neuroelectric patterns of brain…

  3. Advance cueing produces enhanced action-boundary patterns of spike activity in the sensorimotor striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Terra D; Mao, Jian-Bin; Hu, Dan; Kubota, Yasuo; Dreyer, Anna A; Stamoulis, Catherine; Brown, Emery N; Graybiel, Ann M

    2011-04-01

    One of the most characteristic features of habitual behaviors is that they can be evoked by a single cue. In the experiments reported here, we tested for the effects of such advance cueing on the firing patterns of striatal neurons in the sensorimotor striatum. Rats ran in a T-maze with instruction cues about the location of reward given at the start of the runs. This advance cueing about reward produced a highly augmented task-bracketing pattern of activity at the beginning and end of procedural task performance relative to the patterns found previously with midtask cueing. Remarkably, the largest increase in activity early during the T-maze runs was not associated with the instruction cues themselves, the earliest predictors of reward; instead, the highest peak of early activity was associated with the beginning of the motor period of the task. We suggest that the advance cueing, reducing midrun demands for decision making but adding a working-memory load, facilitated chunking of the maze runs as executable scripts anchored to sensorimotor aspects of the task and unencumbered by midtask decision-making demands. Our findings suggest that the acquisition of stronger task-bracketing patterns of striatal activity in the sensorimotor striatum could reflect this enhancement of behavioral chunking. Deficits in such representations of learned sequential behaviors could contribute to motor and cognitive problems in a range of neurological disorders affecting the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease. PMID:21307317

  4. Centrally patterned rhythmic activity integrated by a peripheral circuit linking multiple oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellies, John; Kueh, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The central pattern generator for heartbeat in the medicinal leech, Hirudo generates rhythmic activity conveyed by heart excitor motor neurons in segments 3-18 to coordinate the bilateral tubular hearts and side vessels. We focus on behavior and the influence of previously un-described peripheral nerve circuitry. Extracellular recordings from the valve junction (VJ) where afferent vessels join the heart tube were combined with optical recording of contractions. Action potential bursts at VJs occurred in advance of heart tube and afferent vessel contractions. Transections of nerves were performed to reduce the output of the central pattern generator reaching the heart tube. Muscle contractions persisted but with a less regular rhythm despite normal central pattern generator rhythmicity. With no connections between the central pattern generator and heart tube, a much slower rhythm became manifest. Heart excitor neuron recordings showed that peripheral activity might contribute to the disruption of centrally entrained contractions. In the model presented, peripheral activity would normally modify the activity actually reaching the muscle. We also propose that the fundamental efferent unit is not a single heart excitor neuron, but rather is a functionally defined unit of about three adjacent motor neurons and the peripheral assembly of coupled peripheral oscillators.

  5. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  6. Active shape control of composite structures under thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, P.; Dano, M.-L.; Gendron, G.

    2009-02-01

    Maintaining the shape of high-precision structures such as space antennas and optical mirrors is still a challenging issue for designers. These structures are subjected to varying temperature conditions which often introduce thermal distortions. The development of smart materials offers great potential to correct the shape and to minimize the surface error. In this study, shape control of a composite structure under thermal loading using piezocomposites is investigated. The composite structure is made of a foam core and two carbon-epoxy face sheets. Macro-fiber composite (MFC™) patches are bonded on one side of the structure. The structure is subjected to a through-the-thickness temperature gradient which induces thermal distortion, essentially in the form of bending. The objective is to apply electric potential to the MFC™ actuators such that the deflection can be minimized. Finite-element analyses are conducted using the commercial software ABAQUS. Experiments are performed to study thermally induced distortion, piezoelectric actuation, and compensation of thermal distortion using MFC™ actuators. Numerical and experimental results are compared. A control loop based on strain measurements is used to actively control the structure. The results show that MFC™ actuators can compensate thermal distortion at all times, and that this is an efficient methodology.

  7. [Study on dewatering of activated sludge under applied electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Li; Feng, Jing

    2012-12-01

    For an electro-dewatering process of activated sludge (AS), the effect of pH and conductivity of AS, flocculation conditioning and operation factors of horizontal electric field (voltage magnitude, method of applying electric field and distance between plates) were investigated, and the corresponding optimum electro-dewatering conditions were also obtained. The results showed that the best electro-dewatering effect was achieved for AS without change of its pH value (6.93) and conductivity (1.46 mS x cm(-1)). CPAM conditioning could lead to the increase of 30%-40% in the dewatering rate and accelerate the dewatering process, whereas a slight increase in the electro-dewatering rate. The electro-dewatering rate for conditioned AS reached 83.12% during an electric field applied period of 60 minutes, while this rate for original AS could be 75.31% even the electric field applied period extended to 120 minutes. The delay of applying the electric field had an inhibition effect on the AS electro-dewatering rate. Moreover, the optimum conditions for AS electro-dewatering were followed: CPAM dose of 9 g x kg(-1), electric field strength of 600 V x m(-1), distance between the two plates of 40 mm, dehydration time of 60 minutes. Under above optimum conditions the AS electro-dewatering rate could approach to 85.33% and the moisture content in AS decreased from 99.30% to 95.15% accordingly.

  8. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  9. Active shape control of composite structures under thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintaining the shape of high-precision structures such as space antennas and optical mirrors is still a challenging issue for designers. These structures are subjected to varying temperature conditions which often introduce thermal distortions. The development of smart materials offers great potential to correct the shape and to minimize the surface error. In this study, shape control of a composite structure under thermal loading using piezocomposites is investigated. The composite structure is made of a foam core and two carbon–epoxy face sheets. Macro-fiber composite (MFC(TM)) patches are bonded on one side of the structure. The structure is subjected to a through-the-thickness temperature gradient which induces thermal distortion, essentially in the form of bending. The objective is to apply electric potential to the MFC(TM) actuators such that the deflection can be minimized. Finite-element analyses are conducted using the commercial software ABAQUS. Experiments are performed to study thermally induced distortion, piezoelectric actuation, and compensation of thermal distortion using MFC(TM) actuators. Numerical and experimental results are compared. A control loop based on strain measurements is used to actively control the structure. The results show that MFC(TM) actuators can compensate thermal distortion at all times, and that this is an efficient methodology

  10. Flow patterns in a slurry-bubble-column reactor under reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toselane, B.A.; Brown, D.M.; Zou, B.S.; Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The gas and liquid radioactive tracer response curves obtained in an industrial bubble column reactor of height to diameter ratio of 10 are analyzed and the suitability of the axial dispersion model for interpretation of the results is discussed. The relationship between the tracer concentration distribution and measured detector response of the soluble gas tracer (Ar-41) is possibly dominated by the dissolved gas. The one dimensional axial dispersion model cannot match all the experimental observations well and the flow pattern of the undissolved gas cannot be determined with certainty.

  11. Stochastically gating ion channels enable patterned spike firing through activity-dependent modulation of spike probability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Dudman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of synaptic input into patterns of spike output is a fundamental operation that is determined by the particular complement of ion channels that a neuron expresses. Although it is well established that individual ion channel proteins make stochastic transitions between conducting and non-conducting states, most models of synaptic integration are deterministic, and relatively little is known about the functional consequences of interactions between stochastically gating ion channels. Here, we show that a model of stellate neurons from layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex implemented with either stochastic or deterministically gating ion channels can reproduce the resting membrane properties of stellate neurons, but only the stochastic version of the model can fully account for perithreshold membrane potential fluctuations and clustered patterns of spike output that are recorded from stellate neurons during depolarized states. We demonstrate that the stochastic model implements an example of a general mechanism for patterning of neuronal output through activity-dependent changes in the probability of spike firing. Unlike deterministic mechanisms that generate spike patterns through slow changes in the state of model parameters, this general stochastic mechanism does not require retention of information beyond the duration of a single spike and its associated afterhyperpolarization. Instead, clustered patterns of spikes emerge in the stochastic model of stellate neurons as a result of a transient increase in firing probability driven by activation of HCN channels during recovery from the spike afterhyperpolarization. Using this model, we infer conditions in which stochastic ion channel gating may influence firing patterns in vivo and predict consequences of modifications of HCN channel function for in vivo firing patterns.

  12. Effect of handedness on brain activity patterns and effective connectivity network during the semantic task of Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Wang, Junping; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing efforts have been denoted to elucidating the effective connectivity (EC) among brain regions recruited by certain language task; however, it remains unclear the impact of handedness on the EC network underlying language processing. In particularly, this has not been investigated in Chinese language, which shows several differences from alphabetic language. This study thereby explored the functional activity patterns and the EC network during a Chinese semantic task based on functional MRI data of healthy left handers (LH) and right handers (RH). We found that RH presented a left lateralized activity pattern in cerebral cortex and a right lateralized pattern in cerebellum; while LH were less lateralized than RH in both cerebral and cerebellar areas. The conditional Granger causality method in deconvolved BOLD level further demonstrated more interhemispheric directional connections in LH than RH group, suggesting better bihemispheric coordination and increased interhemispheric communication in LH. Furthermore, we found significantly increased EC from right middle occipital gyrus to bilateral insula (INS) while decreased EC from left INS to left precentral gyrus in LH group comparing to RH group, implying that handedness may differentiate the causal relationship of information processing in integration of visual-spatial analysis and semantic word retrieval of Chinese characters. PMID:26666706

  13. Activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala underlies individual differences in prosocial and individualistic economic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kimura, Minoru; Frith, Christopher D

    2014-08-01

    Much decision-making requires balancing benefits to the self with benefits to the group. There are marked individual differences in this balance such that individualists tend to favor themselves whereas prosocials tend to favor the group. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this difference has important implications for society and its institutions. Using behavioral and fMRI data collected during the performance of the ultimatum game, we show that individual differences in social preferences for resource allocation, so-called "social value orientation," is linked with activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala elicited by inequity, rather than activity in insula, ACC, and dorsolateral pFC. Importantly, the presence of cognitive load made prosocials behave more prosocially and individualists more individualistically, suggesting that social value orientation is driven more by intuition than reflection. In parallel, activity in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in response to inequity, tracked this behavioral pattern of prosocials and individualists. In addition, we conducted an impunity game experiment with different participants where they could not punish unfair behavior and found that the inequity-correlated activity seen in prosocials during the ultimatum game disappeared. This result suggests that the accumbens and amygdala activity of prosocials encodes "outcome-oriented emotion" designed to change situations (i.e., achieve equity or punish). Together, our results suggest a pivotal contribution of the nucleus accumbens and amygdala to individual differences in sociality. PMID:24564471

  14. Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eNashiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.

  15. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  16. Nanoscale pattern formation at surfaces under ion-beam sputtering: A perspective from continuum models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerno, Rodolfo, E-mail: cuerno@math.uc3m.e [Departamento de Matematicas and Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Castro, Mario [GISC and Grupo de Dinamica No Lineal (DNL), Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria (ICAI), Universidad Pontificia Comillas, E-28015 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Garcia, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland and GISC, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gago, Raul; Vazquez, Luis [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-01

    Although reports on surface nanostructuring of solid targets by low to medium energy ion irradiation date back to the 1960s, only with the advent of high resolution tools for surface/interface characterization has the high potential of this procedure been recognized as a method for efficient production of surface patterns. Such morphologies are made up of periodic arrangements of nanometric sized features, like ripples and dots, with interest for technological applications due to their electronic, magnetic, and optical properties. Thus, roughly for the last ten years large efforts have been directed towards harnessing this nanofabrication technique. However, and particularly in view of recent experimental developments, we can say that the basic mechanisms controlling these pattern formation processes remain poorly understood. The lack of nanostructuring at low angles of incidence on some pure monoelemental targets, the role of impurities in the surface dynamics and other recent observations are challenging the classic view on the phenomenon as the mere interplay between the curvature dependence of the sputtering yield and surface diffusion. We review the main attempts at a theoretical (continuum) description of these systems, with emphasis on recent developments. Strong hints already exist that the nature of the morphological instability has to be rethought as originating in the material flow that is induced by the ion beam.

  17. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Cesar;

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern....... The current study investigated whether the overall spontaneous FM pain pattern can be reproduced by local and referred pain from active MTPs located in different muscles....

  18. Pattern of CsICE1 expression under cold or drought treatment and functional verification through analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z T; Li, C; Shi, H; Wang, H; Wang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CsICE1 is thought to be involved in hardiness resistance of tea plants. Using seedling cuttings of biennial Wuniuzao in this study, the pattern of CsICE1 expression under cold temperature (4°, -5°C), drought [20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000)], and plant hormone [200 mg/L abscisic acid (ABA), 1 mg/L brassinolide (BR)] treatment was studied by real-time quantitative PCR. Additionally, stress resistance, such as the freezing resistance of CsICE1, was studied using Arabidopsis lines transformed with sense or anti-sense CsICE1 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Our results showed that CsICE1 mRNA could be induced under -5°C, PEG, ABA, or BR treatment, although the pattern of expression differed for all treatments. Compared to wild type (WT) and anti-sense ICE1 transgenic lines, sense lines displayed higher relative germination rates under salt and drought stress. After freezing treatment, the sense transgenic lines over-expressing CsICE1 showed a higher survival rate, increased levels of proline, and decreased levels of malonaldehyde. Conversely, compared with WT, anti-sense ICE1 transgenic lines had lower proline levels and higher malonaldehyde levels under freezing conditions. Our study indicates that CsICE1 is an important anti-freezing gene and that over-expression of CsICE1 can improve cold resistance and enhance salt and drought tolerance of transgenic lines. PMID:26400357

  19. Angiogenesis interactome and time course microarray data reveal the distinct activation patterns in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Hui Chu

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis involves stimulation of endothelial cells (EC by various cytokines and growth factors, but the signaling mechanisms are not completely understood. Combining dynamic gene expression time-course data for stimulated EC with protein-protein interactions associated with angiogenesis (the "angiome" could reveal how different stimuli result in different patterns of network activation and could implicate signaling intermediates as points for control or intervention. We constructed the protein-protein interaction networks of positive and negative regulation of angiogenesis comprising 367 and 245 proteins, respectively. We used five published gene expression datasets derived from in vitro assays using different types of blood endothelial cells stimulated by VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A. We used the Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM to identify significant temporal gene expression profiles. The statistically significant patterns between 2D fibronectin and 3D type I collagen substrates for telomerase-immortalized EC (TIME show that different substrates could influence the temporal gene activation patterns in the same cell line. We investigated the different activation patterns among 18 transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors, and experimentally measured the protein level of the tyrosine-kinase receptors VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 in human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC and human microvascular EC (MEC. The results show that VEGFR1-VEGFR2 levels are more closely coupled than VEGFR1-VEGFR3 or VEGFR2-VEGFR3 in HUVEC and MEC. This computational methodology can be extended to investigate other molecules or biological processes such as cell cycle.

  20. Individuality of breathing patterns in patients under noninvasive mechanical ventilation evidenced by chaotic global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Christophe; Rodrigues, Giovani G.; Muir, Jean-François; Aguirre, Luis A.

    2013-03-01

    Autonomous global models based on radial basis functions were obtained from data measured from patients under noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Some of these models, which are discussed in the paper, turn out to have chaotic or quasi-periodic solutions, thus providing a first piece of evidence that the underlying dynamics of the data used to estimate the global models are likely to be chaotic or, at least, have a chaotic component. It is explicitly shown that one of such global models produces attractors characterized by a Horseshoe map, two models produce toroidal chaos, and one model produces a quasi-periodic regime. These topologically inequivalent attractors evidence the individuality of breathing profiles observed in patient under noninvasive ventilation.

  1. Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    -dimension periodic stripes increases transmittance through the device and keeps the modulator's performance at the same level. The dependence on the pattern size and filling factor of the active material is analyzed and optimum parameters are found. Patterned ITO layers allow us to design a Bragg grating inside the...... waveguide. The grating can be turned on and off, thus modulating reflection from the structure. The considered structure with electrical control possesses a high performance and can efficiently work as a plasmonic component in nanophotonic architectures....

  2. Advance cueing produces enhanced action-boundary patterns of spike activity in the sensorimotor striatum

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Terra D.; Mao, Jian-Bin; Hu, Dan; Kubota, Yasuo; Dreyer, Anna A.; Stamoulis, Catherine; Emery N. Brown; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most characteristic features of habitual behaviors is that they can be evoked by a single cue. In the experiments reported here, we tested for the effects of such advance cueing on the firing patterns of striatal neurons in the sensorimotor striatum. Rats ran in a T-maze with instruction cues about the location of reward given at the start of the runs. This advance cueing about reward produced a highly augmented task-bracketing pattern of activity at the beginning and end of proced...

