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Sample records for activation loop phosphorylation

  1. Small-Molecule Inhibition and Activation-Loop Trans-Phosphorylation of the IGF1 Receptor

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    Wu,J.; Li, W.; Craddock, B.; Foreman, K.; Mulvihill, M.; Ji, Q.; Miller, W.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that has a critical role in mitogenic signalling during embryogenesis and an antiapoptotic role in the survival and progression of many human tumours. Here, we present the crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of IGF1R (IGF1RK), in its unphosphorylated state, in complex with a novel compound, cis-3-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-l-yl)-cyclobutyl]-1-(2-phenyl-quinolin-7-yl)-imidazo[1, 5-a]pyrazin-8-ylamine (PQIP), which we show is a potent inhibitor of both the unphosphorylated (basal) and phosphorylated (activated) states of the kinase. PQIP interacts with residues in the ATP-binding pocket and in the activation loop, which confers specificity for IGF1RK and the highly related insulin receptor (IR) kinase. In this crystal structure, the IGF1RK active site is occupied by Tyr1135 from the activation loop of an symmetry (two-fold)-related molecule. This dimeric arrangement affords, for the first time, a visualization of the initial trans-phosphorylation event in the activation loop of an RTK, and provides a molecular rationale for a naturally occurring mutation in the activation loop of the IR that causes type II diabetes mellitus.

  2. Variants of the yeast MAPK Mpk1 are fully functional independently of activation loop phosphorylation

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    Goshen-Lago, Tal; Goldberg-Carp, Anat; Melamed, Dganit; Darlyuk-Saadon, Ilona; Bai, Chen; Ahn, Natalie G.; Admon, Arie; Engelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    MAP kinases of the ERK family are conserved from yeast to humans. Their catalytic activity is dependent on dual phosphorylation of their activation loop’s TEY motif, catalyzed by MAPK kinases (MEKs). Here we studied variants of Mpk1, a yeast orthologue of Erk, which is essential for cell wall integrity. Cells lacking MPK1, or the genes encoding the relevant MEKs, MKK1 and MKK2, do not proliferate under cell wall stress, imposed, for example, by caffeine. Mutants of Mpk1, Mpk1(Y268C) and Mpk1(Y268A), function independently of Mkk1 and Mkk2. We show that these variants are phosphorylated at their activation loop in mkk1∆mkk2∆ and mkk1∆mkk2∆pbs2∆ste7∆ cells, suggesting that they autophosphorylate. However, strikingly, when Y268C/A mutations were combined with the kinase-dead mutation, K54R, or mutations at the TEY motif, T190A+Y192F, the resulting proteins still allowed mkk1∆mkk2∆ cells to proliferate under caffeine stress. Mutating the equivalent residue, Tyr-280/Tyr-261, in Erk1/Erk2 significantly impaired Erk1/2’s catalytic activity. This study describes the first case in which a MAPK, Erk/Mpk1, imposes a phenotype via a mechanism that is independent of TEY phosphorylation and an unusual case in which an equivalent mutation in a highly conserved domain of yeast and mammalian Erks causes an opposite effect. PMID:27413009

  3. A negative-feedback loop regulating ERK1/2 activation and mediated by RasGPR2 phosphorylation

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    Ren, Jinqi [Departments of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Cook, Aaron A.; Bergmeier, Wolfgang [Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Sondek, John, E-mail: sondek@med.unc.edu [Departments of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The dynamic regulation of ERK1 and -2 (ERK1/2) is required for precise signal transduction controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the activation of ERK1/2 are not completely understood. In this study, we show that phosphorylation of RasGRP2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), inhibits its ability to activate the small GTPase Rap1 that ultimately leads to decreased activation of ERK1/2 in cells. ERK2 phosphorylates RasGRP2 at Ser394 located in the linker region implicated in its autoinhibition. These studies identify RasGRP2 as a novel substrate of ERK1/2 and define a negative-feedback loop that regulates the BRaf–MEK–ERK signaling cascade. This negative-feedback loop determines the amplitude and duration of active ERK1/2. -- Highlights: •ERK2 phosphorylates the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP2 at Ser394. •Phosphorylated RasGRP2 has decreased capacity to active Rap1b in vitro and in cells. •Phosphorylation of RasGRP2 by ERK1/2 introduces a negative-feedback loop into the BRaf-MEK-ERK pathway.

  4. The kinase activation loop is the key to mixed lineage kinase-3 activation via both autophosphorylation and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 phosphorylation.

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    Leung, I W; Lassam, N

    2001-01-19

    We have demonstrated previously that Cdc42 induced MLK-3 homodimerization leads to both autophosphorylation and activation of MLK-3 and postulated that autophosphorylation is an intermediate step of MLK-3 activation following its dimerization. In this report we sought to refine further the mechanism of MLK-3 activation and study the role of the putative kinase activation loop in MLK-3 activation. First we mutated the three potential phosphorylation sites in MLK-3 putative activation loop to alanine in an effort to abrogate MLK-3 autophosphorylation. Mutant T277A displayed almost no autophosphorylation activity and was nearly nonfunctional; mutant S281A, that displayed a low level of autophosphorylation, only slightly activated its downstream targets, whereas the T278A mutant, that exhibited autophosphorylation comparable to that of the wild type, was almost fully functional. Thus, these residues within the activation loop are critical for MLK-3 autophosphorylation and activation. In addition, when the Thr277 and Ser281 residues were mutated to negatively charged glutamic acid to mimic phosphorylated serine/threonine residues, the resulting mutants were fully functional, implying that these two residues may serve as the autophosphorylation sites. Interestingly, HPK1 also phosphorylated MLK-3 activation loop in vitro, and Ser281 was found to be the major phosphorylation site, indicating that HPK1 also activates MLK-3 via phosphorylation of the kinase activation loop.

  5. Phosphorylation of the transcription activator CLOCK regulates progression through a ∼ 24-h feedback loop to influence the circadian period in Drosophila.

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    Mahesh, Guruswamy; Jeong, EunHee; Ng, Fanny S; Liu, Yixiao; Gunawardhana, Kushan; Houl, Jerry H; Yildirim, Evrim; Amunugama, Ravi; Jones, Richard; Allen, David L; Edery, Isaac; Kim, Eun Young; Hardin, Paul E

    2014-07-11

    Circadian (≅ 24 h) clocks control daily rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior in animals, plants, and microbes. In Drosophila, these clocks keep circadian time via transcriptional feedback loops in which clock-cycle (CLK-CYC) initiates transcription of period (per) and timeless (tim), accumulating levels of PER and TIM proteins feed back to inhibit CLK-CYC, and degradation of PER and TIM allows CLK-CYC to initiate the next cycle of transcription. The timing of key events in this feedback loop are controlled by, or coincide with, rhythms in PER and CLK phosphorylation, where PER and CLK phosphorylation is high during transcriptional repression. PER phosphorylation at specific sites controls its subcellular localization, activity, and stability, but comparatively little is known about the identity and function of CLK phosphorylation sites. Here we identify eight CLK phosphorylation sites via mass spectrometry and determine how phosphorylation at these sites impacts behavioral and molecular rhythms by transgenic rescue of a new Clk null mutant. Eliminating phosphorylation at four of these sites accelerates the feedback loop to shorten the circadian period, whereas loss of CLK phosphorylation at serine 859 increases CLK activity, thereby increasing PER levels and accelerating transcriptional repression. These results demonstrate that CLK phosphorylation influences the circadian period by regulating CLK activity and progression through the feedback loop. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Serine phosphorylation of NPM-ALK, which is dependent on the auto-activation of the kinase activation loop, contributes to its oncogenic potential.

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    Wang, Peng; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Jingdong; McMullen, Todd; Young, Leah C; Ingham, Robert J; Li, Liang; Lai, Raymond

    2011-02-01

    It is well established that the tumorigenic potential of nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, is dependent on its tyrosine phosphorylation. Using tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry, we found evidence of phosphorylation of three serine residues of NPM-ALK (Serine¹³⁵, Serine¹⁶⁴ and Serine⁴⁹⁷) ectopically expressed in GP293 cells. Using a specific anti-phosphoserine antibody and immunoprecipitation, we confirmed the presence of serine phosphorylation of NPM-ALK in all three NPM-ALK-expressing cell lines examined. Similar to the tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphorylation of these serine residues was dependent on the activation status of the kinase activation loop of ALK. All of these three serine residues are biologically important as mutation of any one of these residues resulted in a significant reduction in the tumorigenicity of NPM-ALK (assessed by cell viability and clonogenic assay), which correlated with a substantial reduction in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-jun N-terminal kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6. Serine phosphorylation of NPM-ALK appears to be regulated by multiple serine kinases since it was markedly reduced by pharmacologic inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase-3, casein kinase I or mitogen-activated protein kinases. In summary, our study is the first to identify serine phosphorylation of NPM-ALK and to provide evidence that it enhances the tumorigenic potential of this oncogenic protein.

  7. Activated α2-macroglobulin binding to cell surface GRP78 induces T-loop phosphorylation of Akt1 by PDK1 in association with Raptor.

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    Uma Kant Misra

    Full Text Available PDK1 phosphorylates multiple substrates including Akt by PIP3-dependent mechanisms. In this report we provide evidence that in prostate cancer cells stimulated with activated α2-macroglobulin (α2M* PDK1 phosphorylates Akt in the T-loop at Thr(308 by using Raptor in the mTORC1 complex as a scaffold protein. First we demonstrate that PDK1, Raptor, and mTOR co-immunoprecipitate. Silencing the expression, not only of PDK1, but also Raptor by RNAi nearly abolished Akt phosphorylation at Akt(Thr308 in Raptor-immunoprecipitates of α2M*-stimulated prostate cancer cells. Immunodepleting Raptor or PDK from cell lysates of cells treated with α2M* drastically reduced Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308, which was recovered by adding the supernatant of Raptor- or PDK1-depleted cell lysates, respectively. Studies of insulin binding to its receptor on prostate cancer cells yielded similar results. We thus demonstrate that phosphorylating the T-loop Akt residue Thr(308 by PDK1 requires Raptor of the mTORC1 complex as a platform or scaffold protein.

  8. Asp295 Stabilizes the Active-Site Loop Structure of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Facilitating Phosphorylation of Ser292 by Pyruvate Dehydrogenase-Kinase

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    Tripty A. Hirani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an in vitro system for detailed analysis of reversible phosphorylation of the plant mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, comprising recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana α2β2-heterotetrameric pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1 plus A. thaliana E1-kinase (AtPDK. Upon addition of MgATP, Ser292, which is located within the active-site loop structure of E1α, is phosphorylated. In addition to Ser292, Asp295 and Gly297 are highly conserved in the E1α active-site loop sequences. Mutation of Asp295 to Ala, Asn, or Leu greatly reduced phosphorylation of Ser292, while mutation of Gly297 had relatively little effect. Quantitative two-hybrid analysis was used to show that mutation of Asp295 did not substantially affect binding of AtPDK to E1α. When using pyruvate as a variable substrate, the Asp295 mutant proteins had modest changes in kcat, Km, and kcat/Km values. Therefore, we propose that Asp295 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site loop structure, facilitating transfer of the γ-phosphate from ATP to the Ser residue at regulatory site one of E1α.

  9. An acidic loop and cognate phosphorylation sites define a molecular switch that modulates ubiquitin charging activity in Cdc34-like enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaleo, Elena; Ranzani, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida;

    2011-01-01

    elements in one of the larger families of E2 enzymes: an acidic insertion in β4α2 loop in the proximity of the catalytic cysteine and two conserved key serine residues within the catalytic domain, which are phosphorylated by CK2. Our investigations, using yeast Cdc34 as a model, through 2.5 µs molecular......E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are crucial mediators of protein ubiquitination, which strongly influence the ultimate fate of the target substrates. Recently, it has been shown that the activity of several enzymes of the ubiquitination pathway is finely tuned by phosphorylation, an ubiquitous...... mechanism for cellular regulation, which modulates protein conformation. In this contribution, we provide the first rationale, at the molecular level, of the regulatory mechanism mediated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylation of E2 Cdc34-like enzymes. In particular, we identify two co-evolving signature...

  10. Histone 3 s10 phosphorylation: "caught in the R loop!".

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    Skourti-Stathaki, Konstantina; Proudfoot, Nicholas J

    2013-11-21

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Castellano-Pozo et al. (2013) describe a connection between R loop structures and histone 3 S10 phosphorylation (H3S10P), a mark of chromatin compaction. Their results constitute a significant advance in our understanding of the role of R loops in genomic instability.

  11. A Positive Feedback Loop between Akt and mTORC2 via SIN1 Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Guang Yang; Danielle S. Murashige; Sean J. Humphrey; David E. James

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates cell survival and cytoskeletal organization by phosphorylating its AGC kinase substrates; however, little is known about the regulation of mTORC2 itself. It was previously reported that Akt phosphorylates the mTORC2 subunit SIN1 at T86, activating mTORC2 through a positive feedback loop, though another study reported that S6K phosphorylates SIN1 at the same site, inhibiting mTORC2 activity. We performed extensive analysis of SIN...

  12. A Positive Feedback Loop between Akt and mTORC2 via SIN1 Phosphorylation

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    Guang Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 regulates cell survival and cytoskeletal organization by phosphorylating its AGC kinase substrates; however, little is known about the regulation of mTORC2 itself. It was previously reported that Akt phosphorylates the mTORC2 subunit SIN1 at T86, activating mTORC2 through a positive feedback loop, though another study reported that S6K phosphorylates SIN1 at the same site, inhibiting mTORC2 activity. We performed extensive analysis of SIN1 phosphorylation upon inhibition of Akt, S6K, and mTOR under diverse cellular contexts, and we found that, in all cell lines and conditions studied, Akt is the major kinase responsible for SIN1 phosphorylation. These findings refine the activation mechanism of the Akt-mTORC2 signaling branch as follows: PDK1 phosphorylates Akt at T308, increasing Akt kinase activity. Akt phosphorylates SIN1 at T86, enhancing mTORC2 kinase activity, which leads to phosphorylation of Akt S473 by mTORC2, thereby catalyzing full activation of Akt.

  13. A Positive Feedback Loop between Akt and mTORC2 via SIN1 Phosphorylation.

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    Yang, Guang; Murashige, Danielle S; Humphrey, Sean J; James, David E

    2015-08-11

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates cell survival and cytoskeletal organization by phosphorylating its AGC kinase substrates; however, little is known about the regulation of mTORC2 itself. It was previously reported that Akt phosphorylates the mTORC2 subunit SIN1 at T86, activating mTORC2 through a positive feedback loop, though another study reported that S6K phosphorylates SIN1 at the same site, inhibiting mTORC2 activity. We performed extensive analysis of SIN1 phosphorylation upon inhibition of Akt, S6K, and mTOR under diverse cellular contexts, and we found that, in all cell lines and conditions studied, Akt is the major kinase responsible for SIN1 phosphorylation. These findings refine the activation mechanism of the Akt-mTORC2 signaling branch as follows: PDK1 phosphorylates Akt at T308, increasing Akt kinase activity. Akt phosphorylates SIN1 at T86, enhancing mTORC2 kinase activity, which leads to phosphorylation of Akt S473 by mTORC2, thereby catalyzing full activation of Akt.

  14. Ser⁄ Thr residues at α3⁄β5 loop of Gαs are important in morphine-induced adenylyl cyclase sensitization but not mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation

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    Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Albert, Paul R.; Dehpour, Ahmad R.; Rahimian, Reza; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Ghahremani, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    The signaling switch of β2-adrenergic and μ1-opioid receptors from stimulatory G-protein (Gαs) to inhibitory G-protein (Gαi) (and vice versa) influences adenylyl cyclase (AC) and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1 ⁄ 2 activation. Post-translational modifications, including dephosphorylation of Gαs, enhance opioid receptor coupling to Gαs. In the present study, we substituted the Ser ⁄ Thr residues of Gαs at the α3 ⁄ β5 and α4 ⁄ β6 loops aiming to study the role of Gαs lacking Ser ⁄ Thr phosphorylation with respect to AC sensitization and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Isoproterenol increased the cAMP concentration (EC50 = 22.8 ± 3.4 μM) in Gαs-transfected S49 cyc– cells but not in nontransfected cells. However, there was no significant difference between the Gαs-wild-type (wt) and mutants. Morphine (10 μM) inhibited AC activity more efficiently in cyc– compared to Gαs-wt introduced cells (P < 0.05); however, we did not find a notable difference between Gαs-wt and mutants. Interestingly, Gαs-wt transfected cells showed more sensitization with respect to AC after chronic morphine compared to nontransfected cells (101 ± 12% versus 34 ± 6%; P < 0.001); μ1-opioid receptor interacted with Gαs, and both co-immunoprecipitated after chronic morphine exposure. Furthermore, mutation of T270A and S272A (P < 0.01), as well as T270A, S272A and S261A (P < 0.05), in α3 ⁄ β5, resulted in a higher level of AC supersensitization. ERK1⁄ 2 phosphorylation was rapidly induced by isoproterenol (by 9.5 ± 2.4-fold) and morphine (22 ± 2.2-fold) in Gαs-transfected cells; mutations of α3 ⁄ β5 and α4 ⁄ β6 did not affect the pattern or extent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. The findings of the present study show that Gαs interacts with the μ1-opioid receptor, and the Ser ⁄ Thr mutation to Ala at the α3 ⁄ β5 loop of Gαs enhances morphine-induced AC sensitization. In addition, Gαs was required for

  15. R loops are linked to histone H3 S10 phosphorylation and chromatin condensation.

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    Castellano-Pozo, Maikel; Santos-Pereira, José M; Rondón, Ana G; Barroso, Sonia; Andújar, Eloisa; Pérez-Alegre, Mónica; García-Muse, Tatiana; Aguilera, Andrés

    2013-11-21

    R loops are transcription byproducts that constitute a threat to genome integrity. Here we show that R loops are tightly linked to histone H3 S10 phosphorylation (H3S10P), a mark of chromatin condensation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip (ChIP-chip) analyses reveal H3S10P accumulation at centromeres, pericentromeric chromatin, and a large number of active open reading frames (ORFs) in R-loop-accumulating yeast cells, better observed in G1. Histone H3S10 plays a key role in maintaining genome stability, as scored by ectopic recombination and plasmid loss, Rad52 foci, and Rad53 checkpoint activation. H3S10P coincides with the presence of DNA-RNA hybrids, is suppressed by ribonuclease H overexpression, and causes reduced accessibility of restriction endonucleases, implying a tight connection between R loops, H3S10P, and chromatin compaction. Such histone modifications were also observed in R-loop-accumulating Caenorhabditis elegans and HeLa cells. We therefore provide a role of RNA in chromatin structure essential to understand how R loops modulate genome dynamics.

  16. Structural Basis for Inactivation of the Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex by Phosphorylation: Role of Disordered Phosphorylation Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Masato; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Tso, Shih-Chia; Machius, Mischa; Li, Jun; Chuang, David T. (UTSMC)

    2009-09-11

    We report the crystal structures of the phosporylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p) component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The complete phosphorylation at Ser264-{alpha} (site 1) of a variant E1p protein was achieved using robust pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 free of the PDC core. We show that unlike its unmodified counterpart, the presence of a phosphoryl group at Ser264-{alpha} prevents the cofactor thiamine diphosphate-induced ordering of the two loops carrying the three phosphorylation sites. The disordering of these phosphorylation loops is caused by a previously unrecognized steric clash between the phosphoryl group at site 1 and a nearby Ser266-{alpha}, which nullifies a hydrogen-bonding network essential for maintaining the loop conformations. The disordered phosphorylation loops impede the binding of lipoyl domains of the PDC core to E1p, negating the reductive acetylation step. This results in the disruption of the substrate channeling in the PDC, leading to the inactivation of this catalytic machine.

  17. Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation is regulated by the calcium signaling pathway.

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    Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Rice, Andrew P

    2012-02-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation is a tightly regulated process and is dependent upon positive transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb). The core P-TEFb complex is composed of Cdk9 and Cyclin T and is essential for the expression of most protein coding genes. Cdk9 kinase function is dependent upon phosphorylation of Thr186 in its T-loop. In this study, we examined kinases and signaling pathways that influence Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation. Using an RNAi screen in HeLa cells, we found that Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation is regulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase 1D (CaMK1D). Using small molecules inhibitors in HeLa cells and primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes, we found that the Ca(2+) signaling pathway is required for Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation. Inhibition of Ca(2+) signaling led to dephosphorylation of Thr186 on Cdk9. In reporter plasmid assays, inhibition of the Ca(2+) signaling pathway repressed the PCNA promoter and HIV-1 Tat transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR, but not HTLV-1 Tax transactivation of the HTLV-1 LTR, suggesting that perturbation of the Ca(2+) pathway and reduction of Cdk9 T-loop phosphorylation inhibits transcription units that have a rigorous requirement for P-TEFb function.

  18. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation.

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    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C

    2016-04-18

    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation.

  19. HER2 phosphorylation is maintained by a PKB negative feedback loop in response to anti-HER2 herceptin in breast cancer.

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    Gijsen, Merel; King, Peter; Perera, Tim; Parker, Peter J; Harris, Adrian L; Larijani, Banafshé; Kong, Anthony

    2010-12-21

    Herceptin (trastuzumab) is used in patients with breast cancer who have HER2 (ErbB2)-positive tumours. However, its mechanisms of action and how acquired resistance to Herceptin occurs are still poorly understood. It was previously thought that the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Herceptin inhibits HER2 signalling, but recent studies have shown that Herceptin does not decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Its failure to abolish HER2 phosphorylation may be a key to why acquired resistance inevitably occurs for all responders if Herceptin is given as monotherapy. To date, no studies have explained why Herceptin does not abolish HER2 phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to investigate why Herceptin did not decrease HER2 phosphorylation despite being an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody. We also investigated the effects of acute and chronic Herceptin treatment on HER3 and PKB phosphorylation in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Using both Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) methodology and conventional Western blot, we have found the molecular mechanisms whereby Herceptin fails to abolish HER2 phosphorylation. HER2 phosphorylation is maintained by ligand-mediated activation of EGFR, HER3, and HER4 receptors, resulting in their dimerisation with HER2. The release of HER ligands was mediated by ADAM17 through a PKB negative feedback loop. The feedback loop was activated because of the inhibition of PKB by Herceptin treatment since up-regulation of HER ligands and ADAM17 also occurred when PKB phosphorylation was inhibited by a PKB inhibitor (Akt inhibitor VIII, Akti-1/2). The combination of Herceptin with ADAM17 inhibitors or the panHER inhibitor JNJ-26483327 was able to abrogate the feedback loop and decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the combination of Herceptin with JNJ-26483327 was synergistic in tumour inhibition in a BT474 xenograft model. We have determined that a PKB negative feedback loop links ADAM17 and HER ligands in maintaining HER2

  20. HER2 phosphorylation is maintained by a PKB negative feedback loop in response to anti-HER2 herceptin in breast cancer.

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    Merel Gijsen

    Full Text Available Herceptin (trastuzumab is used in patients with breast cancer who have HER2 (ErbB2-positive tumours. However, its mechanisms of action and how acquired resistance to Herceptin occurs are still poorly understood. It was previously thought that the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Herceptin inhibits HER2 signalling, but recent studies have shown that Herceptin does not decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Its failure to abolish HER2 phosphorylation may be a key to why acquired resistance inevitably occurs for all responders if Herceptin is given as monotherapy. To date, no studies have explained why Herceptin does not abolish HER2 phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to investigate why Herceptin did not decrease HER2 phosphorylation despite being an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody. We also investigated the effects of acute and chronic Herceptin treatment on HER3 and PKB phosphorylation in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Using both Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET methodology and conventional Western blot, we have found the molecular mechanisms whereby Herceptin fails to abolish HER2 phosphorylation. HER2 phosphorylation is maintained by ligand-mediated activation of EGFR, HER3, and HER4 receptors, resulting in their dimerisation with HER2. The release of HER ligands was mediated by ADAM17 through a PKB negative feedback loop. The feedback loop was activated because of the inhibition of PKB by Herceptin treatment since up-regulation of HER ligands and ADAM17 also occurred when PKB phosphorylation was inhibited by a PKB inhibitor (Akt inhibitor VIII, Akti-1/2. The combination of Herceptin with ADAM17 inhibitors or the panHER inhibitor JNJ-26483327 was able to abrogate the feedback loop and decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the combination of Herceptin with JNJ-26483327 was synergistic in tumour inhibition in a BT474 xenograft model. We have determined that a PKB negative feedback loop links ADAM17 and HER ligands in maintaining

  1. Molecular mechanism of APC/C activation by mitotic phosphorylation.

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    Zhang, Suyang; Chang, Leifu; Alfieri, Claudio; Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, Mark; Barford, David

    2016-05-12

    In eukaryotes, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C, also known as the cyclosome) regulates the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of specific cell-cycle proteins to coordinate chromosome segregation in mitosis and entry into the G1 phase. The catalytic activity of the APC/C and its ability to specify the destruction of particular proteins at different phases of the cell cycle are controlled by its interaction with two structurally related coactivator subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. Coactivators recognize substrate degrons, and enhance the affinity of the APC/C for its cognate E2 (refs 4-6). During mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and polo-like kinase (Plk) control Cdc20- and Cdh1-mediated activation of the APC/C. Hyperphosphorylation of APC/C subunits, notably Apc1 and Apc3, is required for Cdc20 to activate the APC/C, whereas phosphorylation of Cdh1 prevents its association with the APC/C. Since both coactivators associate with the APC/C through their common C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs, the mechanism underlying this differential regulation is unclear, as is the role of specific APC/C phosphorylation sites. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical analysis, we define the molecular basis of how phosphorylation of human APC/C allows for its control by Cdc20. An auto-inhibitory segment of Apc1 acts as a molecular switch that in apo unphosphorylated APC/C interacts with the C-box binding site and obstructs engagement of Cdc20. Phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment displaces it from the C-box-binding site. Efficient phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment, and thus relief of auto-inhibition, requires the recruitment of Cdk-cyclin in complex with a Cdk regulatory subunit (Cks) to a hyperphosphorylated loop of Apc3. We also find that the small-molecule inhibitor, tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester, preferentially suppresses APC/C(Cdc20) rather than APC/C(Cdh1), and interacts with the binding sites of both the C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs. Our

  2. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4 activates its ubiquitin ligase activity.

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    Persaud, Avinash; Alberts, Philipp; Mari, Sara; Tong, Jiefei; Murchie, Ryan; Maspero, Elena; Safi, Frozan; Moran, Michael F; Polo, Simona; Rotin, Daniela

    2014-10-07

    Ligand binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) causes dimerization and activation by transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. FGFR1 is ubiquitylated by the E3 ligase NEDD4 (also known as NEDD4-1), which promotes FGFR1 internalization and degradation. Although phosphorylation of FGFR1 is required for NEDD4-dependent endocytosis, NEDD4 directly binds to a nonphosphorylated region of FGFR1. We found that activation of FGFR1 led to activation of c-Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4, enhancing the ubiquitin ligase activity of NEDD4. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several FGF-dependent phosphorylated tyrosines in NEDD4, including Tyr(43) in the C2 domain and Tyr(585) in the HECT domain. Mutating these tyrosines to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation inhibited FGF-dependent NEDD4 activity and FGFR1 endocytosis and enhanced cell proliferation. Mutating the tyrosines to glutamic acid to mimic phosphorylation enhanced NEDD4 activity. Moreover, the NEDD4 C2 domain bound the HECT domain, and the presence of phosphomimetic mutations inhibited this interaction, suggesting that phosphorylation of NEDD4 relieves an inhibitory intra- or intermolecular interaction. Accordingly, activation of FGFR1 was not required for activation of NEDD4 that lacked its C2 domain. Activation of c-Src by epidermal growth factor (EGF) also promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced the activity of NEDD4. Thus, we identified a feedback mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases promote catalytic activation of NEDD4 and that may represent a mechanism of receptor crosstalk.

  3. An Allosteric Cross-Talk Between the Activation Loop and the ATP Binding Site Regulates the Activation of Src Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucheta-Martínez, Encarna; Saladino, Giorgio; Morando, Maria Agnese; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge; Lelli, Moreno; Sutto, Ludovico; D'Amelio, Nicola; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorylation of the activation loop is a fundamental step in the activation of most protein kinases. In the case of the Src tyrosine kinase, a prototypical kinase due to its role in cancer and its historic importance, phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 in the activation loop is known to rigidify the structure and contribute to the switch from the inactive to a fully active form. However, whether or not phosphorylation is able per-se to induce a fully active conformation, that efficiently binds ATP and phosphorylates the substrate, is less clear. Here we employ a combination of solution NMR and enhanced-sampling molecular dynamics simulations to fully map the effects of phosphorylation and ATP/ADP cofactor loading on the conformational landscape of Src tyrosine kinase. We find that both phosphorylation and cofactor binding are needed to induce a fully active conformation. What is more, we find a complex interplay between the A-loop and the hinge motion where the phosphorylation of the activation-loop has a significant allosteric effect on the dynamics of the C-lobe.

  4. Phosphorylation regulates coilin activity and RNA association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna J. Broome

    2013-02-01

    The Cajal body (CB is a domain of concentrated components found within the nucleus of cells in an array of species that is functionally important for the biogenesis of telomerase and small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The CB is a dynamic structure whose number and size change during the cell cycle and is associated with other nuclear structures and gene loci. Coilin, also known as the marker protein for the CB, is a phosphoprotein widely accepted for its role in maintaining CB integrity. Recent studies have been done to further elucidate functional activities of coilin apart from its structural role in the CB in an attempt to explore the rationale for coilin expression in cells that have few CBs or lack them altogether. Here we show that the RNA association profile of coilin changes in mitosis with respect to that during interphase. We provide evidence of transcriptional and/or processing dysregulation of several CB-related RNA transcripts as a result of ectopic expression of both wild-type and phosphomutant coilin proteins. We also show apparent changes in transcription and/or processing of these transcripts upon coilin knockdown in both transformed and primary cell lines. Additionally, we provide evidence of specific coilin RNase activity regulation, on both U2 and hTR transcripts, by phosphorylation of a single residue, serine 489. Collectively, these results point to additional functions for coilin that are regulated by phosphorylation.

  5. Phosphorylation of Leukotriene C4 Synthase at Serine 36 Impairs Catalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shabbir; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Thulasingam, Madhuranayaki; Tholander, Fredrik; Bergman, Tomas; Zubarev, Roman; Wetterholm, Anders; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Haeggström, Jesper Z

    2016-08-26

    Leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S) catalyzes the formation of the proinflammatory lipid mediator leukotriene C4 (LTC4). LTC4 is the parent molecule of the cysteinyl leukotrienes, which are recognized for their pathogenic role in asthma and allergic diseases. Cellular LTC4S activity is suppressed by PKC-mediated phosphorylation, and recently a downstream p70S6k was shown to play an important role in this process. Here, we identified Ser(36) as the major p70S6k phosphorylation site, along with a low frequency site at Thr(40), using an in vitro phosphorylation assay combined with mass spectrometry. The functional consequences of p70S6k phosphorylation were tested with the phosphomimetic mutant S36E, which displayed only about 20% (20 μmol/min/mg) of the activity of WT enzyme (95 μmol/min/mg), whereas the enzyme activity of T40E was not significantly affected. The enzyme activity of S36E increased linearly with increasing LTA4 concentrations during the steady-state kinetics analysis, indicating poor lipid substrate binding. The Ser(36) is located in a loop region close to the entrance of the proposed substrate binding pocket. Comparative molecular dynamics indicated that Ser(36) upon phosphorylation will pull the first luminal loop of LTC4S toward the neighboring subunit of the functional homotrimer, thereby forming hydrogen bonds with Arg(104) in the adjacent subunit. Because Arg(104) is a key catalytic residue responsible for stabilization of the glutathione thiolate anion, this phosphorylation-induced interaction leads to a reduction of the catalytic activity. In addition, the positional shift of the loop and its interaction with the neighboring subunit affect active site access. Thus, our mutational and kinetic data, together with molecular simulations, suggest that phosphorylation of Ser(36) inhibits the catalytic function of LTC4S by interference with the catalytic machinery. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. PKCθ-Mediated PDK1 Phosphorylation Enhances T Cell Activation by Increasing PDK1 Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ah; Choi, Hyunwoo; Yang, Taewoo; Cho, Steve K.; Park, Zee-Yong; Park, Sung-Gyoo

    2017-01-01

    PDK1 is essential for T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of NF-κB, and PDK1-induced phosphorylation of PKCθ is important for TCR-induced NF-κB activation. However, inverse regulation of PDK1 by PKCθ during T cell activation has not been investigated. In this study, we found that PKCθ is involved in human PDK1 phosphorylation and that its kinase activity is crucial for human PDK1 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry analysis of wild-type PKCθ or of kinase-inactive form of PKCθ revealed that PKCθ induced phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64. This PKCθ-induced PDK1 phosphorylation positively regulated T cell activation and TCR-induced NF-κB activation. Moreover, phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64 increased the stability of human PDK1 protein. These results suggest that Ser-64 is an important phosphorylation site that is part of a positive feedback loop for human PDK1-PKCθ-mediated T cell activation. PMID:28152304

  7. A phosphoserine/threonine-binding pocket in AGC kinases and PDK1 mediates activation by hydrophobic motif phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, Morten; Antal, Torben L; Dümmler, Bettina A;

    2002-01-01

    The growth factor-activated AGC protein kinases RSK, S6K, PKB, MSK and SGK are activated by serine/threonine phosphorylation in the activation loop and in the hydrophobic motif, C-terminal to the kinase domain. In some of these kinases, phosphorylation of the hydrophobic motif creates a specific...... docking site that recruits and activates PDK1, which then phosphorylates the activation loop. Here, we discover a pocket in the kinase domain of PDK1 that recognizes the phosphoserine/phosphothreonine in the hydrophobic motif by identifying two oppositely positioned arginine and lysine residues that bind...... the phosphate. Moreover, we demonstrate that RSK2, S6K1, PKBalpha, MSK1 and SGK1 contain a similar phosphate-binding pocket, which they use for intramolecular interaction with their own phosphorylated hydrophobic motif. Molecular modelling and experimental data provide evidence for a common activation mechanism...

  8. Characterization of superoxide overproduction by the D-Loop(Nox4)-Nox2 cytochrome b(558) in phagocytes-Differential sensitivity to calcium and phosphorylation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrichon, Laure; Picciocchi, Antoine; Debeurme, Franck; Defendi, Federica; Beaumel, Sylvain; Jesaitis, Algirdas J; Dagher, Marie-Claire; Stasia, Marie-José

    2011-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial element of phagocytes involved in microbicidal mechanisms. It becomes active when membrane-bound cytochrome b(558), the redox core, is assembled with cytosolic p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac proteins to produce superoxide, the precursor for generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the potential second intracellular loop of Nox2 was essential to maintaining NADPH oxidase activity by controlling electron transfer from FAD to O(2). Moreover, replacement of this loop by the Nox4-D-loop (D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2) in PLB-985 cells induced superoxide overproduction. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that both soluble and particulate stimuli were able to induce this superoxide overproduction. Superoxide overproduction was also observed after phosphatidic acid activation in a purified cell-free-system assay. The highest oxidase activity was obtained after ionomycin and fMLF stimulation. In addition, enhanced sensitivity to Ca(2+) influx was shown by thapsigargin, EDTA, or BTP2 treatment before fMLF activation. Mutated cytochrome b(558) was less dependent on phosphorylation triggered by ERK1/2 during fMLF or PMA stimulation and by PI3K during OpZ stimulation. The superoxide overproduction of the D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2 mutant may come from a change of responsiveness to intracellular Ca(2+) level and to phosphorylation events during oxidase activation. Finally the D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2-PLB-985 cells were more effective against an attenuated strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to WT-Nox2 cells. The killing mechanism was biphasic, an early step of ROS production that was directly bactericidal, and a second oxidase-independent step related to the amount of ROS produced in the first step.

  9. A phosphorylation cascade controls the degradation of active SREBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoechea-Alonso, Maria T; Ericsson, Johan

    2009-02-27

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulates cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The active forms of these transcription factors are targeted by a number of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Thr-426 and Ser-430 in SREBP1a creates a docking site for the ubiquitin ligase Fbw7, resulting in the degradation of the transcription factor. Here, we identify a novel phosphorylation site in SREBP1a, Ser-434, which regulates the Fbw7-dependent degradation of SREBP1. We demonstrate that both SREBP1a and SREBP1c are phosphorylated on this residue (Ser-410 in SREBP1c). Importantly, we demonstrate that the mature form of endogenous SREBP1 is phosphorylated on Ser-434. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 phosphorylates Ser-434, and the phosphorylation of this residue is attenuated in response to insulin signaling. Interestingly, phosphorylation of Ser-434 promotes the glycogen synthase kinase-3-dependent phosphorylation of Thr-426 and Ser-430 and destabilizes SREBP1. Consequently, mutation of Ser-434 blocks the interaction between SREBP1 and Fbw7 and attenuates Fbw7-dependent degradation of SREBP1. Importantly, insulin fails to enhance the levels of mature SREBP1 in cells lacking Fbw7. Thus, the degradation of mature SREBP1 is controlled by cross-talk between multiple phosphorylated residues in its C-terminal domain and the phosphorylation of Ser-434 could function as a molecular switch to control these processes.

  10. Mitotic chromosome compaction via active loop extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloborodko, Anton; Imakaev, Maxim; Marko, John; Mirny, Leonid; MIT-Northwestern Team

    During cell division, two copies of each chromosome are segregated from each other and compacted more than hundred-fold into the canonical X-shaped structures. According to earlier microscopic observations and the recent Hi-C study, chromosomes are compacted into arrays of consecutive loops of ~100 kilobases. Mechanisms that lead to formation of such loop arrays are largely unknown. Here we propose that, during cell division, chromosomes can be compacted by enzymes that extrude loops on chromatin fibers. First, we use computer simulations and analytical modeling to show that a system of loop-extruding enzymes on a chromatin fiber self-organizes into an array of consecutive dynamic loops. Second, we model the process of loop extrusion in 3D and show that, coupled with the topo II strand-passing activity, it leads to robust compaction and segregation of sister chromatids. This mechanism of chromosomal condensation and segregation does not require additional proteins or specific DNA markup and is robust against variations in the number and properties of such loop extruding enzymes. Work at NU was supported by the NSF through Grants DMR-1206868 and MCB-1022117, and by the NIH through Grants GM105847 and CA193419. Work at MIT was supported by the NIH through Grants GM114190 R01HG003143.

  11. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef; (Pitt); (CNRS-CRMD)

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of

  12. Trans-activation of the DNA-damage signalling protein kinase Chk2 by T-loop exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Antony W; Paul, Angela; Boxall, Katherine J; Barrie, S Elaine; Aherne, G Wynne; Garrett, Michelle D; Mittnacht, Sibylle; Pearl, Laurence H

    2006-07-12

    The protein kinase Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) is a major effector of the replication checkpoint. Chk2 activation is initiated by phosphorylation of Thr68, in the serine-glutamine/threonine-glutamine cluster domain (SCD), by ATM. The phosphorylated SCD-segment binds to the FHA domain of a second Chk2 molecule, promoting dimerisation of the protein and triggering phosphorylation of the activation segment/T-loop in the kinase domain. We have now determined the structure of the kinase domain of human Chk2 in complexes with ADP and a small-molecule inhibitor debromohymenialdisine. The structure reveals a remarkable dimeric arrangement in which T-loops are exchanged between protomers, to form an active kinase conformation in trans. Biochemical data suggest that this dimer is the biologically active state promoted by ATM-phosphorylation, and also suggests a mechanism for dimerisation-driven activation of Chk2 by trans-phosphorylation.

  13. Sonic Hedgehog dependent phosphorylation by CK1α and GRK2 is required for ciliary accumulation and activation of smoothened.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling regulates embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the GPCR-like protein Smoothened (Smo, but how vertebrate Smo is activated remains poorly understood. In Drosophila, Hh dependent phosphorylation activates Smo. Whether this is also the case in vertebrates is unclear, owing to the marked sequence divergence between vertebrate and Drosophila Smo (dSmo and the involvement of primary cilia in vertebrate Hh signaling. Here we demonstrate that mammalian Smo (mSmo is activated through multi-site phosphorylation of its carboxyl-terminal tail by CK1α and GRK2. Phosphorylation of mSmo induces its active conformation and simultaneously promotes its ciliary accumulation. We demonstrate that graded Hh signals induce increasing levels of mSmo phosphorylation that fine-tune its ciliary localization, conformation, and activity. We show that mSmo phosphorylation is induced by its agonists and oncogenic mutations but is blocked by its antagonist cyclopamine, and efficient mSmo phosphorylation depends on the kinesin-II ciliary motor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Hh signaling recruits CK1α to initiate mSmo phosphorylation, and phosphorylation further increases the binding of CK1α and GRK2 to mSmo, forming a positive feedback loop that amplifies and/or sustains mSmo phosphorylation. Hence, despite divergence in their primary sequences and their subcellular trafficking, mSmo and dSmo employ analogous mechanisms for their activation.