  3. Thermal ecology and activity pattern lizard tropidurus hispidus (sauria: tropiduridae) in the east of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied aspects of thermal ecology and activity patterns in the lizard Tropidurus hispidus in a forest tropophic of Sucre state, Venezuela between June 2007 and May 2008. The body temperature was 35.68±1.4 Celsius degrades from 32.6 to 37.80 Celsius degrade. Female's body temperature (Tb) in drought and rainfall was 34-38 Celsius degrades and 32-38 Celsius degrades, respectively. In males the range of body temperature (Tb) in drought was 35-37 Celsius degrades and 34-35 Celsius degrades, in rain. No relation was found between the air temperature (Ta) and substrate temperature (Ts). Thermoregulatory trend, indicate active thermoregulation in drought and rain. Dividing the activity into three time segments: morning, afternoon and evening and the pattern of activity was bimodal in drought and unimodal in rain. To relate the pattern of activity with environmental variables (air and substrate) using the Pearson correlation in drought was a negative correlation with air temperature (-0.780) and with the substrate (-0.65). Rain was not associated with the air temperature (-0.056) or the substrate (-0.040). The thermal niche breadth was calculated using the Levins index, we did not find significant differences between males and females in both periods and thermal niche overlap between sexes, obtained by the Pianka index was 0.81 in rain and 0.90 in drought.

  4. Effect of cadence regulation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q; Jamwal, Prashant K

    2013-03-01

    Cadence or stride frequency is an important parameter being controlled in gait training of neurologically impaired subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cadence variation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted unimpaired gait using dynamic simulations. A twodimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed considering eight major muscle groups along with existing ground contact force (GCF) model. A 2-D model of a robotic orthosis was also developed which provides actuation to the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane to guide subjects limbs on reference trajectories. A custom inverse dynamics algorithm was used along with a quadratic minimization algorithm to obtain a feasible set of muscle activation patterns. Predicted patterns of muscle activations during slow, natural and fast cadence were compared and the mean muscle activations were found to be increasing with an increase in cadence. The proposed dynamic simulation provide important insight into the muscle activation variations with change in cadence during robot assisted gait and provide the basis for investigating the influence of cadence regulation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robot assisted gait.

  5. What does recovery from anomia tell us about the underlying impairment: the case of similar anomic patterns and different recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganaro, Marina; Di Pietro, Marie; Schnider, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Although word-finding difficulties have been largely studied from a theoretical and a rehabilitation point of view, recovery mechanisms and especially the fact that patients with similar anomic patterns may exhibit different recovery, are still not fully understood. In the first part of the present study we investigated the word retrieval curve during therapy and the psycholinguistic variables affecting word-finding recovery patterns in three anomic subjects (PG, AH and TM). Despite the fact that all patients had similar anomia at baseline, they presented different recovery patterns during an identical therapy program. The progress during therapy and the number of sessions necessary to reach satisfactory improvement was similar in two patients (AH and TM), but differed in the third patient (PG), who needed more treatment sessions. Moreover, these two different patterns were affected by different psycholinguistic variables: words age of acquisition predicted improvement in AH and TM, whereas phonological neighbourhood predicted improvement in PG. Following the observation that phonological neighbourhood density affected the slower progress during therapy, in the second study we analysed whether this variable also predicts pseudo-word learning in healthy controls and in anomic subjects. Indeed, phonological neighbourhood predicted pseudo-word learning speed in controls and in some anomic patients. We suggest that the analysis of progress during therapy for anomia and the comparison of the variables affecting learning and recovery may provide information about the underlying nature of the anomic deficit that is not available through the simple assessment of performance.

  6. Deformation Pattern of Non-cohesive Soil Bases under Foundations with Different Vertical Cross-sectional Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Alhassan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of vertical deformations of soil bases, under shallow foundation modelsof different vertical cross-sectional shapes were experimentally studied on three different modeled non-cohesive subsoilconditions. Foundations models with rectangular, wedge and T shape vertical cross-sections were studied. Result of the study showed that, under the action of vertical load, bulk of the vertical deformation of subsoil bases at the instance of foundations with rectangular vertical cross-sectional shapes, is mostly associated with the soil beneath the foundation, while at the instances of those with wedge and T vertical crosssectional shapes, deformation of the soil occurs both under the foundations’ bases and along their vertical stems. This indicates that, although less loads were generally resisted by the wedge and T shape foundations, using then can help in mobilizing substantial mass of soil above the foundation bases, to function not only as surcharge to the soil below the base, but also in resisting structural loads.

  7. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  8. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  9. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  10. Patterns of cortical microtubules formed in epidermis of Beta vulgaris L. roots under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, G. V.

    1999-01-01

    Changes of cortical microtubules (MTs) from the normal transverse arrangement were observed in epidermal cells of Beta vulgaris roots under clinorotation. We hypothesize that the epidermis is sensitive to clinorotation and that the microtubular cytoskeleton plays a key role in the ensuing growth response.

  11. Effects of target attributes on children's patterns of referential under- and over-specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Monique; Johnston, Judith R

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of object attributes on children's descriptive patterns in a referential communication task. Thirty preschoolers described object pairs that were selected by the experimenter. The targets were defined by shared size or colour, and differed on the non-target dimension in half of the trials. The children also completed a non-verbal reasoning task with analogous stimuli. They selected objects after observing the experimenter make a choice and inferring the basis for selection. In the communication task, the children produced fewer size than colour descriptions, particularly when the size targets differed in colour. They also over-specified colour features more often than size. They did not show a similar challenge identifying size relationships in the non-verbal task. The results support the conclusion that target attributes have a systematic influence on children's referential performance. Potential mechanisms for these effects, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26174311

  12. A case-control study of physical activity patterns and risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactive effects of different types of physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk have not been fully considered in previous studies. We aimed to identify physical activity patterns that take into account combinations of physical activities and examine the association between derived physical activity patterns and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods We examined the relationship between physical activity patterns, identified by principal component analysis (PCA, and AMI risk in a case-control study of myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (N=4172, 1994-2004. The component scores derived from PCA and total METS were used in natural cubic spline models to assess the association between physical activity and AMI risk. Results Four physical activity patterns were retained from PCA that were characterized as the rest/sleep, agricultural job, light indoor activity, and manual labor job patterns. The light indoor activity and rest/sleep patterns showed an inverse linear relation (P for linearity=0.001 and a U-shaped association (P for non-linearity=0.03 with AMI risk, respectively. There was an inverse association between total activity-related energy expenditure and AMI risk but it reached a plateau at high levels of physical activity (P for non-linearity=0.01. Conclusions These data suggest that a light indoor activity pattern is associated with reduced AMI risk. PCA provides a new approach to investigate the relationship between physical activity and CVD risk.

  13. Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-03-12

    Functional neuroimaging data have shown that mental calculation involves fronto-parietal areas that are composed of different subsystems shared with other cognitive functions such as working memory and language. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis has also indicated sequential information changes during the calculation process. However, little is known about the dynamic properties of oscillatory networks in this process. In the present study, we applied both ERP and event-related (de-)synchronization (ERS/ERD) analyses to EEG data recorded from normal human subjects performing tasks for sequential visual/auditory mental addition. Results in the study indicate that the late positive components (LPCs) can be decomposed into two separate parts. The earlier element LPC1 (around 360ms) reflects the computing attribute and is more prominent in calculation tasks. The later element LPC2 (around 590ms) indicates an effect of number size and appears larger only in a more complex 2-digit addition task. The theta ERS and alpha ERD show modality-independent frontal and parietal differential patterns between the mental addition and control groups, and discrepancies are noted in the beta ERD between the 2-digit and 1-digit mental addition groups. The 2-digit addition (both visual and auditory) results in similar beta ERD patterns to the auditory control, which may indicate a reliance on auditory-related resources in mental arithmetic, especially with increasing task difficulty. These results coincide with the theory of simple calculation relying on the visuospatial process and complex calculation depending on the phonological process. PMID:20105450

  14. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with questionnai

  15. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  16. Simultaneous modelling of multi-purpose/multi-stop activity patterns and quantities consumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, John R.; Smith, Nariida C.; Xu, Blake

    Whereas for commuting travel there is a one-to-one correspondence between commuters and jobs, and for commodity flows a one-to-one correspondence between the size of orders and the shipping cost of the commodities, the situation is much more complex for retail/service travel. A typical shopper may make a single trip or multi-stop tour to buy/consume a quite diverse set of commodities/services at different locations in quite variable quantities. At the same time, the general pattern of the tour is clearly dependent on the activities and goods available at potential stops. These interdependencies have been alluded to in the literature, especially by spatial economists. However, until some preliminary work by the first author, there has been no attempt to formally include these interdependencies in a general model. This paper presents a framework for achieving this goal by developing an evolutionary set of models starting from the simplest forms available. From the above, it is clear that such interdependency models will inevitably have high dimensionality and combinatorial complexity. This rules out a simultaneous treatment of all the events using an individual choice approach. If an individual choice approach is to be applied in a tractable manner, the set of interdependent events needs to be segmented into several subsets, with simultaneity recognised within each subset, but a mere sequential progression occurring between subsets. In this paper, full event interdependencies are retained at the expense of modelling market segments of consumers rather than a sample of representative individuals. We couple the travel and consumption events in the only feasible way, by modelling the tours as discrete entities, in conjunction with the amount of each commodity consumed per stop on each such tour in terms of the continuous quantities of microeconomics. This is performed both under a budget/income constraint from microeconomics and a time budget constraint from time

  17. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.

  18. The use of dendrograms to describe the electrical activity of motoneurons underlying behaviors in leeches

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez-Hernández, León J.; Bisson, Giacomo; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The present manuscript aims at identifying patterns of electrical activity recorded from neurons of the leech nervous system, characterizing specific behaviors. When leeches are at rest, the electrical activity of neurons and motoneurons is poorly correlated. When leeches move their head and/or tail, in contrast, action potential (AP) firing becomes highly correlated. When the head or tail suckers detach, specific patterns of electrical activity are detected. During elongation and contraction...

  19. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS: IDENTIFYING BUYING MOTIVES FOR COOL DRINKS AMONGST SOUTH AFRICANS UNDER 35 YEARS OLD

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Edu; Iliuță Costel Negricea; Alexandru Ionescu

    2013-01-01

    The consumer is in the centre of any marketing endeavour. Finding out what the consumers (individual or organization) need, desire and demand is the starting point of a marketing approach.Our research is focused on determining consumer behaviour coordinates pertaining to cool drinks amongst South Africans under the age of 35. The findings of this study provide significant information concerning the buying motives considered when purchasing cool drinks which can be extended to other categories...

  20. How Predation Risk Shapes Avian Nest Site Selection and Processes Underlying Nest Predation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Quresh Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Given the importance of nest predation to avian fitness, ornithologists expect birds to select nest sites that minimize predation risk. Despite numerous studies contributing to a large body of literature, how predation shapes avian nest site selection is not well understood largely because studies rarely examine the processes underlying either nest site selection or predation risk. I investigated how predation shapes nest site selection for a population of Yellow Warblers with an eye for the ...

  1. Distribution patterns of typical enzyme activities in tundra soils on the Fildes Peninsula of maritime Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; WANG Qing; ZHU Renbin; MA Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities can be used as indicators of microbial activity and soil fertility. In this paper, the activities of invertase (IA), phosphatase (PA) and urease (UA) were investigated in tundra soils collected from marine animal colonies, areas of human activity and background areas on Fildes Peninsula, maritime Antarctica. Soil enzyme activities were in the range of 1.0–82.7 mg·kg-1·h-1 for IA, 0.2–8.2 mg·kg-1·h-1 for PA and 0.2–39.8 mg·kg-1·h-1 for UA. The spatial distribution patterns for soil enzyme activities corresponded strongly with marine animal activity and human activity. Significantly higher soil IA and PA activities occurred in penguin colony soils, whereas seal colony soils showed higher UA activity. Statistical analysis indicated that soil IA activity was controlled by the levels of soil nutrients (TOC, TN and TP), PA activity was closely related with TP, and UA activity was affected by the soil pH. Overall, the deposition amount of penguin guano or seal excreta could impact the distribution of enzyme activity in Antarctic tundra soils. Multiple stepwise regression models were established between the enzyme activities, soil physicochemical properties and heavy metals Cu and Zn ([IA]=0.7[TP]–0.2[Cu]+22.3[TN]+15.1, [PA]=0.3[TP]+0.03[Mc]+0.2, [UA]=16.7[pH]–0.5[Cu]+ 0.4[Zn]–72.6). These models could be used to predict enzyme activities in the tundra soils, which could be helpful to study the effects of marine animal activity and environmental change on tundra ecosystems in maritime Antarctica.

  2. Phospholipid fatty acid patterns of microbial communities in paddy soil under different fertilizer treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi-chun; WANG Guang-huo; YAO Huai-ying

    2007-01-01

    The microbial communities under irrigated rice cropping with different fertilizer treatments, including control (CK), PK, NK, NP, NPK fertilization, were investigated using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The results of this study revealed that the fertilizer practice had an impact on the community structure of specific microbial groups. The principal components analysis (PCA) showed that proportion of the actinomycete PLFAs (10Me 18:0 and 10Me 16:0) were the lowest in the PK treatment and the highest in the NPK treatment, which means that soil nitrogen status affected the diversity of actinomycetes, whereas nitrogen cycling was related to the actinomycets. Under CK treatment, the ratio of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria was lower compared with that in fertilizer addition treatments, indicating that fertilizer application stimulated Gram-positive bacterial population in paddy soil. The fatty acid 18:2ω6, 9, which is considered to be predominantly of fungal origin, was at low level in all the treatments. The ratio of cy19:0 to 18:1ω7, which has been proposed as an indicator of stress conditions, decreased in PK treatment. Changes of soil microbial community under different fertilizer treatments of paddy soil were detected in this study; however, the causes that lead to changes in the microbial community still needs further study.

  3. Modality-independent representations of small quantities based on brain activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-04-01

    Machine learning or MVPA (Multi Voxel Pattern Analysis) studies have shown that the neural representation of quantities of objects can be decoded from fMRI patterns, in cases where the quantities were visually displayed. Here we apply these techniques to investigate whether neural representations of quantities depicted in one modality (say, visual) can be decoded from brain activation patterns evoked by quantities depicted in the other modality (say, auditory). The main finding demonstrated, for the first time, that quantities of dots were decodable by a classifier that was trained on the neural patterns evoked by quantities of auditory tones, and vice-versa. The representations that were common across modalities were mainly right-lateralized in frontal and parietal regions. A second finding was that the neural patterns in parietal cortex that represent quantities were common across participants. These findings demonstrate a common neuronal foundation for the representation of quantities across sensory modalities and participants and provide insight into the role of parietal cortex in the representation of quantity information.

  4. Distinct Patterns of Brain Activity Characterise Lexical Activation and Competition in Spoken Word Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Jensen, O.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Bonnefond, M.

    2014-01-01

    According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography

  5. Evaluation of friction enhancement through soft polymer micro-patterns in active capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselli, Elisa; Pensabene, Virginia; Castrataro, Piero; Valdastri, Pietro; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Capsule endoscopy is an emerging field in medical technology. Despite very promising innovations, some critical issues are yet to be addressed, such as the management and possible exploitation of the friction in the gastrointestinal environment in order to control capsule locomotion more actively. This paper presents the fabrication and testing of bio-inspired polymeric micro-patterns, which are arrays of cylindrical pillars fabricated via soft lithography. The aim of the work is to develop structures that enhance the grip between an artificial device and the intestinal tissue, without injuring the mucosa. In fact, the patterns are intended to be mounted on microfabricated legs of a capsule robot that is able to move actively in the gastrointestinal tract, thus improving the robot's traction ability. The effect of micro-patterned surfaces on the leg-slipping behaviour on colon walls was investigated by considering both different pillar dimensions and the influence of tissue morphology. Several in vitro tests on biological samples demonstrated that micro-patterns of pillars made from a soft polymer with an aspect ratio close to 1 enhanced friction by 41.7% with regard to flat surfaces. This work presents preliminary modelling of the friction and adhesion forces in the gastrointestinal environment and some design guidelines for endoscopic devices.