  14. Effects of FGFR2 kinase activation loop dynamics on catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The structural mechanisms by which receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate catalytic activity are diverse and often based on subtle changes in conformational dynamics. The regulatory mechanism of one such RTK, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) kinase, is still unknown, as the numerous crystal structures of the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of the kinase domains show no apparent structural change that could explain how phosphorylation could enable catalytic activity. In this study, we use several enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) methods to elucidate the structural changes to the kinase’s activation loop that occur upon phosphorylation. We show that phosphorylation favors inward motion of Arg664, while simultaneously favoring outward motion of Leu665 and Pro666. The latter structural change enables the substrate to bind leading to its resultant phosphorylation. Inward motion of Arg664 allows it to interact with the γ-phosphate of ATP as well as the substrate tyrosine. We show that this stabilizes the tyrosine and primes it for the catalytic phosphotransfer, and it may lower the activation barrier of the phosphotransfer reaction. Our work demonstrates the value of including dynamic information gleaned from computer simulation in deciphering RTK regulatory function. PMID:28151998

  15. Effects of FGFR2 kinase activation loop dynamics on catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jerome M; Sparks, Samuel; Cowburn, David

    2017-02-01

    The structural mechanisms by which receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate catalytic activity are diverse and often based on subtle changes in conformational dynamics. The regulatory mechanism of one such RTK, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) kinase, is still unknown, as the numerous crystal structures of the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of the kinase domains show no apparent structural change that could explain how phosphorylation could enable catalytic activity. In this study, we use several enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD) methods to elucidate the structural changes to the kinase's activation loop that occur upon phosphorylation. We show that phosphorylation favors inward motion of Arg664, while simultaneously favoring outward motion of Leu665 and Pro666. The latter structural change enables the substrate to bind leading to its resultant phosphorylation. Inward motion of Arg664 allows it to interact with the γ-phosphate of ATP as well as the substrate tyrosine. We show that this stabilizes the tyrosine and primes it for the catalytic phosphotransfer, and it may lower the activation barrier of the phosphotransfer reaction. Our work demonstrates the value of including dynamic information gleaned from computer simulation in deciphering RTK regulatory function.

  16. Effects of FGFR2 kinase activation loop dynamics on catalytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome M Karp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The structural mechanisms by which receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs regulate catalytic activity are diverse and often based on subtle changes in conformational dynamics. The regulatory mechanism of one such RTK, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 kinase, is still unknown, as the numerous crystal structures of the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of the kinase domains show no apparent structural change that could explain how phosphorylation could enable catalytic activity. In this study, we use several enhanced sampling molecular dynamics (MD methods to elucidate the structural changes to the kinase's activation loop that occur upon phosphorylation. We show that phosphorylation favors inward motion of Arg664, while simultaneously favoring outward motion of Leu665 and Pro666. The latter structural change enables the substrate to bind leading to its resultant phosphorylation. Inward motion of Arg664 allows it to interact with the γ-phosphate of ATP as well as the substrate tyrosine. We show that this stabilizes the tyrosine and primes it for the catalytic phosphotransfer, and it may lower the activation barrier of the phosphotransfer reaction. Our work demonstrates the value of including dynamic information gleaned from computer simulation in deciphering RTK regulatory function.

  17. Molecular mechanisms for the regulation of histone mRNA stem-loop-binding protein by phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Tan, Dazhi; DeRose, Eugene F.; Perera, Lalith; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F.; Tong, Liang; Tanaka Hall, Traci M. [NIH; (UNC); (Columbia)

    2014-08-06

    Replication-dependent histone mRNAs end with a conserved stem loop that is recognized by stem-loop–binding protein (SLBP). The minimal RNA-processing domain of SLBP is phosphorylated at an internal threonine, and Drosophila SLBP (dSLBP) also is phosphorylated at four serines in its 18-aa C-terminal tail. We show that phosphorylation of dSLBP increases RNA-binding affinity dramatically, and we use structural and biophysical analyses of dSLBP and a crystal structure of human SLBP phosphorylated on the internal threonine to understand the striking improvement in RNA binding. Together these results suggest that, although the C-terminal tail of dSLBP does not contact the RNA, phosphorylation of the tail promotes SLBP conformations competent for RNA binding and thereby appears to reduce the entropic penalty for the association. Increased negative charge in this C-terminal tail balances positively charged residues, allowing a more compact ensemble of structures in the absence of RNA.

  18. Spatial separation of Plk1 phosphorylation and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wytse eBruinsma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1 is one of the major kinases controlling mitosis and cell division. Plk1 is first recruited to the centrosome in S phase, then appears on the kinetochores in late G2 and at the end of mitosis it translocates to the central spindle. Activation of Plk1 requires phosphorylation of T210 by Aurora A, an event that critically depends on the co-factor Bora. However, conflicting reports exist as to where Plk1 is first activated. Phosphorylation of T210 is first observed at the centrosomes, but kinase activity seems to be restricted to the nucleus in the earlier phases of G2. Here we demonstrate that Plk1 activity manifests itself first in the nucleus using a nuclear FRET-based biosensor for Plk1 activity. However, we find that Bora is restricted to the cytoplasm and that Plk1 is phosphorylated on T210 at the centrosomes. Our data demonstrate that while Plk1 activation occurs on centrosomes, downstream target phosphorylation by Plk1 first occurs in the nucleus. We discuss several explanations for this surprising separation of activation and function.

  19. Raf activation is regulated by tyrosine 510 phosphorylation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The proto-oncoprotein Raf is pivotal for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, and its aberrant activation has been implicated in multiple human cancers. However, the precise molecular mechanism of Raf activation, especially for B-Raf, remains unresolved. By genetic and biochemical studies, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of tyrosine 510 is essential for activation of Drosophila Raf (Draf, which is an ortholog of mammalian B-Raf. Y510 of Draf is phosphorylated by the c-src homolog Src64B. Acidic substitution of Y510 promotes and phenylalanine substitution impairs Draf activation without affecting its enzymatic activity, suggesting that Y510 plays a purely regulatory role. We further show that Y510 regulates Draf activation by affecting the autoinhibitory interaction between the N- and C-terminal fragments of the protein. Finally, we show that Src64B is required for Draf activation in several developmental processes. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of Raf activation via Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. Since Y510 is a conserved residue in the kinase domain of all Raf proteins, this mechanism is likely evolutionarily conserved.

  20. Phosphorylation regulates NCC stability and transporter activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Sen; Fang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Min-Hua; Chu, Pei-Yi; Yu, I-Shing; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chau, Tom; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2013-10-01

    A T60M mutation in the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is common in patients with Gitelman's syndrome (GS). This mutation prevents Ste20-related proline and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)/oxidative stress responsive kinase-1 (OSR1)-mediated phosphorylation of NCC and alters NCC transporter activity in vitro. Here, we examined the physiologic effects of NCC phosphorylation in vivo using a novel Ncc T58M (human T60M) knock-in mouse model. Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice exhibited typical features of GS with a blunted response to thiazide diuretics. Despite expressing normal levels of Ncc mRNA, these mice had lower levels of total Ncc and p-Ncc protein that did not change with a low-salt diet that increased p-Spak. In contrast to wild-type Ncc, which localized to the apical membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells, T58M Ncc localized primarily to the cytosolic region and caused an increase in late distal convoluted tubule volume. In MDCK cells, exogenous expression of phosphorylation-defective NCC mutants reduced total protein expression levels and membrane stability. Furthermore, our analysis found diminished total urine NCC excretion in a cohort of GS patients with homozygous NCC T60M mutations. When Wnk4(D561A/+) mice, a model of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II expressing an activated Spak/Osr1-Ncc, were crossed with Ncc(T58M/T58M) mice, total Ncc and p-Ncc protein levels decreased and the GS phenotype persisted over the hypertensive phenotype. Overall, these data suggest that SPAK-mediated phosphorylation of NCC at T60 regulates NCC stability and function, and defective phosphorylation at this residue corrects the phenotype of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II.

  1. 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase is phosphorylated and activated by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Antonio Juel; Buch, M B; Krag, T O;

    1999-01-01

    90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK2) belongs to a family of growth factor-activated serine/threonine kinases composed of two kinase domains connected by a regulatory linker region. The N-terminal kinase of RSK2 is involved in substrate phosphorylation. Its activation requires phosphorylation of th...... of Ser(227), Ser(369), and Ser(386). Our study extend recent findings which implicate PDK1 in the activation of protein kinases B and C and p70(S6K), suggesting that PDK1 controls several major growth factor-activated signal transduction pathways.......90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-2 (RSK2) belongs to a family of growth factor-activated serine/threonine kinases composed of two kinase domains connected by a regulatory linker region. The N-terminal kinase of RSK2 is involved in substrate phosphorylation. Its activation requires phosphorylation...... of the linker region at Ser(369), catalyzed by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and at Ser(386), catalyzed by the C-terminal kinase, after its activation by ERK. In addition, the N-terminal kinase must be phosphorylated at Ser(227) in the activation loop by an as yet unidentified kinase. Here, we...

  2. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A.; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Sadler, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity. PMID:28281686

  3. Auto-phosphorylation Represses Protein Kinase R Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Die; de Weerd, Nicole A; Willard, Belinda; Polekhina, Galina; Williams, Bryan R G; Sadler, Anthony J

    2017-03-10

    The central role of protein kinases in controlling disease processes has spurred efforts to develop pharmaceutical regulators of their activity. A rational strategy to achieve this end is to determine intrinsic auto-regulatory processes, then selectively target these different states of kinases to repress their activation. Here we investigate auto-regulation of the innate immune effector protein kinase R, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α to inhibit global protein translation. We demonstrate that protein kinase R activity is controlled by auto-inhibition via an intra-molecular interaction. Part of this mechanism of control had previously been reported, but was then controverted. We account for the discrepancy and extend our understanding of the auto-inhibitory mechanism by identifying that auto-inhibition is paradoxically instigated by incipient auto-phosphorylation. Phosphor-residues at the amino-terminus instigate an intra-molecular interaction that enlists both of the N-terminal RNA-binding motifs of the protein with separate surfaces of the C-terminal kinase domain, to co-operatively inhibit kinase activation. These findings identify an innovative mechanism to control kinase activity, providing insight for strategies to better regulate kinase activity.

  4. Attenuation of Phosphorylation-dependent Activation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by Disease-causing Mutations at the Transmission Interface*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephanie; Yang, Donghe; Miles, Andrew J.; Eckford, Paul D. W.; Molinski, Steven; Wallace, B. A.; Bear, Christine E.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multidomain membrane protein that functions as a phosphorylation-regulated anion channel. The interface between its two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains and coupling helices conferred by intracellular loops extending from the channel pore domains has been referred to as a transmission interface and is thought to be critical for the regulated channel activity of CFTR. Phosphorylation of the regulatory domain of CFTR by protein kinase A (PKA) is required for its channel activity. However, it was unclear if phosphorylation modifies the transmission interface. Here, we studied purified full-length CFTR protein using spectroscopic techniques to determine the consequences of PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that purified full-length wild-type CFTR is folded and structurally responsive to phosphorylation. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies of CFTR showed that phosphorylation reduced iodide-mediated quenching, consistent with an effect of phosphorylation in burying tryptophans at the transmission interface. Importantly, the rate of phosphorylation-dependent channel activation was compromised by the introduction of disease-causing mutations in either of the two coupling helices predicted to interact with nucleotide binding domain 1 at the interface. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation modifies the interface between the catalytic and pore domains of CFTR and that this modification facilitates CFTR channel activation. PMID:28003367

  5. Attenuation of Phosphorylation-dependent Activation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) by Disease-causing Mutations at the Transmission Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Stephanie; Yang, Donghe; Miles, Andrew J; Eckford, Paul D W; Molinski, Steven; Wallace, B A; Bear, Christine E

    2017-02-03

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multidomain membrane protein that functions as a phosphorylation-regulated anion channel. The interface between its two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains and coupling helices conferred by intracellular loops extending from the channel pore domains has been referred to as a transmission interface and is thought to be critical for the regulated channel activity of CFTR. Phosphorylation of the regulatory domain of CFTR by protein kinase A (PKA) is required for its channel activity. However, it was unclear if phosphorylation modifies the transmission interface. Here, we studied purified full-length CFTR protein using spectroscopic techniques to determine the consequences of PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that purified full-length wild-type CFTR is folded and structurally responsive to phosphorylation. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence studies of CFTR showed that phosphorylation reduced iodide-mediated quenching, consistent with an effect of phosphorylation in burying tryptophans at the transmission interface. Importantly, the rate of phosphorylation-dependent channel activation was compromised by the introduction of disease-causing mutations in either of the two coupling helices predicted to interact with nucleotide binding domain 1 at the interface. Together, these results suggest that phosphorylation modifies the interface between the catalytic and pore domains of CFTR and that this modification facilitates CFTR channel activation.

  6. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  7. Phosphorylation of both nucleoplasmin domains is required for activation of its chromatin decondensation activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañuelos, Sonia; Omaetxebarria, Miren J; Ramos, Isbaal

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoplasmin (NP) is a histone chaperone involved in nucleosome assembly, chromatin decondensation at fertilization, and apoptosis. To carry out these activities NP has to interact with different types of histones, an interaction that is regulated by phosphorylation. Here we have identified...... were independently or simultaneously "activated" indicates that activation or phosphorylation of both protein domains is required for NP to efficiently extract linker-type histones from chromatin....

  8. Cell cycle regulation by feed-forward loops coupling transcription and phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Kapuy, Orsolya; Tóth, Attila

    2009-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell cycle requires precise temporal coordination of the activities of hundreds of 'executor' proteins (EPs) involved in cell growth and division. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks) play central roles in regulating the production, activation, inactivation and destruction......) from Cdk1. By mathematical modelling, we show that such FFLs can activate EPs at different phases of the cell cycle depending of the effective signs (+ or -) of the regulatory steps of the FFL. We provide several case studies of EPs that are controlled by FFLs exactly as our models predict. The signal......-transduction properties of FFLs allow one (or a few) Cdk signal(s) to drive a host of cell cycle responses in correct temporal sequence....

  9. Synaptic activation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation occurs locally in activated dendritic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6) locally near active synapses. Using antibodies specific for phosphorylation at different sites (ser235/236 versus ser240/244), we show that strong synaptic activation led to dramatic increases in immunostaining throughout postsynaptic neurons with selectively higher staining for p-ser235/236 in the activated dendritic lamina. Following LTP induction, phosphorylation at ser235/236 was detectable by 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and was maintained for hours. Phosphorylation at both sites was completely blocked by local infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, APV. Despite robust induction of p-rpS6 following high frequency stimulation, assessment of protein synthesis by autoradiography revealed no detectable increases. Exploration of a novel environment led to increases in the number of p-rpS6-positive neurons throughout the forebrain in a pattern reminiscent of immediate early gene induction and many individual neurons that were p-rpS6-positive coexpressed Arc protein. Our results constrain hypotheses about the possible role of rpS6 phosphorylation in regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis during induction of synaptic plasticity.

  10. Altered myoelectric activity in the experimental blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, P G; Fernandez, A; Martin, J L; King, C E; Toskes, P P; Mathias, J R

    1983-09-01

    Nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea are characteristic of the blind loop syndrome. Alterations in motility have been implicated as a cause of bacterial overgrowth, but the possibility that altered motility may result from alterations in the flora has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to characterize the myoelectric activity of the small intestine in the blind loop rat model. Eight groups of rats were studied: rats with self-filling blind loops, which develop bacterial overgrowth; rats with self-emptying blind loops, which are surgical controls that do not develop overgrowth; unoperated litter mates; rats with self-filling blind loops and unoperated controls treated with chloramphenicol, 200 mg/d i.p.; rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; operated control rats; and gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops. In the untreated rats with self-filling blind loops, there was altered myoelectric activity characterized by an increased percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and by organized activity similar to the migrating action potential complex. Migrating action potential complex activity and percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials were significantly decreased with chloramphenicol therapy; that decrease correlated with a decrease in aerobes and anaerobes. Migrating action potential complex activity was abolished in rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; they also showed a significant decrease in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials. Gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops showed no alteration in myoelectric activity. These data indicate: (a) bacterial overgrowth is associated with a significant increase in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; (b) chloramphenicol significantly reduced both percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; and (c

  11. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop uncertain systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems by using an auxiliary input vector is considered in this paper, i.e. active fault diagnosis (AFD). The active fault diagnosis is based directly on the socalled fault signature matrix, related to the YJBK (Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno...... and Kucera) parameterization. Conditions are given for exact detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems....

  12. The double-loop feedback for active learning with understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Learning is an active process, and in engineering education authentic projects is often used to activate the students and promote learning. However, it is not all activity that leads to deep learning; and in a rapid changing society deep understanding is necessary for life-long learning. Empirical...... findings at DTU question the direct link between high activity and a deep approach to learning. Active learning is important to obtain engineering competencies, but active learning requires more than activity. Feedback and reflection is crucial to the learning process, since new knowledge is built...... on the student’s existing understanding. A model for an active learning process with a double-loop feedback is suggested - the first loop gives the student experience through experimentation, the second conceptual understanding through reflection. Students often miss the second loop, so it is important...

  13. The double-loop feedback for active learning with understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    on the student’s existing understanding. A model for an active learning process with a double-loop feedback is suggested - the first loop gives the student experience through experimentation, the second conceptual understanding through reflection. Students often miss the second loop, so it is important......Learning is an active process, and in engineering education authentic projects is often used to activate the students and promote learning. However, it is not all activity that leads to deep learning; and in a rapid changing society deep understanding is necessary for life-long learning. Empirical...... findings at DTU question the direct link between high activity and a deep approach to learning. Active learning is important to obtain engineering competencies, but active learning requires more than activity. Feedback and reflection is crucial to the learning process, since new knowledge is built...

  14. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system.

  15. CXCL3 contributes to CD133+ CSCs maintenance and forms a positive feedback regulation loop with CD133 in HCC via Erk1/2 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lixing; Li, Hong; Ge, Chao; Zhao, Fangyu; Tian, Hua; Chen, Taoyang; Jiang, Guoping; Xie, Haiyang; Cui, Ying; Yao, Ming; Li, Jinjun

    2016-01-01

    Although the chemotactic cytokine CXCL3 is thought to play an important role in tumor initiation and invasion, little is known about its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our previous study, we found that Ikaros inhibited CD133 expression via the MAPK pathway in HCC. Here, we showed that Ikaros may indirectly down-regulate CXCL3 expression in HCC cells, which leads to better outcomes in patients with CD133+ cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CD133 overexpression induced CXCL3 expression, and silencing of CD133 down-regulated CXCL3 in HCC cells. Knockdown of CXCL3 inhibited CD133+ HCC CSCs’ self-renewal and tumorigenesis. The serum CXCL3 level was higher in HCC patients’ samples than that in healthy individual. HCC patients with higher CXCL3 expression displayed a poor prognosis, and a high level of CXCL3 was significantly associated with vascular invasion and tumor capsule formation. Exogenous CXCL3 induced Erk1/2 and ETS1 phosphorylation and promoted CD133 expression, indicating a positive feedback loop between CXCL3 and CD133 gene expression in HCC cells via Erk1/2 activation. Together, our findings indicated that CXCL3 might be a potent therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:27255419

  16. Transient activity in the loop prominence system of a flare active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagare, S. P.; Nagabhushana, B. S.; Aleem, P. S. M.

    1989-09-01

    Solar limb observations of the activity in a loop prominence system associated with an active region were obtained on February 2, 1984. The activity was observed for a total duration of over seven hours of which the maximum phase lasted for about an hour. From a series of Ca II K prominence spectroheliograms taken during this phase, the individual loops appear to experience a sequence of activity; the brightening of kernel, brightening of portions of the loop, motion of the enhanced brightenings along the legs of the loop and a diffuse appearance of the loop at the end phase. The details of these phenomena and other associated activity are described.

  17. A cytosolic activator of DNA replication is tyrosine phosphorylated in its active form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Autieri, M V; Coffman, F D; Georgoff, I; Cohen, S

    1993-04-01

    Cytosolic extracts from actively dividing lymphoid cells have been shown to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. An initiating factor in such extracts (activator of DNA replication; ADR) is a > 90-kDa aprotinin-binding protein whose activity is inhibitable not only by aprotinin, but also by several other protease inhibitors as well. Although cytosol from non-proliferating lymphocytes is devoid of ADR activity, we have shown that these preparations can be induced to express ADR activity by brief exposure to a membrane-enriched fraction of spontaneously proliferating MOLT-4 cells via a kinase-dependent mechanism. In the present study, we examine the role of tyrosine kinases in this process. Three inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (genistein, kaempferol, and quercetin) can inhibit the in vitro generation of ADR activity. In vitro generation of ADR activity is associated with the de novo phosphorylation of several proteins, many of which are detectable using anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies. ADR itself may be tyrosine phosphorylated in active form as immunoprecipitation using such monoclonal antibodies leads to the depletion of its activity. Moreover, immunoprecipitation results in the removal of several de novo tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including species at approximately 122, 105, 93, 86, 79, and 65 kDa. A subset of de novo-phosphorylated proteins, migrating at approximately 105, 93, and 70 kDa, also bound to aprotinin, suggesting that at least one of these proteins may represent ADR itself.

  18. Akt Phosphorylation and PI (3, 4, 5) P3 Binding Coordinately Inhibit the Tumor Suppressive Activity of Merlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Johnson KC, Eckman MS, & Jacks T (2002) Merlin phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 2 and effects of phosphorylation on merlin localization. J...J. L., Johnson, K. C., Eckman , M. S. & Jacks, T. Merlin phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 2 and effects of phosphorylation on merlin

  19. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Active-region Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Hornsey, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding coronal heating remains a central problem in solar physics. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain how energy is transferred to and deposited in the corona. We summarize past observational studies that attempted to identify the heating mechanism and point out the difficulties in reproducing the observations of the solar corona from the heating models. The aim of this paper is to study whether the observed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission in individual coronal loops in solar active regions can provide constraints on the volumetric heating function, and to develop a diagnostic for the heating function for a subset of loops that are found close to static thermal equilibrium. We reconstruct the coronal magnetic field from Solar Dynamics Observatory/HMI data using a nonlinear force-free magnetic field model. We model selected loops using a one-dimensional stationary model, with a heating rate dependent locally on the magnetic field strength along the loop, and we calculate the emission from these loops in various EUV wavelengths for different heating rates. We present a method to measure a power index β defining the dependence of the volumetric heating rate EH on the magnetic field, {E}H\\propto {B}β , and controlling also the shape of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints. The diagnostic is based on the dependence of the electron density on the index β. This method is free from the assumptions of the loop filling factor but requires spectroscopic measurements of the density-sensitive lines. The range of applicability for loops of different length and heating distributions is discussed, and the steps to solving the coronal heating problem are outlined.

  20. Allosteric activation mechanism of the cys-loop receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-chang CHANG; Wen WU; Jian-liang ZHANG; Yao HUANG

    2009-01-01

    Binding of a neurotransmitter to its ionotropic receptor opens a distantly located ion channel, a process termed allosteric activation. Here we review recent advances in the molecular mechanism by which the cys-loop receptors are activated with emphasis on the best studied nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). With a combination of affinity labeling, mutagenesis, electrophysiology, kinetic modeling, electron microscopy (EM), and crystal structure analysis, the allosteric activation mechanism is emerging. Specifically, the binding domain and gating domain are interconnected by an allosteric activation network. Agonist binding induces conformational changes, resulting in the rotation of a β sheet of amino-terminal domain and outward movement of loop 2, loop F, and cys-loop, which are coupled to the M2-M3 linker to pull the channel to open. However, there are still some controversies about the movement of the channel-lining domain M2. Nine angstrom resolution EM structure of a nAChR imaged in the open state suggests that channel opening is the result of rotation of the M2 domain. In contrast, recent crystal structures of bacterial homologues of the cys-loop receptor family in apparently open state have implied an M2 tilting model with pore dilation and quaternary twist of the whole pentameric receptor. An elegant study of the nAChR using protonation scanning of M2 domain supports a similar pore dilation activation mechanism with minimal rotation of M2. This remains to be validated with other approaches including high resolution structure determination of the mammalian cys-loop receptors in the open state.

  1. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  2. Phosphorylation of FADD at serine 194 by CKIalpha regulates its nonapoptotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappat, Elizabeth C; Feig, Christine; Boyerinas, Benjamin; Volkland, Jörg; Samuels, Martin; Murmann, Andrea E; Thorburn, Andrew; Kidd, Vincent J; Slaughter, Clive A; Osborn, Stephanie L; Winoto, Astar; Tang, Wei-Jen; Peter, Marcus E

    2005-08-05

    FADD is essential for death receptor (DR)-induced apoptosis. However, it is also critical for cell cycle progression and proliferation, activities that are regulated by phosphorylation of its C-terminal Ser194, which has also been implicated in sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and in regulating FADD's intracellular localization. We now demonstrate that casein kinase Ialpha (CKIalpha) phosphorylates FADD at Ser194 both in vitro and in vivo. FADD-CKIalpha association regulates the subcellular localization of FADD, and phosphorylated FADD was found to colocalize with CKIalpha on the spindle poles in metaphase. Inhibition of CKIalpha diminished FADD phosphorylation, prevented the ability of Taxol to arrest cells in mitosis, and blocked mitogen-induced proliferation of mouse splenocytes. In contrast, a low level of cycling splenocytes from mice expressing FADD with a mutated phosphorylation site was insensitive to CKI inhibition. These data suggest that phosphorylation of FADD by CKI is a crucial event during mitosis.

  3. Active control of one or more EGR loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Henry, Cary A.

    2017-08-08

    Active control of one or more exhaust gas recirculation loops is provided to manage and EGR fraction in the charge flow to produce desired operating conditions and/or provide diagnostics in response to at least one of an oxygen concentration and a NOx concentration in the charge flow and in the exhaust flow.

  4. Slow magnetosonic waves and fast flows in active region loops

    CERN Document Server

    Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Recent EUV spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (~100-300 km/s) quasi-periodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux-tubes and the establishment of siphon flow. We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magn...

  5. NOMAGE4 activities 2011, Part II, Supercritical water loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vierstraete, Pierre; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Lauritzen, Bent

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material...... and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal...... of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure...

  6. Phosphorylation of innate immune adaptor proteins MAVS, STING, and TRIF induces IRF3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Cai, Xin; Wu, Jiaxi; Cong, Qian; Chen, Xiang; Li, Tuo; Du, Fenghe; Ren, Junyao; Wu, You-Tong; Grishin, Nick V; Chen, Zhijian J

    2015-03-13

    During virus infection, the adaptor proteins MAVS and STING transduce signals from the cytosolic nucleic acid sensors RIG-I and cGAS, respectively, to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other antiviral molecules. Here we show that MAVS and STING harbor two conserved serine and threonine clusters that are phosphorylated by the kinases IKK and/or TBK1 in response to stimulation. Phosphorylated MAVS and STING then bind to a positively charged surface of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and thereby recruit IRF3 for its phosphorylation and activation by TBK1. We further show that TRIF, an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor signaling, activates IRF3 through a similar phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. These results reveal that phosphorylation of innate adaptor proteins is an essential and conserved mechanism that selectively recruits IRF3 to activate the type I IFN pathway. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Phosphorylation of Serine422 increases the stability and transactivation activities of human Osterix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuexin; Yao, Bing; Shi, Kaikai;

    2015-01-01

    Osterix (Osx) is an essential regulator for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Although phosphorylation has been reported to be involved in the regulation of Osx activity, the precise underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we identified S422 as a novel phosphorylation sit...

  8. Structural characterization of the novel aminoglycoside phosphotransferase AphVIII from Streptomyces rimosus with enzymatic activity modulated by phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyko, Konstantin M., E-mail: kmb@inbi.ras.ru [Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt. 33, Bld. 2, 119071, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Complex of NBICS-technologies, Akad. Kurchatova sqr., 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Gorbacheva, Marina A.; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry A. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Complex of NBICS-technologies, Akad. Kurchatova sqr., 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Alekseeva, Maria G.; Mavletova, Dilara A.; Zakharevich, Natalia V.; Elizarov, Sergey M.; Rudakova, Natalia N.; Danilenko, Valery N. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina str. 3, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Popov, Vladimir O. [Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt. 33, Bld. 2, 119071, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Complex of NBICS-technologies, Akad. Kurchatova sqr., 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-02

    Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases represent a broad class of enzymes that promote bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics via the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups in the latter. Here we report the spatial structure of the 3′-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase of novel VIII class (AphVIII) solved by X-ray diffraction method with a resolution of 2.15 Å. Deep analysis of APHVIII structure and its comparison with known structures of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases of various types reveals that AphVIII has a typical two-domain fold and, however, possesses some unique characteristics that distinguish the enzyme from its known homologues. The most important difference is the presence of the activation loop with unique Ser146 residue. We demonstrate that in the apo-state of the enzyme the activation loop does not interact with other parts of the enzyme and seems to adopt catalytically competent state only after substrate binding. - Highlights: • 3D structure of the novel aminoglycoside phosphotransferase AphVIII was obtained. • AphVIII activation loop is clearly identified in the electron density. • AphVIII has some unique structural features in its substrate C-ring binding pocket.

  9. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin boosts Parkin activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahori Shiba-Fukushima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control. We have reported that Parkin is phosphorylated at Ser65 within the ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 in mammalian cultured cells. However, it remains unclear whether Parkin phosphorylation is involved in mitochondrial maintenance and activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of Parkin phosphorylation in Drosophila, in which the phosphorylation residue is conserved at Ser94. Morphological changes of mitochondria caused by the ectopic expression of wild-type Parkin in muscle tissue and brain dopaminergic neurons disappeared in the absence of PINK1. In contrast, phosphomimetic Parkin accelerated mitochondrial fragmentation or aggregation and the degradation of mitochondrial proteins regardless of PINK1 activity, suggesting that the phosphorylation of Parkin boosts its ubiquitin-ligase activity. A non-phosphorylated form of Parkin fully rescued the muscular mitochondrial degeneration due to the loss of PINK1 activity, whereas the introduction of the non-phosphorylated Parkin mutant in Parkin-null flies led to the emergence of abnormally fused mitochondria in the muscle tissue. Manipulating the Parkin phosphorylation status affected spontaneous dopamine release in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons, the survivability of dopaminergic neurons and flight activity. Our data reveal that Parkin phosphorylation regulates not only mitochondrial function but also the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, suggesting that the appropriate regulation of Parkin phosphorylation is important for muscular and dopaminergic functions.

  10. Phosphorylation of UT-A1 urea transporter at serines 486 and 499 is important for vasopressin-regulated activity and membrane accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Mitsi A; Mistry, Abinash C; Fröhlich, Otto; Price, S Russ; Chen, Guangping; Sands, Jeff M; Klein, Janet D

    2008-07-01

    The UT-A1 urea transporter plays an important role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Vasopressin (or cAMP) increases urea permeability in perfused terminal inner medullary collecting ducts and increases the abundance of phosphorylated UT-A1, suggesting regulation by phosphorylation. We performed a phosphopeptide analysis that strongly suggested that a PKA consensus site(s) in the central loop region of UT-A1 was/were phosphorylated. Serine 486 was most strongly identified, with other potential sites at serine 499 and threonine 524. Phosphomutation constructs of each residue were made and transiently transfected into LLC-PK1 cells to assay for UT-A1 phosphorylation. The basal level of UT-A1 phosphorylation was unaltered by mutation of these sites. We injected oocytes, assayed [14C]urea flux, and determined that mutation of these sites did not alter basal urea transport activity. Next, we tested the effect of stimulating cAMP production with forskolin. Forskolin increased wild-type UT-A1 and T524A phosphorylation in LLC-PK1 cells and increased urea flux in oocytes. In contrast, the S486A and S499A mutants demonstrated loss of forskolin-stimulated UT-A1 phosphorylation and reduced urea flux. In LLC-PK1 cells, we assessed biotinylated UT-A1. Wild-type UT-A1, S486A, and S499A accumulated in the membrane in response to forskolin. However, in the S486A/S499A double mutant, forskolin-stimulated UT-A1 membrane accumulation and urea flux were totally blocked. We conclude that the phosphorylation of UT-A1 on both serines 486 and 499 is important for activity and that this phosphorylation may be involved in UT-A1 membrane accumulation.

  11. IN VITRO ANALYSIS OF τ PHOSPHORYLATION SITES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To explore the association between the abnormal phosphorylation sites found in Alzheimer disease (AD) τ and the inhibition of its biological activity. Methods.Ultracentrifugation,chromatography,manual Edman degradation and autosequence techniques were used to prepare and phosphorylate human recombinant τ ,isolate and purify 32P τ peptides and determine phosphorylation sites. Results.Phosphorylation of τ by casein kinase 1 (CK 1),cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) and glycogen synthetase kinase 3 (GSK 3) separately inhibited its biological activity and the inhibition of this activity by GSK 3 was significantly increased if τ was prephosphorylated by CK 1 or PKA.The most potent inhibition was seen by a combined phosphorylation of τ with PKA and GSK 3.The treatment of τ by PKA and GSK 3 combination induced phosphorylation of τ at Ser 195,Ser 198,Ser 199,Ser 202,Thr 205,Thr 231,Ser 235,Ser 262,Ser 356,Ser 404,whereas Thr 181,Ser 184,Ser 262,Ser 356 and Ser 400 were phosphorylated by GSK 3 alone under the same condition. Conclusion.Phosphorylation of τ by PKA plus GSK 3 at Thr 205 might play a key role in τ pathology in AD.

  12. ATM and Chk2-dependent phosphorylation of MDMX contribute to p53 activation after DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lihong; Gilkes, Daniele M.; Pan, Yu; Lane, William S; Chen, Jiandong

    2005-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is activated after DNA damage to maintain genomic stability and prevent transformation. Rapid activation of p53 by ionizing radiation is dependent on signaling by the ATM kinase. MDM2 and MDMX are important p53 regulators and logical targets for stress signals. We found that DNA damage induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of MDMX. Phosphorylated MDMX is selectively bound and degraded by MDM2 preceding p53 accumulation and activation. Reduction of MDMX...

  13. Androgen receptor serine 81 phosphorylation mediates chromatin binding and transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoyong; Gulla, Sarah; Cai, Changmeng; Balk, Steven P

    2012-03-01

    Our previous findings indicated that androgen receptor (AR) phosphorylation at serine 81 is stimulated by the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). In this report, we extended our previous study and confirmed that Ser-81 phosphorylation increases during mitosis, coincident with CDK1 activation. We further showed blocking cell cycle at G(1) or S phase did not disrupt androgen-induced Ser-81 phosphorylation and AR-dependent transcription, consistent with a recent report that AR was phosphorylated at Ser-81 and activated by the transcriptional CDK9. To assess the function of Ser-81 phosphorylation in prostate cancer (PCa) cells expressing endogenous AR, we developed a ligand switch strategy using a ligand-binding domain mutation (W741C) that renders AR responsive to the antagonist bicalutamide. An S81A/W741C double mutant AR stably expressed in PCa cells failed to transactivate the endogenous AR-regulated PSA or TMPRSS2 genes. ChIP showed that the S81A mutation prevented ligand-induced AR recruitment to these genes, and cellular fractionation revealed that the S81A mutation globally abrogated chromatin binding. Conversely, the AR fraction rapidly recruited to chromatin after androgen stimulation was highly enriched for Ser-81 phosphorylation. Finally, inhibition of CDK1 and CDK9 decreased AR Ser-81 phosphorylation, chromatin binding, and transcriptional activity. These findings indicate that Ser-81 phosphorylation by CDK9 stabilizes AR chromatin binding for transcription and suggest that CDK1-mediated Ser-81 phosphorylation during mitosis provides a pool of Ser-81 phosphorylation AR that can be readily recruited to chromatin for gene reactivation and may enhance AR activity in PCa.

  14. A Sequentially Priming Phosphorylation Cascade Activates the Gliomagenic Transcription Factor Olig2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During development of the vertebrate CNS, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor Olig2 sustains replication competence of progenitor cells that give rise to neurons and oligodendrocytes. A pathological counterpart of this developmental function is seen in human glioma, wherein Olig2 is required for maintenance of stem-like cells that drive tumor growth. The mitogenic/gliomagenic functions of Olig2 are regulated by phosphorylation of a triple serine motif (S10, S13, and S14 in the amino terminus. Here, we identify a set of three serine/threonine protein kinases (glycogen synthase kinase 3α/β [GSK3α/β], casein kinase 2 [CK2], and cyclin-dependent kinases 1/2 [CDK1/2] that are, collectively, both necessary and sufficient to phosphorylate the triple serine motif. We show that phosphorylation of the motif itself serves as a template to prime phosphorylation of additional serines and creates a highly charged “acid blob” in the amino terminus of Olig2. Finally, we show that small molecule inhibitors of this forward-feeding phosphorylation cascade have potential as glioma therapeutics.

  15. Parkin is activated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Kondapalli, Chandana; Gourlay, Robert; Campbell, David G.; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Hofmann, Kay; Alessi, Dario R.; Knebel, Axel; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) is activated by mitochondrial depolarization and stimulates the Parkin E3 ligase by phosphorylating Ser65 within its Ubl (ubiquitin-like) domain. Using phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified a novel ubiquitin phosphopeptide phosphorylated at Ser65 that was enriched 14-fold in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells overexpressing wild-type PINK1 stimulated with the mitochondrial uncoupling agent CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), to activate PINK1, compared with cells expressing kinase-inactive PINK1. Ser65 in ubiquitin lies in a similar motif to Ser65 in the Ubl domain of Parkin. Remarkably, PINK1 directly phosphorylates Ser65 of ubiquitin in vitro. We undertook a series of experiments that provide striking evidence that Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65) functions as a critical activator of Parkin. First, we demonstrate that a fragment of Parkin lacking the Ubl domain encompassing Ser65 (ΔUbl-Parkin) is robustly activated by ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not by non-phosphorylated ubiquitin. Secondly, we find that the isolated Parkin Ubl domain phosphorylated at Ser65 (UblPhospho−Ser65) can also activate ΔUbl-Parkin similarly to ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65. Thirdly, we establish that ubiquitinPhospho−Ser65, but not non-phosphorylated ubiquitin or UblPhospho−Ser65, activates full-length wild-type Parkin as well as the non-phosphorylatable S65A Parkin mutant. Fourthly, we provide evidence that optimal activation of full-length Parkin E3 ligase is dependent on PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both Parkin at Ser65 and ubiquitin at Ser65, since only mutation of both proteins at Ser65 completely abolishes Parkin activation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that PINK1 controls Parkin E3 ligase activity not only by phosphorylating Parkin at Ser65, but also by phosphorylating ubiquitin at Ser65

  16. HIPK2 restricts SIRT1 activity upon severe DNA damage by a phosphorylation-controlled mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, E; Polonio-Vallon, T; Meister, M; Matt, S; Bitomsky, N; Herbel, C; Liebl, M; Greiner, V; Kriznik, B; Schumacher, S; Krieghoff-Henning, E; Hofmann, T G

    2016-01-01

    Upon severe DNA damage a cellular signalling network initiates a cell death response through activating tumour suppressor p53 in association with promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) nuclear bodies. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) suppresses cell death after DNA damage by antagonizing p53 acetylation. To facilitate efficient p53 acetylation, SIRT1 function needs to be restricted. How SIRT1 activity is regulated under these conditions remains largely unclear. Here we provide evidence that SIRT1 activity is limited upon severe DNA damage through phosphorylation by the DNA damage-responsive kinase HIPK2. We found that DNA damage provokes interaction of SIRT1 and HIPK2, which phosphorylates SIRT1 at Serine 682 upon lethal damage. Furthermore, upon DNA damage SIRT1 and HIPK2 colocalize at PML nuclear bodies, and PML depletion abrogates DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation. We show that Ser682 phosphorylation inhibits SIRT1 activity and impacts on p53 acetylation, apoptotic p53 target gene expression and cell death. Mechanistically, we found that DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation provokes disruption of the complex between SIRT1 and its activator AROS. Our findings indicate that phosphorylation-dependent restriction of SIRT1 activity by HIPK2 shapes the p53 response. PMID:26113041

  17. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-08

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators.

  18. Coronal loops above an Active Region - observation versus model

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a high-resolution numerical simulation of the solar corona above a stable active region. The aim is to test the field-line braiding mechanism for a sufficient coronal energy input. We also check the applicability of scaling laws for coronal loop properties like the temperature and density. Our 3D-MHD model is driven from below by Hinode observations of the photosphere, in particular a high-cadence time series of line-of-sight magnetograms and horizontal velocities derived from the magnetograms. This driving applies stress to the magnetic field and thereby delivers magnetic energy into the corona, where currents are induced that heat the coronal plasma by Ohmic dissipation. We compute synthetic coronal emission that we directly compare to coronal observations of the same active region taken by Hinode. In the model, coronal loops form at the same places as they are found in coronal observations. Even the shapes of the synthetic loops in 3D space match those found from a stereoscopic reconstruction ...

  19. A positive feedback loop between Gli1 and tyrosine kinase Hck amplifies shh signaling activities in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Zhan, X; Wu, J

    2015-11-30

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is critical during normal development, and the abnormal activation of the Shh pathway is involved in many human cancers. As a target gene of the Shh pathway and as a transcription activator downstream of Shh signaling, Gli1 autoregulates and increases Shh signaling output. Gli1 is one of the key oncogenic factors in Shh-induced tumors such as medulloblastoma. Gli1 is posttranslationally modified, but the nature of the active form of Gli1 was unclear. Here we identified a Src family kinase Hck as a novel activator of Gli1. In Shh-responsive NIH3T3 cells, Hck interacts with Gli1 and phosphorylates multiple tyrosine residues in Gli1. Gli1-mediated target gene activation was significantly enhanced by Hck with both kinase activity-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We provide evidence showing that Hck disrupts the interaction between Gli1 and its inhibitor Sufu. In both NIH3T3 cells and cerebellum granule neuron precursors, the Hck gene is also a direct target of Gli1. Therefore, Gli1 and Hck form a positive feedback loop that amplifies Shh signaling transcription outcomes. In Shh-induced medulloblastoma, Hck is highly expressed and Gli1 is tyrosine phosphorylated, which may enhance the tumorigenic effects of the Gli1 oncogene. RNAi-mediated inhibition of Hck expression significantly repressed medulloblastoma cell growth. In summary, a novel positive feedback loop contributes to maximal Gli1 oncogenic activities in Shh-induced tumors such as medulloblastoma.

  20. Hierarchical Disabled-1 Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Src family Kinase Activation and Neurite Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Zhihua; Monckton, Elizabeth; Glubrecht, Darryl; Godbout, Roseline

    2013-01-01

    There are two developmentally regulated alternatively spliced forms of Disabled-1 (Dab1) in the chick retina: an early form (Dab1-E) expressed in retinal precursor cells and a late form (Dab1-L) expressed in neuronal cells. The main difference between these two isoforms is the absence of two Src family kinase (SFK) recognition sites in Dab1-E. Both forms retain two Abl/Crk/Nck recognition sites implicated in the recruitment of SH2 domain-containing signaling proteins. One of the Dab1-L-specific SFK recognition sites, at tyrosine(Y)-198, has been shown to be phosphorylated in Reelin-stimulated neurons. Here, we use Reelin-expressing primary retinal cultures to investigate the role of the four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites on overall tyrosine phosphorylation, Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation. We show that Y198 is essential but not sufficient for maximal Dab1 phosphorylation, SFK activation and neurite formation, with Y232 and Y220 playing particularly important roles in SFK activation and neuritogenesis, and Y185 having modifying effects secondary to Y232 and Y220. Our data support a role for all four Dab1 tyrosine phosphorylation sites in mediating the spectrum of activities associated with Reelin-Dab1 signaling in neurons. PMID:17350651

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase3 beta phosphorylates serine 33 of p53 and activates p53's transcriptional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Brendan D

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 protein is activated by genotoxic stress, oncogene expression and during senescence, p53 transcriptionally activates genes involved in growth arrest and apoptosis. p53 activation is regulated by post-translational modification, including phosphorylation of the N-terminal transactivation domain. Here, we have examined how Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK3, a protein kinase involved in tumorigenesis, differentiation and apoptosis, phosphorylates and regulates p53. Results The 2 isoforms of GSK3, GSK3α and GSK3β, phosphorylate the sequence Ser-X-X-X-Ser(P when the C-terminal serine residue is already phosphorylated. Several p53 kinases were examined for their ability to create GSK3 phosphorylation sites on the p53 protein. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation of serine 37 of p53 by DNA-PK creates a site for GSK3β phosphorylation at serine 33 in vitro. GSK3α did not phosphorylate p53 under any condition. GSK3β increased the transcriptional activity of the p53 protein in vivo. Mutation of either serine 33 or serine 37 of p53 to alanine blocked the ability of GSK3β to regulate p53 transcriptional activity. GSK3β is therefore able to regulate p53 function in vivo. p53's transcriptional activity is commonly increased by DNA damage. However, GSK3β kinase activity was inhibited in response to DNA damage, suggesting that GSK3β regulation of p53 is not involved in the p53-DNA damage response. Conclusions GSK3β can regulate p53's transcriptional activity by phosphorylating serine 33. However, GSK3β does not appear to be part of the p53-DNA damage response pathway. Instead, GSK3β may provide the link between p53 and non-DNA damage mechanisms for p53 activation.

  2. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part II, Supercritical water loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierstraete, P. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des mines, Paris (France)); Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), Kjeller (Norway)); Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure a supercritical flow state inside the test section (the core side) and a subcritical flow state inside the pump section. The objective is to design the heat exchanger in order to optimize the efficiency of the heat transfer and to respect several requirements as the room available inside the reactor hall, the maximal total pressure drop allowed and so on. (Author)

  3. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part II, Supercritical water loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierstraete, P. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des mines, Paris (France)); Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), Kjeller (Norway)); Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure a supercritical flow state inside the test section (the core side) and a subcritical flow state inside the pump section. The objective is to design the heat exchanger in order to optimize the efficiency of the heat transfer and to respect several requirements as the room available inside the reactor hall, the maximal total pressure drop allowed and so on. (Author)

  4. Hydroxynonenal-stimulated activity of the uncoupling protein in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria under phosphorylating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2013-05-01

    The influence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation end product, on the activity of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii uncoupling protein (AcUCP) in isolated phosphorylating mitochondria was studied. Under phosphorylating conditions, exogenously added HNE induced GTP-sensitive AcUCP-mediated mitochondrial uncoupling. The HNE-induced proton leak decreased the yield of oxidative phosphorylation in an HNE concentration-dependent manner. The present study describes how the contributions of ATP synthase and HNE-induced AcUCP in phosphorylating respiration vary when the rate of succinate oxidation is decreased by limiting succinate uptake or inhibiting complex III activity within the range of a constant membrane potential. In phosphorylating mitochondria, at a given HNE concentration (100 μM), the efficiency of AcUCP in mitochondrial uncoupling increased as the respiratory rate decreased because the AcUCP contribution remained constant while the ATP synthase contribution decreased with the respiratory rate. HNE-induced uncoupling can be inhibited by GTP only when ubiquinone is sufficiently oxidized, indicating that in phosphorylating A. castellanii mitochondria, the sensitivity of AcUCP activity to GTP depends on the redox state of the membranous ubiquinone.

  5. Stimulation of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha activity and phosphorylation by phorbol ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hertog, J; Sap, J; Pals, C E

    1995-01-01

    with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, a direct activator of protein kinase C, induced a rapid, transient increase in RPTP alpha activity due to a 2- to 3-fold increase in substrate affinity. A transient increase in RPTP alpha serine phosphorylation was concomitant with the enhanced activity....... Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of RPTP alpha demonstrated that phosphorylation of three tryptic peptides was enhanced in response to phorbol ester. In vitro dephosphorylation of RPTP alpha from phorbol ester-treated cells reduced RPTP alpha activity to prestimulation levels, indicating that enhanced...

  6. A role for Raptor phosphorylation in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John W; Jacobs, Brittany L; Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-02-01

    The activation of mTOR signaling is necessary for mechanically-induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, but the mechanisms that regulate the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling remain poorly defined. In this study, we set out to determine if changes in the phosphorylation of Raptor contribute to the mechanical activation of mTOR. To accomplish this goal, mouse skeletal muscles were subjected to mechanical stimulation via a bout of eccentric contractions (EC). Using mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, we found that ECs induced an increase in Raptor S696, T706, and S863 phosphorylation, and this effect was not inhibited by rapamycin. This observation suggested that changes in Raptor phosphorylation might be an upstream event in the pathway through which mechanical stimuli activate mTOR. To test this, we employed a phospho-defective mutant of Raptor (S696A/T706A/S863A) and found that the EC-induced activation of mTOR signaling was significantly blunted in muscles expressing this mutant. Furthermore, mutation of the three phosphorylation sites altered the interactions of Raptor with PRAS40 and p70(S6k), and it also prevented the EC-induced dissociation of Raptor from p70(S6k). Combined, these results suggest that changes in the phosphorylation of Raptor play an important role in the pathway through which mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling.

  7. ROS-activated ATM-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic substrates identified by large scale phosphoproteomics screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoi......ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle...... to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and A-T (ataxia-telangiectasia) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites...

  8. Structural and dynamic insights into the energetics of activation loop rearrangement in FGFR1 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tobias; Vajpai, Navratna; Phillips, Jonathan J; Davies, Gareth; Holdgate, Geoffrey A; Phillips, Chris; Tucker, Julie A; Norman, Richard A; Scott, Andrew D; Higazi, Daniel R; Lowe, David; Thompson, Gary S; Breeze, Alexander L

    2015-07-23

    Protein tyrosine kinases differ widely in their propensity to undergo rearrangements of the N-terminal Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif of the activation loop, with some, including FGFR1 kinase, appearing refractory to this so-called 'DFG flip'. Recent inhibitor-bound structures have unexpectedly revealed FGFR1 for the first time in a 'DFG-out' state. Here we use conformationally selective inhibitors as chemical probes for interrogation of the structural and dynamic features that appear to govern the DFG flip in FGFR1. Our detailed structural and biophysical insights identify contributions from altered dynamics in distal elements, including the αH helix, towards the outstanding stability of the DFG-out complex with the inhibitor ponatinib. We conclude that the αC-β4 loop and 'molecular brake' regions together impose a high energy barrier for this conformational rearrangement, and that this may have significance for maintaining autoinhibition in the non-phosphorylated basal state of FGFR1.

  9. Structural and dynamic insights into the energetics of activation loop rearrangement in FGFR1 kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tobias; Vajpai, Navratna; Phillips, Jonathan J.; Davies, Gareth; Holdgate, Geoffrey A.; Phillips, Chris; Tucker, Julie A.; Norman, Richard A.; Scott, Andrew D.; Higazi, Daniel R.; Lowe, David; Thompson, Gary S.; Breeze, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases differ widely in their propensity to undergo rearrangements of the N-terminal Asp–Phe–Gly (DFG) motif of the activation loop, with some, including FGFR1 kinase, appearing refractory to this so-called ‘DFG flip'. Recent inhibitor-bound structures have unexpectedly revealed FGFR1 for the first time in a ‘DFG-out' state. Here we use conformationally selective inhibitors as chemical probes for interrogation of the structural and dynamic features that appear to govern the DFG flip in FGFR1. Our detailed structural and biophysical insights identify contributions from altered dynamics in distal elements, including the αH helix, towards the outstanding stability of the DFG-out complex with the inhibitor ponatinib. We conclude that the αC-β4 loop and ‘molecular brake' regions together impose a high energy barrier for this conformational rearrangement, and that this may have significance for maintaining autoinhibition in the non-phosphorylated basal state of FGFR1. PMID:26203596

  10. The role of GH receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in Stat5 activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J A; Hansen, L H; Wang, X;

    1997-01-01

    Stimulation of GH receptors leads to rapid activation of Jak2 kinase and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the GH receptor. Three specific tyrosines located in the C-terminal domain of the GH receptor have been identified as being involved in GH-stimulated transcription of the Spi 2.1 promoter....... Mutated GH receptors lacking all but one of these three tyrosines are able to mediate a transcriptional response when transiently transfected into CHO cells together with a Spi 2.1 promoter/luciferase construct. Similarly, these GH receptors were found to be able to mediate activation of Stat5 DNA......-binding activity, whereas the GH receptor mutant lacking all intracellular tyrosines was not. Synthetic tyrosine phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the GH receptor sequence around the three tyrosines inhibited Stat5 DNA-binding activity while their non-phosphorylated counterparts were ineffective. Tyrosine...

  11. PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I.; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J.; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser65. We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser65. We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser65 or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr257, which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following Δψm depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 and/or PINK1 at Thr257 represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

  12. Structure of phosphorylated UBL domain and insights into PINK1-orchestrated parkin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Jacob D; Dunkerley, Karen M; Mercier, Pascal; Shaw, Gary S

    2017-01-10

    Mutations in PARK2 and PARK6 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary Parkinson's disease cases. These genes encode the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), respectively. Together, parkin and PINK1 regulate the mitophagy pathway, which recycles damaged mitochondria following oxidative stress. Native parkin is inactive and exists in an autoinhibited state mediated by its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. PINK1 phosphorylation of serine 65 in parkin's UBL and serine 65 of ubiquitin fully activate ubiquitin ligase activity; however, a structural rationale for these observations is not clear. Here, we report the structure of the phosphorylated UBL domain from parkin. We find that destabilization of the UBL results from rearrangements to hydrophobic core packing that modify its structure. Altered surface electrostatics from the phosphoserine group disrupt its intramolecular association, resulting in poorer autoinhibition in phosphorylated parkin. Further, we show that phosphorylation of both the UBL domain and ubiquitin are required to activate parkin by releasing the UBL domain, forming an extended structure needed to facilitate E2-ubiquitin binding. Together, the results underscore the importance of parkin activation by the PINK1 phosphorylation signal and provide a structural picture of the unraveling of parkin's ubiquitin ligase potential.

  13. Phosphorylation controls the localization and activation of the lumenal carbonic anhydrase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Blanco-Rivero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cah3 is the only carbonic anhydrase (CA isoform located in the thylakoid lumen of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Previous studies demonstrated its association with the donor side of the photosystem II (PSII where it is required for the optimal function of the water oxidizing complex. However this enzyme has also been frequently proposed to perform a critical function in inorganic carbon acquisition and CO(2 fixation and all mutants lacking Cah3 exhibit very poor growth after transfer to low CO(2 conditions. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: In the present work we demonstrate that after transfer to low CO(2, Cah3 is phosphorylated and that phosphorylation is correlated to changes in its localization and its increase in activity. When C. reinhardtii wild-type cells were acclimated to limiting CO(2 conditions, the Cah3 activity increased about 5-6 fold. Under these conditions, there were no detectable changes in the level of the Cah3 polypeptide. The increase in activity was specifically inhibited in the presence of Staurosporine, a protein kinase inhibitor, suggesting that the Cah3 protein was post-translationally regulated via phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation and in vitro dephosphorylation experiments confirm this hypothesis. In vivo phosphorylation analysis of thylakoid polypeptides indicates that there was a 3-fold increase in the phosphorylation signal of the Cah3 polypeptide within the first two hours after transfer to low CO(2 conditions. The increase in the phosphorylation signal was correlated with changes in the intracellular localization of the Cah3 protein. Under high CO(2 conditions, the Cah3 protein was only associated with the donor side of PSII in the stroma thylakoids. In contrast, in cells grown at limiting CO(2 the protein was partly concentrated in the thylakoids crossing the pyrenoid, which did not contain PSII and were surrounded by Rubisco molecules. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a CA being post

  14. Activation of TORC1 transcriptional coactivator through MEKK1-induced phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Yeung-Tung; Ching, Yick-Pang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2008-11-01

    CREB is a prototypic bZIP transcription factor and a master regulator of glucose metabolism, synaptic plasticity, cell growth, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Transducers of regulated CREB activity (TORCs) are essential transcriptional coactivators of CREB and an important point of regulation on which various signals converge. In this study, we report on the activation of TORC1 through MEKK1-mediated phosphorylation. MEKK1 potently activated TORC1, and this activation was independent of downstream effectors MEK1/MEK2, ERK2, JNK, p38, protein kinase A, and calcineurin. MEKK1 induced phosphorylation of TORC1 both in vivo and in vitro. Expression of the catalytic domain of MEKK1 alone in cultured mammalian cells sufficiently caused phosphorylation and subsequent activation of TORC1. MEKK1 physically interacted with TORC1 and stimulated its nuclear translocation. An activation domain responsive to MEKK1 stimulation was mapped to amino acids 431-650 of TORC1. As a physiological activator of CREB, interleukin 1alpha triggered MEKK1-dependent phosphorylation of TORC1 and its consequent recruitment to the cAMP response elements in the interleukin 8 promoter. Taken together, our findings suggest a new mechanism for regulated activation of TORC1 transcriptional coactivator and CREB signaling.

  15. Synaptic Activation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Occurs Locally in Activated Dendritic Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6)…

  16. Novel Serine 176 Phosphorylation of YBX1 Activates NF-κB in Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew; Hua, Laiqing; Wang, Benlian; Wei, Han; Prabhu, Lakshmi; Hartley, Antja-Voy; Jiang, Guanglong; Liu, Yunlong; Lu, Tao

    2017-02-24

    Y box protein 1 (YBX1) is a well known oncoprotein that has tumor-promoting functions. YBX1 is widely considered to be an attractive therapeutic target in cancer. To develop novel therapeutics to target YBX1, it is of great importance to understand how YBX1 is finely regulated in cancer. Previously, we have shown that YBX1 could function as a tumor promoter through phosphorylation of its Ser-165 residue, leading to the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway (1). In this study, using mass spectrometry analysis, we discovered a distinct phosphorylation site, Ser-176, on YBX1. Overexpression of the YBX1-S176A (serine-to-alanine) mutant in either HEK293 cells or colon cancer HT29 cells showed dramatically reduced NF-κB-activating ability compared with that of WT-YBX1, confirming that Ser-176 phosphorylation is critical for the activation of NF-κB by YBX1. Importantly, the mutant of Ser-176 and the previously reported Ser-165 sites regulate distinct groups of NF-κB target genes, suggesting the unique and irreplaceable function of each of these two phosphorylated serine residues. Our important findings could provide a novel cancer therapy strategy by blocking either Ser-176 or Ser-165 phosphorylation or both of YBX1 in colon cancer. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. High inorganic phosphate causes DNMT1 phosphorylation and subsequent fibrotic fibroblast activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiaoying [Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); Xu, Xingbo [Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); Zeisberg, Elisabeth M. [Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Göttingen (Germany); Zeisberg, Michael, E-mail: mzeisberg@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Göttingen University Medical Center, Georg August University, Göttingen (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-04-08

    Phosphate is an essential constituent of critical cellular functions including energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis and phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling. Increased plasma phosphate levels are an independent risk factor for lowered life-expectancy as well as for heart and kidney failure. Nevertheless, direct cellular effects of elevated phosphate concentrations within the microenvironment are poorly understood and have been largely neglected in favor of phosphor-regulatory hormones. Because interstitial fibrosis is the common determinant of chronic progressive kidney disease, and because fibroblasts are major mediators of fibrogenesis, we here explored the effect of high extracellular phosphate levels on renal fibroblasts. We demonstrate that high inorganic phosphate directly induces fibrotic fibroblast activation associated with increased proliferative activity, increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and increased synthesis of type I collagen. We further demonstrate that such fibroblast activation is dependent on phosphate influx, aberrant phosphorylation of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and aberrant CpG island promoter methylation. In summary, our studies demonstrate that elevated phosphate concentrations induce pro-fibrotic fibroblast activation independent of phospho-regulatory hormones. - Highlights: • We exposed human kidney fibroblasts to media containing 1 mM or 3 mM phosphate. • Increased phosphate influx causes phosphorylation of DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. • Phosphorylated Dnmt1 causes promoter methylation and transcriptional silencing of RASAL1. • Depletion of RASAL1 causes increased intrinsic Ras-GTP activity and fibroblast activation. • Inorganic phosphate causes fibroblast activation independent of phospho-regulatory hormones.

  18. aPKC phosphorylation of HDAC6 results in increased deacetylation activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Du

    Full Text Available The Class II histone deacetylase, HDAC6, has been shown to be involved in cell motility, aggresome formation and mitochondria transport. HDAC6 deacetylase activity regulates α-tubulin acetylation levels and thus plays a critical role in these processes. In turn, HDAC6 activity can be regulated by interaction with various proteins including multiple kinases. Kinase mediated phosphorylation of HDAC6 can lead to either increased or reduced activity. Our previous research has shown that sequestosome1/p62 (SQSTM1/p62 interacts with HDAC6 and regulates its activity. As SQSTM1/p62 is a scaffolding protein known to interact directly with the zeta isoform of Protein Kinase C (PKCζ, we sought to examine if HDAC6 could be a substrate for PKCζ phosphorylation and if so, how its activity might be regulated. Our data demonstrate that HDAC6 is not only present in a protein complex with PKCζ but can also be phosphorylated by PKCζ. We also show that specific phosphorylation of HDAC6 by PKCζ increases HDAC6 deacetylase activity resulting in reduced acetylated tubulin levels. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism by which HDAC6, PKCζ and SQSTM1/p62 function together in protein aggregate clearance. These results also highlight a new research direction which may prove fruitful for understanding the underlying cause of several neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Auto-inhibition and phosphorylation-induced activation of PLC-γ isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajicek, Nicole; Charpentier, Thomas H.; Rush, Jeremy R.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John

    2013-01-01

    Multiple extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors and antigens, initiate signaling cascades through tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-γ isozymes. Like most other PLCs, PLC-γ1 is basally auto-inhibited by its X-Y linker, which separates the X-and Y-boxes of the catalytic core. The C-terminal SH2 (cSH2) domain within the X-Y linker is the critical determinant for auto-inhibition of phospholipase activity. Release of auto-inhibition requires an intramolecular interaction between the cSH2 domain and a phosphorylated tyrosine, Tyr783, also located within the X-Y linker. The molecular mechanisms that mediate auto-inhibition and phosphorylation-induced activation have not been defined. Here, we describe structures of the cSH2 domain both alone and bound to a PLC-γ1 peptide encompassing phosphorylated Tyr783. The cSH2 domain remains largely unaltered by peptide engagement. Point mutations in the cSH2 domain located at the interface with the peptide were sufficient to constitutively activate PLC-γ1 suggesting that peptide engagement directly interferes with the capacity of the cSH2 domain to block the lipase active site. This idea is supported by mutations in a complimentary surface of the catalytic core that also enhanced phospholipase activity. PMID:23777354

  20. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koji; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) auxin receptor family, has recently been demonstrated to be critical for auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a functional prerequisite. However, the mechanism by which auxin mediates H(+)-ATPase activation has yet to be elucidated. Here, we present direct evidence for H(+)-ATPase activation in etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation. Application of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to endogenous auxin-depleted hypocotyl sections induced phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the H(+)-ATPase and increased H(+)-ATPase activity without altering the amount of the enzyme. Changes in both the phosphorylation level of H(+)-ATPase and IAA-induced elongation were similarly concentration dependent. Furthermore, IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation occurred in a tir1-1 afb2-3 double mutant, which is severely defective in auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. In addition, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, the auxin antagonist specific for the nuclear auxin receptor TIR1/AFBs, had no effect on IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. These results suggest that the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family is not involved in auxin-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. Our results define the activation mechanism of H(+)-ATPase by auxin during early-phase hypocotyl elongation; this is the long-sought-after mechanism that is central to the acid-growth theory.

  1. Design of phosphorylated dendritic architectures to promote human monocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupot, Mary; Griffe, Laurent; Marchand, Patrice; Maraval, Alexandrine; Rolland, Olivier; Martinet, Ludovic; L'Faqihi-Olive, Fatima-Ezzahra; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Poupot, Rémy

    2006-11-01

    As first defensive line, monocytes are a pivotal cell population of innate immunity. Monocyte activation can be relevant to a range of immune conditions and responses. Here we present new insights into the activation of monocytes by a series of phosphonic acid-terminated, phosphorus-containing dendrimers. Various dendritic or subdendritic structures were synthesized and tested, revealing the basic structural requirements for monocyte activation. We showed that multivalent character and phosphonic acid capping of dendrimers are crucial for monocyte targeting and activation. Confocal videomicroscopy showed that a fluorescein-tagged dendrimer binds to isolated monocytes and gets internalized within a few seconds. We also found that dendrimers follow the phagolysosomial route during internalization by monocytes. Finally, we performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments between a specifically designed fluorescent dendrimer and phycoerythrin-coupled antibodies. We showed that the typical innate Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 is clearly involved, but not alone, in the sensing of dendrimers by monocytes. In conclusion, phosphorus-containing dendrimers appear as precisely tunable nanobiotools able to target and activate human innate immunity and thus prove to be good candidates to develop new drugs for immunotherapies.

  2. Mechanism for activation of the growth factor-activated AGC kinases by turn motif phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Camilla; Antal, Torben L; Hirschberg, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    investigated the role of the third, so-called turn motif phosphate, also located in the tail, in the AGC kinases PKB, S6K, RSK, MSK, PRK and PKC. We report cooperative action of the HM phosphate and the turn motif phosphate, because it binds a phosphoSer/Thr-binding site above the glycine-rich loop within...... the kinase domain, promoting zipper-like association of the tail with the kinase domain, serving to stabilize the HM in its kinase-activating binding site. We present a molecular model for allosteric activation of AGC kinases by the turn motif phosphate via HM-mediated stabilization of the alphaC helix. In S......6K and MSK, the turn motif phosphate thereby also protects the HM from dephosphorylation. Our results suggest that the mechanism described is a key feature in activation of upto 26 human AGC kinases....

  3. Carboxyl terminal of rhodopsin kinase is required for the phosphorylation of photo—activated rhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUQINGMING; LANMA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Human rhodopsin kinase (RK) and a carboxyl terminus-truncated mutant RK lacking the last 59 amino acids (RKC) were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells to investigate the role of the carboxyl terminus of RK in recognition and phosphorylation of rhodopsin.RKC,like the wild-type RK,was detected in both plasma membranes and cytosolic fractions.The Cterminal truncated rhodopsin kinase was unable to phosphorylate photo-activated rhodopsin,but possesses kinase activity similar to the wild-type RK in phosphorylation of small peptide substrate.It suggests that the truncation did not disturb the gross structures of RK catalytic domain.Our results also show that RKC failed to translocate to photo-activated rod out segments.Taken together,our study demonstrate the carboxyl terminus of RK is required for phosphorylation of photo-activated rhodopsin and strongly indicate that carboxyl-terminus of RK may be involved in interaction with photo-activated rhodopsin.

  4. ATM and Chk2-dependent phosphorylation of MDMX contribute to p53 activation after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihong; Gilkes, Daniele M; Pan, Yu; Lane, William S; Chen, Jiandong

    2005-10-05

    The p53 tumor suppressor is activated after DNA damage to maintain genomic stability and prevent transformation. Rapid activation of p53 by ionizing radiation is dependent on signaling by the ATM kinase. MDM2 and MDMX are important p53 regulators and logical targets for stress signals. We found that DNA damage induces ATM-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of MDMX. Phosphorylated MDMX is selectively bound and degraded by MDM2 preceding p53 accumulation and activation. Reduction of MDMX level by RNAi enhances p53 response to DNA damage. Loss of ATM prevents MDMX degradation and p53 stabilization after DNA damage. Phosphorylation of MDMX on S342, S367, and S403 were detected by mass spectrometric analysis, with the first two sites confirmed by phosphopeptide-specific antibodies. Mutation of MDMX on S342, S367, and S403 each confers partial resistance to MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Phosphorylation of S342 and S367 in vivo require the Chk2 kinase. Chk2 also stimulates MDMX ubiquitination and degradation by MDM2. Therefore, the E3 ligase activity of MDM2 is redirected to MDMX after DNA damage and contributes to p53 activation.

  5. Sites of regulated phosphorylation that control K-Cl cotransporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Jesse; Maksimova, Yelena D; Tanis, Jessica E; Stone, Kathryn L; Hodson, Caleb A; Zhang, Junhui; Risinger, Mary; Pan, Weijun; Wu, Dianqing; Colangelo, Christopher M; Forbush, Biff; Joiner, Clinton H; Gulcicek, Erol E; Gallagher, Patrick G; Lifton, Richard P

    2009-08-07

    Modulation of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) plays a fundamental role in cell volume regulation and neuronal response to GABA. Cl(-) exit via K-Cl cotransporters (KCCs) is a major determinant of [Cl(-)](I); however, mechanisms governing KCC activities are poorly understood. We identified two sites in KCC3 that are rapidly dephosphorylated in hypotonic conditions in cultured cells and human red blood cells in parallel with increased transport activity. Alanine substitutions at these sites result in constitutively active cotransport. These sites are highly phosphorylated in plasma membrane KCC3 in isotonic conditions, suggesting that dephosphorylation increases KCC3's intrinsic transport activity. Reduction of WNK1 expression via RNA interference reduces phosphorylation at these sites. Homologous sites are phosphorylated in all human KCCs. KCC2 is partially phosphorylated in neonatal mouse brain and dephosphorylated in parallel with KCC2 activation. These findings provide insight into regulation of [Cl(-)](i) and have implications for control of cell volume and neuronal function.

  6. Enhancement of BACE1 Activity by p25/Cdk5-Mediated Phosphorylation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Joo; Son, Mi-Young; Lee, Hye-Won; Seo, Hyemyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Chung, Sul-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The activity of beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is elevated during aging and in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms of this change are not well understood. p25/Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Here, we describe a potential mechanism by which BACE activity is increased in AD brains. First, we show that BACE1 is phosphorylated by the p25/Cdk5 complex at Thr252 and that this phosphorylation increases BACE1 activity. Then, we demonstrate that the level of phospho-BACE1 is increased in the brains of AD patients and in mammalian cells and transgenic mice that overexpress p25. Furthermore, the fraction of p25 prepared from iodixanol gradient centrifugation was unexpectedly protected by protease digestion, suggesting that p25/Cdk5-mediated BACE1 phosphorylation may occur in the lumen. These results reveal a link between p25 and BACE1 in AD brains and suggest that upregulated Cdk5 activation by p25 accelerates AD pathogenesis by enhancing BACE1 activity via phosphorylation.

  7. Spatial separation of Plk1 phosphorylation and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Wytse; Aprelia, Melinda; Kool, Jolanda; Macurek, Libor; Lindqvist, Arne; Medema, René H.

    2015-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is one of the major kinases controlling mitosis and cell division. Plk1 is first recruited to the centrosome in S phase, then appears on the kinetochores in late G2, and at the end of mitosis, it translocates to the central spindle. Activation of Plk1 requires phosphorylati

  8. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sen; Jiang, Xinnong; Gewinner, Christina A; Asara, John M; Simon, Nicholas I; Cai, Changmeng; Cantley, Lewis C; Balk, Steven P

    2013-05-28

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX (bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome X) is abundant in various cell types and activated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase Src, but its substrates are unknown. Positional scanning peptide library screening revealed a marked preference for a priming phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) in the -1 position, indicating that BMX substrates may include multiple tyrosine kinases that are fully activated by pYpY sites in the kinase domain. BMX phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr⁵⁷⁷ subsequent to its Src-mediated phosphorylation at Tyr⁵⁷⁶. Loss of BMX by RNA interference or by genetic deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) markedly impaired FAK activity. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the kinase domain at Tyr¹¹⁸⁹ and Tyr¹¹⁹⁰, as well as Tyr¹¹⁸⁵, and downstream phosphorylation of the kinase AKT at Thr³⁰⁸ were similarly impaired by BMX deficiency. However, insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser⁴⁷³ was not impaired in Bmx knockout MEFs or liver tissue from Bmx knockout mice, which also showed increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, possibly because of decreased abundance of the phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase). Thus, by identifying the pYpY motif as a substrate for BMX, our findings suggest that BMX functions as a central regulator among multiple signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine kinases.

  9. Studies on Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Phosphorylated Achyranthes bidentata Polysaccharide (P-AbPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Xiao-Ming(陈晓明); ZHANG,Jian(张健); TIAN,Geng-Yuan(田庚元)

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis of phosphorylated Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (P-AbPS) was reported based on different strategies.The P-AbPS with high degree of substitution (D.S. >0.5) was obtained when phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3) was used as a phosphorylating agent and trimethyl phosphate-pyridine or dimethyl formamide was used as solvent. The influences of different solvents and reaction conditins were discussed. Thepharmacology assay shows that P-AbPS possesses antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 and Lewis lung carner in mice.

  10. Telmisartan Activates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase via Ser1177 Phosphorylation in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myojo, Masahiro; Nagata, Daisuke; Fujita, Daishi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Takahashi, Masao; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Akimoto, Tetsu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177) in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172) and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:24827148

  11. Telmisartan activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Myojo

    Full Text Available Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177 in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172 and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP. Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling.

  12. Functional characterization of the kinase activation loop in nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) using tandem affinity purification and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Fang; Ma, Yupo; Li, Liang; Lai, Raymond; Young, Leah C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the kinase activation loop (KAL) of the oncogenic fusion protein NPM-ALK regulates its overall tyrosine phosphorylation status and tumorigenicity. Using tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry, we assessed how the KAL of NPM-ALK regulates the phosphorylation status of its individual tyrosines. Using the lysates of GP293 cells transfected with NPM-ALK, our highly reproducible results showed evidence of phosphorylation in all 3 tyrosines in KAL and 8 tyrosines outside KAL. We created 7 KAL mutants, each of which carried a Tyr-to-Phe mutation of >or=1 of the 3 tyrosines in KAL. A complete loss of the 8 phosphotyrosines outside KAL was found in 3 KAL mutants, and their oncogenicity (assessed by cell viability, colony formation, and the ability to phosphorylate effector proteins) was abrogated. A partial loss of the 8 phosphotyrosines was found in 4 KAL mutants, but their oncogenicity did not show simple correlation with the number of residual phosphotyrosines. Tyr-to-Phe mutations of each of the 8 phosphotyrosines outside KAL did not result in a significant decrease in the oncogenicity. In conclusion, we have provided details of how the KAL in NPM-ALK regulates its tyrosine phosphorylation pattern. Our results challenge some of the current concepts regarding the relationship between the tyrosine phosphorylation and oncogenicity of NPM-ALK.

  13. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M

    1996-01-01

    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated...

  14. MST2 phosphorylation at serine 385 in mitosis inhibits its tumor suppressing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingcheng; Chen, Yuanhong; Dong, Jixin

    2016-12-01

    Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1/2 (MST1/2) are core tumor suppressors in the Hippo signaling pathway. MST1/2 have been shown to regulate mitotic progression. Here, we report a novel mechanism for phospho-regulation of MST2 in mitosis and its biological significance in cancer. We found that the mitotic kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) phosphorylates MST2 in vitro and in vivo at serine 385 during antimitotic drug-induced G2/M phase arrest. This phosphorylation occurs transiently during unperturbed mitosis. Mitotic phosphorylation of MST2 does not affect its kinase activity or Hippo-YAP signaling. We further showed that mitotic phosphorylation-deficient mutant MST2-S385A possesses higher activity in suppressing cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Together, our findings reveal a novel layer of regulation for MST2 in mitosis and its role in tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Activity-dependent Phosphorylation of Neuronal Kv2.1 Potassium Channels by CDK5*

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Oscar; Trimmer, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic modulation of ion channel expression, localization, and/or function drives plasticity in intrinsic neuronal excitability. Voltage-gated Kv2.1 potassium channels are constitutively maintained in a highly phosphorylated state in neurons. Increased neuronal activity triggers rapid calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation, loss of channel clustering, and hyperpolarizing shifts in voltage-dependent activation that homeostatically suppress neuronal excitability. These changes are reversible,...

  16. Phosphorylation of SAMHD1 by Cyclin A2/CDK1 Regulates Its Restriction Activity toward HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cribier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in myeloid and quiescent CD4+ T cells. Here, we show that SAMHD1 restriction activity is regulated by phosphorylation. SAMHD1 interacts with cyclin A2/cdk1 only in cycling cells. Cyclin A2/CDK1 phosphorylates SAMHD1 at the Threonine 592 residue both in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation of SAMHD1 Thr592 correlates with loss of its ability to restrict HIV-1. Indeed, while PMA treatment of proliferating THP1 cells results in reduced Thr592 phosphorylation, activation of resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and purified quiescent CD4+ T cells results in increased phosphorylation of SAMHD1 Thr592. Interestingly, we found that treatment of cells by type 1 interferon reduced Thr592 phosphorylation, reinforcing the link between the phosphorylation of SAMHD1 and its antiviral activity. Unlike wild-type SAMHD1, a phosphorylation-defective mutant was able to restrict HIV-1 replication in both PMA-treated and untreated cells. Our results uncover the phosphorylation of SAMHD1 at Thr592 by cyclin A2/CDK1 as a key regulatory mechanism of its antiviral activity.

  17. Phosphorylation regulates activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), a terminal enzyme of cholesterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Anika V; Luu, Winnie; Sharpe, Laura J; Brown, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is essential for survival, but too much or too little can cause disease. Thus, cholesterol levels must be kept within close margins. 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) is a terminal enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, and is essential for embryonic development. Largely, DHCR7 research is associated with the developmental disease Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene. However, little is known about what regulates DHCR7 activity. Here we provide evidence that phosphorylation plays a role in controlling DHCR7 activity, which may provide a means to divert flux from cholesterol synthesis to vitamin D production. DHCR7 activity was significantly decreased when we used pharmacological inhibitors against two important kinases, AMP-activated protein kinase and protein kinase A. Moreover, mutating a known phosphorylated residue, S14, also decreased DHCR7 activity. Thus, we demonstrate that phosphorylation modulates DHCR7 activity in cells, and contributes to the overall synthesis of cholesterol, and probably vitamin D. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation of BTK by a Phosphorylation Mechanism Initiated by SRC Family Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, David J.; Scharenberg, Andrew M.; Park, Hyunsun; Wahl, Matthew I.; Lin, Siqi; Kato, Roberta M.; Fluckiger, Anne-Catherine; Witte, Owen N.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre

    1996-02-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is pivotal in B cell activation and development through its participation in the signaling pathways of multiple hematopoietic receptors. The mechanisms controlling BTK activation were studied here by examination of the biochemical consequences of an interaction between BTK and SRC family kinases. This interaction of BTK with SRC kinases transphosphorylated BTK on tyrosine at residue 551, which led to BTK activation. BTK then autophosphorylated at a second site. The same two sites were phosphorylated upon B cell antigen receptor cross-linking. The activated BTK was pre-dominantly membrane-associated, which suggests that BTK integrates distinct receptor signals resulting in SRC kinase activation and BTK membrane targeting.

  19. Activation of TGF-β1-CD147 positive feedback loop in hepatic stellate cells promotes liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yan; Ju, Di; Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Hao; Kong, Ling-Min; Guo, Yanhai; Li, Can; Wang, Xi-Long; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2015-11-12

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) initiates HBV-associated fibrogenesis. The mechanism of TGF-β1 modulating HSC activation is not fully uncovered. We hypothesized a positive feedback signaling loop of TGF-β1-CD147 promoting liver fibrogenesis by activation of HSCs. Human HSC cell line LX-2 and spontaneous liver fibrosis model derived from HBV transgenic mice were used to evaluate the activation of molecules in the signaling loop. Wound healing and cell contraction assay were performed to detect the CD147-overexpressed HSC migration and contraction. The transcriptional regulation of CD147 by TGF-β1/Smad4 was determined using dual-luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. We found that a positive reciprocal regulation between TGF-β1 and CD147 mediated HSC activation. CD147 over-expression promoted HSC migration and accelerated TGF-β1-induced cell contraction. Phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in cooperation with Smad4 mediated the TGF-β1-regulated CD147 expression. Smad4 activated the transcription by direct interaction with CD147 promoter. Meanwhile, CD147 modulated the activated phenotype of HSCs through the ERK1/2 and Sp1 which up-regulated α-SMA, collagen I, and TGF-β1 synthesis. These findings indicate that TGF-β1-CD147 loop plays a key role in regulating the HSC activation and combination of TGF-β receptor inhibitor and anti-CD147 antibody might be promised to reverse fibrogenesis.