  6. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: A computational study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyali Ganguli; Saikat Chowdhury; Rupa Bhowmick; Ram Rup Sarkar

    2015-10-01

    Various T-cell co-receptor molecules and calcium channel CRAC play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell’s functional responses by regulating the production of effector molecules (mostly cytokines) that aids in immune clearance and also maintaining the cell in a functionally active state. Any defect in these co-receptor signalling pathways may lead to an altered expression pattern of the effector molecules. To study the propagation of such defects with time and their effect on the intracellular protein expression patterns, a comprehensive and largest pathway map of T-cell activation network is reconstructed manually. The entire pathway reactions are then translated using logical equations and simulated using the published time series microarray expression data as inputs. After validating the model, the effect of in silico knock down of co-receptor molecules on the expression patterns of their downstream proteins is studied and simultaneously the changes in the phenotypic behaviours of the T-cell population are predicted, which shows significant variations among the proteins expression and the signalling routes through which the response is propagated in the cytoplasm. This integrative computational approach serves as a valuable technique to study the changes in protein expression patterns and helps to predict variations in the cellular behaviour.

  7. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Piyali; Chowdhury, Saikat; Bhowmick, Rupa; Sarkar, Ram Rup

    2015-10-01

    Various T-cell co-receptor molecules and calcium channel CRAC play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell's functional responses by regulating the production of effector molecules (mostly cytokines) that aids in immune clearance and also maintaining the cell in a functionally active state. Any defect in these co-receptor signalling pathways may lead to an altered expression pattern of the effector molecules. To study the propagation of such defects with time and their effect on the intracellular protein expression patterns, a comprehensive and largest pathway map of T-cell activation network is reconstructed manually. The entire pathway reactions are then translated using logical equations and simulated using the published time series microarray expression data as inputs. After validating the model, the effect of in silico knock down of co-receptor molecules on the expression patterns of their downstream proteins is studied and simultaneously the changes in the phenotypic behaviours of the T-cell population are predicted, which shows significant variations among the proteins expression and the signalling routes through which the response is propagated in the cytoplasm. This integrative computational approach serves as a valuable technique to study the changes in protein expression patterns and helps to predict variations in the cellular behaviour. PMID:26564978

  8. Patterns of brain activation when mothers view their own child and dog: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E Stoeckel

    Full Text Available Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation, while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal and pleasantness (valence, although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships.

  9. Analyzing Lifestyle and Consumption Pattern of Hire Groups under Product Service Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Tu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the characteristics of rental goods, integrates the green concept in the design and development, and introduces the concept of product service into the rental consumption trend in Taiwan. This study takes the questionnaire survey to collect various opinions of the consumers to rental consumption and also classifies the Taiwanese consumers into five clusters based on the life styles, and the names of clusters are simple financial management cluster, environment and taste cluster, fashionable and flexible cluster, careful purchase cluster, and smart consumption cluster. Finally, conclusions are as follows. (1 The green consumption cognition and attitude of the consumers to the environmental goods can help to master the factor of green consumption property for developing the rental commodities. (2 The market segmentation of the rental consumption market can be enhanced by the variables of available life styles. (3 The applications with product service rental characteristics should take the opinion feedback of the consumers into the sustainable product development conditions and expand the service property of the product. (4 As the cost of cradle-to-cradle recycling pattern is high, the support and promotion of the government can help to construct the business model of product service rental consumption and develop the rental economy.

  10. Coherent transport and energy flow patterns in photosynthesis under incoherent excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley M; Can, Tankut; Gray, Stephen K; Morr, Dirk K; Engel, Gregory S

    2014-03-13

    Long-lived coherences have been observed in photosynthetic complexes after laser excitation, inspiring new theories regarding the extreme quantum efficiency of photosynthetic energy transfer. Whether coherent (ballistic) transport occurs in nature and whether it improves photosynthetic efficiency remain topics of debate. Here, we use a nonequilibrium Green's function analysis to model exciton transport after excitation from an incoherent source (as opposed to coherent laser excitation). We find that even with an incoherent source, the rate of environmental dephasing strongly affects exciton transport efficiency, suggesting that the relationship between dephasing and efficiency is not an artifact of coherent excitation. The Green's function analysis provides a clear view of both the pattern of excitonic fluxes among chromophores and the multidirectionality of energy transfer that is a feature of coherent transport. We see that even in the presence of an incoherent source, transport occurs by qualitatively different mechanisms as dephasing increases. Our approach can be generalized to complex synthetic systems and may provide a new tool for optimizing synthetic light harvesting materials.

  11. Improved prognostic classification of breast cancer defined by antagonistic activation patterns of immune response pathway modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elucidating the activation pattern of molecular pathways across a given tumour type is a key challenge necessary for understanding the heterogeneity in clinical response and for developing novel more effective therapies. Gene expression signatures of molecular pathway activation derived from perturbation experiments in model systems as well as structural models of molecular interactions ('model signatures') constitute an important resource for estimating corresponding activation levels in tumours. However, relatively few strategies for estimating pathway activity from such model signatures exist and only few studies have used activation patterns of pathways to refine molecular classifications of cancer. Here we propose a novel network-based method for estimating pathway activation in tumours from model signatures. We find that although the pathway networks inferred from cancer expression data are highly consistent with the prior information contained in the model signatures, that they also exhibit a highly modular structure and that estimation of pathway activity is dependent on this modular structure. We apply our methodology to a panel of 438 estrogen receptor negative (ER-) and 785 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers to infer activation patterns of important cancer related molecular pathways. We show that in ER negative basal and HER2+ breast cancer, gene expression modules reflecting T-cell helper-1 (Th1) and T-cell helper-2 (Th2) mediated immune responses play antagonistic roles as major risk factors for distant metastasis. Using Boolean interaction Cox-regression models to identify non-linear pathway combinations associated with clinical outcome, we show that simultaneous high activation of Th1 and low activation of a TGF-beta pathway module defines a subtype of particularly good prognosis and that this classification provides a better prognostic model than those based on the individual pathways. In ER+ breast cancer, we find that

  12. Improved prognostic classification of breast cancer defined by antagonistic activation patterns of immune response pathway modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ashry Dorraya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidating the activation pattern of molecular pathways across a given tumour type is a key challenge necessary for understanding the heterogeneity in clinical response and for developing novel more effective therapies. Gene expression signatures of molecular pathway activation derived from perturbation experiments in model systems as well as structural models of molecular interactions ("model signatures" constitute an important resource for estimating corresponding activation levels in tumours. However, relatively few strategies for estimating pathway activity from such model signatures exist and only few studies have used activation patterns of pathways to refine molecular classifications of cancer. Methods Here we propose a novel network-based method for estimating pathway activation in tumours from model signatures. We find that although the pathway networks inferred from cancer expression data are highly consistent with the prior information contained in the model signatures, that they also exhibit a highly modular structure and that estimation of pathway activity is dependent on this modular structure. We apply our methodology to a panel of 438 estrogen receptor negative (ER- and 785 estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancers to infer activation patterns of important cancer related molecular pathways. Results We show that in ER negative basal and HER2+ breast cancer, gene expression modules reflecting T-cell helper-1 (Th1 and T-cell helper-2 (Th2 mediated immune responses play antagonistic roles as major risk factors for distant metastasis. Using Boolean interaction Cox-regression models to identify non-linear pathway combinations associated with clinical outcome, we show that simultaneous high activation of Th1 and low activation of a TGF-beta pathway module defines a subtype of particularly good prognosis and that this classification provides a better prognostic model than those based on the individual pathways

  13. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  14. Continuum model for pattern formation on ion-beam eroded surfaces under target rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently proposed continuum model for the formation of nanostructures on semiconductor surfaces generated by low-energy ion-beam erosion under normal and oblique ion incidence is generalized to the case of additional target rotation. After transformation, this model takes on the form of a driven damped isotropic Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. Primary focus of our investigation is the theoretical analysis of the competition of flat, hexagonal and square-like surface structures as function of the external rotation rate and the sputtering time. As a major result, we find that target rotation stabilizes the occurence of flat surfaces. Comparison with recent experimental results is also given

  15. Hippocampal gene expression patterns underlying the enhancement of memory by running in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Lee, Kim; Becker, Kevin G.; Zhang, Yonqing; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen; Cutler, Roy G.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity preserves cognition in the aging brain, but the mechanisms remain obscure. In order to identify candidate genes and pathways responsible for the preservation of cognitive function by exercise, we trained mice that had been exposed to lifelong running or sedentary lifestyle for 16 months in the hippocampus-dependent water maze. After water maze training, we analyzed the expression of 24,000 genes in the hippocampus using Illumina bead microarray. Runners show greater activation of genes associated with synaptic plasticity and mitochondrial function, and also exhibit significant downregulation of genes associated with oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. Running also modified the effects of learning on the expression of genes involved in cell excitability, energy metabolism, and insulin, MAP kinase and Wnt signaling. These results suggest that the enhancement of cognitive function by lifelong exercise is associated with an altered transcriptional profile following learning. PMID:19070401

  16. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Vincenzo G; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson's disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  17. Patterns of Discrimination, Grievances and Political Activity Among Europe's Roma: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse in a large-n cross-sectional format the patterns of discrimination, grievances and political activity among European Roma (Gypsies using data from the Minority at Risk project. The model tested here is a two-step model positing that discrimination leads to grievance formation which in turn leads to protest and rebellion. The results show that the Roma, in general, conform to this model but differ in some important specifics.

  18. Brain Activation Patterns at Exhaustion in Rats That Differ in Inherent Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Teresa E.; Leah R Brooks; Gilligan, Lori J.; Burghardt, Paul R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Monika Fleshner

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a mark...

  19. Cropland bird community of rain fed region in India : Abundance, activity pattern and susceptibility topesticide use

    OpenAIRE

    Kale, Manoj; Dudhe, Nandkishor; Kasambe, Raju; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2013-01-01

    The activities of cropland birds in an agricultural land are most likely unpredictable in the rain fedregion of Maharashtra, India, and therefore the exposure to risk of pesticides application by croplandbird species cannot be sufficiently categorized. The pattern of abundance, territorial, foraging and otheractivities of cropland avian species was examined at two croplands in Amravati District of MaharashtraState to distinguish the susceptibility of bird species to the application of pestici...

  20. The timing and magnitude of muscular activity patterns during a field hockey hit

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The field hockey hit is one of the most important skills used in the game. However, due to the paucity of empirical research, little is known about the biomechanics of this movement. Muscular activation patterns have been shown to be major contributing factors to performance variables in similar swinging motions in golf, tennis and baseball but debate remains about which muscles are contributing to and controlling such motions. Moreover, muscle studies have typically neglected the contributio...

  1. Impacts of non-canonical El Niño patterns on Atlantic hurricane activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S.; Lee, S.; Wang, C.; Chung, E.; Enfield, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of non-canonical El Niño patterns, typically characterized by warmer than normal sea surface tempera- tures (SSTs) in the central tropical Pacific, on Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) is explored by using composites of key Atlantic TC indices and tropospheric vertical wind shear over the Atlantic main development region (MDR). The highlight of our major findings is that, while the canonical El Niño pattern has a strong suppressing influence on Atlantic TC activity, non-canonical El Niño patterns con- sidered in this study, namely central Pacific warming, El Niño Modoki, positive phase Trans-Niño, and positive phase Pacific meridional mode, all have insubstantial impact on Atlantic TC activity. This result becomes more conclu- sive when the impact of MDR SST is removed from the Atlantic TC indices and MDR wind shear by using the method of linear regression. Further analysis suggests that the tropical Pacific SST anomalies associated with the non- canonical El Niño patterns are not strong enough to cause a substantial warming of the tropical troposphere in the Atlantic region, which is the key factor that increases the wind shear and atmospheric static stability over the MDR. During the recent decades, the non-canonical El Niños have been more frequent while the canonical El Niño has been less frequent. If such a trend continues in the future, it is expected that the suppressing effect of El Niño on Atlantic TC activity will diminish and thus the MDR SST will play a more important role in controlling Atlantic TC activity in the coming decades.

  2. Active Control Of Oscillation Patterns In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems And Their Mathematical Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Šutová Zuzana; Vrábeľ Róbert

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the active control of oscillation patterns in nonlinear dynamical systems and its possible use. The purpose of the research is to prove the possibility of oscillations frequency control based on a change of value of singular perturbation parameter placed into a mathematical model of a nonlinear dynamical system at the highest derivative. This parameter is in singular perturbation theory often called small parameter, as ε → 0+. Oscillation frequency change caused by a di...

  3. Decomposition and nitrogen release patterns of Gliricidia sepium tree residues under controlled incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tree legumes can serve as nitrogen (N) source for cereals in resource poor farms where chemical fertilizer is financially unaffordable. Over the past decade, ICRAF and partners have developed several 'fertilizer tree systems' that are low-cost, easy to manage, highly productive and profitable. These have been widely disseminated in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, much work remains to broaden the scientific underpinning of these systems and develop the management principles to guide further research and dissemination into areas beyond the initial pilot research areas. Gliricidia sepium roots and leaves, as individual components and as a mixture, were incubated in an 15N labeled acidic Ultisol under controlled laboratory conditions. Decomposition was monitored as CO2 evolution and inorganic N released over time. The aim was to determine inorganic soil N and pH dynamics as affected by residue quality. This study used 15N dilution method to determine 'percent N derived from tree residues (%Ndfr) of G. sepium residues. The greatest attribute of this technique is its ability to distinguish between residue-N and soil derived N. The possibility to distinguish between the major N forms (nitrate and ammonium-N) and their quantities at different stages of decomposition exists, according to this study. This information is valuable in predicting the fate of applied residue N in actual field situations, since the forms and quantity of available soil N determine the magnitude of N loss to the environment or utilization by crop under respective field conditions and practices. The 15N dilution method, leading to computation of %Ndfr therefore, offers an invaluable qualitative and quantitative way of measuring N mineralization from agroforestry residues. Our results showed that NO3-Ndfr remained low through out the study, indicating that loss of Ndfr via NO3-N leaching would probably not be an important concern. However, inorganic N availability from residues under

  4. Spider trait assembly patterns and resilience under fire-induced vegetation change in South Brazilian grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R Podgaiski

    Full Text Available Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to

  5. Effect of Potash Application Patterns on Crop Yields Under Different Cultivation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXIAOQIN; ZHOUJIANMIN

    1999-01-01

    Three patterns of potash application were used in the corn-wheat and rice-wheat rotation experiments,which were conducted in the upland and wetland of Siyang County,northern Jiangsu Provuince,and the wetland of Liyang City,southern Jiangsu Province.The results of 5 cropping seasons(2 seasons/year) showed that the direct response of corn to K was larger than that of wheat,but no difference was found between rice and wheat in Siyang when the total annual amount of K was applied only in one cropping season.However,the response of wheat was much greater than that of rice in Liyang.If potash was applied in the preceding season,the residual effect of K on wheat was larger than that on rice both in Siyang and Liyang,but less than that on corn,The total effect (direct and residual effects)of K applied to corn or rice was greater than that to wheat in Siyang,but that to wheat was greater in Liyang.The direct and total effects of K application in the upland were larger than those in the wetland of siyang;but fro the wetland,the effects were larger in Liyang than in Siyang,especially in the wheat season.The results demonstrated that the most profitable practice to be recommended to the local farmers was to apply a limited amount of potash to only rice or corn but not to wheat.Equally applying half of the total annual amout of K to each of the crops may be advisable in order to lessen possible fertilization risks.

  6. Soil seed-bank germination patterns in natural pastures under different mineral fertilizer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iannucci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Degraded native grasslands in Mediterranean areas can be improved by encouraging seedling regeneration from soil seed banks using chemical fertilization. The effect of mineral fertilizers on soil seed banks was studied in natural pastures at two locations in southern Italy: Carpino and Rignano Garganico. The aim was to determine if nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and combined nitrogen and phosphorus (NP fertilization can promote increased soil seed density. The seed-bank size and composition were analysed over two growth cycles (2004-2006 at two periods of the year: at the early summer and at the early autumn. The plant species were classified into three functional groups: grasses, legumes and other species (all other dicots. A two-pool model (ephemeral and base pools derived from the germination patterns was developed to quantify the dynamics of the germinated seed populations. The mean total seed number in the seed bank ranged from 2,915 to 4,782 seed m-2 with higher values in early summer than in early autumn. Mineral fertilizer applications increased the seed-bank size (by 27%, 23% and 46%, for N, P and NP, respectively and modified the composition in both localities. The three plant functional groups showed different potentials for ephemeral and persistent seed-bank production; however, within each plant group, the proportion between the ephemeral and base pool fractions did not change with fertilizer application. These data show that mineral fertilization can have positive effects on the seed-bank size of ungrazed natural pastures, and can be used to improve degraded Mediterranean pastures.