  20. Bidirectional regulation of eEF2 phosphorylation controls synaptic plasticity by decoding neuronal activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamphill, Patrick K; Farah, Carole A; Anadolu, Mina N; Hoque, Sanjida; Sossin, Wayne S

    2015-03-11

    At the sensory-motor neuron synapse of Aplysia, either spaced or continuous (massed) exposure to serotonin (5-HT) induces a form of intermediate-term facilitation (ITF) that requires new protein synthesis but not gene transcription. However, spaced and massed ITF use distinct molecular mechanisms to maintain increased synaptic strength. Synapses activated by spaced applications of 5-HT generate an ITF that depends on persistent protein kinase A (PKA) activity, whereas an ITF produced by massed 5-HT depends on persistent protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In this study, we demonstrate that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which catalyzes the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome during protein synthesis, acts as a biochemical sensor that is tuned to the pattern of neuronal stimulation. Specifically, we find that massed training leads to a PKC-dependent increase in phosphorylation of eEF2, whereas spaced training results in a PKA-dependent decrease in phosphorylation of eEF2. Importantly, by using either pharmacological or dominant-negative strategies to inhibit eEF2 kinase (eEF2K), we were able to block massed 5-HT-dependent increases in eEF2 phosphorylation and subsequent PKC-dependent ITF. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of eEF2K during the longer period of time required for spaced training was sufficient to reduce eEF2 phosphorylation and induce ITF. Finally, we find that the massed 5-HT-dependent increase in synaptic strength requires translation elongation, but not translation initiation, whereas the spaced 5-HT-dependent increase in synaptic strength is partially dependent on translation initiation. Thus, bidirectional regulation of eEF2 is critical for decoding distinct activity patterns at synapses by activating distinct modes of translation regulation. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354403-15$15.00/0.

  1. LRRK2 phosphorylates moesin at threonine-558: characterization of how Parkinson's disease mutants affect kinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Mahaboobi; Nichols, R. Jeremy; Deak, Maria; Campbell, David G.; Gillardon, Frank; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase-2) gene cause late-onset PD (Parkinson's disease). LRRK2 contains leucine-rich repeats, a GTPase domain, a COR [C-terminal of Roc (Ras of complex)] domain, a kinase and a WD40 (Trp-Asp 40) motif. Little is known about how LRRK2 is regulated, what its physiological substrates are or how mutations affect LRRK2 function. Thus far LRRK2 activity has only been assessed by autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of MBP (myelin basic protein), which is catalysed rather slowly. We undertook a KESTREL (kinase substrate tracking and elucidation) screen in rat brain extracts to identify proteins that were phosphorylated by an activated PD mutant of LRRK2 (G2019S). This led to the discovery that moesin, a protein which anchors the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, is efficiently phosphorylated by LRRK2, at Thr558, a previously identified in-vivo-phosphorylation site that regulates the ability of moesin to bind actin. LRRK2 also phosphorylated ezrin and radixin, which are related to moesin, at the residue equivalent to Thr558, as well as a peptide (LRRKtide: RLGRDKYKTLRQIRQ) encompassing Thr558. We exploited these findings to determine how nine previously reported PD mutations of LRRK2 affected kinase activity. Only one of the mutations analysed, namely G2019S, stimulated kinase activity. Four mutations inhibited LRRK2 kinase activity (R1941H, I2012T, I2020T and G2385R), whereas the remainder (R1441C, R1441G, Y1699C and T2356I) did not influence activity. Therefore the manner in which LRRK2 mutations induce PD is more complex than previously imagined and is not only caused by an increase in LRRK2 kinase activity. Finally, we show that the minimum catalytically active fragment of LRRK2 requires an intact GTPase, COR and kinase domain, as well as a WD40 motif and a C-terminal tail. The results of the present study suggest that moesin, ezrin and radixin may be LRRK2 substrates, findings that have been exploited to develop

  2. Mechanism of phosphorylation-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresset, Aurelie; Hicks, Stephanie N; Harden, T Kendall; Sondek, John

    2010-11-12

    The lipase activity of most phospholipases C (PLCs) is basally repressed by a highly degenerate and mostly disordered X/Y linker inserted within the catalytic domain. Release of this auto-inhibition is driven by electrostatic repulsion between the plasma membrane and the electronegative X/Y linker. In contrast, PLC-γ isozymes (PLC-γ1 and -γ2) are structurally distinct from other PLCs because multiple domains are present in their X/Y linker. Moreover, although many tyrosine kinases directly phosphorylate PLC-γ isozymes to enhance their lipase activity, the underlying molecular mechanism of this activation remains unclear. Here we define the mechanism for the unique regulation of PLC-γ isozymes by their X/Y linker. Specifically, we identify the C-terminal SH2 domain within the X/Y linker as the critical determinant for auto-inhibition. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the X/Y linker mediates high affinity intramolecular interaction with the C-terminal SH2 domain that is coupled to a large conformational rearrangement and release of auto-inhibition. Consequently, PLC-γ isozymes link phosphorylation to phospholipase activation by elaborating upon primordial regulatory mechanisms found in other PLCs.

  3. ATF3 activates Stat3 phosphorylation through inhibition of p53 expression in skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhen-Feng; Ao, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Jie; Su, You-Ming; Yang, Rong-Ya

    2013-01-01

    ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, has been found to be selectively induced by calcineurin/NFAT inhibition and to enhance keratinocyte tumor formation, although the precise role of ATF3 in human skin cancer and possible mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, clinical analysis of 30 skin cancer patients and 30 normal donors revealed that ATF3 was accumulated in skin cancer tissues. Functional assays demonstrated that ATF3 significantly promoted skin cancer cell proliferation. Mechanically, ATF3 activated Stat3 phosphorylation in skin cancer cell through regulation of p53 expression. Moreover, the promotion effect of ATF3 on skin cancer cell proliferation was dependent on the p53-Stat3 signaling cascade. Together, the results indicate that ATF3 might promote skin cancer cell proliferation and enhance skin keratinocyte tumor development through inhibiting p53 expression and then activating Stat3 phosphorylation.

  4. A novel effect of MARCKS phosphorylation by activated PKC: the dephosphorylation of its serine 25 in chick neuroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Toledo

    Full Text Available MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate is a peripheral membrane protein, especially abundant in the nervous system, and functionally related to actin organization and Ca-calmodulin regulation depending on its phosphorylation by PKC. However, MARCKS is susceptible to be phosphorylated by several different kinases and the possible interactions between these phosphorylations have not been fully studied in intact cells. In differentiating neuroblasts, as well as some neurons, there is at least one cell-type specific phosphorylation site: serine 25 (S25 in the chick. We demonstrate here that S25 is included in a highly conserved protein sequence which is a Cdk phosphorylatable region, located far away from the PKC phosphorylation domain. S25 phosphorylation was inhibited by olomoucine and roscovitine in neuroblasts undergoing various states of cell differentiation in vitro. These results, considered in the known context of Cdks activity in neuroblasts, suggest that Cdk5 is the enzyme responsible for this phosphorylation. We find that the phosphorylation by PKC at the effector domain does not occur in the same molecules that are phosphorylated at serine 25. The in situ analysis of the subcellular distribution of these two phosphorylated MARCKS variants revealed that they are also segregated in different protein clusters. In addition, we find that a sustained stimulation of PKC by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA provokes the progressive disappearance of phosphorylation at serine 25. Cells treated with PMA, but in the presence of several Ser/Thr phosphatase (PP1, PP2A and PP2B inhibitors indicated that this dephosphorylation is achieved via a phosphatase 2A (PP2A form. These results provide new evidence regarding the existence of a novel consequence of PKC stimulation upon the phosphorylated state of MARCKS in neural cells, and propose a link between PKC and PP2A activity on MARCKS.

  5. Mek1 Down Regulates Rad51 Activity during Yeast Meiosis by Phosphorylation of Hed1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Tracy L; Laureau, Raphaelle; Wan, Lihong; Chen, Xiangyu; Sandhu, Rima; Laljee, Saif; Zhou, Sai; Suhandynata, Ray T; Prugar, Evelyn; Gaines, William A; Kwon, YoungHo; Börner, G Valentin; Nicolas, Alain; Neiman, Aaron M; Hollingsworth, Nancy M

    2016-08-01

    During meiosis, programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired preferentially between homologs to generate crossovers that promote proper chromosome segregation at Meiosis I. In many organisms, there are two strand exchange proteins, Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1, required for interhomolog (IH) bias. This bias requires the presence, but not the strand exchange activity of Rad51, while Dmc1 is responsible for the bulk of meiotic recombination. How these activities are regulated is less well established. In dmc1Δ mutants, Rad51 is actively inhibited, thereby resulting in prophase arrest due to unrepaired DSBs triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. This inhibition is dependent upon the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1 and occurs through two different mechanisms that prevent complex formation with the Rad51 accessory factor Rad54: (i) phosphorylation of Rad54 by Mek1 and (ii) binding of Rad51 by the meiosis-specific protein Hed1. An open question has been why inhibition of Mek1 affects Hed1 repression of Rad51. This work shows that Hed1 is a direct substrate of Mek1. Phosphorylation of Hed1 at threonine 40 helps suppress Rad51 activity in dmc1Δ mutants by promoting Hed1 protein stability. Rad51-mediated recombination occurring in the absence of Hed1 phosphorylation results in a significant increase in non-exchange chromosomes despite wild-type levels of crossovers, confirming previous results indicating a defect in crossover assurance. We propose that Rad51 function in meiosis is regulated in part by the coordinated phosphorylation of Rad54 and Hed1 by Mek1.

  6. Mek1 Down Regulates Rad51 Activity during Yeast Meiosis by Phosphorylation of Hed1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Callender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis, programmed double strand breaks (DSBs are repaired preferentially between homologs to generate crossovers that promote proper chromosome segregation at Meiosis I. In many organisms, there are two strand exchange proteins, Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1, required for interhomolog (IH bias. This bias requires the presence, but not the strand exchange activity of Rad51, while Dmc1 is responsible for the bulk of meiotic recombination. How these activities are regulated is less well established. In dmc1Δ mutants, Rad51 is actively inhibited, thereby resulting in prophase arrest due to unrepaired DSBs triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. This inhibition is dependent upon the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1 and occurs through two different mechanisms that prevent complex formation with the Rad51 accessory factor Rad54: (i phosphorylation of Rad54 by Mek1 and (ii binding of Rad51 by the meiosis-specific protein Hed1. An open question has been why inhibition of Mek1 affects Hed1 repression of Rad51. This work shows that Hed1 is a direct substrate of Mek1. Phosphorylation of Hed1 at threonine 40 helps suppress Rad51 activity in dmc1Δ mutants by promoting Hed1 protein stability. Rad51-mediated recombination occurring in the absence of Hed1 phosphorylation results in a significant increase in non-exchange chromosomes despite wild-type levels of crossovers, confirming previous results indicating a defect in crossover assurance. We propose that Rad51 function in meiosis is regulated in part by the coordinated phosphorylation of Rad54 and Hed1 by Mek1.

  7. Endothelin-1 stimulates catalase activity through the PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of serine 167.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Kangath, Archana; Pardo, Daniel; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Black, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates catalase activity in endothelial cells and in lambs with acute increases in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), without altering gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Exposing pulmonary arterial endothelial cells to ET-1 increased catalase activity and decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These changes correlated with an increase in serine-phosphorylated catalase. Using the inhibitory peptide δV1.1, this phosphorylation was shown to be protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) dependent. Mass spectrometry identified serine 167 as the phosphorylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a phospho-mimic (S167D) catalase. Activity assays using recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli or transiently transfected COS-7 cells demonstrated that S167D catalase had an increased ability to degrade H2O2 compared to the wild-type enzyme. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we were able to verify that pS167 catalase levels are modulated in lambs with acute increases in PBF in the presence and absence of the ET receptor antagonist tezosentan. S167 is located on the dimeric interface, suggesting it could be involved in regulating the formation of catalase tetramers. To evaluate this possibility we utilized analytical gel filtration to examine the multimeric structure of recombinant wild-type and S167D catalase. We found that recombinant wild-type catalase was present as a mixture of monomers and dimers, whereas S167D catalase was primarily tetrameric. Further, the incubation of wild-type catalase with PKCδ was sufficient to convert wild-type catalase into a tetrameric structure. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that the phosphorylation of catalase regulates its multimeric structure and activity.

  8. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly-Thuy-Tram Le

    2013-02-01

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  9. MHC class I signaling in T cells leads to tyrosine kinase activity and PLC-gamma 1 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Odum, Niels; Claesson, M H

    1995-01-01

    phosphorylation and the subsequent calcium response. The early tyrosine kinase activity was found to be dependent on expression of the TCR/CD3 complex and the CD45 molecule on the surface of the T cells. Furthermore, MHC-I cross-linking was shown to tyrosine phosphorylate PLC-gamma 1 (phospholipase C-gamma 1...

  10. Fyn-phosphorylated PIKE-A binds and inhibits AMPK signaling, blocking its tumor suppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Qi, Q; Chan, C B; Zhou, W; Chen, J; Luo, H R; Appin, C; Brat, D J; Ye, K

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, has a critical role in metabolic disorders and cancers. AMPK is mainly regulated by cellular AMP and phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Here, we show that PIKE-A binds to AMPK and blocks its tumor suppressive actions, which are mediated by tyrosine kinase Fyn. PIKE-A directly interacts with AMPK catalytic alpha subunit and impairs T172 phosphorylation, leading to repression of its kinase activity on the downstream targets. Mutation of Fyn phosphorylation sites on PIKE-A, depletion of Fyn, or pharmacological inhibition of Fyn blunts the association between PIKE-A and AMPK, resulting in loss of its inhibitory effect on AMPK. Cell proliferation and oncogenic assays demonstrate that PIKE-A antagonizes tumor suppressive actions of AMPK. In human glioblastoma samples, PIKE-A expression inversely correlates with the p-AMPK levels, supporting that PIKE-A negatively regulates AMPK activity in cancers. Thus, our findings provide additional layer of molecular regulation of the AMPK signaling pathway in cancer progression.

  11. Activation of a GTP-binding protein and a GTP-binding-protein-coupled receptor kinase (beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1) by a muscarinic receptor m2 mutant lacking phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K; Haga, K; Haga, T; Moro, O; Sadée, W

    1994-12-01

    A mutant of the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtype (m2 receptor), lacking a large part of the third intracellular loop, was expressed and purified using the baculovirus/insect cell culture system. The mutant was not phosphorylated by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, as expected from the previous assignment of phosphorylation sites to the central part of the third intracellular loop. However, the m2 receptor mutant was capable of stimulating beta-adrenergic-receptor-kinase-1-mediated phosphorylation of a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein containing the m2 phosphorylation sites in an agonist-dependent manner. Both mutant and wild-type m2 receptors reconstituted with the guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein), G(o) and G(i)2, displayed guanine-nucleotide-sensitive high-affinity agonist binding, as assessed by displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding with carbamoylcholine, and both stimulated guanosine 5'-3-O-[35S]thiotriphosphate ([35S]GTP[S]) binding in the presence of carbamoylcholine and GDP. The Ki values of carbamoylcholine effects on [3H]quinuclidinyl-benzilate binding were indistinguishable for the mutant and wild-type m2 receptors. Moreover, the phosphorylation of the wild-type m2 receptor by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase-1 did not affect m2 interaction with G proteins as assessed by the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [35S]GTP[S]. These results indicate that (a) the m2 receptor serves both as an activator and as a substrate of beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase, and (b) a large part of the third intracellular loop of the m2 receptor does not contribute to interaction with G proteins and its phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase does not uncouple the receptor and G proteins in reconstituted lipid vesicles.

  12. Differential active site loop conformations mediate promiscuous activities in the lactonase SsoPox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Hiblot

    Full Text Available Enzymes are proficient catalysts that enable fast rates of Michaelis-complex formation, the chemical step and products release. These different steps may require different conformational states of the active site that have distinct binding properties. Moreover, the conformational flexibility of the active site mediates alternative, promiscuous functions. Here we focused on the lactonase SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus. SsoPox is a native lactonase endowed with promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. We identified a position in the active site loop (W263 that governs its flexibility, and thereby affects the substrate specificity of the enzyme. We isolated two different sets of substitutions at position 263 that induce two distinct conformational sampling of the active loop and characterized the structural and kinetic effects of these substitutions. These sets of mutations selectively and distinctly mediate the improvement of the promiscuous phosphotriesterase and oxo-lactonase activities of SsoPox by increasing active-site loop flexibility. These observations corroborate the idea that conformational diversity governs enzymatic promiscuity and is a key feature of protein evolvability.

  13. Masoprocol decreases rat lipolytic activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of HSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, M S; Azhar, R K; Kraemer, F B; Reaven, G M; Azhar, S

    2000-09-01

    Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a lipoxygenase inhibitor isolated from the creosote bush, has been shown to decrease adipose tissue lipolytic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the decrease in lipolytic activity by masoprocol resulted from modulation of adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. The results indicate that oral administration of masoprocol to rats with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased their serum free fatty acid (FFA; P HSL activity were significantly lower (P HSL protein. Incubation of masoprocol with adipocytes from chow-fed rats significantly inhibited isoproterenol-induced lipolytic activity and HSL activity, associated with a decrease in the ability of isoproterenol to phosphorylate HSL. Masoprocol had no apparent effect on adipose tissue phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, but okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked the antilipolytic effect of masoprocol. The results of these in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that the antilipolytic activity of masoprocol is secondary to its ability to inhibit HSL phosphorylation, possibly by increasing phosphatase activity. As a consequence, masoprocol administration results in lower serum FFA and TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic rodents.

  14. Determination of the starch-phosphorylating enzyme activity in plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritte, G.; Steup, M.; Kossmann, J.;

    2003-01-01

    For quantification of alpha-glucan, water dikinase(GWD) activity in crude extracts of plant tissues a radio-labeling assay was established that uses soluble starch and P-33-labeled ATP as phosphate acceptor and donor, respectively. A constant rate of starch labeling was observed only if the ATP...... incorporation of phosphate whereas extracts from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber expressing a GWD antisense construct exhibited less activity than the wild-type control. To our knowledge this is the first time that a quantification of the starch-phosphorylating activity has been achieved in plant crude...

  15. UVC-induced apoptosis in Dubca cells is independent of JNK activation and p53{sup Ser-15} phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chathoth, Shahanas; Thayyullathil, Faisal; Hago, Abdulkader [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Shahin, Allen [Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Patel, Mahendra [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Galadari, Sehamuddin, E-mail: sehamuddin@uaeu.ac.ae [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-06-12

    Ultraviolet C (UVC) irradiation in mammalian cell lines activates a complex signaling network that leads to apoptosis. By using Dubca cells as a model system, we report the presence of a UVC-induced apoptotic pathway that is independent of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) activation and p53 phosphorylation at Ser{sup 15}. Irradiation of Dubca cells with UVC results in a rapid JNK activation and phosphorylation of its downstream target c-Jun, as well as, phosphorylation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2). Pre-treatment with JNK inhibitor, SP600125, inhibited UVC-induced c-Jun phosphorylation without preventing UVC-induced apoptosis. Similarly, inhibition of UVC-induced p53 phosphorylation did not prevent Dubca cell apoptosis, suggesting that p53{sup Ser-15} phosphorylation is not associated with UVC-induced apoptosis signaling. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk inhibited UVC-induced PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and ultimately apoptosis of Dubca cells. Altogether, our study clearly indicates that UVC-induced apoptosis is independent of JNK and p53 activation in Dubca cells, rather, it is mediated through a caspase dependent pathway. Our findings are not in line with the ascribed critical role for JNKs activation, and downstream phosphorylation of targets such as c-Jun and ATF2 in UVC-induced apoptosis.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates EMCV, TMEV and SafV leader proteins at different sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Holly A; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2014-08-01

    Cardioviruses of the Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and Theilovirus species encode small, amino-terminal proteins called Leaders (L). Phosphorylation of the EMCV L (LE) at two distinct sites by CK2 and Syk kinases is important for virus-induced Nup phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking inhibition. Despite similar biological activities, the LE phosphorylation sites are not conserved in the Theiloviruses, Saffold virus (LS, SafV) or Theiler׳s murine encephalitis virus (LT, TMEV) sequences even though these proteins also become phosphorylated in cells and cell-free extracts. Site prediction algorithms, combined with panels of site-specific protein mutations now identify analogous, but not homologous phosphorylation sites in the Ser/Thr and Theilo protein domains of LT and LS, respectively. In both cases, recombinant AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) was reactive with the proteins at these sites, and also with LE, modifying the same residue recognized by CK2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CDK-mediated regulation of cell functions via c-Jun phosphorylation and AP-1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J Vanden Bush

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs and their targets have been primarily associated with regulation of cell-cycle progression. Here we identify c-Jun, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular functions, as a newly recognized CDK substrate. Using immune cells from mouse and human, and several complementary in vitro and in vivo approaches including dominant negative protein expression, pharmacologic inhibitors, kinase assays and CDK4 deficient cells, we demonstrate the ability of CDK4 to phosphorylate c-Jun. Additionally, the activity of AP-1, a ubiquitous transcription factor containing phosphorylated c-Jun as a subunit, was inhibited by abrogating CDK4. Surprisingly, the regulation of c-Jun phosphorylation by CDK4 occurred in non-dividing cells, indicating that this pathway is utilized for cell functions that are independent of proliferation. Our studies identify a new substrate for CDK4 and suggest a mechanism by which CDKs can regulate multiple cellular activation functions, not all of which are directly associated with cell cycle progression. These findings point to additional roles of CDKs in cell signaling and reveal potential implications for therapeutic manipulations of this kinase pathway.

  18. PKCβ phosphorylates PI3Kγ to activate it and release it from GPCR control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Walser

    Full Text Available All class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks associate tightly with regulatory subunits through interactions that have been thought to be constitutive. PI3Kγ is key to the regulation of immune cell responses activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Remarkably we find that PKCβ phosphorylates Ser582 in the helical domain of the PI3Kγ catalytic subunit p110γ in response to clustering of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI and/or store-operated Ca²⁺- influx in mast cells. Phosphorylation of p110γ correlates with the release of the p84 PI3Kγ adapter subunit from the p84-p110γ complex. Ser582 phospho-mimicking mutants show increased p110γ activity and a reduced binding to the p84 adapter subunit. As functional p84-p110γ is key to GPCR-mediated p110γ signaling, this suggests that PKCβ-mediated p110γ phosphorylation disconnects PI3Kγ from its canonical inputs from trimeric G proteins, and enables p110γ to operate downstream of Ca²⁺ and PKCβ. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry shows that the p84 adaptor subunit interacts with the p110γ helical domain, and reveals an unexpected mechanism of PI3Kγ regulation. Our data show that the interaction of p110γ with its adapter subunit is vulnerable to phosphorylation, and outline a novel level of PI3K control.

  19. Targeting the autolysis loop of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø; Fogh, Sarah; Bekes, Erin C;

    2011-01-01

    , with high levels correlating with a poor prognosis. This observation has stimulated efforts into finding new principles for intervening with uPA's activity. In the present study we characterize the so-called autolysis loop in the catalytic domain of uPA as a potential inhibitory target. This loop was found...

  20. Identification of a protein kinase activity that phosphorylates connexin43 in a pH-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yahuaca

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxyl-terminal (CT domain of connexin43 (Cx43 has been implicated in both hormonal and pH-dependent gating of the gap junction channel. An in vitro assay was utilized to determine whether the acidification of cell extracts results in the activation of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate the CT domain. A glutathione S-transferase (GST-fusion protein was bound to Sephadex beads and used as a target for protein kinase phosphorylation. A protein extract produced from sheep heart was allowed to bind to the fusion protein-coated beads. The bound proteins were washed and then incubated with 32P-ATP. Phosphorylation was assessed after the proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE. Incubation at pH 7.5 resulted in a minimal amount of phosphorylation while incubation at pH 6.5 resulted in significant phosphorylation reaction. Maximal activity was achieved when both the binding and kinase reactions were performed at pH 6.5. The protein kinase activity was stronger when the incubations were performed with manganese rather than magnesium. Mutants of Cx43 which lack the serines between amino acids 364-374 could not be phosphorylated in the in vitro kinase reaction, indicating that this is a likely target of this reaction. These results indicate that there is a protein kinase activity in cells that becomes more active at lower pH and can phosphorylate Cx43.

  1. Myosin IIb activity and phosphorylation status determines dendritic spine and post-synaptic density morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hodges

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons mature from a filopodia-like precursor into a mushroom-shape with an enlarged post-synaptic density (PSD and serve as the primary post-synaptic location of the excitatory neurotransmission that underlies learning and memory. Using myosin II regulatory mutants, inhibitors, and knockdowns, we show that non-muscle myosin IIB (MIIB activity determines where spines form and whether they persist as filopodia-like spine precursors or mature into a mushroom-shape. MIIB also determines PSD size, morphology, and placement in the spine. Local inactivation of MIIB leads to the formation of filopodia-like spine protrusions from the dendritic shaft. However, di-phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain on residues Thr18 and Ser19 by Rho kinase is required for spine maturation. Inhibition of MIIB activity or a mono-phosphomimetic mutant of RLC similarly prevented maturation even in the presence of NMDA receptor activation. Expression of an actin cross-linking, non-contractile mutant, MIIB R709C, showed that maturation into a mushroom-shape requires contractile activity. Loss of MIIB also leads to an elongated PSD morphology that is no longer restricted to the spine tip; whereas increased MIIB activity, specifically through RLC-T18, S19 di-phosphorylation, increases PSD area. These observations support a model whereby myosin II inactivation forms filopodia-like protrusions that only mature once NMDA receptor activation increases RLC di-phosphorylation to stimulate MIIB contractility, resulting in mushroom-shaped spines with an enlarged PSD.

  2. KNL1 facilitates phosphorylation of outer kinetochore proteins by promoting Aurora B kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Gina V; DeLuca, Keith F; DeLuca, Jennifer G

    2013-12-23

    Aurora B kinase phosphorylates kinetochore proteins during early mitosis, increasing kinetochore–microtubule (MT) turnover and preventing premature stabilization of kinetochore–MT attachments. Phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins during late mitosis is low, promoting attachment stabilization, which is required for anaphase onset. The kinetochore protein KNL1 recruits Aurora B–counteracting phosphatases and the Aurora B–targeting factor Bub1, yet the consequences of KNL1 depletion on Aurora B phospho-regulation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the KNL1 N terminus is essential for Aurora B activity at kinetochores. This region of KNL1 is also required for Bub1 kinase activity at kinetochores, suggesting that KNL1 promotes Aurora B activity through Bub1-mediated Aurora B targeting. However, ectopic targeting of Aurora B to kinetochores does not fully rescue Aurora B activity in KNL1-depleted cells, suggesting KNL1 influences Aurora B activity through an additional pathway. Our findings establish KNL1 as a requirement for Aurora B activity at kinetochores and for wild-type kinetochore–MT attachment dynamics.

  3. Protein kinase C {alpha} activity is important for contraction-induced FXYD1 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Rose, Adam John; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt

    2011-01-01

    Exercise induced phosphorylation of FXYD1 is a potential important regulator of Na(+), K(+) pump activity. It was investigated if skeletal muscle contractions induce phosphorylation of FXYD1 and if Protein Kinase C a (PKCa) activity is a prerequisite for this possible mechanism. In part 1, human...... muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, after 30 s of high intensity exercise (166±31% of VO(2max)) and after a subsequent 20 min of moderate intensity exercise (79±8% of VO(2max)). In general, FXYD1 phosphorylation was increased compared to rest both after 30 s (P...

  4. Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in neurons and astrocytes during network activity in hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Anton I; Malkov, Anton E; Waseem, Tatsiana; Mukhtarov, Marat; Buldakova, Svetlana; Gubkina, Olena; Zilberter, Misha; Zilberter, Yuri

    2014-03-01

    Network activation triggers a significant energy metabolism increase in both neurons and astrocytes. Questions of the primary neuronal energy substrate (e.g., glucose vs. lactate) as well as the relative contributions of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and their cellular origin (neurons vs. astrocytes) are still a matter of debates. Using simultaneous measurements of electrophysiological and metabolic parameters during synaptic stimulation in hippocampal slices from mature mice, we show that neurons and astrocytes use both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to meet their energy demands. Supplementation or replacement of glucose in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) with pyruvate or lactate strongly modifies parameters related to network activity-triggered energy metabolism. These effects are not induced by changes in ATP content, pH(i), [Ca(2+)](i) or accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Our results suggest that during network activation, a significant fraction of NAD(P)H response (its overshoot phase) corresponds to glycolysis and the changes in cytosolic NAD(P)H and mitochondrial FAD are coupled. Our data do not support the hypothesis of a preferential utilization of astrocyte-released lactate by neurons during network activation in slices--instead, we show that during such activity glucose is an effective energy substrate for both neurons and astrocytes.

  5. Fisetin stimulates autophagic degradation of phosphorylated tau via the activation of TFEB and Nrf2 transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sunhyo Kim; Ki Ju Choi; Sun-Jung Cho; Sang-Moon Yun; Jae-Pil Jeon; Young Ho Koh; Jihyun Song; Johnson, Gail V.W.; Chulman Jo

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal accumulation of phosphorylated tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Here, we examined the effect of fisetin, a flavonol, on tau levels. Treatment of cortical cells or primary neurons with fisetin resulted in significant decreases in the levels of phosphorylated tau. In addition, fisetin decreased the levels of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in an active GSK-3?-induced tau aggregation model. However, there was no difference in activities of tau kinase...

  6. Fisetin stimulates autophagic degradation of phosphorylated tau via the activation of TFEB and Nrf2 transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sunhyo Kim; Ki Ju Choi; Sun-Jung Cho; Sang-Moon Yun; Jae-Pil Jeon; Young Ho Koh; Jihyun Song; Johnson, Gail V.W.; Chulman Jo

    2016-01-01

    The neuronal accumulation of phosphorylated tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we examined the effect of fisetin, a flavonol, on tau levels. Treatment of cortical cells or primary neurons with fisetin resulted in significant decreases in the levels of phosphorylated tau. In addition, fisetin decreased the levels of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in an active GSK-3β-induced tau aggregation model. However, there was no difference in activities of tau kinase...

  7. Cdk1 Phosphorylates SPAT-1/Bora to Promote Plk1 Activation in C. elegans and Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conserved Bora protein is a Plk1 activator, essential for checkpoint recovery after DNA damage in human cells. Here, we show that Bora interacts with Cyclin B and is phosphorylated by Cyclin B/Cdk1 at several sites. The first 225 amino acids of Bora, which contain two Cyclin binding sites and three conserved phosphorylated residues, are sufficient to promote Plk1 phosphorylation by Aurora A in vitro. Mutating the Cyclin binding sites or the three conserved phosphorylation sites abrogates the ability of the N terminus of Bora to promote Plk1 activation. In human cells, Bora-carrying mutations of the three conserved phosphorylation sites cannot sustain mitotic entry after DNA damage. In C. elegans embryos, mutation of the three conserved phosphorylation sites in SPAT-1, the Bora ortholog, results in a severe mitotic entry delay. Our results reveal a crucial and conserved role of phosphorylation of the N terminus of Bora for Plk1 activation and mitotic entry.

  8. High inorganic phosphate causes DNMT1 phosphorylation and subsequent fibrotic fibroblast activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoying; Xu, Xingbo; Zeisberg, Elisabeth M; Zeisberg, Michael

    2016-04-08

    Phosphate is an essential constituent of critical cellular functions including energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis and phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling. Increased plasma phosphate levels are an independent risk factor for lowered life-expectancy as well as for heart and kidney failure. Nevertheless, direct cellular effects of elevated phosphate concentrations within the microenvironment are poorly understood and have been largely neglected in favor of phosphor-regulatory hormones. Because interstitial fibrosis is the common determinant of chronic progressive kidney disease, and because fibroblasts are major mediators of fibrogenesis, we here explored the effect of high extracellular phosphate levels on renal fibroblasts. We demonstrate that high inorganic phosphate directly induces fibrotic fibroblast activation associated with increased proliferative activity, increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and increased synthesis of type I collagen. We further demonstrate that such fibroblast activation is dependent on phosphate influx, aberrant phosphorylation of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 and aberrant CpG island promoter methylation. In summary, our studies demonstrate that elevated phosphate concentrations induce pro-fibrotic fibroblast activation independent of phospho-regulatory hormones.

  9. SAD-B Phosphorylation of CAST Controls Active Zone Vesicle Recycling for Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Mochida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Short-term synaptic depression (STD is a common form of activity-dependent plasticity observed widely in the nervous system. Few molecular pathways that control STD have been described, but the active zone (AZ release apparatus provides a possible link between neuronal activity and plasticity. Here, we show that an AZ cytomatrix protein CAST and an AZ-associated protein kinase SAD-B coordinately regulate STD by controlling reloading of the AZ with release-ready synaptic vesicles. SAD-B phosphorylates the N-terminal serine (S45 of CAST, and S45 phosphorylation increases with higher firing rate. A phosphomimetic CAST (S45D mimics CAST deletion, which enhances STD by delaying reloading of the readily releasable pool (RRP, resulting in a pool size decrease. A phosphonegative CAST (S45A inhibits STD and accelerates RRP reloading. Our results suggest that the CAST/SAD-B reaction serves as a brake on synaptic transmission by temporal calibration of activity and synaptic depression via RRP size regulation.

  10. Featured Article: Differential regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation by protease-activated receptors in adult human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Lakeisha C; Epperson, Tenille A; Eguchi, Satoru; Motley, Evangeline D

    2016-03-01

    Protease-activated receptors have been shown to regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase through the phosphorylation of specific sites on the enzyme. It has been established that PAR-2 activation phosphorylates eNOS-Ser-1177 and leads to the production of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide, while PAR-1 activation phosphorylates eNOS-Thr-495 and decreases nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In this study, we hypothesize a differential coupling of protease-activated receptors to the signaling pathways that regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in primary adult human coronary artery endothelial cells. Using Western Blot analysis, we showed that thrombin and the PAR-1 activating peptide, TFLLR, lead to the phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser-1177 in human coronary artery endothelial cells, which was blocked by SCH-79797 (SCH), a PAR-1 inhibitor. Using the nitrate/nitrite assay, we also demonstrated that the thrombin- and TFLLR-induced production of nitric oxide was inhibited by SCH and L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. In addition, we observed that TFLLR, unlike thrombin, significantly phosphorylated eNOS-Thr-495, which may explain the observed delay in nitric oxide production in comparison to that of thrombin. Activation of PAR-2 by SLIGRL, a PAR-2 specific ligand, leads to dual phosphorylation of both catalytic sites but primarily regulated eNOS-Thr-495 phosphorylation with no change in nitric oxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells. PAR-3, known as the non-signaling receptor, was activated by TFRGAP, a PAR-3 mimicking peptide, and significantly induced the phosphorylation of eNOS-Thr-495 with minimal phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser-1177 with no change in nitric oxide production. In addition, we confirmed that PAR-mediated eNOS-Ser-1177 phosphorylation was Ca(2+)-dependent using the Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA, while eNOS-Thr-495 phosphorylation was mediated via Rho kinase using the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632

  11. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR-family protein Smoothened (Smo. Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail. We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo.

  12. Regulation of Smoothened Phosphorylation and High-Level Hedgehog Signaling Activity by a Plasma Membrane Associated Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangxi; Li, Shuang; Han, Yuhong; Tong, Chao; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yongbin; Jiang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-family protein Smoothened (Smo). Upon stimulation, Smo accumulates on the cell surface in Drosophila or primary cilia in vertebrates, which is thought to be essential for its activation and function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Hh stimulates the binding of Smo to a plasma membrane-associated kinase Gilgamesh (Gish)/CK1γ and that Gish fine-tunes Hh pathway activity by phosphorylating a Ser/Thr cluster (CL-II) in the juxtamembrane region of Smo carboxyl-terminal intracellular tail (C-tail). We find that CL-II phosphorylation is promoted by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Smo C-tail and depends on cell surface localization of both Gish and Smo. Consistent with CL-II being critical for high-threshold Hh target gene expression, its phosphorylation appears to require higher levels of Hh or longer exposure to the same level of Hh than PKA-site phosphorylation on Smo. Furthermore, we find that vertebrate CK1γ is localized at the primary cilium to promote Smo phosphorylation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation. Our study reveals a conserved mechanism whereby Hh induces a change in Smo subcellular localization to promote its association with and activation by a plasma membrane localized kinase, and provides new insight into how Hh morphogen progressively activates Smo.

  13. Protein kinase A dependent phosphorylation activates Mg2+ efflux in the basolateral region of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefaratti, C; Ruse, Cristian

    2007-03-01

    Isolated hepatocytes in physiological [Na(+)]( 0 ) tightly maintain [Mg(2+)]( i ). Upon beta-adrenergic stimulation or in the presence of permeable cAMP, hepatocytes release 5-10% (1-3 mM Mg(2+)) of their total Mg(2+) content. However, isolated basolateral liver plasma membranes (bLPM), release Mg(2+) in the presence of [Na(+)]( o ) even in the absence of catecholamine stimulation. The data indicate that a physiological brake for Mg(2+) efflux is present in the hepatocyte and is removed upon cellular signaling. In contrast, this regulation "brake" is absent in purified bLPM thus rendering them fully active. The present study was carried out to reconstruct the missing regulatory component. Activation of Mg(2+) extrusion in intact cells is consistent with cAMP dependent phosphorylation of the transporter or a regulatory protein. Treatment of bLPM with a non-specific phosphatase such as alkaline phosphatase (AP), decreased Mg(2+) efflux by 70% compared to untreated bLPM. When AP-treated bLPM were loaded with protein kinase A (PKA), and stimulated with permeable cAMP, Mg(2+) transport fully recovered. These data suggest that phosphorylation of the Na(+)/Mg(2+) exchanger or a nearby protein activates the Mg(2+) transport mechanism in hepatocytes.

  14. Phosphorylation and activation of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1 during osmotic cell shrinkage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Rigor

    Full Text Available The Na(+/H(+Exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1 is a highly versatile, broadly distributed and precisely controlled transport protein that mediates volume and pH regulation in most cell types. NHE1 phosphorylation contributes to Na(+/H(+ exchange activity in response to phorbol esters, growth factors or protein phosphatase inhibitors, but has not been observed during activation by osmotic cell shrinkage (OCS. We examined the role of NHE1 phosphorylation during activation by OCS, using an ideal model system, the Amphiuma tridactylum red blood cell (atRBC. Na(+/H(+ exchange in atRBCs is mediated by an NHE1 homolog (atNHE1 that is 79% identical to human NHE1 at the amino acid level. NHE1 activity in atRBCs is exceptionally robust in that transport activity can increase more than 2 orders of magnitude from rest to full activation. Michaelis-Menten transport kinetics indicates that either OCS or treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A (CLA increase Na(+ transport capacity without affecting transport affinity (K(m=44 mM in atRBCs. CLA and OCS act non-additively to activate atNHE1, indicating convergent, phosphorylation-dependent signaling in atNHE1 activation. In situ(32P labeling and immunoprecipitation demonstrates that the net phosphorylation of atNHE1 is increased 4-fold during OCS coinciding with a more than 2-order increase in Na(+ transport activity. This is the first reported evidence of increased NHE1 phosphorylation during OCS in any vertebrate cell type. Finally, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analysis of atNHE1 immunoprecipitated from atRBC membranes reveals 9 phosphorylated serine/threonine residues, suggesting that activation of atNHE1 involves multiple phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation events.

  15. Active site loop conformation regulates promiscuous activity in a lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; An, Jiao; Yang, Guang-Yu; Bai, Aixi; Zheng, Baisong; Lou, Zhiyong; Wu, Geng; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng; Feng, Yan; Manco, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL) from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP) exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a "hot spot" in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km) toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity.

  16. Active site loop conformation regulates promiscuous activity in a lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a "hot spot" in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity.

  17. c-Abl mediates high NaCl-induced phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallazzini, Morgan; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Gunaratne, Ruwan; Burg, Maurice B.; Ferraris, Joan D.

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP promotes cell survival during osmotic stress. High NaCl-induced phosphorylation of TonEBP/OREBP at tyrosine-143 was known to be an important factor in increasing its activity in cell culture. We now find that TonEBP/OREBP also is phosphorylated at tyrosine-143 in rat renal inner medulla, dependent on the interstitial osmolality. c-Abl seemed likely to be the kinase that phosphorylates TonEBP/OREBP because Y143 is in a consensus c-Abl phosphorylation site. We now confirm that, as follows. High NaCl increases c-Abl activity. Specific inhibition of c-Abl by imatinib, siRNA, or c-Abl kinase dead drastically reduces high NaCl-induced TonEBP/OREBP activity by reducing its nuclear location and transactivating activity. c-Abl associates with TonEBP/OREBP (coimmunoprecipitation) and phosphorylates TonEBP/OREBP-Y143 both in cell and in vitro. High NaCl-induced activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated, previously known to contribute to activation of TonEBP/OREBP, depends on c-Abl activity. Thus, c-Abl is the kinase responsible for high NaCl-induced phosphorylation of TonEBP/OREBP-Y143, which contributes to its increased activity.—Gallazzini, M., Yu, M.-J., Gunaratne, R., Burg, M. B., Ferraris, J. D. c-Abl mediates high NaCl-induced phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP. PMID:20585028

  18. Active serine involved in the stabilization of the active site loop in the Humicola lanuginosa lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Svendsen, A.; Langberg, H.;

    1998-01-01

    reveal that the hinges of the active site lid are more flexible in the wild-type Hll than in S146A. In contrast, larger fluctuations are observed in the middle region of the active site loop in S 146A than in Hll. These findings reveal that the single mutation (S146A) of the active site serine leads......We have investigated the binding properties of and dynamics in Humicola lanuginosa lipase (HII) and the inactive mutant S146A (active Ser146 substituted with Ala) using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, respectively. Hll and S146A show significantly different binding......, whereas only small changes are observed for I-Ill suggesting that the active site Lid in the latter opens more easily and hence more lipase molecules are bound to the liposomes. These observations are in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and subsequent essential dynamics analyses. The results...

  19. A cytoplasmic negative regulator isoform of ATF7 impairs ATF7 and ATF2 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diring, Jessica; Camuzeaux, Barbara; Donzeau, Mariel; Vigneron, Marc; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel; Kedinger, Claude; Chatton, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are processes that give rise to the complexity of the proteome. The nuclear ATF7 and ATF2 (activating transcription factor) are structurally homologous leucine zipper transcription factors encoded by distinct genes. Stress and growth factors activate ATF2 and ATF7 mainly via sequential phosphorylation of two conserved threonine residues in their activation domain. Distinct protein kinases, among which mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphorylate ATF2 and ATF7 first on Thr71/Thr53 and next on Thr69/Thr51 residues respectively, resulting in transcriptional activation. Here, we identify and characterize a cytoplasmic alternatively spliced isoform of ATF7. This variant, named ATF7-4, inhibits both ATF2 and ATF7 transcriptional activities by impairing the first phosphorylation event on Thr71/Thr53 residues. ATF7-4 indeed sequesters the Thr53-phosphorylating kinase in the cytoplasm. Upon stimulus-induced phosphorylation, ATF7-4 is poly-ubiquitinated and degraded, enabling the release of the kinase and ATF7/ATF2 activation. Our data therefore conclusively establish that ATF7-4 is an important cytoplasmic negative regulator of ATF7 and ATF2 transcription factors.

  20. A cytoplasmic negative regulator isoform of ATF7 impairs ATF7 and ATF2 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Diring

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are processes that give rise to the complexity of the proteome. The nuclear ATF7 and ATF2 (activating transcription factor are structurally homologous leucine zipper transcription factors encoded by distinct genes. Stress and growth factors activate ATF2 and ATF7 mainly via sequential phosphorylation of two conserved threonine residues in their activation domain. Distinct protein kinases, among which mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, phosphorylate ATF2 and ATF7 first on Thr71/Thr53 and next on Thr69/Thr51 residues respectively, resulting in transcriptional activation. Here, we identify and characterize a cytoplasmic alternatively spliced isoform of ATF7. This variant, named ATF7-4, inhibits both ATF2 and ATF7 transcriptional activities by impairing the first phosphorylation event on Thr71/Thr53 residues. ATF7-4 indeed sequesters the Thr53-phosphorylating kinase in the cytoplasm. Upon stimulus-induced phosphorylation, ATF7-4 is poly-ubiquitinated and degraded, enabling the release of the kinase and ATF7/ATF2 activation. Our data therefore conclusively establish that ATF7-4 is an important cytoplasmic negative regulator of ATF7 and ATF2 transcription factors.

  1. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by one-trial and multi-trial classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, T; Xue-Bian, J J; Siddiqi, V; Kang, Y; Neary, J T

    1998-05-01

    The pathway supporting the conditioned stimulus (CS) is one site of plasticity that has been studied extensively in conditioned Hermissenda. Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in classical conditioning of this preparation, although the major emphasis has been on protein kinase C. Here we provide evidence for the activation and phosphorylation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by one-trial and multi-trial conditioning. A one-trial in vitro conditioning procedure consisting of light (CS) paired with the application of 5-HT results in the increased incorporation of 32PO4 into proteins detected with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Two of the phosphoproteins have molecular weights of 44 and 42 kDa, consistent with extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1 and ERK2). Phosphorylation of the 44 and 42 kDa proteins by one-trial conditioning was inhibited by pretreatment with PD098059, A MEK1 (ERK-Activating kinase) inhibitor. Assays of ERK activity with brain myelin basic protein as a substrate revealed greater ERK activity for the group that received one-trial conditioning compared with an unpaired control group. Western blot analysis of phosphorylated ERK using antibodies recognizing the dually phosphorylated forms of ERK1 and ERK2 showed an increase in phosphorylation after one-trial conditioning compared with unpaired controls. The increased phosphorylation of ERK after one-trial conditioning was blocked by pretreatment with PD098059. Hermissenda that received 10 or 15 conditioning trials showed significant behavioral suppression compared with pseudo-random controls. After conditioning and behavioral testing, the conditioned animals showed significantly greater phosphorylation of ERK compared with the pseudo-random controls. These results show that the ERK-MAPK signaling pathway is activated in Pavlovian conditioning of Hermissenda.

  2. Fisetin stimulates autophagic degradation of phosphorylated tau via the activation of TFEB and Nrf2 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunhyo; Choi, Ki Ju; Cho, Sun-Jung; Yun, Sang-Moon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Koh, Young Ho; Song, Jihyun; Johnson, Gail V W; Jo, Chulman

    2016-04-26

    The neuronal accumulation of phosphorylated tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we examined the effect of fisetin, a flavonol, on tau levels. Treatment of cortical cells or primary neurons with fisetin resulted in significant decreases in the levels of phosphorylated tau. In addition, fisetin decreased the levels of sarkosyl-insoluble tau in an active GSK-3β-induced tau aggregation model. However, there was no difference in activities of tau kinases and phosphatases such as protein phosphatase 2A, irrespective of fisetin treatment. Fisetin activated autophagy together with the activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and Nrf2 transcriptional factors. The activation of autophagy including TFEB is likely due to fisetin-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition, since the phosphorylation levels of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 were decreased in the presence of fisetin. Indeed, fisetin-induced phosphorylated tau degradation was attenuated by chemical inhibitors of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Together the results indicate that fisetin reduces levels of phosphorylated tau through the autophagy pathway activated by TFEB and Nrf2. Our result suggests fisetin should be evaluated further as a potential preventive and therapeutic drug candidate for AD.

  3. Activation of the yeast Hippo pathway by phosphorylation-dependent assembly of signaling complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jeremy M; Lim, Daniel; Stach, Lasse; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W; Keck, Jamie M; Jones, Michele H; Wong, Catherine C L; Yates, John R; Winey, Mark; Smerdon, Stephen J; Yaffe, Michael B; Amon, Angelika

    2013-05-17

    Scaffold-assisted signaling cascades guide cellular decision-making. In budding yeast, one such signal transduction pathway called the mitotic exit network (MEN) governs the transition from mitosis to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The MEN is conserved and in metazoans is known as the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. We found that signaling through the MEN kinase cascade was mediated by an unusual two-step process. The MEN kinase Cdc15 first phosphorylated the scaffold Nud1. This created a phospho-docking site on Nud1, to which the effector kinase complex Dbf2-Mob1 bound through a phosphoserine-threonine binding domain, in order to be activated by Cdc15. This mechanism of pathway activation has implications for signal transmission through other kinase cascades and might represent a general principle in scaffold-assisted signaling.

  4. Stimulation of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol kinase activity in Streptococcus faecalis by phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation catalyzed by enzyme I and HPr of the phosphotransferase systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, J.; Sauerwald, H.

    1986-06-01

    Recently a report was given of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphorylation of a 55-kilodalton protein of Streptococus faecalis catalyzed by enzyme I and histidine-containing protein (HPr) of the phosphotransferase system. The purified 55-kilodalton protein was found to exhibit dihydroxyacetone kinase activity. Glycerol was six times more slowly phosphorylated than dihydroxyacetone. The K/sub m/s were found to 0.7 mM for ATP, 0.45 mM for dihydroxyacetone, and 0.9 MM for glycerol. PEP-dependent phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone kinase stimulated phosphorylation of both substrates about 10-fold. Fructose 1,6-diphosphate at concentrations higher than 2 mM inhibited the activity of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated dihydroxyacetone kinase in a noncompetitive manner. The rate of PEP-dependent phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone kinase was about 200-fold slower than the phosphorylation rate of III proteins (also called enzyme III or factor III), which so far have been considered the only phosphoryl acceptors of histidyl-phosphorylated HPr. P-Dihydroxyacetone kinase was found to be able to transfer its phosphoryl group in a backward reaction to HPr. Following (/sup 32/P)PEP-dependent phosphorylation and tryptic digestion of dihydroxyacetone kinase, the authors isolated a labeled peptide composed of 37 amino acids, as determined by amino acid analysis. The single histidyl residue of this peptide most likely carries the phosphoryl group in phosphorylated dihydroxyacetone kinase.

  5. Differential Dynamics of Activity Changes in Dorsolateral and Dorsomedial Striatal Loops During Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thorn, Catherine A.; Atallah, Hisham; Howe, Mark; Graybiel, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are implicated in a remarkable range of functions influencing emotion and cognition as well as motor behavior. Current models of basal ganglia function hypothesize that parallel limbic, associative and motor cortico-basal ganglia loops contribute to this diverse set of functions, but little is yet known about how these loops operate and how their activities evolve during learning. To address these issues, we recorded simultaneously in sensorimotor and associative regions of ...

  6. Cooperation between the two heads of smooth muscle myosin is essential for full activation of the motor function by phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong-Na; Mabuchi, Katsuhide; Li, Jing; Lu, Zekuan; Wang, Chih-Lueh Albert; Li, Xiang-dong

    2013-09-10

    The motor function of smooth muscle myosin (SmM) is regulated by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) bound to the neck region of the SmM heavy chain. It is generally accepted that unphosphorylated RLC induces interactions between the two heads and between the head and the tail, thus inhibiting the motor activity of SmM, whereas phosphorylation of RLC interrupts those interactions, thus reversing the inhibition and restoring the motor activity to the maximal value. One assumption of this model is that single-headed SmM is fully active regardless of phosphorylation. To re-evaluate this model, we produced a number of SmM constructs with coiled coils of various lengths and examined their structure and regulation. With these constructs we identified the segment in the coiled-coil key for the formation of a stable double-headed structure. In agreement with the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of unphosphorylated SmM increased with shortening of the coiled-coil. However, contrary to the current model, we found that the actin-activated ATPase activity of phosphorylated SmM decreased with shortening coiled-coil and only the stable double-headed SmM was fully activated by phosphorylation. These results indicate that single-headed SmM is neither fully active nor fully inhibited. Based on our findings, we propose that cooperation between the two heads is essential, not only for the inhibition of unphosphorylated SmM, but also for the activation of phosphorylated SmM.

  7. Convoluted dislocation loops induced by helium irradiation in reduced-activation martensitic steel and their impact on mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wen, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Helium irradiation induced dislocation loops in reduced-activation martensitic steels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The specimens were irradiated with 100 keV helium ions to 0.8 dpa at 350 °C. Unexpectedly, very large dislocation loops were found, significantly larger than that induced by other types of irradiations under the same dose. Moreover, the large loops were convoluted and formed interesting flower-like shape. The large loops were determined as interstitial type. Loops with the Burgers vectors of b=〈100〉 were only observed. Furthermore, irradiation induced hardening caused by these large loops was observed using the nano-indentation technique.

  8. ATM activation accompanies histone H2AX phosphorylation in A549 cells upon exposure to tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traganos Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to DNA damage or structural alterations of chromatin, histone H2AX may be phosphorylated on Ser139 by phosphoinositide 3-kinase related protein kinases (PIKKs such as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, ATM-and Rad-3 related (ATR kinase, or by DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs. When DNA damage primarily involves formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, H2AX is preferentially phosphorylated by ATM rather than by the other PIKKs. We have recently reported that brief exposure of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE to cigarette smoke (CS induced phosphorylation of H2AX. Results We report here that H2AX phosphorylation in A549 cells induced by CS was accompanied by activation of ATM, as revealed by ATM phosphorylation on Ser1981 (ATM-S1981P detected immunocytochemically and by Western blotting. No cell cycle-phase specific differences in kinetics of ATM activation and H2AX phosphorylation were observed. When cells were exposed to CS from cigarettes with different tobacco and filter combinations, the expression levels of ATM-S1981P correlated well with the increase in expression of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX (R = 0.89. In addition, we note that while CS-induced γH2AX expression was localized within discrete foci, the activated ATM was distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. Conclusion These data implicate ATM as the PIKK that phosphorylates H2AX in response to DNA damage caused by CS. Based on current understanding of ATM activation, expression and localization, these data would suggest that, in addition to inducing potentially carcinogenic DSB lesions, CS may also trigger other types of DNA lesions and cause chromatin alterations. As checkpoint kinase (Chk 1, Chk2 and the p53 tumor suppressor gene are known to be phosphorylated by ATM, the present data indicate that exposure to CS may lead to their phosphorylation, with the downstream consequences

  9. Protein kinase A increases type-2 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity by phosphorylation of serine 937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Fike, Jenna L; Wagner, Larry E; Yule, David I

    2009-09-11

    Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs) represents a mechanism for shaping intracellular Ca(2+) signals following a concomitant elevation in cAMP. Activation of PKA results in enhanced Ca(2+) release in cells that express predominantly InsP(3)R2. PKA is known to phosphorylate InsP(3)R2, but the molecular determinants of this effect are not known. We have expressed mouse InsP(3)R2 in DT40-3KO cells that are devoid of endogenous InsP(3)R and examined the effects of PKA phosphorylation on this isoform in unambiguous isolation. Activation of PKA increased Ca(2+) signals and augmented the single channel open probability of InsP(3)R2. A PKA phosphorylation site unique to the InsP(3)R2 was identified at Ser(937). The enhancing effects of PKA activation on this isoform required the phosphorylation of Ser(937), since replacing this residue with alanine eliminated the positive effects of PKA activation. These results provide a mechanism responsible for the enhanced Ca(2+) signaling following PKA activation in cells that express predominantly InsP(3)R2.

  10. Phosphorylation of Parkin at Serine65 is essential for activation: elaboration of a Miro1 substrate-based assay of Parkin E3 ligase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Kelly MR; Johnson, Clare; Baillie, Carla; Hastie, C James; Peggie, Mark; Macartney, Thomas; Woodroof, Helen I.; Alessi, Dario R; Pedrioli, Patrick G.A.; Muqit, Miratul M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin are associated with early-onset Parkinson's disease. We recently discovered that PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin at serine65 (Ser65) within its Ubl domain, leading to its activation in a substrate-free activity assay. We now demonstrate the critical requirement of Ser65 phosphorylation for substrate ubiquitylation through elaboration of a novel in vitro E3 ligase activity assay using full-length untagged Parkin and its putative substrate, the mitochondrial GTPase Mir...

  11. Novel iodoacetamido benzoheterocyclic derivatives with potent antileukemic activity are inhibitors of STAT5 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Prencipe, Filippo; Lopez-Cara, Carlota; Rondanin, Riccardo; Simoni, Daniele; Hamel, Ernest; Grimaudo, Stefania; Pipitone, Rosaria Maria; Meli, Maria; Tolomeo, Manlio

    2015-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) protein, a component of the STAT family of signaling proteins, is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target because of its involvement in the progression of acute myeloid leukemia. In an effort to discover potent molecules able to inhibit the phosphorylation-activation of STAT5, twenty-two compounds were synthesized and evaluated on the basis of our knowledge of the activity of 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-iodoacetamido-6-methoxybenzo[b]furan derivative 1 as a potent STAT5 inhibitor. Most of these molecules, structurally related to compound 1, were characterized by the presence of a common 3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl moiety at the 2-position of different benzoheterocycles such as benzo[b]furan, benzo[b]thiophene, indole and N-methylindole. Effects on biological activity of the iodoacetamido group and of different moieties (methyl and methoxy) at the C-3 to C-7 positions were examined. In the series of benzo[b]furan derivatives, moving the iodoacetylamino group from the C-4 to the C-5 or C-6 positions did not significantly affect antiproliferative activity. Compounds 4, 15, 20 and 23 blocked STAT5 signals and induced apoptosis of K562 BCR–ABL positive cells. For compound 23, the trimethoxybenzoyl moiety at the 2-position of the benzo[b]furan core was not essential for potent inhibition of STAT5 activation. PMID:26629859

  12. Water channel activities of Mimosa pudica plasma membrane intrinsic proteins are regulated by direct interaction and phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmei, Yusuke; Uchida, Shinichi; Hoshino, Daisuke; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Kuwahara, Michio; Sasaki, Sei; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2005-08-15

    cDNAs encoding aquaporins PIP1;1, PIP2;1, and TIP1;1 were isolated from Mimosa pudica (Mp) cDNA library. MpPIP1;1 exhibited no water channel activity; however, it facilitated the water channel activity of MpPIP2;1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that Ser-131 of MpPIP1;1 was phosphorylated by PKA and that cooperative regulation of the water channel activity of MpPIP2;1 was regulated by phosphorylation of Ser-131 of MpPIP1;1. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that MpPIP1;1 binds directly to MpPIP2;1 in a phosphorylation-independent manner, suggesting that phosphorylation of Ser-131 of MpPIP1;1 is involved in regulation of the structure of the channel complex with MpMIP2;1 and thereby affects water channel activity.

  13. Mimetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor loops 1 and 4 are active in a model of ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudasheva, Tatyana A; Povarnina, Polina; Logvinov, Ilya O; Antipova, Tatyana A; Seredenin, Sergey B

    2016-01-01

    Two dimeric dipeptides, bis-(N-monosuccinyl-l-seryl-l-lysine)hexamethylenediamide (GSB-106) and bis-(N-monosuccinyl-l-methionyl-l-serine) heptamethylenediamide (GSB-214), were designed based on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) loop 4 and loop 1 β-turn sequences, respectively. Earlier, both of these dipeptides were shown to exhibit neuroprotective activity in vitro (10(-5)-10(-8) M). The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of these peptides and their neuroprotective activity in an experimental stroke model. We used western blot and HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cell line to investigate whether these peptides induced phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor and the AKT and ERK kinases. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used as a stroke model. GSB-106 and GSB-214 were administered intraperitoneally (0.1 mg (1.3×10(-7) mol)/kg) 4 hours after MCAO and daily for 7 days. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 21 days after MCAO. Both compounds were shown to elevate the TrkB phosphorylation level while having different post-receptor signaling patterns. GSB-106 activated the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways simultaneously, whereas GSB-214 activated the PI3K/AKT only. In experimental stroke, the reduction of cerebral infarct volume by GSB-106 (∼66%) was significantly greater than that of GSB-214 (∼28% reduction), which could be explained by the fundamental role of the MAPK/ERK pathway in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Notably, between these two dipeptides, only GSB-106 exhibited antidepressant activity, as was found previously. The results provided support for the beneficial pharmacological properties of BDNF loop 4 mimetic GSB-106, thereby suggesting a potential role for this dipeptide as a therapeutic agent.

  14. Three-Dimensional MHD Models of Waves and Flows in Coronal Active Region Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T.; Davila, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Recent observations show that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region loops, and are often associated with subsonic up-flows of coronal material. In order to study the relation between up-flows and waves we develop a 3D MHD model of an idealized bi-polar active region with flows in coronal loops. The model is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified isothermal atmosphere. To model the effects of flares, coronal material is injected in small-scale regions at the base of the model active region. The up-flows have sub-sonic speeds of ˜100 km/s and are steady or periodic, producing higher density loops by filling magnetic flux-tubes with injected material. We find that the up-flows produce fast and slow magnetosonic waves that propagate in the coronal loops. We perform a parametric study of up-flow magnitude and periodicity, and the relation with the resulting waves. As expected, we find that the up-flow speed decreases with loop height due to the diverge of the flux tubes, while the slow magnetosonic speed is independent of height. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased above the sound speed, we find that slow shocks are produced in the loops. Using the results of the 3D MHD model we show that observed slow magnetosonic waves in active region loops can be driven by impulsive flare-produced up-flows at the transition region/corona interface of active regions.

  15. Targeting notch pathway enhances rapamycin antitumor activity in pancreas cancers through PTEN phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Kevin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreas cancer is one of most aggressive human cancers with the survival rate for patients with metastatic pancreas cancer at 5-6 months. The poor survival demonstrates a clear need for better target identification, drug development and new therapeutic strategies. Recent discoveries have shown that the role for Notch pathway is important in both development and cancer. Its contribution to oncogenesis also involves crosstalks with other growth factor pathways, such as Akt and its modulator, PTEN. The mounting evidence supporting a role for Notch in cancer promotion and survival suggests that targeting this pathway alone or in combination with other therapeutics represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Results Using a pancreas cancer tissue microarray, we noted that Jagged1, Notch3 and Notch4 are overexpressed in pancreas tumors (26%, 84% and 31% respectively, whereas Notch1 is expressed in blood vessels. While there was no correlation between Notch receptor expression and survival, stage or tumor grade, Notch3 was associated with Jagged1 and EGFR expression, suggesting a unique relationship between Notch3 and Jagged1. Inhibition of the Notch pathway genetically and with gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI resulted in tumor suppression and enhanced cell death. The observed anti-tumor activity appeared to be through Akt and modulation of PTEN phosphorylation. We discovered that transcriptional regulation of RhoA by Notch is important for PTEN phosphorylation. Finally, the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin enhanced the effect of GSI on RhoA expression, resulting in down regulation of phospho-Akt and increased in vitro tumor cytotoxity. Conclusions Notch pathway plays an important role in maintaining pancreas tumor phenotype. Targeting this pathway represents a reasonable strategy for the treatment of pancreas cancers. Notch modulates the Akt pathway through regulation of PTEN phosphorylation, an observation that has not been made

  16. Bordetella pertussis fim3 gene regulation by BvgA: phosphorylation controls the formation of inactive vs. active transcription complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Alice; Moon, Kyung; Decker, Kimberly B; Chen, Qing; Knipling, Leslie; Stibitz, Scott; Hinton, Deborah M

    2015-02-10

    Two-component systems [sensor kinase/response regulator (RR)] are major tools used by microorganisms to adapt to environmental conditions. RR phosphorylation is typically required for gene activation, but few studies have addressed how and if phosphorylation affects specific steps during transcription initiation. We characterized transcription complexes made with RNA polymerase and the Bordetella pertussis RR, BvgA, in its nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated (BvgA∼P) state at P(fim3), the promoter for the virulence gene fim3 (fimbrial subunit), using gel retardation, potassium permanganate and DNase I footprinting, cleavage reactions with protein conjugated with iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA, and in vitro transcription. Previous work has shown that the level of nonphosphorylated BvgA remains high in vivo under conditions in which BvgA is phosphorylated. Our results here indicate that surprisingly both BvgA and BvgA∼P form open and initiating complexes with RNA polymerase at P(fim3). However, phosphorylation of BvgA is needed to generate the correct conformation that can transition to competent elongation. Footprints obtained with the complexes made with nonphosphorylated BvgA are atypical; while the initiating complex with BvgA synthesizes short RNA, it does not generate full-length transcripts. Extended incubation of the BvgA/RNA polymerase initiated complex in the presence of heparin generates a stable, but defective species that depends on the initial transcribed sequence of fim3. We suggest that the presence of nonphosphorylated BvgA down-regulates P(fim3) activity when phosphorylated BvgA is present and may allow the bacterium to quickly adapt to the loss of inducing conditions by rapidly eliminating P(fim3) activation once the signal for BvgA phosphorylation is removed.

  17. Thrombin Receptor-Activating Protein (TRAP-Activated Akt Is Involved in the Release of Phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1 from Platelets in DM Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Tokuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally known that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is phosphorylated through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase. We have previously reported that HSP27 is released from human platelets associated with collagen-induced phosphorylation. In the present study, we conducted an investigation into the effect of thrombin receptor-activating protein (TRAP on the release of HSP27 in platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients. The phosphorylated-HSP27 levels induced by TRAP were directly proportional to the aggregation of platelets. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 (Ser-78 were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylated-Akt in the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP but not with those of phosphorylated-p44/p42 MAP kinase. The levels of HSP27 released from the TRAP (10 µM-stimulated platelets were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets. The released platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB levels were in parallel with the HSP27 levels released from the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP. Although the area under the curve (AUC of small aggregates (9–25 µm induced by 10 µM TRAP showed no significant correlation with the released HSP27 levels, AUC of medium aggregates (25–50 µm, large aggregates (50–70 µm and light transmittance were significantly correlated with the released HSP27 levels. TRAP-induced phosphorylation of HSP27 was truly suppressed by deguelin, an inhibitor of Akt, in the platelets from a healthy subject. These results strongly suggest that TRAP-induced activation of Akt in addition to p38 MAP kinase positively regulates the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets, which is closely related to the platelet hyper-aggregation in type 2 DM patients.

  18. Primary WWOX phosphorylation and JNK activation during etoposide induces cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jamshidiha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent used in multiple cancers. It is known that etoposide induce cell death via interaction with topoisomerase II; however, the etopoisde cellular response is poorly understood. Upon etoposide induced DNA damage, many stress signaling pathways including JNK are activated. In response to DNA damage, it has been shown that WWOX, a recently introduced tumor suppressor, can be activated. In this study the activation of WWOX and JNK and their interaction following etoposide treatment were evaluated. "nMaterials and Methods:HEK293 cells treated with etoposide were lysed in a time course manner. The whole cell lysates were used to evaluate JNK and WWOX activation pattern using Phospho specific antibodies on western blots. The viability of cells treated with etoposide, JNK specific inhibitor and their combination was examined using MTT assay. "nResults:Findings of this study indicate that WWOX and JNK are activated in a simultaneous way in response to DNA damage. Moreover, JNK inhibition enhances etoposide induced cytotoxicity in HEK293. "nConclusion:Taken together, our results indicate that etoposide induces cytotoxicity and WWOX phosphorylation and the cytotoxicty is augmented by blocking JNK pathway.

  19. Activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway through a PDGFRβ-dependent feedback loop is involved in rapamycin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Lin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapamycin is an attractive approach for the treatment and prevention of HCC recurrence after liver transplantation. However, the objective response rates of rapamycin achieved with single-agent therapy were modest, supporting that rapamycin resistance is a frequently observed characteristic of many cancers. Some studies have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms of rapamycin resistance, however, the mechanisms are cell-type-dependent and studies on rapamycin resistance in HCC are extremely limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The anti-tumor sensitivity of rapamycin was modest in vitro and in vivo. In both human and rat HCC cells, rapamycin up-regulated the expression and phosphorylation of PDGFRβ in a time and dose-dependent manner as assessed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Using siRNA mediated knockdown of PDGFRβ, we confirmed that subsequent activation of AKT and ERK was PDGFRβ-dependent and compromised the anti-tumor activity of rapamycin. Then, blockade of this PDGFRβ-dependent feedback loop by sorafenib enhanced the anti-tumor sensitivity of rapamycin in vitro and in an immunocompetent orthotopic rat model of HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway through a PDGFRβ-dependent feedback loop compromises the anti-tumor activity of rapamycin in HCC, and blockade of this feedback loop by sorafenib is an attractive approach to improve the anti-tumor effect of rapamycin, particularly in preventing or treating HCC recurrence after liver transplantation.

  20. Potentiality of phosphorylation of BRCA1 at Ser 1524 to activate p21 in response to X-ray irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; ZHANG Hong; WANG Yanling; WANG Xiaohu; HAO Jifang; ZHAO Weiping

    2008-01-01

    The breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein, which functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Many studies suggested that multiple functions of BRCA1 may contribute to its tumor suppressor activity, including roles in cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and transcription. It is postulated that phosphorylation of BRCA1 is an important means by which its cellular functions are regulated. In this study, we employed phospho-Ser-specific antibody recognizing Ser-1524 to study BRCA1 phosphorylation under conditions of DNA damage and the effects of phosphorylation on BRCA1 functions. The results showed that 10 Gy X-ray treatment significantly induced phosphorylation of Ser-1524 but not total BRCA1 protein levels. The expression both of p53 andp21 increased after irradiation, but ionizing radiation (IR)-induced activation of p21 was prior to that of p53. The percentages of G0/G1 phase remarkably increased after IR. In addition, no detectable levels of 89 kDa fragment of PARP, a marker of apoptotic cells, were observed. Data implied that IR-induced phosphorylation of BRCA1 at Ser-1524 might activate p21 protein, by which BRCA1 regulated cell cycle, but play no role in apoptosis.

  1. Upregulation of calpain activity precedes tau phosphorylation and loss of synaptic proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskaya, Ksenia; Phillips, Emma C; Croft, Cara L; Dentoni, Giacomo; Hughes, Martina M; Wade, Matthew A; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; O'Neill, Michael J; Perez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Hanger, Diane P; Noble, Wendy

    2016-03-31

    Alterations in calcium homeostasis are widely reported to contribute to synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. Elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations lead to activation of the calcium-sensitive cysteine protease, calpain, which has a number of substrates known to be abnormally regulated in disease. Analysis of human brain has shown that calpain activity is elevated in AD compared to controls, and that calpain-mediated proteolysis regulates the activity of important disease-associated proteins including the tau kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen kinase synthase-3. Here, we sought to investigate the likely temporal association between these changes during the development of sporadic AD using Braak staged post-mortem brain. Quantification of protein amounts in these tissues showed increased activity of calpain-1 from Braak stage III onwards in comparison to controls, extending previous findings that calpain-1 is upregulated at end-stage disease, and suggesting that activation of calcium-sensitive signalling pathways are sustained from early stages of disease development. Increases in calpain-1 activity were associated with elevated activity of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, itself a known calpain substrate. Activation of the tau kinases, glycogen-kinase synthase-3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 were also found to occur in Braak stage II-III brain, and these preceded global elevations in tau phosphorylation and the loss of post-synaptic markers. In addition, we identified transient increases in total amyloid precursor protein and pre-synaptic markers in Braak stage II-III brain, that were lost by end stage Alzheimer's disease, that may be indicative of endogenous compensatory responses to the initial stages of neurodegeneration. These findings provide insight into the molecular events that underpin the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and further highlight the rationale for investigating novel treatment

  2. Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an Active Region

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdin, Philippe-A; Peter, Hardi

    2016-01-01

    Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops are investigated since decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and the coronal heating. Aims. We test such scaling laws against a large-scale 3D MHD model of the Solar corona, which became feasible with nowadays high-performance computing. Methods. We drive an active region simulation a with photospheric observations and found strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and EUV wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations showed that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compare scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents well hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before only based on observations. Results. Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the RTV scali...

  3. Role of the NC-loop in catalytic activity and stability in lipase from Fervidobacterium changbaicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binchun Li

    Full Text Available Flexible NC-loops between the catalytic domain and the cap domain of the α/β hydrolase fold enzymes show remarkable diversity in length, sequence, and configuration. Recent investigations have suggested that the NC-loop might be involved in catalysis and substrate recognition in many enzymes from the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily. To foster a deep understanding of its role in catalysis, stability, and divergent evolution, we here systemically investigated the function of the NC-loop (residues 131-151 in a lipase (FClip1 from thermophilic bacterium Fervidobacterium changbaicum by loop deletion, alanine-scanning mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis. We found that the upper part of the NC-loop (residues 131-138 was of great importance to enzyme catalysis. Single substitutions in this region could fine-tune the activity of FClip1 as much as 41-fold, and any deletions from this region rendered the enzyme completely inactive. The lower part of the NC-loop (residues 139-151 was capable of enduring extensive deletions without loss of activity. The shortened mutants in this region were found to show both improved activity and increased stability simultaneously. We therefore speculated that the NC-loop, especially the lower part, would be a perfect target for enzyme engineering to optimize the enzymatic properties, and might present a hot zone for the divergent evolution of α/β hydrolases. Our findings may provide an opportunity for better understanding of the mechanism of divergent evolution in the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily, and may also guide the design of novel biocatalysts for industrial applications.

  4. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G; Beazely, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  5. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshula eSamarajeewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including cortical neurons. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins towards the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  6. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  7. Adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide reduces phosphorylation and toxicity of the polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor in spinobulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Maria Josè; Parodi, Sara; Piol, Diana; Stack, Conor; Chivet, Mathilde; Contestabile, Andrea; Miranda, Helen C; Lievens, Patricia M-J; Espinoza, Stefano; Jochum, Tobias; Rocchi, Anna; Grunseich, Christopher; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Cato, Andrew C B; Lieberman, Andrew P; La Spada, Albert R; Sambataro, Fabio; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Gozes, Illana; Pennuto, Maria

    2016-12-21

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA belongs to the family of polyQ diseases, which are fatal neurodegenerative disorders mainly caused by protein-mediated toxic gain-of-function mechanisms and characterized by deposition of misfolded proteins in the form of aggregates. The neurotoxicity of the polyQ proteins can be modified by phosphorylation at specific sites, thereby providing the rationale for the development of disease-specific treatments. We sought to identify signaling pathways that modulate polyQ-AR phosphorylation for therapy development. We report that cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) phosphorylates polyQ-AR specifically at Ser(96) Phosphorylation of polyQ-AR by CDK2 increased protein stabilization and toxicity and is negatively regulated by the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. To translate these findings into therapy, we developed an analog of pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), a potent activator of the AC/PKA pathway. Chronic intranasal administration of the PACAP analog to knock-in SBMA mice reduced Ser(96) phosphorylation, promoted polyQ-AR degradation, and ameliorated disease outcome. These results provide proof of principle that noninvasive therapy based on the use of PACAP analogs is a therapeutic option for SBMA.

  8. Two putative protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation sites are important for Myf-5 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, B; Kautzner, I; Issinger, O G;

    1997-01-01

    Myf-5, a member of a family of muscle-specific transcription factors, is important for myogenic cell determination and differentiation. Here, we report that Myf-5 protein constitutes a substrate for phosphorylation in vitro by protein kinase CK2. We identified two potential phosphorylation sites ...

  9. Inhibitors of c-Jun phosphorylation impede ovine primordial follicle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldo, Michael J; Bernard, Jérémy; Duffard, Nicolas; Tsikis, Guillaume; Alves, Sabine; Calais, Laure; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monniaux, Danielle; Mermillod, Pascal; Locatelli, Yann

    2016-05-01

    Is the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway implicated in primordial follicle activation? Culture of ovine ovarian cortex in the presence of two different c-Jun phosphorylation inhibitors impeded pre-antral follicle activation. Despite its importance for fertility preservation therapies, the mechanisms of primordial follicle activation are poorly understood. Amongst different signalling pathways potentially involved, the JNK pathway has been previously shown to be essential for cell cycle progression and pre-antral follicle development in mice. Ovine ovarian cortex pieces were cultured with varying concentrations of SP600125, JNK inhibitor VIII or anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in the presence of FSH for 9 days. Follicular morphometry and immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), apoptosis and follicle activation (Foxo3a) were assessed. Inhibition of primordial follicle activation occurred in the presence of SP600125, JNK inhibitor VIII and AMH when compared with controls (all P primordial follicle development, we did not determine the cellular targets and mechanism of action of the inhibitors. These results are the first to implicate the JNK pathway in primordial follicle activation and could have significant consequences for the successful development of fertility preservation strategies and our understanding of primordial follicle activation. n/a. Dr Michael J. Bertoldo and the laboratories involved in the present study were supported by a grant from 'Région Centre' (CRYOVAIRE, Grant number #320000268). There are no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and the origin of hyperhomocysteinemia in aging and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-01-01

    The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in mitochondria is proposed to consist of two molecules of thioretinamide bound to cobalamin, forming thioretinaco, complexed with ozone, oxygen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. and inorganic phosphate, TR2CoO3O2NAD(+)H2PO4(-). Reduction of the pyridinium nitrogen of the nicotinamide group by an electron from electron transport complexes initiates polymerization of phosphate with adenosine diphosphate, yielding nicotinamide riboside and ATP bound to thioretinaco ozonide oxygen. A second electron reduces oxygen to hydroperoxyl radical, releasing ATP from the active site. A proton gradient is created within F1F0 ATPase complexes of mitochondria by reaction of protons with reduced nicotinamide riboside and with hydroperoxyl radical, yielding reduced nicotinamide riboside and hydroperoxide. The hyperhomocysteinemia of aging and dementia is attributed to decreased synthesis of adenosyl methionine by thioretinaco ozonide and ATP, causing decreased allosteric activation of cystathionine synthase and decreased allosteric inhibition of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and resulting in dysregulation of methionine metabolism.

  11. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta

    2013-12-10

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins, characterized by the (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate stereochemistry, were studied in the human mammary MDA-MB-231 cell line to identify the minimal structural features that preserve the anti-STAT1 activity. We demonstrate that the presence of three hydroxyl groups of B ring and one hydroxyl group in D ring is essential to preserve their inhibitory action. Moreover, a possible molecular target of these compounds in the STAT1 pathway was investigated. Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between STAT1 protein and catechins displaying anti-STAT1 activity. In particular, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and molecular modeling indicate the presence of two putative binding sites (a and b) with different affinity. Based on docking data, site-directed mutagenesis was performed, and interaction of the most active catechins with STAT1 was studied with SPR to test whether Gln518 on site a and His568 on site b could be important for the catechin-STAT1 interaction. Data indicate that site b has higher affinity for catechins than site a as the highest affinity constant disappears in the H568ASTAT1 mutant. Furthermore, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) kinase assay data suggest that the contemporary presence in vitro of STAT1 and catechins inhibits JAK2-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. The very tight catechin-STAT1 interaction prevents STAT1 phosphorylation and represents a novel, specific and efficient molecular mechanism for the inhibition of STAT1 activation. © Copyright 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic Effects of Topoisomerase I Inhibition on R-Loops and Short Transcripts at Active Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinello, Jessica; Bertoncini, Stefania; Aloisi, Iris; Cristini, Agnese; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio; Forcato, Mattia; Sordet, Olivier; Capranico, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase I-DNA-cleavage complexes (Top1cc) stabilized by camptothecin (CPT) have specific effects at transcriptional levels. We recently reported that Top1cc increase antisense transcript (aRNAs) levels at divergent CpG-island promoters and, transiently, DNA/RNA hybrids (R-loop) in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of colon cancer HCT116 cells. However, the relationship between R-loops and aRNAs was not established. Here, we show that aRNAs can form R-loops in N-TERA-2 cells under physiological conditions, and that promoter-associated R-loops are somewhat increased and extended in length immediately upon cell exposure to CPT. In contrast, persistent Top1ccs reduce the majority of R-loops suggesting that CPT-accumulated aRNAs are not commonly involved in R-loops. The enhancement of aRNAs by Top1ccs is present both in human colon cancer HCT116 cells and WI38 fibroblasts suggesting a common response of cancer and normal cells. Although Top1ccs lead to DSB and DDR kinases activation, we do not detect a dependence of aRNA accumulation on ATM or DNA-PK activation. However, we showed that the cell response to persistent Top1ccs can involve an impairment of aRNA turnover rather than a higher synthesis rate. Finally, a genome-wide analysis shows that persistent Top1ccs also determine an accumulation of sense transcripts at 5'-end gene regions suggesting an increased occurrence of truncated transcripts. Taken together, the results indicate that Top1 may regulate transcription initiation by modulating RNA polymerase-generated negative supercoils, which can in turn favor R-loop formation at promoters, and that transcript accumulation at TSS is a response to persistent transcriptional stress by Top1 poisoning.