  7. Computational gene expression profiling under salt stress reveals patterns of co-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-03-01

    Plants respond differently to environmental conditions. Among various abiotic stresses, salt stress is a condition where excess salt in soil causes inhibition of plant growth. To understand the response of plants to the stress conditions, identification of the responsible genes is required. Clustering is a data mining technique used to group the genes with similar expression. The genes of a cluster show similar expression and function. We applied clustering algorithms on gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum showing differential expression in Capsicum annuum under salt stress. The clusters, which were common in multiple algorithms were taken further for analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) further validated the findings of other cluster algorithms by visualizing their clusters in three-dimensional space. Functional annotation results revealed that most of the genes were involved in stress related responses. Our findings suggest that these algorithms may be helpful in the prediction of the function of co-expressed genes. PMID:26981411

  8. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure. PMID:19425451

  9. Diel activity patterns of major species of adult mosquitoes and ULV spraying impacts in St. John's County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of daily activity patterns in adult mosquitoes can be used to determine the best time to apply adulticides for mosquito control. Many factors influence these activity patterns, including migration, hormonal cycles in the mosquito, hunger, and the need to lay eggs. In this study, FL scien...

  10. Reproduction of overall spontaneous pain pattern by manual stimulation of active myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Ying; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César;

    2011-01-01

    It has previously been reported that local and referred pain from active myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the neck and shoulder region contribute to fibromyalgia (FM) pain and that the pain pattern induced from active MTPs can reproduce parts of the spontaneous clinical FM pain pattern...

  11. Connectivity Changes Underlying Neurofeedback Training of Visual Cortex Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Scharnowski; Maria Joao Rosa; Narly Golestani; Chloe Hutton; Oliver Josephs; Nikolaus Weiskopf; Geraint Rees

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a new approach that allows training of voluntary control over regionally specific brain activity. However, the neural basis of successful neurofeedback learning remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed changes in effective brain connectivity associated with neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that training participants to increase visual cortex activ...

  12. An Overview of Active Structural Control under Seismic Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Soong, T.T.; Masri, S. F.; Housner, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of active structural control as a means of structural protection against seismic loads, developed over the last 20 years, has received considerable attention in recent years. It has now reached the stage where active systems have been installed in full-scale structures. It is the purpose of this paper to provide an overview of this development with special emphasis placed on laboratory experiments using model structures and on full-scale implementation of some active control syste...

  13. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  14. Trend Patterns of Vegetative Coverage and Their Underlying Causes in the Deserts of Northwest China over 1982-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang

    Full Text Available We identified the spatiotemporal patterns of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the years 1982-2008 in the desert areas of Northwest China and quantified the impacts of climate and non-climate factors on NDVI changes. The results indicate that although the mean NDVI has improved in 24.7% of the study region; 16.3% among the region has been stagnating in recent years and only 8.4% had a significantly increasing trend. Additionally, 45.3% of the region has maintained a stable trend over the study period and 30.0% has declined. A multiple regression model suggests that a wetter climate (quantified by the Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI is associated with higher NDVI in most areas (18.1% of significance but these historical changes in PDSI only caused an average improvement of approximately 0.4% over the study region. Contrasting the regression results under different trend patterns, no significant differences in PDSI impacts were detected among the four trend patterns. Therefore, we conclude that climate is not the primary driver for vegetative coverage in Northwest China. Future studies will be required to identify the impacts of specific non-climatic factors on vegetative coverage based on high-resolution data, which will be beneficial in creating an effective strategy to combat the recent desertification trend in China.

  15. Trend Patterns of Vegetative Coverage and Their Underlying Causes in the Deserts of Northwest China over 1982-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Wang, Hesong

    2015-01-01

    We identified the spatiotemporal patterns of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the years 1982-2008 in the desert areas of Northwest China and quantified the impacts of climate and non-climate factors on NDVI changes. The results indicate that although the mean NDVI has improved in 24.7% of the study region; 16.3% among the region has been stagnating in recent years and only 8.4% had a significantly increasing trend. Additionally, 45.3% of the region has maintained a stable trend over the study period and 30.0% has declined. A multiple regression model suggests that a wetter climate (quantified by the Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI) is associated with higher NDVI in most areas (18.1% of significance) but these historical changes in PDSI only caused an average improvement of approximately 0.4% over the study region. Contrasting the regression results under different trend patterns, no significant differences in PDSI impacts were detected among the four trend patterns. Therefore, we conclude that climate is not the primary driver for vegetative coverage in Northwest China. Future studies will be required to identify the impacts of specific non-climatic factors on vegetative coverage based on high-resolution data, which will be beneficial in creating an effective strategy to combat the recent desertification trend in China. PMID:25961563

  16. A novel drag force coefficient model for gas–water two-phase flows under different flow patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Zhi, E-mail: shangzhi@tsinghua.org.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel drag force coefficient model was established. • This model realized to cover different flow patterns for CFD. • Numerical simulations were performed under wide range flow regimes. • Validations were carried out through comparisons to experiments. - Abstract: A novel drag force coefficient model has been developed to study gas–water two-phase flows. In this drag force coefficient model, the terminal velocities were calculated through the revised drift flux model. The revised drift flux is different from the traditional drift flux model because the natural curve movement of the bubble was revised through considering the centrifugal force. Owing to the revisions, the revised drift flux model was to extend to 3D. Therefore it is suitable for CFD applications. In the revised drift flux model, the different flow patterns of the gas–water two-phase flows were able to be considered. This model innovatively realizes the drag force being able to cover different flow patterns of gas–water two-phase flows on bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, annular flow and mist flow. Through the comparisons of the numerical simulations to the experiments in vertical upward and downward pipe flows, this model was validated.

  17. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  18. Patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senaha M.L.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the concepts of cognitive neuropsychology, there are two principal routes of reading processing: a lexical route, in which global reading of words occurs and a phonological route, responsible for the conversion of the graphemes into their respective phonemes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to investigate the patterns of cerebral activation in lexical and phonological reading by 13 healthy women with a formal educational level greater than 11 years. Participants were submitted to a silent reading task containing three types of stimuli: real words (irregular and foreign words, nonwords and illegitimate graphic stimuli. An increased number of activated voxels were identified by fMRI in the word reading (lexical processing than in the nonword reading (phonological processing task. In word reading, activation was greater than for nonwords in the following areas: superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and the left precentral gyrus, as indicated by fMRI. In the reading of nonwords, the activation was predominant in the right cerebellum and in the left superior temporal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest the existence of differences in the patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading, with greater involvement of the right hemisphere in reading words than nonwords.

  19. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior.

  20. Impacts of people and tigers on leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in a global biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Carter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leopard population declines largely occur in areas where leopards and people frequently interact. Research on how leopards respond to human presence and competitors, like other predators, can provide important insights on leopard ecology and conservation in human-dominated regions; however, such research is lacking. Here we used data from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 to examine how human presence, prey, and tigers influence leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in and around Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, part of a global biodiversity hotspot. We found that leopards were adjusting their spatiotemporal activity patterns to both tigers and people, but by different mechanisms. Leopards spatially avoided tigers in 2010, but were generally active at the same times of day that tigers were. Despite pervasive human presence, people on foot and vehicles had no significant effect on leopard detection and space use, but leopard temporal activity was displaced from those periods of time with highest human activity. Temporal displacement from humans was especially pronounced outside the park, where there is a much greater prevalence of natural resource collection by local people. Continuing to evaluate the interconnections among leopards, tigers, prey, and people across different land management regimes is needed to develop robust landscape-scale conservation strategies.

  1. Auditory cerebral activation patterns of Chinese English learners by fMRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Tong; HU Zi-cheng; LI Yong; ZHANG Yong; XIE Peng; LV Fa-jin; LUO Tian-you; MU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To identify the cerebral activation patterns associated with the processes that occur during viewing Chinese and English words in native Chinese English learners.Methods:12 right-handed Chinese English hamers were divided into two groups equally,namely English majors and non-English majors,and took semantic judgement tasks of both English and Chinese words,for whom the fMRI images were coUected.Results:To various degrees,all subjects demonstrated activation of associated cerebral regions in both hemispheres and the left hemisphere activation was more significant for most subjects.Except for elassieal regions involved in language processing,such as Wemicke areas and Broca areas,there were other activated cerebral regions,including cerebellum,limbic system and basal ganglia nucleus,etc.To sum up,there were apparent overlap for cerebral activation distribution and no specific processing areas for both tasks.The analysis of ROI(region of interest)suggested that subjects in specialized group were more dependent on right hemisphere to perform English words task.Conclus/on:Language cognition is dominated by left hemisphere,which is also shared by the right hemisphere to various degrees and thus two hemispheres work by ways of both dissociation and coordination.It is possible that working strategy of the right hemisphere in English task is related to proficiency of the second language.A variety of distinctions are shared by each subject for language cognitive patterns.

  2. Pattern formation in chemically interacting active rotors with self-propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Cates, Michael E; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2016-09-21

    We demonstrate that active rotations in chemically signalling particles, such as autochemotactic E. coli close to walls, create a route for pattern formation based on a nonlinear yet deterministic instability mechanism. For slow rotations, we find a transient persistence of the uniform state, followed by a sudden formation of clusters contingent on locking of the average propulsion direction by chemotaxis. These clusters coarsen, which results in phase separation into a dense and a dilute region. Faster rotations arrest phase separation leading to a global travelling wave of rotors with synchronized roto-translational motion. Our results elucidate the physics resulting from the competition of two generic paradigms in active matter, chemotaxis and active rotations, and show that the latter provides a tool to design programmable self-assembly of active matter, for example to control coarsening. PMID:27526180

  3. Modeling the activation of tobacco smoking expectancies in memory in relation to use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkovich-Kyle, Tiffany Leigh; Schreiner, Amy M; Dunn, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Methodology that has led to successful strategies to reduce alcohol use was applied to tobacco smoking expectancies. Individual differences scaling was used to empirically model a semantic network of associations stored in memory and preference mapping was used to model likely paths of expectancy activation for groups with different smoking histories. Smokers emphasized an external appearance-internal experience dimension and were more likely to activate expectancies of negative affect reduction. Nonsmokers emphasized a positive-negative dimension and were more likely to activate expectancies of health risks and reduced physical attractiveness. Proportionate frequencies of first associates' validated findings of the MDS-based solutions. Future efforts to alter likely activation patterns may successfully reduce the onset of smoking, enhance quit rates, and reduce relapse. PMID:22178600

  4. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  5. Changes In Growth Culture FDA Activity Under Changing Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1992-01-01

    of the bacteria. The FDA activity/ATP ratio was calculated for different concentrations of autoclaved sludge. A faster decay rate of ATP relative to FDA hydrolysis activity was observed, thus causing changes in the ratio. Furthermore, comparison between values obtained from pure cultures and different soils...

  6. Variation in Rubisco content and activity under variable climatic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmés, Jeroni; Aranjuelo, Iker; Medrano, Hipólito; Flexas, Jaume

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of the present review is to provide a compilation of published data of the effects of several climatic conditions on Rubisco, particularly its activity, state of activation, and concentration, and its influence on leaf gas exchange and photosynthesis. The environmental conditions analyzed include drought, salinity, heavy metals, growth temperature, and elevated [O3], [CO2], and ultraviolet-B irradiance. The results show conclusive evidence for a major negative effect on activity of Rubisco with increasing intensity of a range of abiotic stress factors. This decrease in the activity of Rubisco is associated with down-regulation of the activation state of the enzyme (e.g., by de-carbamylation and/or binding of inhibitory sugar phosphates) in response to drought or high temperature. On the contrary, the negative effects of low temperature, heavy metal stress (cadmium), ozone, and UV-B stress on Rubisco activity are associated with changes in the concentration of Rubisco. Notably, in response to all environmental factors, the regulation of in vivo CO2 assimilation rate was related to Rubisco in vitro parameters, either concentration and/or carboxylation, depending on the particular stress. The importance of the loss of Rubisco activity and its repercussion on plant photosynthesis are discussed in the context of climate change. It is suggested that decreased Rubisco activity will be a major effect induced by climate change, which will need to be considered in any prediction model on plant productivity in the near future.

  7. What's Under Your Feet? Activity Book. Earth Science for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Penni; Robbins, Eleanora I.

    This profusely illustrated activity book helps students understand systems and cycles, how years change the look of the Earth, and how students can protect resources. The sections (and activities) in this book are: (1) The Earth (Introduction--View, Soil & Dirt); (2) Forces (Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, Mountain Building, Erosion, Volcanoes,…

  8. Living bacteria rheology: population growth, aggregation patterns and cooperative behaviour under different shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Patricio, P; Portela, R; Sobral, R G; Grilo, I R; Cidade, T; Leal, C R

    2014-01-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology -- in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus -- strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant -- were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the two strains follow different and rich behaviours, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain ...

  9. Connectivity changes underlying neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Scharnowski

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a new approach that allows training of voluntary control over regionally specific brain activity. However, the neural basis of successful neurofeedback learning remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed changes in effective brain connectivity associated with neurofeedback training of visual cortex activity. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM, we found that training participants to increase visual cortex activity was associated with increased effective connectivity between the visual cortex and the superior parietal lobe. Specifically, participants who learned to control activity in their visual cortex showed increased top-down control of the superior parietal lobe over the visual cortex, and at the same time reduced bottom-up processing. These results are consistent with efficient employment of top-down visual attention and imagery, which were the cognitive strategies used by participants to increase their visual cortex activity.

  10. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global dataset of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global dataset, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of temperature and growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  11. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global data set of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global data set, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons, without major change in cloudiness, could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  12. Study of nitrate leaching and nitrogen fate under intensive vegetable production pattern in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Zong; Zhao, Chang-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Lan; Li, Ji

    2009-04-01

    Because of intensive vegetable production in plastic greenhouses in northern China, the potential risk of nitrate leaching to groundwater is increasingly apparent, threatening ecosystem services and the sustainability of food production. In the present work, nine drainable lysimeters were installed into vegetable fields, with in-situ loamy soils, in Shouguang City of the north China vegetable base. The experiments were conducted to quantify the magnitude and variability of nitrate leaching to groundwater and to access the fate of total fertilizer-N inputs in the area. The results obtained indicated that: under local conventional agronomic practices, there is a high discrepancy in leaching nitrate-N concentration (ranging from 17 to 457 mg L(-1)), and nitrate losses (152-347 kg N ha(-1)) were observed from 1-m soil profiles in the field. Meanwhile, high fertilizer N application resulted in low N efficiency, with only (33.0+/-13)% (mean+/-S.D.) of input N absorbed by the crops, while additionally nearly half of the total inputs of N were unaccounted in a partial N balance sheet. It is concluded that groundwater pollution associated with greenhouse-based vegetable production had been confirmed in Shouguang, adversely affecting water quality and leading to serial agro-ecological problems. PMID:19304269

  13. Genetic dyslexia risk variant is related to neural connectivity patterns underlying phonological awareness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeide, Michael A; Kirsten, Holger; Kraft, Indra; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Neef, Nicole; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Emmrich, Frank; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Phonological awareness is the best-validated predictor of reading and spelling skill and therefore highly relevant for developmental dyslexia. Prior imaging genetics studies link several dyslexia risk genes to either brain-functional or brain-structural factors of phonological deficits. However, coherent evidence for genetic associations with both functional and structural neural phenotypes underlying variation in phonological awareness has not yet been provided. Here we demonstrate that rs11100040, a reported modifier of SLC2A3, is related to the functional connectivity of left fronto-temporal phonological processing areas at resting state in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old children. Furthermore, we provide evidence that rs11100040 is related to the fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus, which forms the structural connection between these areas. This structural connectivity phenotype is associated with phonological awareness, which is in turn associated with the individual retrospective risk scores in an early dyslexia screening as well as to spelling. These results suggest a link between a dyslexia risk genotype and a functional as well as a structural neural phenotype, which is associated with a phonological awareness phenotype. The present study goes beyond previous work by integrating genetic, brain-functional and brain-structural aspects of phonological awareness within a single approach. These combined findings might be another step towards a multimodal biomarker for developmental dyslexia.

  14. Seasonal and Daily Patterns in Activity of the Western Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard Lewis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity of colonies of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, was measured with acoustic emission (AE technology in five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica logs. Termite activity, whether it was feeding, excavation or movement, was monitored for 11 months under ambient conditions in a small wooden structure maintained at the University of California Richmond Field Station. AE, temperature, and humidity data were measured in 3-minute increments. Termite activity was greater during the warmer summer months compared to the cooler winter months. Termites in all five logs displayed a similar daily cycle of activity, peaking in the late afternoon. Seasonal and daily fluctuations in termite activity were significantly associated with temperature, whereas humidity did not appear to have a noticeable effect on termite activity. Possible mechanisms that drive the seasonal and daily cycles in termite activity, as measured by AE technology, and the possible implications for inspections and post-treatment analysis are discussed.

  15. Patterns of brain activity supporting autobiographical memory, prospection, and theory of mind, and their relationship to the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Grady, Cheryl L

    2010-06-01

    The ability to rise above the present environment and reflect upon the past, the future, and the minds of others is a fundamentally defining human feature. It has been proposed that these three self-referential processes involve a highly interconnected core set of brain structures known as the default mode network (DMN). The DMN appears to be active when individuals are engaged in stimulus-independent thought. This network is a likely candidate for supporting multiple processes, but this idea has not been tested directly. We used fMRI to examine brain activity during autobiographical remembering, prospection, and theory-of-mind reasoning. Using multivariate analyses, we found a common pattern of neural activation underlying all three processes in the DMN. In addition, autobiographical remembering and prospection engaged midline DMN structures to a greater degree and theory-of-mind reasoning engaged lateral DMN areas. A functional connectivity analysis revealed that activity of a critical node in the DMN, medial prefrontal cortex, was correlated with activity in other regions in the DMN during all three tasks. We conclude that the DMN supports common aspects of these cognitive behaviors involved in simulating an internalized experience.

  16. Activity of recombinant factor VIIa under different conditions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv, Denmark) is an effective drug for treatment of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A or B and inhibitors. Little is known about physiological conditions influencing the efficacy of recombinant activated factor VII. We...... investigated the in-vitro effects of pH, temperature, and haemodilution on the activity of recombinant activated factor VII. Samples from eight healthy volunteers were spiked with recombinant activated factor VII (final concentration 1.7 microg/ml) and adjusted to pH 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.4 or analysed at 30...... activity in plasma. Significant effects of pH were observed for clotting time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, and factor VII coagulant activity in the direction of longer clot formation times and less firm clots with decreasing pH. Temperature had significant effects on clotting time, clot...

  17. Changes in Growth Pattern after Adenotonsillectomy in Children under 12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Hashemian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThe aim of the present study was to determine the effects of adenotonsillectomy on height, weight and body mass index (BMI in children under 12 years old, with or without airway obstruction and evaluation of the risk of overweight in them. In this case-control study, 120 children with the age of 2-12 years old were studied; 60 children as case group who underwent adenotonsillectomy and 60 healthy children as control group. After collecting the data related to appetite status and sleep breathing disorder of the case group, height, weight and BMI have been measured for all children in two stages; preoperatively and 6 months later. Also in the case group, BMI percentiles, pre and postoperatively have been calculated. Patients with Low appetite in the initiation and at the end of the study in the case group were 80% and 8.3% respectively (P=0.01. Mean of height, weight and BMI variation after 6 months were significantly different between case and control groups (P<0.05. BMI percentiles in the case group preoperatively were: 20% underweight, 67% healthy weight, 10% at risk of over weight, 3% over weight. Postoperatively, after 6 months BMI percentiles in order of above frequency were: 10%, 57%, 22% and 11% (P=0.02. Analysis of the results showed that adenotonsillectomy can lead to increase of height, weight, BMI and appetite not only in the children with low weight due to airway obstruction but also in the normal weight and over weight children. Therefore risk of overweight should be mentioned as a probable undesirable outcome of adenotonsillectomy.

  18. Temporal Patterns of Energy Balance for a Brazilian Tropical Savanna under Contrasting Seasonal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The savanna of Central Brazil (locally known as cerrado has a long history of land cover change due to human activity. These changes have led to the degradation of cerrado forests and woodlands, leading to the expansion of grass-dominated cerrados and pastures. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variation in energy flux in areas of degraded, grass-dominated cerrado (locally known as campo sujo in Central Brazil. The amount of Rn partitioned into H declined as monthly rainfall increased and reached a level of approximately 30% during the wet season, while the amount of Rn partitioned into Le increased as monthly rainfall increased and reached a level of approximately 60% during the wet season. As a result, H was significantly higher than Le during the dry season, resulting in a Bowen ratio (β = H/Le of 3-5, while Le was higher than H during the wet season, resulting in a β≈1. These data indicate that the energy partitioning of grass-dominated cerrado is relatively more sensitive to water availability than cerrado woodlands and forests, and have important implications for local and regional energy balance.

  19. Disturbances in the circadian pattern of activity and sleep after laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Bisgaard, Thue; Burgdorf, Stefan;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the circadian variation in bodily functions and sleep are important for understanding the pathophysiological processes in the postoperative period. We aimed to investigate changes in the circadian variation in activity after minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic cholecys......BACKGROUND: Studies on the circadian variation in bodily functions and sleep are important for understanding the pathophysiological processes in the postoperative period. We aimed to investigate changes in the circadian variation in activity after minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic...... scale (sleep quality, general well-being and pain) and fatigue was measured by a ten-point fatigue scale. The activity levels of the patients were monitored by actigraphy (a wrist-worn device measuring patient activity). Measures of circadian activity level [interday stability (IS), intraday variability...... to the circadian activity parameters (IS, IV and AMP). CONCLUSION: Severely disturbed circadian activity parameters was found after both LC and MAS with worse changes after MAS. Measures of circadian activity pattern analyses correlated significantly with postoperative subjective recovery parameters....

  20. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N. Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804 and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869 - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in different months of the year in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent species on vanillin baits and E. flavescens was the most frequent species on benzyl acetate baits. The highest frequency of visits was observed in February and December. Activities started between 5:00 and 9:00 h. In February and November, visits of E. nigrita to the bait were observed daily, following a bimodal pattern. The same activity pattern was observed for E. bombiformis in December. Males of four species of Eulaema occurred in all remaining months in a unimodal daily activity pattern, with a higher frequency before 9:30 h. The correlation between the visiting activity to odor baits and climatic factors was low. This result can be due to bee flight activity occurring within a range of adequate climatic variation, particularly temperature, which in our study ranged from 23 to 32ºC. Daily activity patterns of Euglossina males on odor baits can represent patterns of flower fragrance collection under natural conditions, with visits usually at the time of highest production.

  1. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  2. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  3. Performing Citizenship Down Under: Educating the Active Citizen

    OpenAIRE

    Bronwyn E. Wood; Rosalyn Black

    2014-01-01

    In democracies such as Australia and New Zealand, education policy increasingly seeks to foster active citizens who are committed to social justice and change. Whilst many aspects of these initiatives are to be applauded for their commitment to empowering young people, in this paper we describe some of the ambiguities that attend young people’s experiences of civic engagement and active citizenship. In doing so, we draw on Isin’s (2008) reconceptualization of citizenship as something that is,...

  4. Impact of time-activity patterns on personal exposure to black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Int Panis, Luc; Van Poppel, Martine; Theunis, Jan; Willems, Hanny; Torfs, Rudi; Wets, Geert

    2011-07-01

    Time-activity patterns are an important determinant of personal exposure to air pollution. This is demonstrated by measuring personal exposure of 16 participants for 7 consecutive days: 8 couples of which one person was a full-time worker and the other was a homemaker; both had a very different time-activity pattern. We used portable aethalometers to measure black carbon levels with a high temporal resolution and a PDA with GPS-logger and electronic diary. The exposure to black carbon differs between partners by up to 30%, although they live at the same location. The activity contributing most to this difference is transport: Average exposure in transport is 6445 ng m -3, followed by exposure during shopping (2584 ng m -3). Average exposure is lowest while sleeping (1153 ng m -3) and when doing home-based activities (1223 ng m -3). Full-time workers spend almost twice as much time in transport as the homemakers. As a result of the study design we measured in several different homes, shops, cars, etc. enabling a better insight in true overall exposure in those microenvironments. Other factors influencing personal exposure are: background concentrations and location of residence in an urban, suburban or rural environment.

  5. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa E Foley

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively. The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min. During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines.

  6. Brain activation patterns at exhaustion in rats that differ in inherent exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Teresa E; Brooks, Leah R; Gilligan, Lori J; Burghardt, Paul R; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand the genetic basis for variation in inherent (untrained) exercise capacity, we examined the brains of 32 male rats selectively bred for high or low running capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). The aim was to characterize the activation patterns of brain regions potentially involved in differences in inherent running capacity between HCR and LCR. Using quantitative in situ hybridization techniques, we measured messenger ribonuclease (mRNA) levels of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in the brains of HCR and LCR rats after a single bout of acute treadmill running (7.5-15 minutes, 15° slope, 10 m/min) or after treadmill running to exhaustion (15-51 minutes, 15° slope, initial velocity 10 m/min). During verification of trait differences, HCR rats ran six times farther and three times longer prior to exhaustion than LCR rats. Running to exhaustion significantly increased c-Fos mRNA activation of several brain areas in HCR, but LCR failed to show significant elevations of c-Fos mRNA at exhaustion in the majority of areas examined compared to acutely run controls. Results from these studies suggest that there are differences in central c-Fos mRNA expression, and potential brain activation patterns, between HCR and LCR rats during treadmill running to exhaustion and these differences could be involved in the variation in inherent running capacity between lines. PMID:23028992

  7. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  8. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems. PMID:26764758

  9. Present international patterns of foreign direct investment: underlying causes and some policy implications for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Chesnais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of the 1980s has been the substantial fall in the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI to the developing countries and also, with the limited exception of the Asian NIE (Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and China, to the newly industrialized countries, in particular those in Latin America. FDI has been concentrated more than ever among the advanced industrialized countries of OECD. The same period has witnessed a number of extremely important changes, both in the nature and location of basic or key technologies, the role of technology in industrial competitiveness; the most appropriate industrial management paradigm following the difficulties of the "Fordist" one; the nature of predominant international supply or market structures; and the relationships between productive and financial capital. Today a number of governments in developing countries and in NIC, among them the new government of Brazil, are again engaged in an attempt to attract FDI and to make foreign capital one of the major pillars of industrial revival and future growth. This paper argues that this policy objective is both fairly illusory and largely mistaken. It is fairly illusory in that it seriously underestimates the nature and strength of the structural factors which have been at work since the mid-1970s and seriously modified the strategies and investment priorities of the TNC which under took the brunt of the investment in developing countries and NICs in the earlier "golden age" of the 1960s and 1970s . The objective of luring foreign capital again to Brazil in ways and on a level similar to the 1960s is also largely mistaken in that it fails to recognize that the change in technological paradigms has modified the parameters of international technology transfers (cf. Ernst and O'Connor, 1989 and made indigenous and endogenous industrial growth dependent to a much higher degree than in the previous period (19601975 on factors which foreign capital

  10. Living bacteria rheology: Population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  11. Automated swimming activity monitor for examining temporal patterns of toxicant effects on individual Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Michaelsen, Thomas Yssing; Jensen, Anne; Marcussen, Laurits Faarup; Nielsen, Majken Elley; Roslev, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aquatic pollutants are often biologically active at low concentrations and impact on biota in combination with other abiotic stressors. Traditional toxicity tests may not detect these effects, and there is a need for sensitive high-throughput methods for detecting sublethal effects. We have evaluated an automated infra-red (IR) light-based monitor for recording the swimming activity of Daphnia magna to establish temporal patterns of toxicant effects on an individual level. Activity was recorded for 48 h and the sensitivity of the monitor was evaluated by exposing D. magna to the reference chemicals K2 Cr2 O7 at 15, 20 and 25 °C and 2,4-dichlorophenol at 20 °C. Significant effects (P Cr2 O7 whereas activity at 20 and 25 °C was more biphasic with decreases in activity occurring after 12-18 h. A similar biphasic pattern was observed after 2,4-dichlorophenol exposure at 20 °C. EC50 values for 2,4-dichlorophenol and K2 Cr2 O7 determined from automated recording of swimming activity showed increasing toxicity with time corresponding to decreases in EC50 of 0.03-0.07 mg l(-1) h(-1) . EC50 values determined after 48 h were comparable or lower than EC50 values based on visual inspection according to ISO 6341. The results demonstrated that the swimming activity monitor is capable of detecting sublethal behavioural effects that are toxicant and temperature dependent. The method allows EC values to be established at different time points and can serve as a high-throughput screening tool in toxicity testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26198804

  12. Complex Regulation Pattern of IRF3 Activation Revealed by a Novel Dimerization Reporter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zining; Ji, Jingyun; Peng, Di; Ma, Feng; Cheng, Genhong; Qin, F Xiao-Feng

    2016-05-15

    Induction of type I IFN (IFN-I) is essential for host antiviral immune responses. However, IFN-I also plays divergent roles in antibacterial immunity, persistent viral infections, autoimmune diseases, and tumorigenesis. IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is the master transcription factor that controls IFN-I production via phosphorylation-dependent dimerization in most cell types in response to viral infections and various innate stimuli by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). To monitor the dynamic process of IRF3 activation, we developed a novel IRF3 dimerization reporter based on bimolecular luminescence complementation (BiLC) techniques, termed the IRF3-BiLC reporter. Robust induction of luciferase activity of the IRF3-BiLC reporter was observed upon viral infection and PAMP stimulation with a broad dynamic range. Knockout of TANK-binding kinase 1, the critical upstream kinase of IRF3, as well as the mutation of serine 386, the essential phosphorylation site of IRF3, completely abolished the luciferase activity of IRF3-BiLC reporter, confirming the authenticity of IRF3 activation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the IRF3-BiLC reporter is a highly specific, reliable, and sensitive system to measure IRF3 activity. Using this reporter system, we further observed that the temporal pattern and magnitude of IRF3 activation induced by various PAMPs are highly complex with distinct cell type-specific characteristics, and IRF3 dimerization is a direct regulatory node for IFN-α/β receptor-mediated feed-forward regulation and crosstalk with other pathways. Therefore, the IRF3-BiLC reporter has multiple potential applications, including mechanistic studies as well as the identification of novel compounds that can modulate IRF3 activation. PMID:27045107

  13. 78 FR 23816 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... in the 21st Century (MAP-21), a Passenger Ferry Grant Program has been added under 49 U.S.C. 5307..., Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), the Tribal Transit Program continues to be a set... project management stage provides a basis for monitoring approved projects to ensure timely...

  14. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Thomas D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Lyubimov, Artem Y. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogata, Craig M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Vo, Huy [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T., E-mail: brunger@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Berger, James M., E-mail: brunger@stanford.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-09-26

    A highly X-ray-transparent, silicon nitride-based device has been designed and fabricated to harvest protein microcrystals for high-resolution X-ray diffraction data collection using microfocus beamlines and XFELs. Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2 µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called ‘fixed-target’ sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15 µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6 Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  15. A high-transparency, micro-patternable chip for X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals under native growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Thomas D.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Ogata, Craig M.; Vo, Huy; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Brunger, Axel T.; Berger, James M.

    2015-09-26

    Microcrystals present a significant impediment to the determination of macromolecular structures by X-ray diffraction methods. Although microfocus synchrotron beamlines and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) can enable the collection of interpretable diffraction data from microcrystals, there is a need for efficient methods of harvesting small volumes (<2µl) of microcrystals grown under common laboratory formats and delivering them to an X-ray beam source under native growth conditions. One approach that shows promise in overcoming the challenges intrinsic to microcrystal analysis is to pair so-called `fixed-target' sample-delivery devices with microbeam-based X-ray diffraction methods. However, to record weak diffraction patterns it is necessary to fabricate devices from X-ray-transparent materials that minimize background scattering. Presented here is the design of a new micro-diffraction device consisting of three layers fabricated from silicon nitride, photoresist and polyimide film. The chip features low X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption properties, and uses a customizable blend of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface patterns to help localize microcrystals to defined regions. Microcrystals in their native growth conditions can be loaded into the chips with a standard pipette, allowing data collection at room temperature. Diffraction data collected from hen egg-white lysozyme microcrystals (10–15µm) loaded into the chips yielded a complete, high-resolution (<1.6Å) data set sufficient to determine a high-quality structure by molecular replacement. The features of the chip allow the rapid and user-friendly analysis of microcrystals grown under virtually any laboratory format at microfocus synchrotron beamlines and XFELs.