  13. Dynamic Effects of Topoisomerase I Inhibition on R-Loops and Short Transcripts at Active Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marinello

    Full Text Available Topoisomerase I-DNA-cleavage complexes (Top1cc stabilized by camptothecin (CPT have specific effects at transcriptional levels. We recently reported that Top1cc increase antisense transcript (aRNAs levels at divergent CpG-island promoters and, transiently, DNA/RNA hybrids (R-loop in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of colon cancer HCT116 cells. However, the relationship between R-loops and aRNAs was not established. Here, we show that aRNAs can form R-loops in N-TERA-2 cells under physiological conditions, and that promoter-associated R-loops are somewhat increased and extended in length immediately upon cell exposure to CPT. In contrast, persistent Top1ccs reduce the majority of R-loops suggesting that CPT-accumulated aRNAs are not commonly involved in R-loops. The enhancement of aRNAs by Top1ccs is present both in human colon cancer HCT116 cells and WI38 fibroblasts suggesting a common response of cancer and normal cells. Although Top1ccs lead to DSB and DDR kinases activation, we do not detect a dependence of aRNA accumulation on ATM or DNA-PK activation. However, we showed that the cell response to persistent Top1ccs can involve an impairment of aRNA turnover rather than a higher synthesis rate. Finally, a genome-wide analysis shows that persistent Top1ccs also determine an accumulation of sense transcripts at 5'-end gene regions suggesting an increased occurrence of truncated transcripts. Taken together, the results indicate that Top1 may regulate transcription initiation by modulating RNA polymerase-generated negative supercoils, which can in turn favor R-loop formation at promoters, and that transcript accumulation at TSS is a response to persistent transcriptional stress by Top1 poisoning.

  14. Angiotensin II counteracts the effects of cAMP/PKA on NHE3 activity and phosphorylation in proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crajoinas, Renato O; Polidoro, Juliano Z; Carneiro de Morais, Carla P A; Castelo-Branco, Regiane C; Girardi, Adriana C C

    2016-11-01

    Binding of angiotensin II (ANG II) to the AT1 receptor (AT1R) in the proximal tubule stimulates Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) activity through multiple signaling pathways. However, the effects of ANG II/AT1R-induced inihibitory G protein (Gi) activation and subsequent decrease in cAMP accumulation on NHE3 regulation are not well established. We therefore tested the hypothesis that ANG II reduces cAMP/PKA-mediated phosphorylation of NHE3 on serine 552 and, in doing so, stimulates NHE3 activity. Under basal conditions, ANG II stimulated NHE3 activity but did not affect PKA-mediated NHE3 phosphorylation at serine 552 in opossum kidney (OKP) cells. However, in the presence of the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin (FSK), ANG II blocked FSK-induced NHE3 inhibition, reduced intracellular cAMP concentrations, lowered PKA activity, and prevented the FSK-mediated increase in NHE3 serine 552 phosphorylation. All effects of ANG II were blocked by pretreating OKP cells with the AT1R antagonist losartan, highlighting the contribution of the AT1R/Gi pathway in ANG II-mediated NHE3 upregulation under cAMP-elevating conditions. Accordingly, Gi inhibition by pertussis toxin treatment decreased NHE3 activity both in vitro and in vivo and, more importantly, prevented the stimulatory effect of ANG II on NHE3 activity in rat proximal tubules. Collectively, our results suggest that ANG II counteracts the effects of cAMP/PKA on NHE3 phosphorylation and inhibition by activating the AT1R/Gi pathway. Moreover, these findings support the notion that NHE3 dephosphorylation at serine 552 may represent a key event in the regulation of renal proximal tubule sodium handling by ANG II in the presence of natriuretic hormones that promote cAMP accumulation and transporter phosphorylation.

  15. Adrenergic regulation of HSL serine phosphorylation and activity in human skeletal muscle during the onset of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanian, Jason L; Tunstall, Rebecca J; Watt, Matthew J; Duong, Mylinh; Perry, Christopher G R; Steinberg, Gregory R; Kemp, Bruce E; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-10-01

    Skeletal muscle hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity is increased by contractions and increases in blood epinephrine (EPI) concentrations and cyclic AMP activation of the adrenergic pathway during prolonged exercise. To determine the importance of hormonal stimulation of HSL activity during the onset of moderate- and high-intensity exercise, nine men [age 24.3 +/- 1.2 yr, 80.8 +/- 5.0 kg, peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) 43.9 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] cycled for 1 min at approximately 65% VO2 peak, rested for 60 min, and cycled at approximately 90% VO2 peak for 1 min. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken pre- and postexercise, and arterial blood was sampled throughout exercise. Arterial EPI increased (P HSL activity increased (P HSL Ser660 phosphorylation (approximately 55% increase) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation ( approximately 33% increase) were augmented following exercise at both intensities, whereas HSL Ser563 and Ser565 phosphorylation were not different from rest. The results indicate that increases in arterial EPI concentration during the onset of moderate- and high-intensity exercise increase cyclic AMP content, which results in the phosphorylation of HSL Ser660. This adrenergic stimulation contributes to the increase in HSL activity that occurs in human skeletal muscle in the first minute of exercise at 65% and 90% VO2 peak.

  16. Ground state destabilization by anionic nucleophiles contributes to the activity of phosphoryl transfer enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan D Andrews

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes stabilize transition states of reactions while limiting binding to ground states, as is generally required for any catalyst. Alkaline Phosphatase (AP and other nonspecific phosphatases are some of Nature's most impressive catalysts, achieving preferential transition state over ground state stabilization of more than 10²²-fold while utilizing interactions with only the five atoms attached to the transferred phosphorus. We tested a model that AP achieves a portion of this preference by destabilizing ground state binding via charge repulsion between the anionic active site nucleophile, Ser102, and the negatively charged phosphate monoester substrate. Removal of the Ser102 alkoxide by mutation to glycine or alanine increases the observed Pi affinity by orders of magnitude at pH 8.0. To allow precise and quantitative comparisons, the ionic form of bound P(i was determined from pH dependencies of the binding of Pi and tungstate, a P(i analog lacking titratable protons over the pH range of 5-11, and from the ³¹P chemical shift of bound P(i. The results show that the Pi trianion binds with an exceptionally strong femtomolar affinity in the absence of Ser102, show that its binding is destabilized by ≥10⁸-fold by the Ser102 alkoxide, and provide direct evidence for ground state destabilization. Comparisons of X-ray crystal structures of AP with and without Ser102 reveal the same active site and P(i binding geometry upon removal of Ser102, suggesting that the destabilization does not result from a major structural rearrangement upon mutation of Ser102. Analogous Pi binding measurements with a protein tyrosine phosphatase suggest the generality of this ground state destabilization mechanism. Our results have uncovered an important contribution of anionic nucleophiles to phosphoryl transfer catalysis via ground state electrostatic destabilization and an enormous capacity of the AP active site for specific and strong recognition of the

  17. PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) is independent of PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartel, N J; Liu, J; Wang, J; Post, M

    2001-10-01

    Herein, we investigated the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a key component of downstream signaling events, which is activated subsequent to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation. Specifically, p42(MAPK) activity peaked 60 min after addition of PDGF-BB, declined thereafter, and was determined not to be a direct or necessary component of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. PDGF-BB also activated MAPK kinase 2 (MAPKK2) but had no effect on MAPKK1 and Raf-1 activity. Chemical inhibition of Janus kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src kinase, or tyrosine phosphorylation inhibition of the PDGF beta-receptor (PDGFR-beta) did not abrogate PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation or its threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. A dominant negative cytoplasmic receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility variant 4 (RHAMMv4), a regulator of MAPKK-MAPK interaction and activation, did not inhibit PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation nor did a construct expressing PDGFR-beta with cytoplasmic tyrosines mutated to phenylalanine. However, overexpression of a dominant negative PDGFR-beta lacking the cytoplasmic signaling domain abrogated p42(MAPK) activity. These results suggest that PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) requires the PDGFR-beta but is independent of its tyrosine phosphorylation.

  18. Conserved phosphoryl transfer mechanisms within kinase families and the role of the C8 proton of ATP in the activation of phosphoryl transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Colin P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinome is made up of a large number of functionally diverse enzymes, with the classification indicating very little about the extent of the conserved kinetic mechanisms associated with phosphoryl transfer. It has been demonstrated that C8-H of ATP plays a critical role in the activity of a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. Results A number of conserved mechanisms within the prescribed kinase fold families have been identified directly utilizing the C8-H of ATP in the initiation of phosphoryl transfer. These mechanisms are based on structurally conserved amino acid residues that are within hydrogen bonding distance of a co-crystallized nucleotide. On the basis of these conserved mechanisms, the role of the nucleotide C8-H in initiating the formation of a pentavalent intermediate between the γ-phosphate of the ATP and the substrate nucleophile is defined. All reactions can be clustered into two mechanisms by which the C8-H is induced to be labile via the coordination of a backbone carbonyl to C6-NH2 of the adenyl moiety, namely a "push" mechanism, and a "pull" mechanism, based on the protonation of N7. Associated with the "push" mechanism and "pull" mechanisms are a series of proton transfer cascades, initiated from C8-H, via the tri-phosphate backbone, culminating in the formation of the pentavalent transition state between the γ-phosphate of the ATP and the substrate nucleophile. Conclusions The "push" mechanism and a "pull" mechanism are responsible for inducing the C8-H of adenyl moiety to become more labile. These mechanisms and the associated proton transfer cascades achieve the proton transfer via different family-specific conserved sets of amino acids. Each of these mechanisms would allow for the regulation of the rate of formation of the pentavalent intermediate between the ATP and the substrate nucleophile. Phosphoryl transfer within kinases is therefore a specific event mediated and regulated via the

  19. Deletion of loop fragment adjacent to active site diminishes the stability and activity of exo-inulinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomand, Maryam Rezaei; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Hassanzadeh, Malihe; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Asadifar, Mandana; Amanlou, Massoud

    2016-11-01

    Inulinases are classified as hydrolases and widely used in the food and medical industries. Here, we report the deletion of a six-membered adjacent active site loop fragment ((74)YGSDVT(79) sequence) from third Ω-loop of the exo-inulinase containing aspartate residue from Aspergillus niger to study its structural and functional importance. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create the mutant of the exo-inulinase (Δ6SL). To investigate the stability of the region spanning this loop, MD simulations were performed 80ns for 20-85 residues. Molecular docking was performed to compare the interactions in the active sites of enzymes with fructose as a ligand. Accordingly, the functional thermostability of the exo-inulinase was significantly decreased upon loop fragment deletion. Evaluation of the kinetics parameters (Vmax, Km, kcat and, kcat/Km) and activation energy (Ea) of the catalysis of enzymes indicated the importance of the deleted sequence on the catalytic performance of the enzyme. In conclusion, six-membered adjacent active site loop fragment not only plays a crucial role in the stability of the enzyme, but also it involves in the enzyme catalysis through lowering the activation energy of the catalysis and effective improving the catalytic performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Pathogenesis of mucosal injury in the blind loop syndrome. Brush border enzyme activity and glycoprotein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, A; Flanagan, P R; Forstner, G G

    1977-12-01

    The effect of intestinal bacterial over-growth on brush border hydrolases and brush border glycoproteins was studied in nonoperated control rats, control rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-emptying blind loops, and rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-filling blind loops. Data were analyzed from blind loop segments, segments above and below the blind loops, and three corresponding segments in the nonoperated controls. Rats with self-filling blind loops had significantly greater fat excretion than controls and exhibited significantly lower conjugated:free bile salt ratios in all three segments. Maltase, sucrase, and lactase activities were significantly reduced in homogenates and isolated brush borders from the self-filling blind loop, but alkaline phosphatase was not affected. The relative degradation rate of homogenate and brush border glycoproteins was assessed by a double-isotope technique involving the injection of d-[6-(3)H]glucosamine 3 h and d-[U-(14)C]glucosamine 19 h before sacrifice, and recorded as a (3)H:(14)C ratio. The relative degradation rate in both homogenate and brush border fractions was significantly greater in most segments from rats with self-filling blind loops. In the upper and blind loop segments from rats with self-filling blind loops, the (3)H:(14)C ratios were higher in the brush border membrane than in the corresponding homogenates, indicating that the increased rates of degradation primarily involve membrane glycoproteins. Incorporation of d-[6-(3)H]glucosamine by brush border glycoproteins was not reduced in rats with self-filling blind loops, suggesting that glycoprotein synthesis was not affected. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of brush border glycoproteins from the contaminated segments indicated that the large molecular weight glycoproteins, which include many of the surface hydrolases, were degraded most rapidly. Brush border maltase, isolated by immunoprecipitation, had (3)H:(14)C ratios characteristic of

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W; Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  2. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and ReceptorAssociation of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells. Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  3. Phosphorylation of Minichromosome Maintenance 3 (MCM3) by Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) Negatively Regulates DNA Replication and Checkpoint Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangzi; Mayca Pozo, Franklin; Wisotsky, Jacob N; Wang, Benlian; Jacobberger, James W; Zhang, Youwei

    2015-05-08

    Mechanisms controlling DNA replication and replication checkpoint are critical for the maintenance of genome stability and the prevention or treatment of human cancers. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a key effector protein kinase that regulates the DNA damage response and replication checkpoint. The heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the core component of mammalian DNA helicase and has been implicated in replication checkpoint activation. Here we report that Chk1 phosphorylates the MCM3 subunit of the MCM complex at Ser-205 under normal growth conditions. Mutating the Ser-205 of MCM3 to Ala increased the length of DNA replication track and shortened the S phase duration, indicating that Ser-205 phosphorylation negatively controls normal DNA replication. Upon replicative stress treatment, the inhibitory phosphorylation of MCM3 at Ser-205 was reduced, and this reduction was accompanied with the generation of single strand DNA, the key platform for ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) activation. As a result, the replication checkpoint is activated. Together, these data provide significant insights into the regulation of both normal DNA replication and replication checkpoint activation through the novel phosphorylation of MCM3 by Chk1.

  4. Functional effects of diphosphomimetic mutations at cAbl-mediated phosphorylation sites on Rad51 recombinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligand, Brendan; Le Breton, Magali; Marquis, Damien; Vallette, François; Fleury, Fabrice

    2017-08-01

    Homologous Recombination enables faithful repair of the deleterious double strand breaks of DNA. This pathway relies on Rad51 to catalyze homologous DNA strand exchange. Rad51 is known to be phosphorylated in a sequential manner on Y315 and then on Y54, but the effect of such phosphorylation on Rad51 function remains poorly understood. We have developed a phosphomimetic model in order to study all the phosphorylation states. With the purified phosphomimetic proteins we performed in vitro assays to determine the activity of Rad51. Here we demonstrate the inhibitory effect of the double phosphomimetic mutant and suggest that it may be due to a defect in nucleofilament formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Novel method demonstrates differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation of insulin receptor tyrosine-specific phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieniewicz, Anne M; Cooper, Philip R; McGehee, Jennifer; Lingham, Russell B; Kihm, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Insulin receptor signaling is a complex cascade leading to a multitude of intracellular functional responses. Three natural ligands, insulin, IGF1 and IGF2, are each capable of binding with different affinities to the insulin receptor, and result in variable biological responses. However, it is likely these affinity differences alone cannot completely explain the myriad of diverse cellular outcomes. Ligand binding initiates activation of a signaling cascade resulting in phosphorylation of the IR itself and other intracellular proteins. The direct catalytic activity along with the temporally coordinated assembly of signaling proteins is critical for insulin receptor signaling. We hypothesized that determining differential phosphorylation among individual tyrosine sites activated by ligand binding or dephosphorylation by phosphatases could provide valuable insight into insulin receptor signaling. Here, we present a sensitive, novel immunoassay adapted from Meso Scale Discovery technology to quantitatively measure changes in site-specific phosphorylation levels on endogenous insulin receptors from HuH7 cells. We identified insulin receptor phosphorylation patterns generated upon differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation. The data demonstrate that insulin, IGF1 and IGF2 elicit different insulin receptor phosphorylation kinetics and potencies that translate to downstream signaling. Furthermore, we show that insulin receptor deactivation, regulated by tyrosine phosphatases, occurs distinctively across specific tyrosine residues. In summary, we present a novel, quantitative and high-throughput assay that has uncovered differential ligand activation and site-specific deactivation of the insulin receptor. These results may help elucidate some of the insulin signaling mechanisms, discriminate ligand activity and contribute to a better understanding of insulin receptor signaling. We propose this methodology as a powerful approach to characterize

  6. Phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 in human malonyl-CoA decarboxylase expressed in silkworm Bombyx mori regulates catalytic decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Wook; Makishima, Yu; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Sungjo; Terzic, Andre; Chung, Shin-Kyo; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-11-01

    Decarboxylation of malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA by malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD; EC 4.1.1.9) is a vital catalytic reaction of lipid metabolism. While it is established that phosphorylation of MCD modulates the enzymatic activity, the specific phosphorylation sites associated with the catalytic function have not been documented due to lack of sufficient production of MCD with proper post-translational modifications. Here, we used the silkworm-based Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid system to express human MCD (hMCD) and mapped phosphorylation effects on enzymatic function. Purified MCD from silkworm displayed post-translational phosphorylation and demonstrated coherent enzymatic activity with high yield (-200 μg/silkworm). Point mutations in putative phosphorylation sites, Ser-204 or Tyr-405 of hMCD, identified by bioinformatics and proteomics analyses reduced the catalytic activity, underscoring the functional significance of phosphorylation in modulating decarboxylase-based catalysis. Identified phosphorylated residues are distinct from the decarboxylation catalytic site, implicating a phosphorylation-induced global conformational change of MCD as responsible in altering catalytic function. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser-204 and Tyr-405 regulates the decarboxylase function of hMCD leveraging the silkworm-based BmNPV bacmid expression system that offers a fail-safe eukaryotic production platform implementing proper post-translational modification such as phosphorylation.

  7. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan from cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle, 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaian Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a commercially available derivative of chitin that has been extensively studied for its antimicrobial properties. In order to improve the water solubility and its biological activity, the chemical modification or derivatisation is attempted. In the present investigation, the chitosan prepared from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis was being chemically modified by reacting it with orthophosphoric acid so as to obtain phosphorylated chitosan. Then the chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan were structurally characterized through FT-IR spectroscopy. Further the antibacterial activity of chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan was tested against clinically isolated human pathogens (Gram-positive: Streptococcus sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp. and Proteus vulgaris by well diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was also calculated. The results of the present study suggests that the chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan has concentration dependent antibacterial activity with variation against several pathogenic human pathogenic bacterial strains which indicates their possible use as antibacterial agents.

  8. Mechanism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and activation by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilei Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata could cause a weak relaxation response mediated by nitric oxide (NO using isolated aorta rings. However, the intracellular mechanisms of TE-induced vasodilation remain unclear. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the role of TE on Akt/eNOS/NO and Ca2+ signaling pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Our results showed that TE induced dose- and time-dependent increases of eNOS activity and NO production. And TE also induced Akt and eNOS phosphorylation in HUVECs. However, treatment with specific PI3-kinase inhibitor (Wortmannin significantly inhibited the increases in NO production and Akt/eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, TE also stimulated an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which was significantly attenuated by either IP3 receptor blocker (Heparin or PKC inhibitor (PKC 412. In contrast, extracellular Ca2+-free, L-type calcium channel blocker (Nifedipine, or PKA inhibitor (H89 had no influence on the [Ca2+]i elevation. Since calcium ions also play a critical role in stimulating eNOS activity, we next explored the role of Ca2+ in TE-induced Akt/eNOS activation. In consistent with the attenuation of [Ca2+]i elevation, we found that Akt/eNOS phosphorylation was also dramatically decreased by Heparin or PKC 412, but not affected by Nifedipine or H89. However, the phosphorylation level could also be decreased by the removal of extracellular calcium. Taken together, our findings indicated that TE-induced eNOS phosphorylation and activation were mainly through PI3K/Akt-dependent, PKC/IP3R-sensitive and Ca2+-dependent pathways.

  9. Phosphorylation status of 72 kDa MMP-2 determines its structure and activity in response to peroxynitrite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Jacob-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is a key intra- and extra-cellular protease which contributes to several oxidative stress related pathologies. A molecular understanding of 72 kDa MMP-2 activity, directly mediated by S-glutathiolation of its cysteine residues in the presence of peroxynitrite (ONOO(- and by phosphorylation of its serine and threonine residues, is essential to develop new generation inhibitors of intracellular MMP-2. Within its propeptide and collagen binding domains there is an interesting juxtaposition of predicted phosphorylation sites with nearby cysteine residues which form disulfide bonds. However, the combined effect of these two post-translational modifications on MMP-2 activity has not been studied. The activity of human recombinant 72 kDa MMP-2 (hrMMP-2 following in vitro treatments was measured by troponin I proteolysis assay and a kinetic activity assay using a fluorogenic peptide substrate. ONOO(- treatment in the presence of 30 µM glutathione resulted in concentration-dependent changes in MMP-2 activity, with 0.1-1 µM increasing up to twofold and 100 µM attenuating its activity. Dephosphorylation of MMP-2 with alkaline phosphatase markedly increased its activity by sevenfold, either with or without ONOO(-. Dephosphorylation of MMP-2 also affected the conformational structure of the enzyme as revealed by circular dichroism studies, suggesting an increase in the proportion of α-helices and a decrease in β-strands compared to the phosphorylated form of MMP-2. These results suggest that ONOO(- activation (at low µM and inactivation (at high µM of 72 kDa MMP-2, in the presence or absence of glutathione, is also influenced by its phosphorylation status. These insights into the role of post-translational modifications in the structure and activity of 72 kDa MMP-2 will aid in the development of inhibitors specifically targeting intracellular MMP-2.

  10. Behaviour of oscillations in loop structures above active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, D Y; Chelpanov, A A; Kochanov, A A; Anfinogentov, S A; Chupin, S A; Myshyakov, I I; Tomin, V E

    2015-01-01

    In this study we combine the multiwavelength ultraviolet -- optical (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) and radio (Nobeyama Radioheliograph, NoRH) observations to get further insight into space-frequency distribution of oscillations at different atmospheric levels of the Sun. We processed the observational data on NOAA 11711 active region and found oscillations propagating from the photospheric level through the transition region upward into the corona. The power maps of low-frequency (1--2 mHz) oscillations reproduce well the fan-like coronal structures visible in the Fe ix 171A line. High frequency oscillations (5--7 mHz) propagate along the vertical magnetic field lines and concentrate inside small-scale elements in the umbra and at the umbra-penumbra boundary. We investigated the dependence of the dominant oscillation frequency upon the distance from the sunspot barycentre to estimate inclination of magnetic tubes in higher levels of sunspots where it cannot be measured directly, and found that this angle i...

  11. Neurotensin Phosphorylates GSK-3α/β through the Activation of PKC in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingding Wang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurotensin (NT, a gastrointestinal hormone, binds its receptor [neurotensin receptor (NTR] to regulate the growth of normal and neoplastic intestinal cells; molecular mechanisms remain largely undefined. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell growth and apoptosis. Here, we show that NT induces the phosphorylation of GSK-3α/β in the human colon cancer cell line HT29, HCT116, or SW480, which possesses high-affinity NTR. The effect of NT was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, but not by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK1 or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, suggesting a predominant role for PKC in GSK-3β phosphorylation by NT. Pretreatment with Gö6976 (which inhibits PKCα and PKCβ1 or downregulation of endogenous PKCα or PKCβ1 blocked NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation. Moreover, a selective PKCβ inhibitor, LY379196, reduced NT-mediated GSK-3β (but not GSK-3α phosphorylation, suggesting a role for PKCbβ in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β and an undefined kinase in the NT-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3α. Treatment with NT or the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 increased the expression of cyclin D1, a downstream effector protein of GSK-3 and a critical protein for the proliferation of various cells. Our results indicate that NT uses PKC-dependent pathways to modulate GSK-3, which may play a role in the NT regulation of intestinal cell growth.

  12. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site on TBC1D4 regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Taylor, Eric B.; Witczak, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    TBC1D4 (also known as AS160) regulates GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. Its mode of action involves phosphorylation of Serine (S)/Threonine (T) residues by upstream kinases resulting in inactivation of Rab-GAP activity leading to GLUT4 mobilization....... The majority of known phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4 lie within the Akt consensus motif and are phosphorylated by insulin stimulation. However, the 5 AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other kinases may also phosphorylate TBC1D4, and therefore we hypothesized the presence of additional phosphorylation...... sites. Mouse skeletal muscles were contracted or stimulated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxmide riboside (AICAR) and muscle lysates were subjected to mass spectrometry analyses resulting in identification of novel putative phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4. The surrounding amino acid sequence predicted...

  13. Disruption of Spectrin-Like Cytoskeleton in Differentiating Keratinocytes by PKCδ Activation Is Associated with Phosphorylated Adducin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Masci, Paul P.; Lavin, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Spectrin is a central component of the cytoskeletal protein network in a variety of erythroid and non-erythroid cells. In keratinocytes, this protein has been shown to be pericytoplasmic and plasma membrane associated, but its characteristics and function have not been established in these cells. Here we demonstrate that spectrin increases dramatically in amount and is assembled into the cytoskeleton during differentiation in mouse and human keratinocytes. The spectrin-like cytoskeleton was predominantly organized in the granular and cornified layers of the epidermis and disrupted by actin filament inhibitors, but not by anti-mitotic drugs. When the cytoskeleton was disrupted PKCδ was activated by phosphorylation on Thr505. Specific inhibition of PKCδ(Thr505) activation with rottlerin prevented disruption of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and the associated morphological changes that accompany differentiation. Rottlerin also inhibited specific phosphorylation of the PKCδ substrate adducin, a cytoskeletal protein. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous adducin affected not only expression of adducin, but also spectrin and PKCδ, and severely disrupted organization of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal distribution of both adducin and PKCδ. These results demonstrate that organization of a spectrin-like cytoskeleton is associated with keratinocytes differentiation, and disruption of this cytoskeleton is mediated by either PKCδ(Thr505) phosphorylation associated with phosphorylated adducin or due to reduction of endogenous adducin, which normally connects and stabilizes the spectrin-actin complex. PMID:22163289

  14. The mitosis-regulating and protein-protein interaction activities of astrin are controlled by aurora-A-induced phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Chih; Chen, Jo-Mei Maureen; Wei, Tong-You Wade; Cheng, Tai-Shan; Wang, Ya-Hui Candice; Ku, Chia-Feng; Lian, Chiao-Hsuan; Liu, Chun-Chih Jared; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky

    2014-09-01

    Cells display dramatic morphological changes in mitosis, where numerous factors form regulatory networks to orchestrate the complicated process, resulting in extreme fidelity of the segregation of duplicated chromosomes into two daughter cells. Astrin regulates several aspects of mitosis, such as maintaining the cohesion of sister chromatids by inactivating Separase and stabilizing spindle, aligning and segregating chromosomes, and silencing spindle assembly checkpoint by interacting with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein (SKAP) and cytoplasmic linker-associated protein-1α (CLASP-1α). To understand how Astrin is regulated in mitosis, we report here that Astrin acts as a mitotic phosphoprotein, and Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin at Ser(115). The phosphorylation-deficient mutant Astrin S115A abnormally activates spindle assembly checkpoint and delays mitosis progression, decreases spindle stability, and induces chromosome misalignment. Mechanistic analyses reveal that Astrin phosphorylation mimicking mutant S115D, instead of S115A, binds and induces ubiquitination and degradation of securin, which sequentially activates Separase, an enzyme required for the separation of sister chromatids. Moreover, S115A fails to bind mitosis regulators, including SKAP and CLASP-1α, which results in the mitotic defects observed in Astrin S115A-transfected cells. In conclusion, Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin and guides the binding of Astrin to its cellular partners, which ensures proper progression of mitosis.

  15. Disruption of spectrin-like cytoskeleton in differentiating keratinocytes by PKCδ activation is associated with phosphorylated adducin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong-Nan Zhao

    Full Text Available Spectrin is a central component of the cytoskeletal protein network in a variety of erythroid and non-erythroid cells. In keratinocytes, this protein has been shown to be pericytoplasmic and plasma membrane associated, but its characteristics and function have not been established in these cells. Here we demonstrate that spectrin increases dramatically in amount and is assembled into the cytoskeleton during differentiation in mouse and human keratinocytes. The spectrin-like cytoskeleton was predominantly organized in the granular and cornified layers of the epidermis and disrupted by actin filament inhibitors, but not by anti-mitotic drugs. When the cytoskeleton was disrupted PKCδ was activated by phosphorylation on Thr505. Specific inhibition of PKCδ(Thr505 activation with rottlerin prevented disruption of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and the associated morphological changes that accompany differentiation. Rottlerin also inhibited specific phosphorylation of the PKCδ substrate adducin, a cytoskeletal protein. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous adducin affected not only expression of adducin, but also spectrin and PKCδ, and severely disrupted organization of the spectrin-like cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal distribution of both adducin and PKCδ. These results demonstrate that organization of a spectrin-like cytoskeleton is associated with keratinocytes differentiation, and disruption of this cytoskeleton is mediated by either PKCδ(Thr505 phosphorylation associated with phosphorylated adducin or due to reduction of endogenous adducin, which normally connects and stabilizes the spectrin-actin complex.

  16. Crystal structure of B acillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity: AtxA multimerization, phosphorylation and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Troy G.; Lori, Horton B.; Swick, Michelle C.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2014-12-30

    The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthetic operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO2/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO2/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-binding domains (HTH1 and HTH2) and phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system-regulated domains (PRD1 and PRD2) are apparent. We tested AtxA variants containing single and double phosphomimetic (HisAsp) and phosphoablative (HisAla) amino acid changes for activity in B.anthracis cultures and for protein-protein interactions in cell lysates. Reduced activity of AtxA H199A, lack of multimerization and activity of AtxAH379D variants, and predicted structural changes associated with phosphorylation support a model for control of AtxA function. We propose that (i) in the AtxA dimer, phosphorylation of H199 in PRD1 affects HTH2 positioning, influencing DNA-binding; and (ii) phosphorylation of H379 in PRD2 disrupts dimer formation. The AtxA structure is the first reported high-resolution full-length structure of a PRD-containing regulator, and can serve as a model for proteins of this family, especially those that link virulence to bacterial metabolism.

  17. PDGF-induced phosphorylation of Tyr28 in the N-terminus of Fyn affects Fyn activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Alonso, G; Courtneidge, S A;

    1997-01-01

    Binding of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to its receptors leads to the activation of members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases. We show here that Fyn, a member of the Src family, is phosphorylated on Tyr28 in the unique N-terminal part of the molecule after interaction...... with the intracellular domain of the PDGF beta-receptor. Activated Fyn furthermore undergoes autophosphorylation on Tyr30, Tyr39 and Tyr420. When Fyn mutants with Tyr28, Tyr30 or Tyr39 replaced with phenylalanine residues were transfected into NIH3T3 cells a decreased activation after PDGF stimulation was seen......, suggesting a functional importance of the N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation of Fyn....

  18. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Troy G; Horton, Lori B; Swick, Michelle C; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M

    2015-02-01

    The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthetic operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO(2)/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO(2)/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-binding domains (HTH1 and HTH2) and phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system-regulated domains (PRD1 and PRD2) are apparent. We tested AtxA variants containing single and double phosphomimetic (His→Asp) and phosphoablative (His→Ala) amino acid changes for activity in B. anthracis cultures and for protein-protein interactions in cell lysates. Reduced activity of AtxA H199A, lack of multimerization and activity of AtxAH379D variants, and predicted structural changes associated with phosphorylation support a model for control of AtxA function. We propose that (i) in the AtxA dimer, phosphorylation of H199 in PRD1 affects HTH2 positioning, influencing DNA-binding; and (ii) phosphorylation of H379 in PRD2 disrupts dimer formation. The AtxA structure is the first reported high-resolution full-length structure of a PRD-containing regulator, and can serve as a model for proteins of this family, especially those that link virulence to bacterial metabolism.

  19. The transcriptional activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha is inhibited via phosphorylation by ERK1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquet, Caroline; Kiss, Judit; Sipeki, Szabolcs; Martin, Ludovic; Buday, László; Bálint, Bálint L.; Arányi, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) nuclear receptor is a master regulator of hepatocyte development, nutrient transport and metabolism. HNF4α is regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by different mechanisms. Several kinases (PKA, PKC, AMPK) were shown to phosphorylate and decrease the activity of HNF4α. Activation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway, inducing proliferation and survival, inhibits the expression of HNF4α. However, based on our previous results we hypothesized that HNF4α is also regulated at the post-transcriptional level by ERK1/2. Here we show that ERK1/2 is capable of directly phosphorylating HNF4α in vitro at several phosphorylation sites including residues previously shown to be targeted by other kinases, as well. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that phosphorylation of HNF4α leads to a reduced trans-activational capacity of the nuclear receptor in luciferase reporter gene assay. We confirm the functional relevance of these findings by demonstrating with ChIP-qPCR experiments that 30-minute activation of ERK1/2 leads to reduced chromatin binding of HNF4α. Accordingly, we have observed decreasing but not disappearing binding of HNF4α to the target genes. In addition, 24-hour activation of the pathway further decreased HNF4α chromatin binding to specific loci in ChIP-qPCR experiments, which confirms the previous reports on the decreased expression of the HNF4a gene due to ERK1/2 activation. Our data suggest that the ERK1/2 pathway plays an important role in the regulation of HNF4α-dependent hepatic gene expression. PMID:28196117

  20. Activity of Crohn's disease assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound analysis of the affected loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J M; Maldonado, L; Sanchiz, V; Minguez, M; Benages, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate with colour Doppler ultrasound the vascular changes in the wall of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, and to establish whether these changes reflects clinical or biochemical activity of Crohn's disease. Seventy-nine patients with Crohn's disease (44 with active disease and 35 inactive patients) were studied with frequency- and amplitude-encoded duplex Doppler sonography. A group of 35 healthy volunteers were also included. The exam consisted of the search for colour signals in the walls of the loops affected by Crohn's disease, classifying the degree of vascularity with a simple scoring system into three groups: absence of colour signal (score of 0); weak or scattered colour signals (score of 1); and multiple colour signals or clear identification of vessels in the loops walls (score of 2). Doppler curves were obtained of the detected vessels with measurement of the resistive index (RI). There was a visible increase in the gut walls' vascularity in the active patients compared with those with inactive disease. The mean RI was statistically significantly lower in the gut wall vessels of the patients with active illness than that obtained in the inactive patients. Colour Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease.

  1. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  2. Epithelial cell ADAM17 activation by Helicobacter pylori: role of ADAM17 C-terminus and Threonine-735 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurg, Urszula L; Danjo, Kazuma; King, Harry O; Scott, Gina B; Robinson, Philip A; Crabtree, Jean E

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on gastric epithelial cells via a signalling cascade involving a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) cleavage of membrane bound heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF). The effects of H. pylori on ADAM17 C-terminus in epithelial cells have been examined. Total cellular ADAM17 and surface expression of ADAM17 were significantly increased by H. pylori in AGS gastric epithelial cells. These changes were associated with ADAM17 C-terminal phosphorylation at T375 and S791. AGS cells lacking the ADAM17 C-terminal domain induced significantly attenuated cleavage of HB-EGF and were also unable to upregulate HB-EGF and EGFR transcripts to the same extent as cells expressing full length ADAM17. In mitotic unstimulated AGS and ADAM17 over-expressing AGS cells, ADAM17 was highly T735 phosphorylated indicating ADAM17 T735 phosphorylation is modified during the cell cycle. In conclusion, H. pylori induced ADAM17 C-terminal T735 and/or S791 phosphorylation in gastric epithelial cells are likely to be an important trigger inducing ADAM17 activation and shedding of HB-EGF leading to EGFR transactivation. ADAM17 over-expression in gastric cancer represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Nuclear Akt associates with PKC-phosphorylated Ebp1, preventing DNA fragmentation by inhibition of caspase-activated DNase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jee-Yin; Liu, Xia; Liu, Zhixue; Pereira, Lorena; Cheng, Dongmei; Peng, Junmin; Wade, Paul A; Hamburger, Anne W; Ye, Keqiang

    2006-01-01

    Akt promotes cell survival through phosphorylation. The physiological functions of cytoplasmic Akt have been well defined, but little is known about the nuclear counterpart. Employing a cell-free apoptotic assay and NGF-treated PC12 nuclear extracts, we purified Ebp1 as a factor, which contributes to inhibition of DNA fragmentation by CAD. Depletion of Ebp1 from nuclear extracts or knockdown of Ebp1 in PC12 cells abolishes the protective effects of nerve growth factor, whereas overexpression of Ebp1 prevents apoptosis. Ebp1 (S360A), which cannot be phosphorylated by PKC, barely binds Akt or inhibits DNA fragmentation, whereas Ebp1 S360D, which mimics phosphorylation, strongly binds Akt and suppresses apoptosis. Further, phosphorylated nuclear but not cytoplasmic Akt interacts with Ebp1 and enhances its antiapoptotic action independent of Akt kinase activity. Moreover, knocking down of Akt diminishes the antiapoptotic effect of Ebp1 in the nucleus. Thus, nuclear Akt might contribute to suppressing apoptosis through interaction with Ebp1. PMID:16642037

  4. ERK Activation Globally Downregulates miRNAs through Phosphorylating Exportin-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-Lung; Cui, Ri; Zhou, JianKang; Teng, Kun-Yu; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Fassan, Matteo; Luo, Zhenghua; Shi, Guqin; Tili, Esmerina; Kutay, Huban; Lovat, Francesca; Vicentini, Caterina; Huang, Han-Li; Wang, Shih-Wei; Kim, Taewan; Zanesi, Nicola; Jeon, Young-Jun; Lee, Tae Jin; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Hung, Mien-Chie; Ghoshal, Kalpana; Teng, Che-Ming; Peng, Yong; Croce, Carlo M

    2016-11-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are mostly downregulated in cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and the precise consequence in tumorigenesis remain obscure. Here we show that ERK suppresses pre-miRNA export from the nucleus through phosphorylation of exportin-5 (XPO5) at T345/S416/S497. After phosphorylation by ERK, conformation of XPO5 is altered by prolyl isomerase Pin1, resulting in reduction of pre-miRNA loading. In liver cancer, the ERK-mediated XPO5 suppression reduces miR-122, increases microtubule dynamics, and results in tumor development and drug resistance. Analysis of clinical specimens further showed that XPO5 phosphorylation is associated with poor prognosis for liver cancer patients. Our study reveals a function of ERK in miRNA biogenesis and suggests that modulation of miRNA export has potential clinical implications.

  5. A novel AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, inhibits phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activates phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1 dependent on the liver cancer cell type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, YUNCHENG; ZHENG, YUANWEN; FAHEEM, ALI; SUN, TIANTONG; LI, CHUNYOU; LI, ZHE; ZHAO, DIANTANG; WU, CHAO; LIU, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway dysregulation, AKT is typically accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. mTOR, in particular, represents a suitable therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma, whilst suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia family member-1 (SMG-1) is believed to serve a potential tumor suppressor role in human cancer. Despite SMG-1 and mTOR belonging to the same PI3K-related kinase family, the interactions between them are not yet fully understood. In the present study, a novel pyrrolopyrimidine-derived compound, AZD5363, was observed to suppress proliferation in liver cancer Hep-G2 and Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AZD5363 activated the phosphorylation of mTOR, dependent on the liver cancer cell type, as it may have differing effects in various liver cancer cell lines. Additionally, AZD5363 also activated SMG-1 within the same liver cancer cells types, which subsequently activated the phosphorylation of mTOR. In conclusion, the present study indicates that AZD5363 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activated phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1, dependent on the liver cancer type. PMID:26998062

  6. Regulation of Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity in smooth muscle: inhibitory phosphorylation of PLC-β3 by PKA and PKG and stimulatory phosphorylation of Gαi-GTPase-activating protein RGS2 by PKG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, Ancy D; Kumar, Divya P; Al-Shboul, Othman; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2014-11-01

    In gastrointestinal smooth muscle, agonists that bind to Gi-coupled receptors activate preferentially PLC-β3 via Gβγ to stimulate phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) leading to IP3-dependent Ca(2+) release and muscle contraction. In the present study, we identified the mechanism of inhibition of PLC-β3-dependent PI hydrolysis by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, caused an increase in PI hydrolysis in a concentration-dependent fashion; stimulation was blocked by expression of the carboxyl-terminal sequence of GRK2(495-689), a Gβγ-scavenging peptide, or Gαi minigene but not Gαq minigene. Isoproterenol and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) induced phosphorylation of PLC-β3 and inhibited CPA-induced PI hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and muscle contraction. The effect of isoproterenol on all three responses was inhibited by PKA inhibitor, myristoylated PKI, or AKAP inhibitor, Ht-31, whereas the effect of GSNO was selectively inhibited by PKG inhibitor, Rp-cGMPS. GSNO, but not isoproterenol, also phosphorylated Gαi-GTPase-activating protein, RGS2, and enhanced association of Gαi3-GTP and RGS2. The effect of GSNO on PI hydrolysis was partly reversed in cells (i) expressing constitutively active GTPase-resistant Gαi mutant (Q204L), (ii) phosphorylation-site-deficient RGS2 mutant (S46A/S64A), or (iii) siRNA for RGS2. We conclude that PKA and PKG inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity by direct phosphorylation of PLC-β3. PKG, but not PKA, also inhibits PI hydrolysis indirectly by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of RGS2 and its association with Gαi-GTP. This allows RGS2 to accelerate Gαi-GTPase activity, enhance Gαβγi trimer formation, and inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity.