  16. Soluble Collectin-12 (CL-12) Is a Pattern Recognition Molecule Initiating Complement Activation via the Alternative Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Hein, Estrid; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Bayarri-Olmos, Rafael; Romani, Luigina; Garred, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Soluble defense collagens including the collectins play important roles in innate immunity. Recently, a new member of the collectin family named collectin-12 (CL-12 or CL-P1) has been identified. CL-12 is highly expressed in umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells as a transmembrane receptor and may recognize certain bacteria and fungi, leading to opsonophagocytosis. However, based on its structural and functional similarities with soluble collectins, we hypothesized the existence of a fluid-phase analog of CL-12 released from cells, which may function as a soluble pattern-recognition molecule. Using recombinant CL-12 full length or CL-12 extracellular domain, we determined the occurrence of soluble CL-12 shed from in vitro cultured cells. Western blot showed that soluble recombinant CL-12 migrated with a band corresponding to ∼ 120 kDa under reducing conditions, whereas under nonreducing conditions it presented multimeric assembly forms. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of human umbilical cord plasma enabled identification of a natural soluble form of CL-12 having an electrophoretic mobility pattern close to that of shed soluble recombinant CL-12. Soluble CL-12 could recognize Aspergillus fumigatus partially through the carbohydrate-recognition domain in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. This led to activation of the alternative pathway of complement exclusively via association with properdin on A. fumigatus as validated by detection of C3b deposition and formation of the terminal complement complex. These results demonstrate the existence of CL-12 in a soluble form and indicate a novel mechanism by which the alternative pathway of complement may be triggered directly by a soluble pattern-recognition molecule.

  17. Microbial decomposition of dead grassland roots and its influence on the carbon cycle under changing precipitation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, C.; Schimel, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil is the largest reservoir of organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and as such, represents a potential sink for carbon dioxide.The decomposition products of dead roots buried in the soil is a contributor to soil organic carbon. However, changing precipitation patterns may affect its fate by influencing the microbial community responsible for decomposing dead roots. To assess the impact of changing precipitation patterns, we constructed microcosms with grassland soil collected from the UCSB Sedgwick Reserve, an active and long-term research site, and dead roots from greenhouse-grown grass, Bromus diandrus. Microcosms were wetted continuously, every seven days, or every twenty days. Sets of microcosms were periodically deconstructed to assess the soil versus the roots-associated microbial community and its function. Differences in respiration rates of microcosms continuously wetted or wetted every 7 days versus microcosms wetted every 20 days existed for the first 70 days. After which, no differences in respiration rates were seen with microcosms containing roots and the no roots control. Relatedly, after a 70% roots mass loss by day 50, there was no difference in the respiration rate of microcosms containing roots and the no roots control. More than half of the roots mass loss had occurred by 30 days. By the end of the incubation period, the roots mass loss in continuously wet and 7-day wetted microcosms were over 80% compared to 67% for the microcosms wetted every 20 days. Microbial biomass in the soil were constant over time and showed no difference in treatment except with the no roots control during the first half of the incubation period. Hydrolytic enzyme activities (β-1,4-glucosidase; α-1,4-glucosidase; β-1,4-xylosidase; β-1,4-cellobiosidase) on the roots versus the soil attached to the roots were over an order greater and decreased faster with the exception of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and acid phosphatase. Oxidative enzyme activities (phenol

  18. Hydrolysis of particulate substrate by activated sludge under aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Mladenovski, C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of hydrolysis of particulate organic substrate by activated sludge has been made. Raw municipal wastewater was used as substrate. It was mixed with activated sludge from a high loaded activated sludge plant with pure oxygen aeration. During 4 days batch experiments under aerobic......, anoxic and anaerobic conditions, the hydrolysis was following through the production of ammonia. The hydrolysis rate of nitrogeneous compounds is significantly affected by the electron donor available. The rate is high under aerobic conditions, medium under anaerobic conditions and low under anoxic...... conditions. The ratio between the hydrolysis rates under aerobic and under anoxic conditions are very similar to the respiration rates measured as electron equivalents....

  19. Effects of active pause pattern of surface electromyographic activity among subjects performing monotonous tasks: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januario, Leticia Bergamin; Moreira, Roberta de Fátima Carreira; Cid, Marina Machado; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Active pauses have shown potentially beneficial effects to increase the variability of the electrical activation pattern of muscles. However, there is a lack of consensus as to how to design and implement those pauses and the processing methods of surface electromyography (EMG) data when evaluating low-level monotonous tasks. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidences regarding the way which active pauses have been applied, and the methods used to investigate the related EMG changes. PubMed-MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, Ebsco, and Scopus databases were searched. Two authors independently extracted data from the primary studies. The methodological quality was assessed using a list from van der Windt et al. (2000), and the level of evidence was synthesized through GRADE. The ISEK guideline for reporting EMG data was also applied as a checklist. Fifteen studies were included - 14 with high methodological quality. In general, active pauses were able to change the level of EMG activity in monotonous tasks. The level of evidence through GRADE was very low for all EMG processing methods, except RMS which was low. A vast heterogeneity concerning the methods applied to analyze EMG data contributed to decrease the quality of evidence synthesis, and the findings need to be carefully considered. The GRADE approach and the ISEK guideline contributed to identify important flaws in the literature. Future studies investigating active pauses in longitudinal studies and following the standard for recording and reporting EMG data care are warranted.

  20. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) < 2 mg/L) occurring underneath algal mats at night, and concurrent bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  1. Synaptic mechanisms underlying sparse coding of active touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Sylvain; Poulet, James F A; Kremer, Yves; Petersen, Carl C H

    2011-03-24

    Sensory information is actively gathered by animals, but the synaptic mechanisms driving neuronal circuit function during active sensory processing are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the synaptically driven membrane potential dynamics during active whisker sensation using whole-cell recordings from layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory barrel cortex of behaving mice. Although whisker contact with an object evoked rapid depolarization in all neurons, these touch responses only drove action potentials in ∼10% of the cells. Such sparse coding was ensured by cell-specific reversal potentials of the touch-evoked response that were hyperpolarized relative to action potential threshold for most neurons. Intercontact interval profoundly influenced touch-evoked postsynaptic potentials, interestingly without affecting the peak membrane potential of the touch response. Dual whole-cell recordings indicated highly correlated membrane potential dynamics during active touch. Sparse action potential firing within synchronized cortical layer 2/3 microcircuits therefore appears to robustly signal each active touch response.

  2. Changes to coral health and metabolic activity under oxygen deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James W A; Richmond, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    On Hawaiian reefs, the fast-growing, invasive algae Gracilaria salicornia overgrows coral heads, restricting water flow and light, thereby smothering corals. Field data shows hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen (DO2) bleaching and partial tissue loss of shaded corals. To analyze the impact of nighttime oxygen-deprivation on coral health, this study evaluated changes in coral metabolism through the exposure of corals to chronic hypoxic conditions and subsequent analyses of lactate, octopine, alanopine, and strombine dehydrogenase activities, critical enzymes employed through anaerobic respiration. Following treatments, lactate and octopine dehydrogenase activities were found to have no significant response in activities with treatment and time. However, corals subjected to chronic nighttime hypoxia were found to exhibit significant increases in alanopine dehydrogenase activity after three days of exposure and strombine dehydrogenase activity starting after one overnight exposure cycle. These findings provide new insights into coral metabolic shifts in extremely low-oxygen environments and point to ADH and SDH assays as tools for quantifying the impact of hypoxia on coral health. PMID:27114888

  3. Movement and muscle activation patterns of the shoulder girdle after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    De Baets, Liesbet

    2015-01-01

    A proper and pain free shoulder function is essential for accurate performance of daily activities and contributes to daily life autonomy and quality of life. The brain damage underlying a stroke results in several motor impairments such as muscle weakness, increased muscle tone, pathological muscle synergies and altered temporal muscle activity. At the level of the shoulder complex, these impairments may specifically hamper scapulohumeral control, i.e. the adaptation of scapular position and...

  4. Pattern formation in a (2 + 1)-species activator-inhibitor-immobilizer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John E.

    1992-09-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions for a Turing instability in a (2 + 1)-component reaction-diffusion system are derived. The 2-component subsystem consists of an arbitrary activator-inhibitor system in which the activator and the inhibitor diffuse at identical rates. The activator reacts with an immobile substrate to form an immobile complex which does not diffuse. It is found that the critical wavenumber and the location of the instability in parameter space are independent of the initial substrate concentration. As a special case, the (2 + 1)-variable activator-inhibitor-immobilizer system can be reduced to an activator-inhibitor system in which the activator diffuses more slowly than the inhibitor. This occurs when the time scales in the system satisfy certain constraints. The general results are applied to a (2 + 1)-variable model of the chlorite-iodide-starch reaction recently proposed by Epstein and Lengyel to explain the experimental observation of Turing patterns in a related system. I find an intrinsic wavelength which is within a factor of two of the experimentally observed wavelength, but the necessary conditions for the (2 + 1)-variable system to reduce to a two-variable activator-inhibitor system with rescaled diffusion coefficients are not satisfied.

  5. Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali eRaja Beharelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI patients typically respond more slowly and with more variability than controls during tasks of attention requiring speeded reaction time. These behavioral changes are attributable, at least in part, to diffuse axonal injury (DAI, which affects integrated processing in distributed systems. Here we use a multivariate method sensitive to distributed neural activity to compare brain activity patterns of patients with chronic phase moderate-to-severe TBI to those of controls during performance on a visual feature-integration task assessing complex attentional processes that has previously shown sensitivity to TBI. The TBI patients were carefully screened to be free of large focal lesions that can affect performance and brain activation independently of DAI. The task required subjects to hold either one or three features of a target in mind while suppressing responses to distracting information. In controls, the multi-feature condition activated a distributed network including limbic, prefrontal, and medial temporal structures. TBI patients engaged this same network in the single-feature and baseline conditions. In multi-feature presentations, TBI patients alone activated additional frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These results are consistent with neuroimaging studies using tasks assessing different cognitive domains, where increased spread of brain activity changes was associated with TBI. Our results also extend previous findings that brain activity for relatively moderate task demands in TBI patients is similar to that associated with of high task demands in controls.

  6. Tractography activation patterns in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex suggest better clinical responses in OCD DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Hartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients can be successfully treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS which targets the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC and the nucleus accumbens (NA. Growing evidence suggests that in patients who respond to DBS, axonal fiber bundles surrounding the electrode are activated, but it is currently unknown which discrete pathways are critical for optimal benefit. Our aim was to identify axonal pathways mediating clinical effects of ALIC-NA DBS.Methods: We created computational models of ALIC-NA DBS to simulate the activation of fiber tracts and to identify connected cerebral regions. The pattern of activated axons and their cortical targets was investigated in six OCD patients who underwent ALIC-NA DBS. Results: Modulation of the right anterior middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with an excellent response. In contrast, non-responders showed high activation in the orbital part of the right inferior frontal gyrus (lateral orbitofrontal cortex/anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Factor analysis followed by step-wise linear regression indicated that YBOCS improvement was inversely associated with factors that were predominantly determined by gray matter activation results.Discussion: Our findings support the hypothesis that optimal therapeutic results are associated with the activation of distinct fiber pathways. This suggests that in DBS for OCD, focused stimulation of specific fiber pathways, which would allow for stimulation with lower amplitudes, may be superior to activation of a wide array of pathways, typically associated with higher stimulation amplitudes.

  7. Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement electrical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2013-10-01

    For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement electrical potential that we named obex slow potential (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators.

  8. Under Forest Economy Breeding Pattern and Benefit Analysis in Shanghe County%商河县林下经济种养模式及效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明杰; 王玉华; 柏鲁林; 孙普金; 陈勇; 王力军; 张连德; 车素英

    2012-01-01

      通过对商河县林下经济发展的调查研究,明晰了商河县林下经济的主要种养模式,其中包括林禽模式、林兔模式、林狐模式、林药模式和林菌模式等,重点介绍了林兔模式的关键技术措施;综合分析了林下种养模式的经济、社会和生态效益%  Through to under forest economical development of Shanghe County investigation and study , the main breeding pattern of Shanghe under forest economy were understanded ,the main pattern of forest bird pattern ,forest rabbit pattern ,forest fox pattern ,forest medicine pattern and forest bacteria pat-tern ;the key technologies measure of Forest rabbit pattern was introduced especially ;the economic ,so-cial and ecological benefits of under forest planting pattern were analyzed comprehensively .

  9. Three-phase theory of city traffic: Moving synchronized flow patterns in under-saturated city traffic at signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2014-03-01

    Three-phase traffic flow theory of city traffic has been developed. Based on simulations of a stochastic microscopic traffic flow model, features of moving synchronized flow patterns (MSP) have been studied, which are responsible for a random time-delayed breakdown of a green-wave (GW) organized in a city. A possibility of GW control leading to the prevention of GW breakdown has been demonstrated. A diagram of traffic breakdown in under-saturated traffic (transition from under- to over-saturated city traffic) at the signal has been found; the diagram presents regions of the average arrival flow rate, within which traffic breakdown can occur, in dependence of parameters of the time-function of the arrival flow rate or/and signal parameters. Physical reasons for a crucial difference between results of classical theory of city traffic and three-phase theory are explained. In particular, we have found that under-saturated traffic at the signal can exist during a long time interval, when the average arrival flow rate is larger than the capacity of the classical theory; the classical capacity is equal to a minimum capacity in three-phase theory. Within a range of the average arrival flow rate between the minimum and maximum signal capacities, under-saturated traffic is in a metastable state with respect to traffic breakdown. We have distinguished the following possible causes for the metastability of under-saturated traffic: (i) The arrival flow rate during the green phase is larger than the saturation flow rate. (ii) The length of the upstream front of a queue at the signal is a finite value. (iii) The outflow rate from a MSP (the rate of MSP discharge) is larger than the saturation flow rate.

  10. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your...

  11. Knowledge Representations Underlying Covert Metalinguistic Activity: A Working Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Covert metalinguistic activity has received little attention in the field of second language (L2) education, even though the few studies that have examined this type of attention to language note that it plays a role in L2 learning and use. However, little is known about this phenomenon. The study reported in this article focuses on the knowledge…

  12. Effect of Land Use Pattern on Mineralization of Residual C and N from Plant Materials Decomposing Under Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGLILI; WENQIXIAO

    1998-01-01

    Four kinds of plant materials(astragalus,azolla,rice straw and water hyacinth) were allowed to decom-pose for 10 years in two soils with different mineralogical characteristics in fields under upland and submerged conditions.Greater amounts of C and N from azolla were retained in soils throughout the 10-year experi-mental period compared to those from the other plant materials.The residual C of all the plant materials in the two soils under upland conditions mineralized at rates corresponding to half-lives between 4.4-6.6 years,while the corresponding figures for those under submerge conditions were between 6.5-13.1 years,Minera-liztion of residual organic N followed the same pattern as residual C.Compared to residual C,however,the mineralization rates of residual organic N in most cases were significantly lower and the percentages of added N retained in soils were higher.More N from plant materials was retained in the yellow-brown soil than in the red soil,but no consistent differences in the amounts of C from plant materials and in the mineraliztion rates of both residual C and residual organic N between the wto soils could be folund.

  13. The comparition of Personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in males with with drug abuse disorder under Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samere asadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the difference between personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in men with drug abuse disorder under Treatment. Method: in this casual- comparative research, 80 men ( 40 males with drug abuse under Treatment and 40 of normal males that were selected with available sampling .Groups were matched in terms of demoghraphy characteristics ( age, sexuality, education level and marital status and were valued with means of Eysenk Perceived Stress Inventory, Jonze Irrational Beliefs Scale and Baret Impulsivity Inventory. Results: The result of variance analysis showed that addicts compared to normal people, get more scores on extraversion, neuroticism and psychosis. Addicts group had Higher men scores in irrational beliefs compare of other group. There was significant difference between groups in impulsivity and impulsivity in addicts persons is the most. Conclussion: The traits of Personality, irrational beliefs and Unrealistic and high level impulsivity are factors that propel individuals toward more drug abuse and finally addict and aiming this factors in individuals with abuse disorder under Treatment can lead to prevent of Substance Abuse Relapse.