  7. Structure-activity approach in the reactivation of tabun-phosphorylated human acetylcholinesterase with bispyridinium para-aldoximes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Zrinka; Calić, Maja; Sinko, Goran; Bosak, Anita

    2007-06-01

    We investigated interactions of bispyridinium para-aldoximes N,N'-(propano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl) pyridinium bromide (TMB-4), N,N'-(ethano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium methanosulphonate (DMB-4), and N,N'-(methano)bis(4-hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium chloride (MMB-4) with human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase phosphorylated by tabun. We analysed aldoxime conformations to determine the flexibility of aldoxime as an important feature for binding to the acetylcholinesterase active site. Tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase was completely reactivated only by the most flexible bispyridinium aldoxime - TMB-4 with a propylene chain between two rings. Shorter linkers than propylene (methylene or ethylene) as in MMB-4 and DMB-4 did not allow appropriate orientation in the active site, and MMB-4 and DMB-4 were not efficient reactivators of tabun-phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase. Since aldoximes are also reversible inhibitors of native acetylcholinesterase, we determined dissociation constants and their protective index against acetylcholinesterase inactivation by tabun.

  8. ROS-activated ATM-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic substrates identified by large scale phosphoproteomics screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (OSR1, HDGF and ccdc82) as ATM...

  9. Phosphorylation of the actin binding protein Drebrin at S647 is regulated by neuronal activity and PTEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kreis

    Full Text Available Defects in actin dynamics affect activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity, and can cause cognitive impairment. A salient candidate actin-binding protein linking synaptic dysfunction to cognitive deficits is Drebrin (DBN. However, the specific mode of how DBN is regulated at the central synapse is largely unknown. In this study we identify and characterize the interaction of the PTEN tumor suppressor with DBN. Our results demonstrate that PTEN binds DBN and that this interaction results in the dephosphorylation of a site present in the DBN C-terminus--serine 647. PTEN and pS647-DBN segregate into distinct and complimentary compartments in neurons, supporting the idea that PTEN negatively regulates DBN phosphorylation at this site. We further demonstrate that neuronal activity increases phosphorylation of DBN at S647 in hippocampal neurons in vitro and in ex vivo hippocampus slices exhibiting seizure activity, potentially by inducing rapid dissociation of the PTEN:DBN complex. Our results identify a novel mechanism by which PTEN is required to maintain DBN phosphorylation at dynamic range and signifies an unusual regulation of an actin-binding protein linked to cognitive decline and degenerative conditions at the CNS synapse.

  10. New insights into the structural bases of activation of Cys-loop receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors of the Cys-loop superfamily mediate rapid synaptic transmission throughout the nervous system, and include receptors activated by ACh, GABA, glycine and serotonin. They are involved in physiological processes, including learning and memory, and in neurological disorders, and they are targets for clinically relevant drugs. Cys-loop receptors assemble either from five copies of one type of subunit, giving rise to homomeric receptors, or from several types of subunits, giving rise to heteromeric receptors. Homomeric receptors are invaluable models for probing fundamental relationships between structure and function. Receptors contain a large extracellular domain that carries the binding sites and a transmembrane region that forms the ion pore. How the structural changes elicited by agonist binding are propagated through a distance of 50Å to the ion channel gate is central to understanding receptor function. Depending on the receptor subtype, occupancy of either two, as in the prototype muscle nicotinic receptor, or three binding sites, as in homomeric receptors, is required for full activation. The conformational changes initiated at the binding sites are propagated to the gate through the interface between the extracellular and transmembrane domains. This region forms a network that relays structural changes from the binding site towards the pore, and also contributes to open channel lifetime and rate of desensitization. Thus, this coupling region controls the beginning and duration of a synaptic response. Here we review recent advances in the molecular mechanism by which Cys-loop receptors are activated with particular emphasis on homomeric receptors.

  11. VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS FOR A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION FAN LOOP FROM HINODE/EIS OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); O' Dwyer, B.; Mason, H. E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    The velocity pattern of a fan loop structure within a solar active region over the temperature range 0.15-1.5 MK is derived using data from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode satellite. The loop is aligned toward the observer's line of sight and shows downflows (redshifts) of around 15 km s{sup -1} up to a temperature of 0.8 MK, but for temperatures of 1.0 MK and above the measured velocity shifts are consistent with no net flow. This velocity result applies over a projected spatial distance of 9 Mm and demonstrates that the cooler, redshifted plasma is physically disconnected from the hotter, stationary plasma. A scenario in which the fan loops consist of at least two groups of 'strands'-one cooler and downflowing, the other hotter and stationary-is suggested. The cooler strands may represent a later evolutionary stage of the hotter strands. A density diagnostic of Mg VII was used to show that the electron density at around 0.8 MK falls from 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} at the loop base, to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} at a projected height of 15 Mm. A filling factor of 0.2 is found at temperatures close to the formation temperature of Mg VII (0.8 MK), confirming that the cooler, downflowing plasma occupies only a fraction of the apparent loop volume. The fan loop is rooted within a so-called outflow region that displays low intensity and blueshifts of up to 25 km s{sup -1} in Fe XII {lambda}195.12 (formed at 1.5 MK), in contrast to the loop's redshifts of 15 km s{sup -1} at 0.8 MK. A new technique for obtaining an absolute wavelength calibration for the EIS instrument is presented and an instrumental effect, possibly related to a distorted point-spread function, that affects velocity measurements is identified.

  12. Chronic baclofen desensitizes GABA(B)-mediated G-protein activation and stimulates phosphorylation of kinases in mesocorticolimbic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Bradley M T; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Pezor, Jeffrey J; Xiao, Ruoyu; Sexton, Tammy; Childers, Steven R; Howlett, Allyn C

    2015-08-01

    The GABAB receptor is a therapeutic target for CNS and neuropathic disorders; however, few preclinical studies have explored effects of chronic stimulation. This study evaluated acute and chronic baclofen treatments on GABAB-activated G-proteins and signaling protein phosphorylation as indicators of GABAB signaling capacity. Brain sections from rats acutely administered baclofen (5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed no significant differences from controls in GABAB-stimulated GTPγS binding in any brain region, but displayed significantly greater phosphorylation/activation of focal adhesion kinase (pFAK(Tyr397)) in mesocorticolimbic regions (caudate putamen, cortex, hippocampus, thalamus) and elevated phosphorylated/activated glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (pGSK3β(Tyr216)) in the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, septum, and globus pallidus. In rats administered chronic baclofen (5 mg/kg, t.i.d. for five days), GABAB-stimulated GTPγS binding was significantly diminished in the prefrontal cortex, septum, amygdala, and parabrachial nucleus compared to controls. This effect was specific to GABAB receptors: there was no effect of chronic baclofen treatment on adenosine A1-stimulated GTPγS binding in any region. Chronically-treated rats also exhibited increases in pFAK(Tyr397) and pGSK3β(Tyr216) compared to controls, and displayed wide-spread elevations in phosphorylated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (pDARPP-32(Thr34)) compared to acutely-treated or control rats. We postulate that those neuroadaptive effects of GABAB stimulation mediated by G-proteins and their sequelae correlate with tolerance to several of baclofen's effects, whereas sustained signaling via kinase cascades points to cross-talk between GABAB receptors and alternative mechanisms that are resistant to desensitization. Both desensitized and sustained signaling pathways should be considered in the development of pharmacotherapies targeting the GABA

  13. Is Phosphorylation of the α1 Subunit at Ser-16 Involved in the Control of Na,K-ATPase Activity by Phorbol Ester–activated Protein Kinase C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féraille, Eric; Béguin, Pascal; Carranza, Maria-Luisa; Gonin, Sandrine; Rousselot, Martine; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Favre, Hervé; Geering, Käthi

    2000-01-01

    The α1 subunit of Na,K-ATPase is phosphorylated at Ser-16 by phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase(s) C (PKC). The role of Ser-16 phosphorylation was analyzed in COS-7 cells stably expressing wild-type or mutant (T15A/S16A and S16D-E) ouabain-resistant Bufo α1 subunits. In cells incubated at 37°C, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) inhibited the transport activity and decreased the cell surface expression of wild-type and mutant Na,K-pumps equally (∼20–30%). This effect of PDBu was mimicked by arachidonic acid and was dependent on PKC, phospholipase A2, and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase. In contrast, incubation of cells at 18°C suppressed the down-regulation of Na,K-pumps and revealed a phosphorylation-dependent stimulation of the transport activity of Na,K-ATPase. Na,K-ATPase from cells expressing α1-mutants mimicking Ser-16 phosphorylation (S16D or S16E) exhibited an increase in the apparent Na affinity. This finding was confirmed by the PDBu-induced increase in Na sensitivity of the activity of Na,K-ATPase measured in permeabilized nontransfected COS-7 cells. These results illustrate the complexity of the regulation of Na,K-ATPase α1 isozymes by phorbol ester-sensitive PKCs and reveal 1) a phosphorylation-independent decrease in cell surface expression and 2) a phosphorylation-dependent stimulation of the transport activity attributable to an increase in the apparent Na affinity. PMID:10637289

  14. Insulin-induced Stimulation of Na+,K+-ATPase Activity in Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells Depends on Phosphorylation of the α-Subunit at Tyr-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féraille, Eric; Carranza, Maria Luisa; Gonin, Sandrine; Béguin, Pascal; Pedemonte, Carlos; Rousselot, Martine; Caverzasio, Joseph; Geering, Käthi; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Favre, Hervé

    1999-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the α-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase plays an important role in the regulation of this pump. Recent studies suggest that insulin, known to increase solute and fluid reabsorption in mammalian proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), is stimulating Na+,K+-ATPase activity through the tyrosine phosphorylation process. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase α-subunit in the action of insulin. In rat PCT, insulin and orthovanadate (a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) increased tyrosine phosphorylation level of the α-subunit more than twofold. Their effects were not additive, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was prevented by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The site of tyrosine phosphorylation was identified on Tyr-10 by controlled trypsinolysis in rat PCTs and by site-directed mutagenesis in opossum kidney cells transfected with rat α-subunit. The functional relevance of Tyr-10 phosphorylation was assessed by 1) the abolition of insulin-induced stimulation of the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake in opossum kidney cells expressing mutant rat α1-subunits wherein tyrosine was replaced by alanine or glutamine; and 2) the similarity of the time course and dose dependency of the insulin-induced increase in ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake and tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings indicate that phosphorylation of the Na+,K+-ATPase α-subunit at Tyr-10 likely participates in the physiological control of sodium reabsorption in PCT. PMID:10473631

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation cascade in hyperinsulinemic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hidenori; Sohara, Eisei; Nomura, Naohiro; Chiga, Motoko; Alessi, Dario R; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2012-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome patients have insulin resistance, which causes hyperinsulinemia, which in turn causes aberrant increased renal sodium reabsorption. The precise mechanisms underlying this greater salt sensitivity of hyperinsulinemic patients remain unclear. Abnormal activation of the recently identified with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)-oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1)/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)-NaCl cotransporter (NCC) phosphorylation cascade results in the salt-sensitive hypertension of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. Here, we report a study of renal WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade activation in the db/db mouse model of hyperinsulinemic metabolic syndrome. Thiazide sensitivity was increased, suggesting greater activity of NCC in db/db mice. In fact, increased phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK and NCC was observed. In both SpakT243A/+ and Osr1T185A/+ knock-in db/db mice, which carry mutations that disrupt the signal from WNK kinases, increased phosphorylation of NCC and elevated blood pressure were completely corrected, indicating that phosphorylation of SPAK and OSR1 by WNK kinases is required for the increased activation and phosphorylation of NCC in this model. Renal phosphorylated Akt was increased in db/db mice, suggesting that increased NCC phosphorylation is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascade in the kidney in response to hyperinsulinemia. A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) corrected the increased OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation. Another more specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (GDC-0941) and an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) also inhibited increased NCC phosphorylation. These results indicate that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation cascade in db/db mice. This mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension in human hyperinsulinemic conditions, such as the metabolic syndrome.

  16. PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC Phosphorylation Cascade in Hyperinsulinemic db/db Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hidenori; Sohara, Eisei; Nomura, Naohiro; Chiga, Motoko; Alessi, Dario R; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome patients have insulin resistance, which causes hyperinsulinemia, which in turn causes aberrant increased renal sodium reabsorption. The precise mechanisms underlying this greater salt-sensitivity of hyperinsulinemic patients remain unclear. Abnormal activation of the recently-identified WNK kinase-OSR1/SPAK kinases-NCC transporter phosphorylation cascade results in the salt-sensitive hypertension of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. Here, we report a study of renal WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade activation in the db/db mouse model of hyperinsulinemic metabolic syndrome. Thiazide sensitivity was increased, suggesting greater activity of NCC in db/db mice. In fact, increased phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK and NCC was observed. In both SpakT243A/+ and Osr1T185A/+ knock-in db/db mice, which carry mutations that disrupt the signal from WNK kinases, increased phosphorylation of NCC and elevated blood pressure were completely corrected, indicating that phosphorylation of SPAK and OSR1 by WNK kinases is required for the increased activation and phosphorylation of NCC in this model. Renal phosphorylated Akt was increased in db/db mice, suggesting that increased NCC phosphorylation is regulated by the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade in the kidney in response to hyperinsulinemia. A PI3K inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) corrected the increased OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation. Another more specific PI3K inhibitor (GDC-0941) and an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) also inhibited increased NCC phosphorylation. These results indicate that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway activates the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC phosphorylation cascade in db/db mice. This mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension in human hyperinsulinemic conditions such as the metabolic syndrome. PMID:22949526

  17. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  18. Modeling X-ray Loops and EUV "Moss" in an Active Region Core

    CERN Document Server

    Winebarger, A R; Falconer, D A

    2007-01-01

    The Soft X-ray intensity of loops in active region cores and corresponding footpoint, or moss, intensity observed in the EUV remain steady for several hours of observation. The steadiness of the emission has prompted many to suggest that the heating in these loops must also be steady, though no direct comparison between the observed X-ray and EUV intensities and the steady heating solutions of the hydrodynamic equations has yet been made. In this paper, we perform these simulations and simultaneously model the X-Ray and EUV moss intensities in one active regioncore with steady uniform heating. To perform this task, we introduce a new technique to constrain the model parameters using the measured EUV footpoint intensity to infer a heating rate. We find that a filling factor of 8% and loops that expand with height provides the best agreement with the intensity in two X-ray filters, though the simulated SXT Al12 intensity is 147% the observed intensity and the SXT AlMg intensity is 80% the observed intensity. Fr...

  19. Mimetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor loops 1 and 4 are active in a model of ischemic stroke in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudasheva TA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tatyana A Gudasheva,1 Polina Povarnina,1 Ilya O Logvinov,2 Tatyana A Antipova,2 Sergey B Seredenin3 1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, 2Department of Neuroprotective Pharmacology, 3Department of Pharmacogenetics, VV Zakusov Institute of Pharmacology, Moscow, Russia Background: Two dimeric dipeptides, bis-(N-monosuccinyl-L-seryl-L-lysinehexamethy­lenediamide (GSB-106 and bis-(N-monosuccinyl-L-methionyl-L-serine heptamethylenediamide (GSB-214, were designed based on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF loop 4 and loop 1 β-turn sequences, respectively. Earlier, both of these dipeptides were shown to exhibit neuroprotective activity in vitro (10-5–10-8 M. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of these peptides and their neuroprotective activity in an experimental stroke model. Methods: We used western blot and HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cell line to investigate whether these peptides induced phosphorylation of the TrkB receptor and the AKT and ERK kinases. Rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was used as a stroke model. GSB-106 and GSB-214 were administered intraperitoneally (0.1 mg (1.3×10-7 mol/kg 4 hours after MCAO and daily for 7 days. The cerebral infarct volumes were measured with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 21 days after MCAO. Results: Both compounds were shown to elevate the TrkB phosphorylation level while having different post-receptor signaling patterns. GSB-106 activated the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways simultaneously, whereas GSB-214 activated the PI3K/AKT only. In experimental stroke, the reduction of cerebral infarct volume by GSB-106 (~66% was significantly greater than that of GSB-214 (~28% reduction, which could be explained by the fundamental role of the MAPK/ERK pathway in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Notably, between these two dipeptides, only GSB-106 exhibited antidepressant activity, as was found previously. Conclusion: The results provided support for the

  20. The activity of the Drosophila Vestigial protein is modified by Scalloped-dependent phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmett, Virginia L; Deng, Hua; Haskins, Julie A; Mercier, Rebecca J; LaPointe, Paul; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    The Drosophila vestigial gene is required for proliferation and differentiation of the adult wing and for differentiation of larval and adult muscle identity. Vestigial is part of a multi-protein transcription factor complex, which includes Scalloped, a TEAD-class DNA binding protein. Binding Scalloped is necessary for translocation of Vestigial into the nucleus. We show that Vestigial is extensively post-translationally modified and at least one of these modifications is required for proper function during development. We have shown that there is p38-dependent phosphorylation of Serine 215 in the carboxyl-terminal region of Vestigial. Phosphorylation of Serine 215 occurs in the nucleus and requires the presence of Scalloped. Comparison of a phosphomimetic and non-phosphorylatable mutant forms of Vestigial shows differences in the ability to rescue the wing and muscle phenotypes associated with a null vestigial allele. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The crystal structure of phosphorylated MAPK13 reveals common structural features and differences in p38 MAPK family activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Romero, Arthur G; Holtzman, Michael J; Brett, Tom J

    2015-04-01

    The p38 MAP kinases (p38 MAPKs) represent an important family centrally involved in mediating extracellular signaling. Recent studies indicate that family members such as MAPK13 (p38δ) display a selective cellular and tissue expression and are therefore involved in specific diseases. Detailed structural studies of all p38 MAPK family members are crucial for the design of specific inhibitors. In order to facilitate such ventures, the structure of MAPK13 was determined in both the inactive (unphosphorylated; MAPK13) and active (dual phosphorylated; MAPK13/pTpY) forms. Here, the first preparation, crystallization and structure determination of MAPK13/pTpY are presented and the structure is compared with the previously reported structure of MAPK13 in order to facilitate studies for structure-based drug design. A comprehensive analysis of inactive versus active structures for the p38 MAPK family is also presented. It is found that MAPK13 undergoes a larger interlobe configurational rearrangement upon activation compared with MAPK14. Surprisingly, the analysis of activated p38 MAPK structures (MAP12/pTpY, MAPK13/pTpY and MAPK14/pTpY) reveals that, despite a high degree of sequence similarity, different side chains are used to coordinate the phosphorylated residues. There are also differences in the rearrangement of the hinge region that occur in MAPK14 compared with MAPK13 which would affect inhibitor binding. A thorough examination of all of the active (phosphorylated) and inactive (unphosphorylated) p38 MAPK family member structures was performed to reveal a common structural basis of activation for the p38 MAP kinase family and to identify structural differences that may be exploited for developing family member-specific inhibitors.

  2. Phosphorylation-independent activity of atypical response regulators of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Jennifer; Sickmann, Albert; Beier, Dagmar

    2005-05-01

    The genome of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori harbors a remarkably low number of regulatory genes, including three and five open reading frames encoding two-component histidine kinases and response regulators, respectively, which are putatively involved in transcriptional regulation. Two of the response regulator genes, hp1043 and hp166, proved to be essential for cell growth, and inactivation of the response regulator gene hp1021 resulted in a severe growth defect, as indicated by a small-colony phenotype. The sequences of the receiver domains of response regulators HP1043 and HP1021 differ from the consensus sequence of the acidic pocket of the receiver domain which is involved in the phosphotransfer reaction from the histidine kinase to the response regulator. Using a genetic complementation system, we demonstrated that the function of response regulator HP166, which is essential for cell growth, can be provided by a mutated derivative carrying a D52N substitution at the site of phosphorylation. We found that the atypical receiver sequences of HP1043 and HP1021 are not crucial for the function of these response regulators. Phosphorylation of the receiver domains of HP1043 and HP1021 is not needed for response regulator function and may not occur at all. Thus, the phosphorylation-independent action of these regulators differs from the well-established two-component paradigm.

  3. Positive Feedback Loop of Autocrine BDNF from Microglia Causes Prolonged Microglia Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Microglia, which represent the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS, have long been a subject of study in CNS disease research. Substantial evidence indicates that microglial activation functions as a strong neuro-inflammatory response in neuropathic pain, promoting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. In addition, activated microglia release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which acts as a powerful cytokine. In this study, we performed a series of in vitro experiments to examine whether a positive autocrine feedback loop existed between microglia-derived BDNF and subsequent microglial activation as well as the mechanisms underlying this positive feedback loop. Methods: Because ATP is a classic inducer of microglial activation, firstly, we examined ATP-activated microglia in the present study. Secondly, we used TrkB/Fc, the BDNF sequester, to eliminate the effects of endogenous BDNF. ATP-stimulated microglia without BDNF was examined. Finally, we used exogenous BDNF to further determine whether BDNF could directly activate BV2 microglia. In all experiments, to quantify BV2 microglia activation, the protein levels of CD11b, a microglial activation marker, were measured by western blot. A Transwell migration assay was used to examine microglial migration. To assess the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines, western blot was used to measure BDNF synthesis, and ELISA was used to quantify TNF-α release. Results: In our present research, we have observed that ATP dramatically activates microglia, enhancing microglial migration, increasing the synthesis of BDNF and up-regulating the release of TNF-α. Microglial activation is inhibited following the sequestration of endogenous BDNF, resulting in impaired microglial migration and decreased TNF-α release. Furthermore, exogenous BDNF can also activate microglia to subsequently enhance migration and increase TNF

  4. CDK4 T172 phosphorylation is central in a CDK7-dependent bidirectional CDK4/CDK2 interplay mediated by p21 phosphorylation at the restriction point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bisteau

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell cycle progression, including genome duplication, is orchestrated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs. CDK activation depends on phosphorylation of their T-loop by a CDK-activating kinase (CAK. In animals, the only known CAK for CDK2 and CDK1 is cyclin H-CDK7, which is constitutively active. Therefore, the critical activation step is dephosphorylation of inhibitory sites by Cdc25 phosphatases rather than unrestricted T-loop phosphorylation. Homologous CDK4 and CDK6 bound to cyclins D are master integrators of mitogenic/oncogenic signaling cascades by initiating the inactivation of the central oncosuppressor pRb and cell cycle commitment at the restriction point. Unlike the situation in CDK1 and CDK2 cyclin complexes, and in contrast to the weak but constitutive T177 phosphorylation of CDK6, we have identified the T-loop phosphorylation at T172 as the highly regulated step determining CDK4 activity. Whether both CDK4 and CDK6 phosphorylations are catalyzed by CDK7 remains unclear. To answer this question, we took a chemical-genetics approach by using analogue-sensitive CDK7(as/as mutant HCT116 cells, in which CDK7 can be specifically inhibited by bulky adenine analogs. Intriguingly, CDK7 inhibition prevented activating phosphorylations of CDK4/6, but for CDK4 this was at least partly dependent on its binding to p21 (cip1 . In response to CDK7 inhibition, p21-binding to CDK4 increased concomitantly with disappearance of the most abundant phosphorylation of p21, which we localized at S130 and found to be catalyzed by both CDK4 and CDK2. The S130A mutation of p21 prevented the activating CDK4 phosphorylation, and inhibition of CDK4/6 and CDK2 impaired phosphorylations of both p21 and p21-bound CDK4. Therefore, specific CDK7 inhibition revealed the following: a crucial but partly indirect CDK7 involvement in phosphorylation/activation of CDK4 and CDK6; existence of CDK4-activating kinase(s other than CDK7; and novel CDK7-dependent positive

  5. LRRK2 Kinase Activity and Biology are Not Uniformly Predicted by its Autophosphorylation and Cellular Phosphorylation Site Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eReynolds

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Missense mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat protein Kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are the most common genetic predisposition to develop Parkinson’s disease (PD LRRK2 is a large multi-domain phosphoprotein with a GTPase domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase domain whose activity is implicated in neuronal toxicity; however the precise mechanism is unknown. LRRK2 autophosphorylates on several serine/threonine residues across the enzyme and is found constitutively phosphorylated on Ser910, Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973, which are proposed to be regulated by upstream kinases. Here we investigate the phosphoregulation at these sites by analyzing the effects of disease-associated mutations Arg1441Cys, Arg1441Gly, Ala1442Pro, Tyr1699Cys, Ile2012Thr, Gly2019Ser, and Ile2020Thr. We also studied alanine substitutions of phosphosite serines 910, 935, 955 and 973 and specific LRRK2 inhibition on autophosphorylation of LRRK2 Ser1292, Thr1491, Thr2483 and phosphorylation at the cellular sites. We found that mutants in the Roc-COR domains, including Arg1441Cys, Arg1441His, Ala1442Pro and Tyr1699Cys, can positively enhance LRRK2 kinase activity while concomitantly inducing the dephosphorylation of the cellular sites. Mutation of the cellular sites individually did not affect LRRK2 intrinsic kinase activity; however, Ser910/935/955/973Ala mutations trended toward increased kinase activity of LRRK2. Increased cAMP levels did not lead to increased LRRK2 cellular site phosphorylation, 14-3-3 binding or kinase activity. In cells, inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity leads to dephosphorylation of Ser1292 by Calyculin A and okadaic acid sensitive phosphatases, while the cellular sites are dephosphorylated by Calyculin A sensitive phosphatases. These findings indicate that comparative analysis of both Ser1292 and Ser910/935/955/973 phosphorylation sites will provide important and distinct measures of LRRK2 kinase and biological activity in vitro and in vivo.

  6. DOUBLE LOOP ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL OF PNEUMATIC ISOLATOR WITH TWO SEPARATE CHAMBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qingjun; LI Jun; WANG Zuwen

    2006-01-01

    A newly designed pneumatic spring with two separate chambers is promoted and double-loop active control is introduced to overcome the following drawbacks of passive pneumatic level with different force load. The design of two separate chambers is for the purpose of tuning support frequency and force independently and each chamber is controlled by a different valve. The inner one of double-loop structure is pressure control, and in order to obtain good performance,nonlinearities compensation and motion flow rate compensation (MFRC) are added besides the basic cascade compensation, and the influence of tube length is studied. The outer loop has two functions:one is to eliminate the resonance caused by isolation support and to broaden the isolation frequency band by payload velocity feedback and base velocity feed forward, and the other is to rune support force and support stiffness simultaneously and independently, which means the support force will have no effect on support stiffness. Theoretical analysis and experiment results show that the three drawbacks are overcome simultaneously.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and epidermal growth factor activate neuronal m-calpain via mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Jourdi, Hussam; Rostamiani, Karoline; Qin, Qingyu; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2010-01-20

    Calpain is a calcium-dependent protease that plays a significant role in synaptic plasticity, cell motility, and neurodegeneration. Two major calpain isoforms are present in brain, with mu-calpain (calpain1) requiring micromolar calcium concentrations for activation and m-calpain (calpain2) needing millimolar concentrations. Recent studies in fibroblasts indicate that epidermal growth factor (EGF) can activate m-calpain independently of calcium via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation. In neurons, MAPK is activated by both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and EGF. We therefore examined whether these growth factors could activate m-calpain by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation using cultured primary neurons and HEK-TrkB cells, both of which express BDNF and EGF receptors. Calpain activation was monitored by quantitative analysis of spectrin degradation and by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay, which assessed the truncation of a calpain-specific peptide flanked by the FRET fluorophore pair DABCYL and EDANS. In both cell types, BDNF and EGF rapidly elicited calpain activation, which was completely blocked by MAPK and calpain inhibitors. BDNF stimulated m-calpain but not mu-calpain serine phosphorylation, an effect also blocked by MAPK inhibitors. Remarkably, BDNF- and EGF-induced calpain activation was preferentially localized in dendrites and dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons and was associated with actin polymerization, which was prevented by calpain inhibition. Our results indicate that, in cultured neurons, both BDNF and EGF activate m-calpain by MAPK-mediated phosphorylation. These results strongly support a role for calpain in synaptic plasticity and may explain why m-calpain, although widely expressed in CNS, requires nonphysiological calcium levels for activation.

  8. Myeloid differentiation factor-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-10-15

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific; it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, as well as by an inhibitor of endocytosis, cytochalasin D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD-2 and not on the cell surface. Furthermore, we identified two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine had reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD-2 coprecipitated and colocalized with Lyn kinase, most likely in the endoplasmic reticulum. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. Our study demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response.

  9. Distinct Effects of Mitogens and the Actin Cytoskeleton on CREB and Pocket Protein Phosphorylation Control the Extent and Timing of Cyclin A Promoter Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Buzzai, Monica; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Desdouets, Chantal; Bréchot, Christian; Assoian, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    Soluble mitogens and adhesion-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for cells to enter S phase in fibroblasts. The induction of cyclin A is also required for S-phase entry, and we now report that distinct effects of mitogens and the actin cytoskeleton on the phosphorylation of CREB and pocket proteins regulate the extent and timing of cyclin A promoter activity, respectively. First, we show that CREB phosphorylation and binding to the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) determines the extent, but not the timing, of cyclin A promoter activity. Second, we show that pocket protein inactivation regulates the timing, but not the extent, of cyclin A promoter activity. CREB phosphorylation and CRE occupancy are regulated by soluble mitogens alone, while the phosphorylation of pocket proteins requires both mitogens and the organized actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, cytoskeletal integrity controls pocket protein phosphorylation by allowing for sustained ERK signaling and, thereby, the expression of cyclin D1. Our results lead to a model of cyclin A gene regulation in which mitogens play a permissive role by stimulating early G1-phase phosphorylation of CREB and a distinct regulatory role by cooperating with the organized actin cytoskeleton to regulate the duration of ERK signaling, the expression of cyclin D1, and the timing of pocket protein phosphorylation. PMID:11604497

  10. Microtubules Inhibit E-Cadherin Adhesive Activity by Maintaining Phosphorylated p120-Catenin in a Colon Carcinoma Cell Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Maiden

    Full Text Available Tight regulation of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesions is critical to both tissue morphogenesis during development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Cell surface expression of the cadherin-catenin complex is often directly correlated with the level of adhesion, however, examples exist where cadherin appears to be inactive and cells are completely non-adhesive. The state of p120-catenin phosphorylation has been implicated in regulating the adhesive activity of E-cadherin but the mechanism is currently unclear. We have found that destabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, independent of microtubule plus-end dynamics, dephosphorylates p120-catenin and activates E-cadherin adhesion in Colo 205 cells. Through chemical screening, we have also identified several kinases as potential regulators of E-cadherin adhesive activity. Analysis of several p120-catenin phosphomutants suggests that gross dephosphorylation of p120-catenin rather than that of specific amino acids may trigger E-cadherin adhesion. Uncoupling p120-catenin binding to E-cadherin at the membrane causes constitutive adhesion in Colo 205 cells, further supporting an inhibitory role of phosphorylated p120-catenin on E-cadherin activity.

  11. Microtubules Inhibit E-Cadherin Adhesive Activity by Maintaining Phosphorylated p120-Catenin in a Colon Carcinoma Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Stephanie L; Petrova, Yuliya I; Gumbiner, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Tight regulation of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesions is critical to both tissue morphogenesis during development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Cell surface expression of the cadherin-catenin complex is often directly correlated with the level of adhesion, however, examples exist where cadherin appears to be inactive and cells are completely non-adhesive. The state of p120-catenin phosphorylation has been implicated in regulating the adhesive activity of E-cadherin but the mechanism is currently unclear. We have found that destabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, independent of microtubule plus-end dynamics, dephosphorylates p120-catenin and activates E-cadherin adhesion in Colo 205 cells. Through chemical screening, we have also identified several kinases as potential regulators of E-cadherin adhesive activity. Analysis of several p120-catenin phosphomutants suggests that gross dephosphorylation of p120-catenin rather than that of specific amino acids may trigger E-cadherin adhesion. Uncoupling p120-catenin binding to E-cadherin at the membrane causes constitutive adhesion in Colo 205 cells, further supporting an inhibitory role of phosphorylated p120-catenin on E-cadherin activity.

  12. Increases in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep: implications for REM sleep and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G; Storm, Daniel R

    2013-04-10

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Because mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation may be elevated during sleep. Here, we report that cAMP, phospho-p44/42 MAPK, and phospho-CREB are higher in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with awake mice but are not elevated in non-REM sleep. This peak of activity during REM sleep does not occur in mice lacking calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, a mouse strain that learns but cannot consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory. We conclude that a preferential increase in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  13. Structural and dynamic insights into the energetics of activation loop rearrangement in FGFR1 kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, T.; Vajpai, N; Phillips, JJ; Davies, G; Holdgate, GA; Phillips, C.; Tucker, JA; Norman, RA; Scott, AD; Higazi, DR; Lowe, D; Thompson, GS; Breeze, A

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases differ widely in their propensity to undergo rearrangements of the N-terminal Asp–Phe–Gly (DFG) motif of the activation loop, with some, including FGFR1 kinase, appearing refractory to this so-called ‘DFG flip'. Recent inhibitor-bound structures have unexpectedly revealed FGFR1 for the first time in a ‘DFG-out' state. Here we use conformationally selective inhibitors as chemical probes for interrogation of the structural and dynamic features that appear to govern the ...

  14. Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity to tamoxifen in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudraraju, Bharath; Droog, Marjolein; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Zwart, Wilbert; Giannoudis, Athina; Malki, Mohammed I; Moore, David; Patel, Hetal; Shaw, Jacqui; Ellis, Ian O; Chan, Steve; Brooke, Greg N; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; Lo Nigro, Christiana; Carroll, Jason; Coombes, R Charles; Bevan, Charlotte; Ali, Simak; Palmieri, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) has been implicated as a tumour suppressor in breast cancer (BC). c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK phosphorylate ATF-2 within the activation domain (AD), which is required for its transcriptional activity. To date, the role of ATF-2 in determining response to endocrine therapy has not been explored. Effects of ATF-2 loss in the oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive luminal BC cell line MCF7 were explored, as well as its role in response to tamoxifen treatment. Genome-wide chromatin binding patterns of ATF-2 when phosphorylated within the AD in MCF-7 cells were determined using ChIP-seq. The expression of ATF-2 and phosphorylated ATF-2 (pATF-2-Thr71) was determined in a series of 1,650 BC patients and correlated with clinico-pathological features and clinical outcome. Loss of ATF-2 diminished the growth-inhibitory effects of tamoxifen, while tamoxifen treatment induced ATF-2 phosphorylation within the AD, to regulate the expression of a set of 227 genes for proximal phospho-ATF-2 binding, involved in cell development, assembly and survival. Low expression of both ATF-2 and pATF-2-Thr71 was significantly associated with aggressive pathological features. Furthermore, pATF-2 was associated with both p-p38 and pJNK1/2 (ATF-2 is not associated with outcome, pATF-2 is associated with longer disease-free (p = 0.002) and BC-specific survival in patients exposed to tamoxifen (p = 0.01). Furthermore, multivariate analysis confirmed pATF-2-Thr71 as an independent prognostic factor. ATF-2 is important for modulating the effect of tamoxifen and phosphorylation of ATF-2 within the AD at Thr71 predicts for improved outcome for ER-positive BC receiving tamoxifen.

  15. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase3 β mediate ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Hee Young; Sohn, Eun Jung; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Woo, Hong-Jung; Yun, Miyong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Chul

    2013-11-01

    Despite the antitumour effect of ursolic acid observed in several cancers, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) were examined in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased the sub-G1 population and the number of ethidium homodimer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase(TdT) mediated dUTP nick end labeling positive cells in HepG2 cells. Also, ursolic acid enhanced the cleavages of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase3, attenuated the expression of astrocyte elevated gene (AEG1) and survivin in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and coenzyme A carboxylase and also enhanced phosphorylation of GSK3β at inactive form serine 9, whereas ursolic acid attenuated the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in HepG2 cells. Conversely, AMPK inhibitor compound C or GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 blocked the cleavages of PARP and caspase 3 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, proteosomal inhibitor MG132 suppressed AMPK activation, GSK3β phosphorylation, cleaved PARP and deceased AEG-1 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via AMPK activation and GSK3β phosphorylation as a potent chemopreventive agent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Gene expression profiles and phosphorylation patterns of AMP-activated protein kinase subunits in various mesenchymal cell types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yugang; Fan Qiming; Ma Rui; Lin Wentao; Tang Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies on bone have shown an endocrine role of the skeleton,which could be impaired in various human diseases,including osteoporosis,obesity,and diabetes-associated bone diseases.As a sensor and regulator of energy metabolism,AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may also play an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism.The current study aimed to establish the expression profiles and phosphorylation patterns of AMPK subunits in several mesenchymal cell types.Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for relative quantification,real-time PCR for absolute quantification,and Western blotting were used to investigate the gene expression profiles and phosphorylation patterns of AMPK subunits in several mesenchymal cell types,including primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hFOB,Saos-2,C3H/10T1/2,MC3T3-E1,3T3-L1,and C2C12 cells.Results AMPKα1 and AMPKβ1 mRNAs were abundantly expressed in all cell types.AMPKY1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in C3H/10T1/2,MC3T3-E1,3T3-L1,and C2C12 but not detected in human-derived cell types.AMPKY2 mRNA was mildly expressed in all cell types.AMPKα1 protein was highly expressed in all cell types and AMPKα2 protein was highly expressed only in hFOB and Saos-2 cells.AMPKβ1 protein was abundantly expressed in all cell types except for Saos-2,in which AMPKβ2 protein overwhelmed AMPKβ1 expression.AMPKy1 and AMPKY2 proteins were expressed in C3H/10T1/2,MC3T3-E1,3T3-L1,and C2C12 cells and only AMPKY2 protein was expressed in hMSCs,hFOB and Saos2 cells.AMPKα was phosphorylated at Thr172 and Ser485 and AMPKβ1 was phosphorylated at Ser108 and Ser182 in all cell types with a specific pattern in each cell type.Conclusion The combination of AMPK α,β,and Y subunits and phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172 and Ser485) and AMPKβ1 (Ser108 and Ser182) showed a specific pattern in each cell type.

  17. Second extracellular loop of human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) has a critical role in GLP-1 peptide binding and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Cassandra; Wootten, Denise; Simms, John; Miller, Laurence J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M

    2012-02-03

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a therapeutically important family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is pleiotropically coupled to multiple signaling effectors and, with actions including regulation of insulin biosynthesis and secretion, is one of the key targets in the management of type II diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited understanding of the role of the receptor core in orthosteric ligand binding and biological activity. To assess involvement of the extracellular loop (ECL) 2 in ligand-receptor interactions and receptor activation, we performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of loop residues and assessed the impact on receptor expression and GLP-1(1-36)-NH(2) or GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2) binding and activation of three physiologically relevant signaling pathways as follows: cAMP formation, intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(i)) mobilization, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (pERK1/2). Although antagonist peptide binding was unaltered, almost all mutations affected GLP-1 peptide agonist binding and/or coupling efficacy, indicating an important role in receptor activation. However, mutation of several residues displayed distinct pathway responses with respect to wild type receptor, including Arg-299 and Tyr-305, where mutation significantly enhanced both GLP-1(1-36)-NH(2)- and GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2)-mediated signaling bias for pERK1/2. In addition, mutation of Cys-296, Trp-297, Asn-300, Asn-302, and Leu-307 significantly increased GLP-1(7-36)-NH(2)-mediated signaling bias toward pERK1/2. Of all mutants studied, only mutation of Trp-306 to alanine abolished all biological activity. These data suggest a critical role of ECL2 of the GLP-1R in the activation transition(s) of the receptor and the importance of this region in the determination of both GLP-1 peptide- and pathway-specific effects.