  14. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and following White-nose Syndrome occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a wildlife health concern that has decimated cave-hibernating bat populations in eastern North America since 2006, began affecting source-caves for summer bat populations at Fort Drum, a U.S. Army installation in New York in the winter of 2007–2008. As regional die-offs of bats became evident, and Fort Drum's known populations began showing declines, we examined whether WNS-induced change in abundance patterns and seasonal timing of bat activity could be quantified using acoustical surveys, 2003–2010, at structurally uncluttered riparian–water habitats (i.e., streams, ponds, and wet meadows). As predicted, we observed significant declines in overall summer activity between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for little brown bats Myotis lucifugus, northern bats M. septentrionalis, and Indiana bats M. sodalis. We did not observe any significant change in activity patterns between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus, eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis, or the small number of tri-colored bats Perimyotis subflavus. Activity of silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans increased from pre-WNS to post-WNS years. Activity levels of hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus significantly declined between pre- and post-WNS years. As a nonhibernating, migratory species, hoary bat declines might be correlated with wind-energy development impacts occurring in the same time frame rather than WNS. Intraseason activity patterns also were affected by WNS, though the results were highly variable among species. Little brown bats showed an overall increase in activity from early to late summer pre-WNS, presumably due to detections of newly volant young added to the local population. However, the opposite occurred post-WNS, indicating that reproduction among surviving little brown bats may be declining. Our data suggest that acoustical monitoring during the summer season can provide insights into species' relative abundance on the

  15. Spatial Patterns of High Aedes aegypti Oviposition Activity in Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estallo, Elizabet Lilia; Más, Guillermo; Vergara-Cid, Carolina; Lanfri, Mario Alberto; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo; Introini, María Virginia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. Methodology Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005–2007). Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran’s Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR) sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. Principal Findings Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC = 0.77), obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. Conclusions Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist National Health

  16. Spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in northwestern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabet Lilia Estallo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. METHODOLOGY: Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005-2007. Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran's Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC=0.77, obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist

  17. Is there any relationship between physical activity level and patterns, and physical performance in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaes Aurélie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often assumed that physical activity (PA and physical performance during childhood and adolescence are beneficial for health during adulthood, but a positive relationship between PA and physical performance has not been precisely clarified in children. The lack or the weakness of the relationships between PA and physical performance could be due to the measure of PA. If the use of accelerometry is considered as an objective and common measure of PA, the real patterns of children's habitual PA must be reflected. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the levels and patterns of PA assessed with high frequency accelerometry and physical performance in young children. Methods Eighty-six boys and 101 girls aged 6-12 years participated in this study. Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period, using a 5-s epoch. Physical performance was assessed by means of EUROFIT tests (anthropometrics, standing broad jump, the 10 × 5 meter shuttle run, the sit-and-reach, the handgrip, the number of sit-ups in 30 seconds, the 20-meter shuttle run. Results No relationship was found between PA and physical performance. In boys only, body fatness was negatively associated with vigorous PA (r = -0.38, p Conclusion In 6- to- 12 year- old children, the more active children were not the fittest. Our results also underline the need for uniformity in approach to measurement of PA, body composition and health-related fitness between studies.

  18. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkema, Menno P; Davies, Wayne I L; Foster, Russell G; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A

    2013-08-22

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail.

  19. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  20. Exploratory Data Analysis Using a Dedicated Visualization App: Looking for Patterns in Volcanic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, S. M.; Chen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present an App designed to visualize and identify patterns in volcanic activity during the last ten years. It visualizes VEI (volcanic explosivity index) levels, population size, frequency of activity, and geographic region, and is designed to address the issue of oversampling of data. Often times, it is difficult to access a large set of data that can be scattered at first glance and hard to digest without visual aid. This App serves as a model that solves this issue and can be applied to other data. To enable users to quickly assess the large data set it breaks down the apparently chaotic abundance of information into categories and graphic indicators: color is used to indicate the VEI level, size for population size within 5 km of a volcano, line thickness for frequency of activity, and a grid to pinpoint a volcano's latitude. The categories and layers within them can be turned on and off by the user, enabling them to scroll through and compare different layers of data. By visualising the data this way, patterns began to emerge. For example, certain geographic regions had more explosive eruptions than others. Another good example was that low frequency larger impact volcanic eruptions occurred more irregularly than smaller impact volcanic eruptions, which had a more stable frequencies. Although these findings are not unexpected, the easy to navigate App does showcase the potential of data visualization for the rapid appraisal of complex and abundant multi-dimensional geoscience data.

  1. Nanoscale electrochemical patterning reveals the active sites for catechol oxidation at graphite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha N; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-12-19

    Graphite-based electrodes (graphite, graphene, and nanotubes) are used widely in electrochemistry, and there is a long-standing view that graphite step edges are needed to catalyze many reactions, with the basal surface considered to be inert. In the present work, this model was tested directly for the first time using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy reactive patterning and shown to be incorrect. For the electro-oxidation of dopamine as a model process, the reaction rate was measured at high spatial resolution across a surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Oxidation products left behind in a pattern defined by the scanned electrochemical cell served as surface-site markers, allowing the electrochemical activity to be correlated directly with the graphite structure on the nanoscale. This process produced tens of thousands of electrochemical measurements at different locations across the basal surface, unambiguously revealing it to be highly electrochemically active, with step edges providing no enhanced activity. This new model of graphite electrodes has significant implications for the design of carbon-based biosensors, and the results are additionally important for understanding electrochemical processes on related sp(2)-hybridized materials such as pristine graphene and nanotubes.

  2. Evaluating influence of active tectonics on spatial distribution pattern of floods along eastern Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R.; Ramasamy, SM.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a naturally recurrent phenomenon that causes severe damage to lives and property. Predictions on flood-prone zones are made based on intensity-duration of rainfall, carrying capacity of drainage, and natural or man-made obstructions. Particularly, the lower part of the drainage system and its adjacent geomorphic landforms like floodplains and deltaic plains are considered for analysis, but stagnation in parts of basins that are far away from major riverine systems is less unveiled. Similarly, uncharacteristic flooding in the upper and middle parts of drainage, especially in zones of an anomalous drainage pattern, is also least understood. Even though topographic differences are attributed for such anomalous spatial occurrence of floods, its genetic cause has to be identified for effective management practice. Added to structural and lithological variations, tectonic movements too impart micro-scale terrain undulations. Because active tectonic movements are slow-occurring, long-term geological processes, its resultant topographical variations and drainage anomalies are least correlated with floods. The recent floods of Tamil Nadu also exhibit a unique distribution pattern emphasizing the role of tectonics over it. Hence a detailed geoinformatics-based analysis was carried out to envisage the relationship between spatial distribution of flood and active tectonic elements such as regional arches and deeps, block faults, and graben and drainage anomalies such as deflected drainage, compressed meander, and eyed drainages. The analysis reveals that micro-scale topographic highs and lows imparted by active tectonic movements and its further induced drainage anomalies have substantially controlled the distribution pattern of flood.

  3. Similar expression patterns of bestrophin-4 and cGMP dependent Ca2+-activated chloride channel activity in the vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena V.; Larsen, Per; Matchkov, Vladimir;

    2008-01-01

    (abstract by Matchkov et. al) that siRNA mediated downregulation of bestrophin-4 is associated with the disappearance of a recently demonstrated2 cGMP-dependent Ca2+-activated Cl- current in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here we study the distribution of bestrophin-4-and cGMP dependent Cl- channel...... expressed epitope) Western blot detected a ~65 kDa band in cell lysates from rat mesenteric small arteries and aorta, which was not seen in pulmonary arteries and when preincubated with the immunizing peptide. The distribution of bestrophin-4 mRNA and protein has a pattern similar to the cGMP-dependent Cl......- current in SMCs of different origins. Immunohistochemistry identified bestrophin-4 both in endothelial and SMCs of the vascular tree in the brain, heart, kidney and mesentery, but not in the lungs. We suggest that bestrophin-4 is important for the cGMP dependent, Ca2+ activated Cl- conductance in many...

  4. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trampisch Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA and domestic activities (DA, in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany, the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about their everyday physical activity patterns. Time per week (hh:mm spent in SA and DA (heavy housework, gardening was analyzed for men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the odds of participating in SA and DA for at least 2.5 hours/week in association with sociodemographic factors, a broad range of physical health-related factors and interview date (season of the year. Results A total of 1,610 primary health care patients (51.6% women with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years were included in the analyses. Men engaged in SA more often than women (01:45 vs. 01:10, whereas women did more DA per week than men (04:00 vs. 03:00. Being interviewed in spring or summer was associated with increased performance of DA in both sexes. Participation in these activities was reduced in more highly educated men and women. Living alone increased the odds of sports participation in women, but not in men. Most physical health-related factors were only selectively associated with either SA or DA, in men or women, respectively. The need for a walking aid was the only factor that consistently lowered the odds of being active in both activity domains and sexes. Conclusions This exploratory study delivers reliable and relevant data on the participation in and correlates of sporting and domestic activities of community-dwelling older adults for whom there had previously been only limited information at a population level in Germany

  5. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Kerstin; Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  6. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors under epigenetic control in placental metabolism and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Ágnes; Deutsch, Manuel J; Plösch, Torsten; Ensenauer, Regina

    2016-05-15

    The placental metabolism can adapt to the environment throughout pregnancy to both the demands of the fetus and the signals from the mother. Such adaption processes include epigenetic mechanisms, which alter gene expression and may influence the offspring's health. These mechanisms are linked to the diversity of prenatal environmental exposures, including maternal under- or overnutrition or gestational diabetes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that contribute to the developmental plasticity of the placenta by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism pathways, including lipogenesis, steroidogenesis, glucose transporters, and placental signaling pathways, thus representing a link between energy metabolism and reproduction. Among the PPAR isoforms, PPARγ appears to be the main modulator of mammalian placentation. Certain fatty acids and lipid-derived moieties are the natural activating PPAR ligands. By controlling the amounts of maternal nutrients that go across to the fetus, the PPARs play an important regulatory role in placenta metabolism, thereby adapting to the maternal nutritional status. As demonstrated in animal studies, maternal nutrition during gestation can exert long-term influences on the PPAR methylation pattern in offspring organs. This review underlines the current state of knowledge on the relationship between environmental factors and the epigenetic regulation of the PPARs in placenta metabolism and offspring development. PMID:26860983

  7. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Spielmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery.

  8. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  9. Influence of age, sex and season on morbidity and mortality pattern in goats under village conditions of Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Dohare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study factors affecting morbidity and mortality pattern in goats in Chambal division of Madhya Pradesh under village conditions. Materials and Methods: The sampling scheme adopted during study was stratified three stage random sampling and data on 549 goats were recorded. Results: The overall morbidity and mortality rate was 20.58% and 10.20% respectively. Proportional mortality due to diarrhoea was highest (35.71% followed by pneumonia (28.57% and miscellaneous causes (12.5%. Pattern of morbidity in male and female was almost similar. Age of goats was the most important factor and accounted for 39.29%, 28.57% and 32.14% mortality in 0-3 month, 6-9 month and above 9 months, respectively. The effect of season on goat mortality was significant (p<0.05.The incidence of mortality were 41.07%, 37.5% and 21.43% in winter, rainy and summer season respectively. Conclusion: In goats mortality was significantly influenced by age groups and suggesting that more care and attention need to be paid in kids 0-3 months age irrespective of season. Mortality due to various diseases in kids and adults could be minimized by identifying the cause and giving proper treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 329-331

  10. The flowering pattern of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Sugier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the flowering of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. was carried out in the years 2005-2006 on two- and three-year plantations on grey-brown podsolic soil with the granulometric composition of heavy clay sand. The aim of the work was to determine the pattern and length of flowering of two- and three-year-old plants under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection. The flowering of Arnica montana in both years of study lasted 26 days (from the 28th of May to the 22nd of June. In this period, eight collections of flower heads were made. When analyzing the number of inflorescences gathered during particular collections, it was concluded that at the initial stage of flowering it was not great, but it successively increased with the passage of time up to the seventh collection. The pattern of flowering of the two- and three-year-old Arnica montana plants was similar. The inflorescences of Arnica chamissonis were collected six times, and the most abundant flowering was found in the middle period of this stage, which lasted 20 days.

  11. Photon to thermal response of a single patterned gold nanorod cluster under near-infrared laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wonjin; Kim, Min Jun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Freedman, Kevin; Bose, Ranjita K; Lau, Kenneth K S [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Yi, Dong Kee [Gachon BioNano Research Institute, Kyungwon University, Sungnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Solomon, Sally D, E-mail: mkim@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The potential applications of the photon to thermal conversion technique by gold nanorods has attracted attention for biomedical applications since they show an intense absorption spectrum in the near-infrared region, and therefore, penetrate more deeply into biological tissues. The goal in this study is to assess a local heating phenomenon with a single patterned cluster of gold nanorods that are prepared as a wet chemically synthesized gold nanorod solution and mixed with aqueous 1% alginate and 0.1 M calcium chloride. In particular, we utilized the initiated chemical vapor deposition method to coat the cluster with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) to enhance its high temperature resistance in the solution. The influence of the thermal energy on the surroundings is studied by measuring the surface temperature of the single patterned gold nanorod cluster as a function of laser irradiation time. The experimental results were compared with numerical simulation results. The results showed that the irradiated gold nanorods could rapidly heat to maximum surface temperatures of over 60 {sup 0}C within 120 s. Furthermore, the temperature remained almost constant (i.e. reached a steady state) under continuous laser irradiation and rapidly cooled to the initial temperature within 90 s when the laser was turned off.

  12. Estimation of subcriticality and fuel concentration by using 'pattern matching' of neutron flux distribution under non uniformed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, monitoring the spatial profile of neutron flux to infer subcriticality and distribution of fuel concentration using detectors such as PSPC, is very beneficial in sight of criticality safety. In this paper a method of subcriticality and fuel concentration estimation which is supposed to use under non-uniformed system is proposed. Its basic concept is the pattern matching between measured neutron flux distribution and beforehand calculated one. In any kind of subcriticality estimation, we can regard that measured neutron counts put any kind of black box, and then this black box outputs subcriticality. We proposed the use of artificial neural network or 'pattern matching' as black box which have no theoretical clear base. These method are wholly based on the calculated value as recently advancement of computer code accuracy for criticality safety. The most difference between indirect bias estimation method and our method is that our new approach target are the unknown non-uniform system. (J.P.N.)

  13. Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragouli, D; Pompa, P P; Caputo, G; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A [NNL-National Nanotechnology Laboratory, INFM, CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Resta, V; Laera, A M; Tapfer, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: despina.fragouli@unile.it

    2009-04-15

    A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

  14. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  15. Model-Based Characterization of Inflammatory Gene Expression Patterns of Activated Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlting, Christian; Thomas, Maria; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Sawodny, Oliver; Häussinger, Dieter; Bode, Johannes G.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are cells with remarkable plasticity. They integrate signals from their microenvironment leading to context-dependent polarization into classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, representing two extremes of a broad spectrum of divergent phenotypes. Thereby, macrophages deliver protective and pro-regenerative signals towards injured tissue but, depending on the eliciting damage, may also be responsible for the generation and aggravation of tissue injury. Although incompletely understood, there is emerging evidence that macrophage polarization is critical for these antagonistic roles. To identify activation-specific expression patterns of chemokines and cytokines that may confer these distinct effects a systems biology approach was applied. A comprehensive literature-based Boolean model was developed to describe the M1 (LPS-activated) and M2 (IL-4/13-activated) polarization types. The model was validated using high-throughput transcript expression data from murine bone marrow derived macrophages. By dynamic modeling of gene expression, the chronology of pathway activation and autocrine signaling was estimated. Our results provide a deepened understanding of the physiological balance leading to M1/M2 activation, indicating the relevance of co-regulatory signals at the level of Akt1 or Akt2 that may be important for directing macrophage polarization. PMID:27464342

  16. Active Control Of Oscillation Patterns In Nonlinear Dynamical Systems And Their Mathematical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šutová Zuzana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the active control of oscillation patterns in nonlinear dynamical systems and its possible use. The purpose of the research is to prove the possibility of oscillations frequency control based on a change of value of singular perturbation parameter placed into a mathematical model of a nonlinear dynamical system at the highest derivative. This parameter is in singular perturbation theory often called small parameter, as ε → 0+. Oscillation frequency change caused by a different value of the parameter is verified by modelling the system in MATLAB.

  17. Disciplining Disability under Danish Active Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stone, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how caseworkers are re-constructing disability in the Danish welfare system and disciplining themselves and clients according to the active labour policy paradigm. Combining Foucault’s ideas about discipline with Maynard-Moody and Musheno’s method of interpreting street......-level bureaucrats’ stories (Foucault 1977; Maynard-Moody and Musheno 2003), we analyze caseworkers’ stories about their clients, fellow caseworkers and themselves to understand how they practice the ideology behind active labour policy. Our analysis uses Møller’s (2009) interviews with 24 Danish caseworkers who...... administer social welfare and sick leave benefits based on disability as the primary eligibility criterion. We selected stories told by caseworkers that exemplify archetypes of good and bad citizens, good and bad clients, and good and bad caseworkers. Through interpretative analysis, we elucidate how...

  18. Preparation of silver nanoparticle via active template under ultrasonic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Min; WANG Zuo-shan; ZHU Ya-wei

    2006-01-01

    A novel method was described for the production of silver nanoparticle by using nano-carbon as active template. Special ultrasonic condition was used to assure the active effect of the template and achieve an even and stable micro-reactor system,therefore yield uniform silver nanoparticle without obvious agglomeration. By laser granularity instrument measurement, the silver nanoparticles show a mean diameter of 20.4 nm and narrow distribution between 18.7 nm and 23.0 nm according to the optimum technology. Regular spherical morphology can be observed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM). X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that Ag+ is deoxidized to form metal Ag during producing precursor, subsequent calcinations promote phase transformation from nonholonomic crystal to complete cubic crystal, which is consistent with the standard JCPDS card of silver. The results reveal that the nano-carbon in active template system not only exerts micro-reactor and steric stabilization effect, but also acts as reducing agent during the reaction.

  19. Performing Citizenship Down Under: Educating the Active Citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn E. Wood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In democracies such as Australia and New Zealand, education policy increasingly seeks to foster active citizens who are committed to social justice and change. Whilst many aspects of these initiatives are to be applauded for their commitment to empowering young people, in this paper we describe some of the ambiguities that attend young people’s experiences of civic engagement and active citizenship. In doing so, we draw on Isin’s (2008 reconceptualization of citizenship as something that is, above all, performed or enacted. Isin’s focus is upon ‘acts of citizenship’ which he argues are best understood by examining their grounds, effects and consequences. Drawing on illustrations of young people’s global and local citizenship actions in schools in Australia and New Zealand, we examine some of the contradictions and tensions that lie within the enactment of such ‘performed’ curricula. We conclude by reflecting on the opportunities that exist within school and community spaces for the active citizen to perform acts of citizenship.

  20. [Ovarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) under captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Pérez, Rubén C; Cabrera Baz, Elsy A

    2006-09-01

    The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile) at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatśn, Mexico. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta estradiol (E2) were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29+/-8.4 days, levels of 1.61+/-0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39+/-24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18+/-3.70 ng/ml and 29+/-16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9+/-0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22+/-17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress. The changes in the levels of P4 during the cycle are indicators of luteal activity, with the intersticial tissue acting probably as active steroids-producing gland. Follicular growth was observed during the entire cycle.

  1. Influences of acute ethanol exposure on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae under different illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Lin, Jia; Peng, Xiaolan; Chen, Haojun; Zhang, Yinglan; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states.

  2. Muscle activation patterns of the upper and lower extremity during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary A; Keeley, David W

    2011-06-01

    Fast-pitch softball has become an increasingly popular sport for female athletes. There has been little research examining the windmill softball pitch in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe the muscle activation patterns of 3 upper extremity muscles (biceps, triceps, and rhomboids [scapular stabilizers]) and 2 lower extremity muscles (gluteus maximus and medius) during the 5 phases of the windmill softball pitch. Data describing muscle activation were collected on 7 postpubescent softball pitchers (age 17.7 ± 2.6 years; height 169 ± 5.4 cm; mass 69.1 ± 5.4 kg). Surface electromyographic data were collected using a Myopac Jr 10-channel amplifier (RUN Technologies Scientific Systems, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) synchronized with The MotionMonitor™ motion capture system (Innovative Sports Training Inc, Chicago IL, USA) and presented as a percent of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Gluteus maximus activity reached (196.3% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]), whereas gluteus medius activity was consistent during the single leg support of phase 3 (101.2% MVIC). Biceps brachii activity was greatest during phase 4 of the pitching motion. Triceps brachii activation was consistently >150% MVIC throughout the entire pitching motion, whereas the scapular stabilizers were most active during phase 2 (170.1% MVIC). The results of this study indicate the extent to which muscles are activated during the windmill softball pitch, and this knowledge can lead to the development of proper preventative and rehabilitative muscle strengthening programs. In addition, clinicians will be able to incorporate strengthening exercises that mimic the timing of maximal muscle activation most used during the windmill pitching phases.

  3. Temporal Analysis of Activity Patterns of Editors in Collaborative Mapping Project of OpenStreetMap

    CERN Document Server

    Yasseri, Taha; Mashhadi, Afra

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years Wikis have become an attractive platform for social studies of the human behaviour. Containing millions records of edits across the globe, collaborative systems such as Wikipedia have allowed researchers to gain a better understanding of editors participation and their activity patterns. However, contributions made to Geo-wikis_wiki-based collaborative mapping projects_ differ from systems such as Wikipedia in a fundamental way due to spatial dimension of the content that limits the contributors to a set of those who posses local knowledge about a specific area and therefore cross-platform studies and comparisons are required to build a comprehensive image of online open collaboration phenomena. In this work, we study the temporal behavioural pattern of OpenStreetMap editors, a successful example of geo-wiki, for two European capital cities. We categorise different type of temporal patterns and report on the historical trend within a period of 7 years of the project age. We also draw a com...

  4. Racial/Ethnic Patterns in Prostate Cancer Outcomes in an Active Surveillance Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cullen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Concern regarding overtreatment of prostate cancer (CaP is leading to increased attention on active surveillance (AS. This study examined CaP survivors on AS and compared secondary treatment patterns and overall survival by race/ethnicity. Methods. The study population consisted of CaP patients self-classified as black or white followed on AS in the Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR multicenter national database between 1989 and 2008. Secondary treatment included radical prostatectomy (RP, external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy (EBRT-Br, and hormone therapy (HT. Secondary treatment patterns and overall survival were compared by race/ethnicity. Results. Among 886 eligible patients, 21% were black. Despite racial differences in risk characteristics and secondary treatment patterns, overall survival was comparable across race. RP following AS was associated with the longest overall survival. Conclusion. Racial disparity in overall survival was not observed in this military health care beneficiary cohort with an equal access to health care.

  5. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale L Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Understanding the context where adolescents' physical activity (PA takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents' PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA, and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12-18 years, 50.4% girls in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels with adolescents' sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups.The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk, the least during active transportation (210 min/wk, and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001, active transportation (P<0.001, MVPA (P = 0.023 and total PA (P = 0.003 than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009, home-based PA (P<0.001 and light-intensity PA (P<0.001 than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024 and total PA (P = 0.049 were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009, less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048 and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013. High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.002, more MVPA (P = 0.047 and less active

  6. Active control of tensegrity structures under random excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Raja, M.; Narayanan, S.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we consider vibration control of tensegrity structures under stationary and nonstationary random excitations. These excitations may be representative of many physical loading conditions, such as earthquake, wind, aerodynamic and acoustic excitations. The optimal control theory based on H2 and \\mathrm {H}_{\\infty } controller with full state and limited state feedback is used for the control. The response of the tensegrity structure is represented by the zero lag covariance matrix and the same is obtained by solving the matrix Lyapunov equation. The force generated by the electro-mechanical coupling of the piezoelectric actuator is used in the formulation. A tensegrity structure of class-1 comprising of two modules, with 24 pretension cables and six struts with piezoelectric actuators, is considered.

  7. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 μg L-1). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  8. Hydrocarbon activation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions proceeds by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Microbial degradation of alkanes typically involves their conversion to fatty acids which are then catabolised by beta-oxidation. The critical step in this process is activation of the hydrocarbon. Under oxic conditions this is catalyzed by monooxygenase enzymes with the formation of long chain alcohols. In the absence of oxygen alternative alkane activation mechanisms have been observed or proposed. Fumarate addition to alkanes to form alkyl succinates is considered a central process in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Comparative studies of crude oil degradation under sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions revealed distinctive patterns of compound class removal and metabolite formation. Alkyl succinates derived from C7 to C26 n-alkanes and branched chain alkanes were found in abundance in sulfate-reducing systems but these were not detected during methanogenic crude oil degradation. Only one other mechanism of alkane activation has been elucidated to date. This involves addition of carbon derived from bicarbonate/CO2 to C-3 of an alkane chain to form a 2-ethylalkane with subsequent removal of the ethyl group leading to the formation of a fatty acid 1 carbon shorter than the original alkane. 2-ethylalkanes have never been detected as metabolites of anaerobic alkane degradation and were not detected in crude oil-degrading methanogenic systems. Due to the range of alkanes present in crude oil it was not possible to infer the generation of C-odd acids from C-even alkanes which is characteristic of the C-3 carboxylation mechanism. Furthermore genes homologous to alkysuccinate synthetases were not detected in the methanogenic hydrocarbon degrading community by pyrosequencing of total DNA extracted from methanogenic enrichments cultures. beta-oxidation genes were detected and intriguingly, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were present. This offers the possibility that alkane activation in the methanogenic system does not proceed via acid metabolites

  9. [Effects of soil wetting pattern on the soil water-thermal environment and cotton root water consumption under mulched drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-wei; Li, Ming-si; Liu, Dong; Lyu, Mou-chao; Jia, Yan-hui

    2015-08-01

    Abstract: To explore the effects of soil wetting pattern on soil water-thermal environment and water consumption of cotton root under mulched drip irrigation, a field experiment with three drip intensities (1.69, 3.46 and 6.33 L · h(-1)), was carried out in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The soil matric potential, soil temperature, cotton root distribution and water consumption were measured during the growing period of cotton. The results showed that the main factor influencing the soil temperature of cotton under plastic mulch was sunlight. There was no significant difference in the soil temperature and root water uptake under different treatments. The distribution of soil matrix suction in cotton root zone under plastic mulch was more homogeneous under ' wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern (W633). Under the 'wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern, the average difference of cotton root water consumption between inner row and outer row was 0.67 mm · d(-1), which was favorable to the cotton growing trimly at both inner and outer rows; for the 'narrow and deep' soil wetting pattern (W169), the same index was 0.88 mm · d(-1), which was unfavorable to cotton growing uniformly at both inner and outer rows. So, we should select the broad-shallow type soil wetting pattern in the design of drip irrigation under mulch. PMID:26685608

  10. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Perc, Matjaz; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-01-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-...

  11. Interaction patterns of brain activity across space, time and frequency. Part I: methods

    CERN Document Server

    Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D

    2011-01-01

    We consider exploratory methods for the discovery of cortical functional connectivity. Typically, data for the i-th subject (i=1...NS) is represented as an NVxNT matrix Xi, corresponding to brain activity sampled at NT moments in time from NV cortical voxels. A widely used method of analysis first concatenates all subjects along the temporal dimension, and then performs an independent component analysis (ICA) for estimating the common cortical patterns of functional connectivity. There exist many other interesting variations of this technique, as reviewed in [Calhoun et al. 2009 Neuroimage 45: S163-172]. We present methods for the more general problem of discovering functional connectivity occurring at all possible time lags. For this purpose, brain activity is viewed as a function of space and time, which allows the use of the relatively new techniques of functional data analysis [Ramsay & Silverman 2005: Functional data analysis. New York: Springer]. In essence, our method first vectorizes the data from...

  12. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley C Bergstrom

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  13. Pavlovian fear conditioning activates a common pattern of neurons in the lateral amygdala of individual brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; McDonald, Craig G; Johnson, Luke R

    2011-01-12

    Understanding the physical encoding of a memory (the engram) is a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although it has been established that the lateral amygdala is a key site for encoding associative fear memory, it is currently unclear whether the spatial distribution of neurons encoding a given memory is random or stable. Here we used spatial principal components analysis to quantify the topography of activated neurons, in a select region of the lateral amygdala, from rat brains encoding a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. Our results demonstrate a stable, spatially patterned organization of amygdala neurons are activated during the formation of a Pavlovian conditioned fear memory. We suggest that this stable neuronal assembly constitutes a spatial dimension of the engram.

  14. Shifting patterns of everyday activity in early dementia: experiences of men and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Alison; Dahlke, Sherry; Purves, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    In this article we draw from a larger study to examine experiences of two men and their families as they negotiate changing patterns of everyday activity in the months after receiving a diagnosis of dementia. We conducted in-depth interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview and observational data that were gathered from the men and various members of their families (n = 7) over a period several months. Findings are presented as three themes: The best kind of man (highlighting participants' historical positioning); It's a little different now (recognizing challenges posed by the dementia); and You have to do something (showing how the men and their families responded to and accommodated these challenges). We discuss these findings in terms of how everyday activity is not only important for supporting personhood in dementia, but it also contributes to sustaining family identity, and does so in a way that is deeply influenced by gender and masculinity.

  15. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (−) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils. PMID:27190677

  16. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajgovind Soni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs of T. ammi (1.94±30 mL/100 gm and M. fragrans (5.93±90 mL/100 gm were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (− bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028 and three Gram (+ bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412 by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  17. Cultured Neural Networks: Optimization of Patterned Network Adhesiveness and Characterization of their Neural Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. C. Rutten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One type of future, improved neural interface is the “cultured probe”. It is a hybrid type of neural information transducer or prosthesis, for stimulation and/or recording of neural activity. It would consist of a microelectrode array (MEA on a planar substrate, each electrode being covered and surrounded by a local circularly confined network (“island” of cultured neurons. The main purpose of the local networks is that they act as biofriendly intermediates for collateral sprouts from the in vivo system, thus allowing for an effective and selective neuron–electrode interface. As a secondary purpose, one may envisage future information processing applications of these intermediary networks. In this paper, first, progress is shown on how substrates can be chemically modified to confine developing networks, cultured from dissociated rat cortex cells, to “islands” surrounding an electrode site. Additional coating of neurophobic, polyimide-coated substrate by triblock-copolymer coating enhances neurophilic-neurophobic adhesion contrast. Secondly, results are given on neuronal activity in patterned, unconnected and connected, circular “island” networks. For connected islands, the larger the island diameter (50, 100 or 150 μm, the more spontaneous activity is seen. Also, activity may show a very high degree of synchronization between two islands. For unconnected islands, activity may start at 22 days in vitro (DIV, which is two weeks later than in unpatterned networks.

  18. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils. PMID:27190677

  19. Essential Oil Yield Pattern and Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Rajgovind; Sharma, Gaurav; Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut

    2016-01-01

    Two Indian spices, Trachyspermum ammi and Myristica fragrans, were studied for their essential oil (EO) yielding pattern, insecticidal activity, antibacterial activity, and composition. The essential oils (EOs) of T. ammi (1.94 ± 30 mL/100 gm) and M. fragrans (5.93 ± 90 mL/100 gm) were extracted using hydrodistillation method. In Gas Chromatography analysis, the beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, alpha-p-menth-1-en-4-ol, Limonene, and elemicin were found as major constituents of T. ammi essential oil whereas M. fragrans essential oil mostly contains Gamma-Terpinolene, p-Cymene, Thymol, and beta-pinene. The insecticidal activities of EO were demonstrated using LC50 values against Plodia interpunctella and EO of T. ammi was found comparatively more effective than EO of M. fragrans. Further, individual EO and combination of essential oil were examined for antibacterial activity against three Gram (-) bacterial strains (E. coli-MTCC 443, P. vulgaris-MTCC 1771, and K. pneumoniae-MTCC number 7028) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains (S. aureus-MTCC 3381, B. subtilis-MTCC 10619, and B. megaterium-MTCC 2412) by well agar diffusion method. The essential oil in combination (CEO) exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared with individual essential oils.

  20. Activity patterns in the Sahara Desert: an interpretation based on cross-sectional geometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Siew, Yun Ysi; Stock, Jay; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2011-11-01

    The Garamantian civilization flourished in modern Fezzan, Libya, between 900 BC and 500 AD, during which the aridification of the Sahara was well established. Study of the archaeological remains suggests a population successful at coping with a harsh environment of high and fluctuating temperatures and reduced water and food resources. This study explores the activity patterns of the Garamantes by means of cross-sectional geometric properties. Long bone diaphyseal shape and rigidity are compared between the Garamantes and populations from Egypt and Sudan, namely from the sites of Kerma, el-Badari, and Jebel Moya, to determine whether the Garamantian daily activities were more strenuous than those of other North African populations. Moreover, sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry are assessed at an intra- and inter-population level. The inter-population comparisons showed the Garamantes not to be more robust than the comparative populations, suggesting that the daily Garamantian activities necessary for survival in the Sahara Desert did not generally impose greater loads than those of other North African populations. Sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry in almost all geometric properties of the long limbs were comparatively low among the Garamantes. Only the lower limbs were significantly stronger among males than females, possibly due to higher levels of mobility associated with herding. The lack of systematic bilateral asymmetry in cross-sectional geometric properties may relate to the involvement of the population in bilaterally intensive activities or the lack of regular repetition of unilateral activities.