  18. Development of Small Molecules that Specifically Inhibit the D-loop Activity of RAD51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Budke, Brian; Pawlowski, Michal; Connell, Philip P; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2016-05-26

    RAD51 is the central protein in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and represents a therapeutic target in oncology. Herein we report a novel class of RAD51 inhibitors that were identified by high throughput screening. In contrast to many previously reported RAD51 inhibitors, our lead compound 1 is capable of blocking RAD51-mediated D-loop formation (IC50 21.3 ± 7.8 μM) at concentrations that do not influence RAD51 binding to ssDNA. In human cells, 1 inhibits HR (IC50 13.1 ± 1.6 μM) without blocking RAD51's ability to assemble into subnuclear foci at sites of DNA damage. We determined that the active constituent of 1 is actually an oxidized derivative (termed RI(dl)-1 or 8) of the original screening compound. Our SAR campaign also yielded RI(dl)-2 (hereafter termed 9h), which effectively blocks RAD51's D-loop activity in biochemical systems (IC50 11.1 ± 1.3 μM) and inhibits HR activity in human cells (IC50 3.0 ± 1.8 μM).

  19. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Guoping [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dongxu [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Gao, Hui [Department of Orthodontics, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin 300041 (China); Yuan, Xiao, E-mail: yuanxiaoqd@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Shen, Gang, E-mail: ganshen2007@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  20. Mechanochemical phosphorylation and solubilisation of β-D-glucan from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its biological activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    Full Text Available To obtain a water-soluble β-D-glucan derivative cleanly and conveniently, a highly efficient mechanochemical method, planetary ball milling, was used to phosphorylate β-D-glucan isolated from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid state. Soluble β-D-glucan phosphate (GP with a high degree of substitution (0.77-2.09 and an apparent PEAK molecular weight of 6.6-10.0 kDa was produced when β-D-glucan was co-milled with sodium hexametaphosphate at 139.5-186.0 rad/s for 12-20 min. The energy transferred was 3.03-11.98 KJ/g. The phosphorylation of GPs was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 13C and 31P Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three GP products with different degree of substitution (DS and degree of polymerisation (DP were able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, among which GP-2 with a DS of 1.24 and DP of 30.5 exerted the highest immunostimulating activity. Our results indicate that mechanochemical processing is an efficient method for preparing water-soluble and biologically active GP with high DS.

  1. Direct evidence for activity-dependent glucose phosphorylation in neurons with implications for the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anant B; Lai, James C K; Chowdhury, Golam M I; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L; Shulman, Robert G; Behar, Kevin L

    2014-04-01

    Previous (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments have shown that over a wide range of neuronal activity, approximately one molecule of glucose is oxidized for every molecule of glutamate released by neurons and recycled through astrocytic glutamine. The measured kinetics were shown to agree with the stoichiometry of a hypothetical astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle model, which predicted negligible functional neuronal uptake of glucose. To test this model, we measured the uptake and phosphorylation of glucose in nerve terminals isolated from rats infused with the glucose analog, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in vivo. The concentrations of phosphorylated FDG (FDG6P), normalized with respect to known neuronal metabolites, were compared in nerve terminals, homogenate, and cortex of anesthetized rats with and without bicuculline-induced seizures. The increase in FDG6P in nerve terminals agreed well with the increase in cortical neuronal glucose oxidation measured previously under the same conditions in vivo, indicating that direct uptake and oxidation of glucose in nerve terminals is substantial under resting and activated conditions. These results suggest that neuronal glucose-derived pyruvate is the major oxidative fuel for activated neurons, not lactate-derived from astrocytes, contradicting predictions of the original astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle model under the range of study conditions.

  2. 8-Prenylnaringenin promotes recovery from immobilization-induced disuse muscle atrophy through activation of the Akt phosphorylation pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Rie; Horikawa, Hitomi; Lin, Pei-Yi; Tsukumo, Nao; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Terao, Junji

    2016-12-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a prenylflavonoid that originates from hop extracts and is thought to help prevent disuse muscle atrophy. We hypothesized that 8-PN affects muscle plasticity by promoting muscle recovery under disuse muscle atrophy. To test the promoting effect of 8-PN on muscle recovery, we administered an 8-PN mixed diet to mice that had been immobilized with a cast to one leg for 14 days. Intake of the 8-PN mixed diet accelerated recovery from muscle atrophy, and prevented reductions in Akt phosphorylation. Studies on cell cultures of mouse myotubes in vitro demonstrated that 8-PN activated the PI3K/Akt/P70S6K1 pathway at physiological concentrations. A cell-culture study using an inhibitor of estrogen receptors and an in vivo experiment with ovariectomized mice suggested that the estrogenic activity of 8-PN contributed to recovery from disuse muscle atrophy through activation of an Akt phosphorylation pathway. These data strongly suggest that 8-PN is a naturally occurring compound that could be used as a nutritional supplement to aid recovery from disuse muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Priming phosphorylation of Chk2 by polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3) mediates its full activation by ATM and a downstream checkpoint in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahassi, El Mustapha [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Myer, David L. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); McKenney, Richard J. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Hennigan, Robert F. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Stambrook, Peter J. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3125 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)]. E-mail: peter.stambrook@uc.edu

    2006-04-11

    The tumor suppressor gene Chk2 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that signals DNA damage to cell cycle checkpoints. In response to ionizing radiation, Chk2 is phosphorylated on threonine 68 (T68) by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leading to its activation. We have previously shown that polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3), a protein involved in DNA damage checkpoint and M-phase functions, interacts with and phosphorylates Chk2. When Chk2 was immunoprecipitated from Daudi cells (Plk3-deficient), it had weak kinase activity towards Cdc25C compared with Chk2 derived from T47D cells (Plk3-expressing cells). This activity was restored by addition of recombinant Plk3 in a dose-dependent manner. Plk3 phosphorylates Chk2 at two residues, serine 62 (S62) and serine 73 (S73) in vitro, and this phosphorylation facilitates subsequent phosphorylation of Chk2 on T68 by ATM in response to DNA damage. When the Chk2 mutant construct GFP-Chk2 S73A (serine 73 mutated to alanine) is transfected into cells, it no longer associates with a large complex in vivo, and manifests a significant reduction in kinase activity. It is also inefficiently activated by ATM by phosphorylation at T68 and, in turn, is unable to phosphorylate the Cdc25C peptide 200-256, which contains the inhibitory S216 target phosphorylation residue. As a consequence, tyrosine 15 (Y15) on Cdc2 remains hypophosphorylated, and there is a loss of the G2/M checkpoint. These data describe a functional role for Plk3 in a pathway linking ATM, Plk3, Chk2, Cdc25C and Cdc2 in cellular response to DNA damage.

  4. Multidimensional single cell based STAT phosphorylation profiling identifies a novel biosignature for evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfang Huang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysregulated cytokine action on immune cells plays an important role in the initiation and progress of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a complex autoimmune disease. Comprehensively quantifying basal STATs phosphorylation and their signaling response to cytokines should help us to better understand the etiology of SLE. METHODS: Phospho-specific flow cytometry was used to measure the basal STAT signaling activation in three immune cell types of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from 20 lupus patients, 9 rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients and 13 healthy donors (HDs. A panel of 27 cytokines, including inflammatory cytokines, was measured with Bio-Plex™ Human Cytokine Assays. Serum Prolactin levels were measured with an immunoradiometric assay. STAT signaling responses to inflammatory cytokines (interferon α [IFNα], IFNγ, interleukin 2 [IL2], IL6, and IL10 were also monitored. RESULTS: We observed the basal activation of STAT3 in SLE T cells and monocytes, and the basal activation of STAT5 in SLE T cells and B cells. The SLE samples clustered into two main groups, which were associated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000, their erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and their hydroxychloroquine use. The phosphorylation of STAT5 in B cells was associated with cytokines IL2, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, and IFNγ, whereas serum prolactin affected STAT5 activation in T cells. The responses of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 to IFNα were greatly reduced in SLE T cells, B cells, and monocytes, except for the STAT1 response to IFNα in monocytes. The response of STAT3 to IL6 was reduced in SLE T cells. CONCLUSIONS: The basal activation of STATs signaling and reduced response to cytokines may be helpful us to identify the activity and severity of SLE.

  5. Asymmetry of the Active Site Loop Conformation between Subunits of Glutamate-1-semialdehyde Aminomutase in Solution

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    Barbara Campanini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase (GSAM is a dimeric, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP- dependent enzyme catalysing in plants and some bacteria the isomerization of L-glutamate-1-semialdehyde to 5-aminolevulinate, a common precursor of chlorophyll, haem, coenzyme B12, and other tetrapyrrolic compounds. During the catalytic cycle, the coenzyme undergoes conversion from pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP to PLP. The entrance of the catalytic site is protected by a loop that is believed to switch from an open to a closed conformation during catalysis. Crystallographic studies indicated that the structure of the mobile loop is related to the form of the cofactor bound to the active site, allowing for asymmetry within the dimer. Since no information on structural and functional asymmetry of the enzyme in solution is available in the literature, we investigated the active site accessibility by determining the cofactor fluorescence quenching of PMP- and PLP-GSAM forms. PLP-GSAM is partially quenched by potassium iodide, suggesting that at least one catalytic site is accessible to the anionic quencher and therefore confirming the asymmetry observed in the crystal structure. Iodide induces release of the cofactor from PMP-GSAM, apparently from only one catalytic site, therefore suggesting an asymmetry also in this form of the enzyme in solution, in contrast with the crystallographic data.

  6. Site-specific phosphorylation of the DNA damage response mediator rad9 by cyclin-dependent kinases regulates activation of checkpoint kinase 1.

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    Carla Manuela Abreu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mediators of the DNA damage response (DDR are highly phosphorylated by kinases that control cell proliferation, but little is known about the role of this regulation. Here we show that cell cycle phosphorylation of the prototypical DDR mediator Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad9 depends on cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK complexes. We find that a specific G2/M form of Cdc28 can phosphorylate in vitro the N-terminal region of Rad9 on nine consensus CDK phosphorylation sites. We show that the integrity of CDK consensus sites and the activity of Cdc28 are required for both the activation of the Chk1 checkpoint kinase and its interaction with Rad9. We have identified T125 and T143 as important residues in Rad9 for this Rad9/Chk1 interaction. Phosphorylation of T143 is the most important feature promoting Rad9/Chk1 interaction, while the much more abundant phosphorylation of the neighbouring T125 residue impedes the Rad9/Chk1 interaction. We suggest a novel model for Chk1 activation where Cdc28 regulates the constitutive interaction of Rad9 and Chk1. The Rad9/Chk1 complex is then recruited at sites of DNA damage where activation of Chk1 requires additional DDR-specific protein kinases.

  7. Analyzing phosphorylation-dependent regulation of subcellular localization and transcriptional activity of transcriptional coactivator NT-PGC-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Suk; Gettys, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a nuclear transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. Recent evidence has been provided that alternative splicing of PPARGC1A gene produces a functional but predominantly cytosolic isoform of PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α). We have demonstrated that transcriptional coactivation capacity of NT-PGC-1α is directly correlated with its nuclear localization in a PKA phosphorylation-dependent manner. In this chapter, we describe quantitative imaging analysis methods that are developed to measure the relative fluorescence intensity of the protein of interest in the nucleus and cytoplasm in a single cell and the frequency distribution of nuclear/cytoplasmic intensity ratios in the population of cells, respectively. This chapter also describes transient cotransfection and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay that examine the ability of coactivators to activate the transcriptional activity of transcription factors.

  8. A Novel Small Molecule, LLL12, Inhibits STAT3 Phosphorylation and Activities and Exhibits Potent Growth-Suppressive Activity in Human Cancer Cells

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    Li Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is frequently detected in cancer, promoting its emergence as a promising target for cancer treatment. Inhibiting constitutive STAT3 signaling represents a potential therapeutic approach. We used structure-based design to develop a nonpeptide, cell-permeable, small molecule, termed as LLL12, which targets STAT3. LLL12 was found to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation (tyrosine 705 and induce apoptosis as indicated by the increases of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in various breast, pancreatic, and glioblastoma cancer cell lines expressing elevated levels of STAT3 phosphorylation. LLL12 could also inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation induced by interleukin-6 in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. The inhibition of STAT3 by LLL12 was confirmed by the inhibition of STAT3 DNA binding activity and STAT3-dependent transcriptional luciferase activity. Downstream targets of STAT3, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, and survivin were also downregulated by LLL12 at both protein and messenger RNA levels. LLL12 is a potent inhibitor of cell viability, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations values ranging between 0.16 and 3.09 µM, which are lower than the reported JAK2 inhibitor WP1066 and STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 in six cancer cell lines expressing elevated levels of STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, LLL12 inhibits colony formation and cell migration and works synergistically with doxorubicin and gemcitabine. Furthermore, LLL12 demonstrated a potent inhibitory activity on breast and glioblastoma tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Our results indicate that LLL12 may be a potential therapeutic agent for human cancer cells expressing constitutive STAT3 signaling.

  9. c-Abl Mediated Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Aha1 Activates Its Co-chaperone Function in Cancer Cells

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    Diana M. Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 to hydrolyze ATP is essential for its chaperone function. The co-chaperone Aha1 stimulates Hsp90 ATPase activity, tailoring the chaperone function to specific “client” proteins. The intracellular signaling mechanisms directly regulating Aha1 association with Hsp90 remain unknown. Here, we show that c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Y223 in human Aha1 (hAha1, promoting its interaction with Hsp90. This, consequently, results in an increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, enhances Hsp90 interaction with kinase clients, and compromises the chaperoning of non-kinase clients such as glucocorticoid receptor and CFTR. Suggesting a regulatory paradigm, we also find that Y223 phosphorylation leads to ubiquitination and degradation of hAha1 in the proteasome. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of c-Abl prevents hAha1 interaction with Hsp90, thereby hypersensitizing cancer cells to Hsp90 inhibitors both in vitro and ex vivo.

  10. MKP-7, a JNK phosphatase, blocks ERK-dependent gene activation by anchoring phosphorylated ERK in the cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Kouhei; Katagiri, Chiaki [Division of Cancer Chemotherapy, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Division of Biochemical Oncology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Nomura, Miyuki [Division of Cancer Chemotherapy, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Sato, Masami [Division of Cancer Chemotherapy, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Thoracic Surgery, Miyagi Cancer Center, Natori (Japan); Kakumoto, Kyoko [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Osaka (Japan); Akagi, Tsuyoshi [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Osaka (Japan); Kan Research Institute, Kobe (Japan); Kikuchi, Kunimi [Division of Biochemical Oncology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tanuma, Nobuhiro [Division of Cancer Chemotherapy, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Shima, Hiroshi, E-mail: shima-hi632@pref.miyagi.jp [Division of Cancer Chemotherapy, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan)

    2010-03-05

    MAPK phosphatase-7 (MKP-7) was identified as a JNK-specific phosphatase. However, despite its high specificity for JNK, MKP-7 interacts also with ERK. We previously showed that as a physiological consequence of their interaction, activated ERK phosphorylates MKP-7 at Ser-446, and stabilizing MKP-7. In the present study, we analyzed MKP-7 function in activation of ERK. A time-course experiment showed that both MKP-7 and its phosphatase-dead mutant prolonged mitogen-induced ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that MKP-7 functions as a scaffold for ERK. An important immunohistological finding was that nuclear translocation of phospho-ERK following PMA stimulation was blocked by co-expressed MKP-7 and, moreover, that phospho-ERK co-localized with MKP-7 in the cytoplasm. Reporter gene analysis indicated that MKP-7 blocks ERK-mediated transcription. Overall, our data indicate that MKP-7 down-regulates ERK-dependent gene expression by blocking nuclear accumulation of phospho-ERK.

  11. Eriocalyxin B Inhibits STAT3 Signaling by Covalently Targeting STAT3 and Blocking Phosphorylation and Activation of STAT3.

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    Xiaokui Yu

    Full Text Available Activated STAT3 plays an important role in oncogenesis by stimulating cell proliferation and resisting apoptosis. STAT3 therefore is an attractive target for cancer therapy. We have screened a traditional Chinese herb medicine compound library and found Eriocalyxin B (EB, a diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx, as a specific inhibitor of STAT3. EB selectively inhibited constitutive as well as IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and induced apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells. EB did not affect the upstream protein tyrosine kinases or the phosphatase (PTPase of STAT3, but rather interacted directly with STAT3. The effects of EB could be abolished by DTT or GSH, suggesting a thiol-mediated covalent linkage between EB and STAT3. Site mutagenesis of cysteine in and near the SH2 domain of STAT3 identified Cys712 to be the critical amino acid for the EB-induced inactivation of STAT3. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses demonstrated that an α, β-unsaturated carbonyl of EB covalently interacted with the Cys712 of STAT3. Computational modeling analyses also supported a direct interaction between EB and the Cys712 of STAT3. These data strongly suggest that EB directly targets STAT3 through a covalent linkage to inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of STAT3 and induces apoptosis of STAT3-dependent tumor cells.

  12. A novel small molecule inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and DNA binding activity and exhibits potent growth suppressive activity in human cancer cells

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    Lin Li

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling is an attractive therapeutic approach for most types of human cancers with constitutively activated STAT3. A novel small molecular STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 was specifically designed from dietary agent, curcumin to inhibit constitutive STAT3 signaling in multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cells. Results FLLL32 was found to be a potent inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation, STAT3 DNA binding activity, and the expression of STAT3 downstream target genes in vitro, leading to the inhibition of cell proliferation as well as the induction of Caspase-3 and PARP cleavages in human multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cell lines. However, FLLL32 exhibited little inhibition on some tyrosine kinases containing SH2 or both SH2 and SH3 domains, and other protein and lipid kinases using a kinase profile assay. FLLL32 was also more potent than four previously reported JAK2 and STAT3 inhibitors as well as curcumin to inhibit cell viability in these cancer cells. Furthermore, FLLL32 selectively inhibited the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by Interleukin-6 but not STAT1 phosphorylation by IFN-γ. Conclusion Our findings indicate that FLLL32 exhibits potent inhibitory activity to STAT3 and has potential for targeting multiple myeloma, glioblastoma, liver cancer, and colorectal cancer cells expressing constitutive STAT3 signaling.

  13. Specific effects of BCL10 Serine mutations on phosphorylations in canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation following carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Katyal, Shivani; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the impact of B cell leukemia/lymphoma (BCL) 10 on the phosphorylation of crucial mediators in NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathways, human colonic epithelial cells were exposed to carrageenan (CGN), a sulfated polysaccharide commonly used as a food additive and known to induce NF-κB nuclear translocation by both canonical and noncanonical pathways. Phosphorylations of intermediates in inflammatory cascades, including NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) at Thr559, transforming growth factor-β-activating kinase (TAK) 1 at Thr184, Thr187, and Ser192, and inhibitory factor κBα (IκBα) at Ser32, were examined following mutation of BCL10 at Ser138 and at Ser218. Specific phosphoantibodies were used for detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, and confocal microscopy of differences in phosphorylation following transfection by mutated BCL10. Both mutations demonstrated dominant-negative effects, with inhibition of phospho(Ser32)-IκBα to less than control levels. Both of the BCL10 mutations reduced the CGN-induced increases in nuclear RelA and p50, but only the Ser138 mutation inhibited the CGN-induced increases in nuclear RelB and p52 and in NIK Thr559 phosphorylation. Hence, the phosphorylation of BCL10 Ser138, but not Ser218, emerged as a critical event in activation of the noncanonical pathway of NF-κB activation. Either BCL10 Ser138 or Ser218 mutation inhibited the phosphorylation of TAK1 at Thr184 and at Thr187, but not at Ser192. These findings indicate that BCL10 phosphorylations act upstream of phosphorylations of NIK, TAK1, and IκBα and differentially affect the canonical and noncanonical pathways of NF-κB activation. PMID:21700900

  14. Monomeric 14-3-3ζ Has a Chaperone-Like Activity and Is Stabilized by Phosphorylated HspB6

    OpenAIRE

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Artemova, Natalya V.; Sudnitsyna, Maria V.; Safenkova, Irina V.; Antson, Alfred A.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.; Gusev, Nikolai B.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the 14-3-3 eukaryotic protein family predominantly function as dimers. The dimeric form can be converted into monomers upon phosphorylation of Ser58 located at the subunit interface. Monomers are less stable than dimers and have been considered to be either less active or even inactive during binding and regulation of phosphorylated client proteins. However, like dimers, monomers contain the phosphoserine-binding site and therefore can retain some functions of the dimeric 14-3-3. F...

  15. The plastid casein kinase 2 phosphorylates Rubisco activase at the Thr-78 site but is not essential for regulation of Rubisco activation state

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    Sang Yeol eKim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco activase (RCA is essential for the activation of Rubisco, the carboxylating enzyme of photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, RCA is composed of a large RCAα and small RCAβ isoform that are formed by alternative splicing of a single gene (At2g39730. The activity of Rubisco is controlled in response to changes in irradiance by regulation of RCA activity, which is known to involve a redox-sensitive disulfide bond located in the carboxy-terminal extension of the RCAα subunit. Additionally, phosphorylation of RCA threonine-78 (Thr-78 has been reported to occur in the dark suggesting that phosphorylation may also be associated with dark-inactivation of RCA and deactivation of Rubisco. In the present study, we developed site-specific antibodies to monitor phosphorylation of RCA at the Thr-78 site and used non-reducing SDS-PAGE to monitor the redox status of the RCAα subunit. By immunoblotting, phosphorylation of both RCA isoforms occurred at low light and in the dark and feeding peroxide or DTT to leaf segments indicated that redox status of the chloroplast stroma was a critical factor controlling RCA phosphorylation. Use of a knockout mutant identified the plastid-targeted casein kinase 2 (cpCK2α as the major protein kinase involved in RCA phosphorylation. Studies with recombinant cpCK2α and synthetic peptide substrates identified acidic residues at the -1, +2 and +3 positions surrounding Thr-78 as strong positive recognition elements. The cpck2 knockout mutant had strongly reduced phosphorylation at the Thr-78 site but was similar to wild type plants in terms of induction kinetics of photosynthesis following transfer from darkness or low light to high light, suggesting that if phosphorylation of RCA Thr-78 plays a direct role it would be redundant to redox regulation for control of Rubisco activation state under normal conditions.

  16. Flatness-based control in successive loops for stabilization of heart's electrical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Melkikh, Alexey

    2016-12-01

    The article proposes a new flatness-based control method implemented in successive loops which allows for stabilization of the heart's electrical activity. Heart's pacemaking function is modeled as a set of coupled oscillators which potentially can exhibit chaotic behavior. It is shown that this model satisfies differential flatness properties. Next, the control and stabilization of this model is performed with the use of flatness-based control implemented in cascading loops. By applying a per-row decomposition of the state-space model of the coupled oscillators a set of nonlinear differential equations is obtained. Differential flatness properties are shown to hold for the subsystems associated with the each one of the aforementioned differential equations and next a local flatness-based controller is designed for each subsystem. For the i-th subsystem, state variable xi is chosen to be the flat output and state variable xi+1 is taken to be a virtual control input. Then the value of the virtual control input which eliminates the output tracking error for the i-th subsystem becomes reference setpoint for the i + 1-th subsystem. In this manner the control of the entire state-space model is performed by successive flatness-based control loops. By arriving at the n-th row of the state-space model one computes the control input that can be actually exerted on the aforementioned biosystem. This real control input of the coupled oscillators' system, contains recursively all virtual control inputs associated with the previous n - 1 rows of the state-space model. This control approach achieves asymptotically the elimination of the chaotic oscillation effects and the stabilization of the heart's pulsation rhythm. The stability of the proposed control scheme is proven with the use of Lyapunov analysis.

  17. MD-2 interacts with Lyn kinase and is tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS-induced activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Pearl; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Michelsen, Kathrin S.; Brikos, Constantinos; Rentsendorj, Altan; Town, Terrence; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation with LPS induces tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins involved in the TLR signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that MD-2 is also tyrosine phosphorylated following LPS stimulation. LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is specific, it is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Herbimycin A, and by an inhibitor of endocytosis, Cytochalsin-D, suggesting that MD-2 phosphorylation occurs during trafficking of MD2 and not on cell surface. Furthermore, we identify two possible phospho-accepting tyrosine residues at positions 22 and 131. Mutant proteins in which these tyrosines were changed to phenylalanine have reduced phosphorylation and significantly diminished ability to activate NF-κB in response to LPS. In addition, MD2 co-precipitates and colocalizes with Lyn kinase, most likely in ER. A Lyn-binding peptide inhibitor abolished MD2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that Lyn is a likely candidate to be the kinase required for MD-2 tyrosine phophorylation. Our study demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of MD-2 is important for signaling following exposure to LPS and underscores the importance of this event in mediating an efficient and prompt immune response. PMID:21918188

  18. Chromatin looping and eRNA transcription precede the transcriptional activation of gene in the β-globin locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yea Woon; Lee, Sungkung; Yun, Jangmi; Kim, AeRi

    2015-03-18

    Enhancers are closely positioned with actively transcribed target genes by chromatin looping. Non-coding RNAs are often transcribed on active enhancers, referred to as eRNAs (enhancer RNAs). To explore the kinetics of enhancer-promoter looping and eRNA transcription during transcriptional activation, we induced the β-globin locus by chemical treatment and analysed cross-linking frequency between the β-globin gene and locus control region (LCR) and the amount of eRNAs transcribed on the LCR in a time course manner. The cross-linking frequency was increased after chemical induction but before the transcriptional activation of gene in the β-globin locus. Transcription of eRNAs was increased in concomitant with the increase in cross-linking frequency. These results show that chromatin looping and eRNA transcription precedes the transcriptional activation of gene. Concomitant occurrence of the two events suggests functional relationship between them.

  19. Suppressive effect of CORM-2 on LPS-induced platelet activation by glycoprotein mediated HS1 phosphorylation interference.

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    Dadong Liu

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been discovered that septic patients display coagulation abnormalities. Platelets play a major role in the coagulation system. Studies have confirmed that carbon monoxide (CO has important cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory function. However, whether CO could alter abnormal activation of platelets and coagulation and thereby reduce the incidence of mortality during sepsis has not been defined. In this report, we have used CO-releasing molecules (CORM-2 to determine whether CO inhibits LPS-induced abnormal activation of platelets and have explored the potential mechanisms. LPS was used to induce activation of platelets in vitro, which were purified from the peripheral venous blood of healthy adult donors. CORM-2 was applied as a potential therapeutic agent. CORM-2 preconditioning and delayed treatment were also studied. We found that in the LPS groups, the function of platelets such as spreading, aggregation, and release were enhanced abnormally. By contrast, the platelets in the CORM-2 group were gently activated. Further studies showed that the expression of platelet membrane glycoproteins increased in the LPS group. Coincidently, both hematopoietic lineage cell-specific protein 1 and its phosphorylated form also increased dramatically. These phenomena were less dramatically seen in the CORM-2 groups. Taken together, we conclude that during LPS stimulation, platelets were abnormally activated, and this functional state may be associated with the signal that is transmitted between membrane glycoproteins and HS1. CORM-released CO suppresses the abnormal activation of platelets by interfering with glycoprotein-mediated HS1 phosphorylation.

  20. Trichothecin induces cell death in NF-κB constitutively activated human cancer cells via inhibition of IKKβ phosphorylation.

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    Jia Su

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is involved in tumorigenesis and chemo-resistance. As the key regulator of NF-κB, IKKβ is a major therapeutic target for various cancers. Trichothecin (TCN is a metabolite isolated from an endophytic fungus of the herbal plant Maytenus hookeri Loes. In this study, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of TCN and found that TCN markedly inhibits the growth of cancer cells with constitutively activated NF-κB. TCN induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells, activating pro-apoptotic proteins, including caspase-3, -8 and PARP-1, and decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. Reporter activity assay and target genes expression analysis illustrated that TCN works as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway. TCN inhibits the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and blocks the nuclear translocation of p65, and thus inhibits the expression of NF-κB target genes XIAP, cyclin D1, and Bcl-xL. Though TCN does not directly interfere with IKKβ kinase, it suppresses the phosphorylation of IKKβ. Overexpression of constitutively activated IKKβ aborted TCN induced cancer cell apoptosis, whereas knockdown of endogenous IKKβ with siRNA sensitized cancer cells toward apoptosis induced by TCN. Moreover, TCN showed a markedly weaker effect on normal cells. These findings suggest that TCN may be a potential therapeutic candidate for cancer treatment, targeting NF-κB signaling.

  1. Mutations in the catalytic loop HRD motif alter the activity and function of Drosophila Src64.

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    Taylor C Strong

    Full Text Available The catalytic loop HRD motif is found in most protein kinases and these amino acids are predicted to perform functions in catalysis, transition to, and stabilization of the active conformation of the kinase domain. We have identified mutations in a Drosophila src gene, src64, that alter the three HRD amino acids. We have analyzed the mutants for both biochemical activity and biological function during development. Mutation of the aspartate to asparagine eliminates biological function in cytoskeletal processes and severely reduces fertility, supporting the amino acid's critical role in enzymatic activity. The arginine to cysteine mutation has little to no effect on kinase activity or cytoskeletal reorganization, suggesting that the HRD arginine may not be critical for coordinating phosphotyrosine in the active conformation. The histidine to leucine mutant retains some kinase activity and biological function, suggesting that this amino acid may have a biochemical function in the active kinase that is independent of its side chain hydrogen bonding interactions in the active site. We also describe the phenotypic effects of other mutations in the SH2 and tyrosine kinase domains of src64, and we compare them to the phenotypic effects of the src64 null allele.

  2. The activation loop of PIP5K functions as a membrane sensor essential for lipid substrate processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aizhuo; Sui, Dexin; Wu, Dianqing; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K), a representative member of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) family, is a major enzyme that biosynthesizes the signaling molecule PI(4,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) in eukaryotic cells. The stringent specificity toward lipid substrates and the high sensitivity to the membrane environment strongly suggest a membrane-sensing mechanism, but the underlying structural basis is still largely unknown. We present a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on a peptide commensurate with a PIP5K’s activation loop, which has been reported to be a determinant of lipid substrate specificity and subcellular localization of PIP5K. Although the activation loop is severely disordered in the crystal structure of PIP5K, the NMR experiments showed that the largely unstructured peptide folded into an amphipathic helix upon its association with the 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micellar surface. Systematic mutagenesis and functional assays further demonstrated the crucial roles of the amphipathic helix and its hydrophobic surface in kinase activity and membrane-sensing function, supporting a working model in which the activation loop is a critical structural module conferring a membrane-sensing mechanism on PIP5K. The activation loop, surprisingly functioning as a membrane sensor, represents a new paradigm of kinase regulation by the activation loop through protein-membrane interaction, which also lays a foundation on the regulation of PIP5K (and other PIPKs) by membrane lipids for future studies. PMID:28138522

  3. LZAP inhibits p38 MAPK (p38 phosphorylation and activity by facilitating p38 association with the wild-type p53 induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1.

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    Hanbing An

    Full Text Available LZAP (Cdk5rap3, C53 is a putative tumor suppressor that inhibits RelA, Chk1 and Chk2 and activates p53. LZAP is lost in a portion of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and experimental loss of LZAP expression is associated with enhanced invasion, xenograft tumor growth and angiogenesis. p38 MAPK can increase or decrease proliferation and cell death depending on cellular context. LZAP has no known enzymatic activity, implying that its biological functions are likely mediated by its protein-protein interactions. To gain further insight into LZAP activities, we searched for LZAP-associated proteins (LAPs. Here we show that the LZAP binds p38, alters p38 cellular localization, and inhibits basal and cytokine-stimulated p38 activity. Expression of LZAP inhibits p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent fashion while loss of LZAP enhances phosphorylation and activation with resultant phosphorylation of p38 downstream targets. Mechanistically, the ability of LZAP to alter p38 phosphorylation depended, at least partially, on the p38 phosphatase, Wip1. Expression of LZAP increased both LZAP and Wip1 binding to p38. Taken together, these data suggest that LZAP activity includes inhibition of p38 phosphorylation and activation.

  4. LZAP inhibits p38 MAPK (p38) phosphorylation and activity by facilitating p38 association with the wild-type p53 induced phosphatase 1 (WIP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hanbing; Lu, Xinyuan; Liu, Dan; Yarbrough, Wendell G

    2011-01-24

    LZAP (Cdk5rap3, C53) is a putative tumor suppressor that inhibits RelA, Chk1 and Chk2 and activates p53. LZAP is lost in a portion of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and experimental loss of LZAP expression is associated with enhanced invasion, xenograft tumor growth and angiogenesis. p38 MAPK can increase or decrease proliferation and cell death depending on cellular context. LZAP has no known enzymatic activity, implying that its biological functions are likely mediated by its protein-protein interactions. To gain further insight into LZAP activities, we searched for LZAP-associated proteins (LAPs). Here we show that the LZAP binds p38, alters p38 cellular localization, and inhibits basal and cytokine-stimulated p38 activity. Expression of LZAP inhibits p38 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent fashion while loss of LZAP enhances phosphorylation and activation with resultant phosphorylation of p38 downstream targets. Mechanistically, the ability of LZAP to alter p38 phosphorylation depended, at least partially, on the p38 phosphatase, Wip1. Expression of LZAP increased both LZAP and Wip1 binding to p38. Taken together, these data suggest that LZAP activity includes inhibition of p38 phosphorylation and activation.

  5. Adiponectin Upregulates MiR-133a in Cardiac Hypertrophy through AMPK Activation and Reduced ERK1/2 Phosphorylation.

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    Ying Li

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and miR-133a are key regulators in cardiac hypertrophy. However, whether APN has a potential effect on miR-133a remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether APN could regulate miR-133a expression in Angiotensin II (Ang II induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Lentiviral-mediated adiponectin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II infusion in male wistar rats as determined by reduced cell surface area and mRNA levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANF and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, also the reduced left ventricular end-diastolic posterior wall thickness (LVPWd and end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness (IVSd. Meanwhile, APN elevated miR-133a level which was downregulated by Ang II. To further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs with recombinant rat APN before Ang II stimulation. Pretreating cells with recombinant APN promoted AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and inhibited ERK activation. By using the inhibitor of AMPK or a lentiviral vector expressing AMPK short hairpin RNA (shRNA cancelled the positive effect of APN on miR-133a. The ERK inhibitor PD98059 reversed the downregulation of miR-133a induced by Ang II. These results indicated that the AMPK activation and ERK inhibition were responsible for the positive effect of APN on miR-133a. Furthermore, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1 mRNA expression was inhibited by Ang II stimulation. The positive effects of APN on AMPK activation and miR-133a, and the inhibitory effect on ERK phosphorylation were inhibited in NRVMs transfected with lentiviral AdipoR1shRNA. In addition, APN depressed the elevated expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, a direct target of miR-133a, through the AMPK pathway. Taken together, our data indicated that APN reversed miR-133a levels through AMPK activation, reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in

  6. Laboratory Scale Study of Activated Sludge Process in Jet Loop Reactor for Waste WaterTreatment

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    M. S. Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP for the treatment of synthetic wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions.A laboratory scale Compact jet loop reactor model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose.Settled synthetic wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the influent and effluent was measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (θ. The results of the studydemonstrated that an efficiency of above 95% could be obtained for COD if the ASP is operated atan MLVSS concentration of 3000 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 1 hour.In the present investigation the preliminary studies were carried out in a lab scale Jet loop reactor made of glass. Synthetic waste water having a composition of 1000 mg/L mixed with other nutrients such as Urea, Primary and secondary Potassium phosphates, Magnesium sulfate, Iron chloriderequired for the bacteria was prepared in the laboratory and reduction in COD and the increase inSuspended Solids (SSand the Sludge Volume Index (SVI were determined.

  7. Importance of the extracellular loops in G protein-coupled receptors for ligand recognition and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M C; van Westen, G J P; Li, Q; IJzerman, A P

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major drug target of medicines on the market today. Therefore, much research is and has been devoted to the elucidation of the function and three-dimensional structure of this large family of membrane proteins, which includes multiple conserved transmembrane domains connected by intra- and extracellular loops. In the last few years, the less conserved extracellular loops have garnered increasing interest, particularly after the publication of several GPCR crystal structures that clearly show the extracellular loops to be involved in ligand binding. This review will summarize the recent progress made in the clarification of the ligand binding and activation mechanism of class-A GPCRs and the role of extracellular loops in this process.

  8. The role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation in the regulation of StAR activity and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana F; Orlando, Ulises; Helfenberger, Katia E; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2015-06-15

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, i.e. the delivery of cholesterol from the outer (OMM) to the inner (IMM) mitochondrial membrane. StAR is a 37-kDa protein with an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence that is cleaved off during mitochondrial import to yield 30-kDa intramitochondrial StAR. StAR acts exclusively on the OMM and its activity is proportional to how long it remains on the OMM. However, the precise fashion and the molecular mechanism in which StAR remains on the OMM have not been elucidated yet. In this work we will discuss the role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) as part of the mechanism that regulates StAR retention on the OMM and activity.

  9. Different magnitudes of tensile strain induce human osteoblasts differentiation associated with the activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Chengtao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical factors are related to periprosthetic osseointegration following total hip arthroplasty. However, osteoblast response to strain in implanted femurs is unclear because of the absence of accurate stress-measuring methods. In our study, finite element analysis was performed to calculate strain distribution in implanted femurs. 0.8-3.2% tensile strain was then applied to human osteoblasts. Higher magnitudes of strain enhanced the expression of osteocalcin, type I collagen, and Cbfa1/Runx2. Lower magnitudes significantly increased ALP activity. Among these, type I collagen expression increased with the activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a strain-magnitude-dependent manner. Our study marks the first investigation of osteoblast response at different magnitudes of periprosthetic strain. The results indicate that the functional status of human osteoblasts is determined by strain magnitude. The strain distribution in the proximal region of implanted femur should be improved for osseointegration.

  10. Large loop conformation sampling using the activation relaxation technique, ART-nouveau method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2012-07-01

    We present an adaptation of the ART-nouveau energy surface sampling method to the problem of loop structure prediction. This method, previously used to study protein folding pathways and peptide aggregation, is well suited to the problem of sampling the conformation space of large loops by targeting probable folding pathways instead of sampling exhaustively that space. The number of sampled conformations needed by ART nouveau to find the global energy minimum for a loop was found to scale linearly with the sequence length of the loop for loops between 8 and about 20 amino acids. Considering the linear scaling dependence of the computation cost on the loop sequence length for sampling new conformations, we estimate the total computational cost of sampling larger loops to scale quadratically compared to the exponential scaling of exhaustive search methods.

  11. Heterologous activation of protein kinase C stimulates phosphorylation of delta-opioid receptor at serine 344, resulting in beta-arrestin- and clathrin-mediated receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, B; Yu, G H; Guo, J

    2001-01-01

    , and ionomycin resulted in DOR internalization that required phosphorylation of Ser-344. Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin and hypertonic sucrose treatment blocked PMA-induced DOR internalization, suggesting that PKC mediates DOR internalization via a beta-arrestin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism......The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of opioid-independent, heterologous activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the responsiveness of opioid receptor and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our result showed that removing the C terminus of delta opioid receptor (DOR...... phosphorylation could inhibit PKC-catalyzed heterologous DOR phosphorylation and subsequent internalization. These data demonstrate that the responsiveness of opioid receptor is regulated by both PKC and GRK through agonist-dependent and agonist-independent mechanisms and PKC-mediated receptor phosphorylation...

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II CTD is associated with antisense promoter transcription and active enhancers in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descostes, Nicolas; Heidemann, Martin; Spinelli, Lionel; Schüller, Roland; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Fenouil, Romain; Koch, Frederic; Innocenti, Charlène; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Eick, Dirk; Andrau, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase (Pol) II consists of 52 conserved heptapeptide repeats containing the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Post-translational modifications of the CTD coordinate the transcription cycle and various steps of mRNA maturation. Here we describe Tyr1 phosphorylation (Tyr1P) as a hallmark of promoter (5′ associated) Pol II in mammalian cells, in contrast to what was described in yeast. Tyr1P is predominantly found in antisense orientation at promoters but is also specifically enriched at active enhancers. Mutation of Tyr1 to phenylalanine (Y1F) prevents the formation of the hyper-phosphorylated Pol IIO form, induces degradation of Pol II to the truncated Pol IIB form, and results in a lethal phenotype. Our results suggest that Tyr1P has evolved specialized and essential functions in higher eukaryotes associated with antisense promoter and enhancer transcription, and Pol II stability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02105.001 PMID:24842994

  13. Phosphorylation of the growth factors bFGF, NGF and BDNF: a prerequisite for their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Susanne; Kriha, Dorothee; Bechmann, Gunther; Maassen, Alexander; Maier, Sandra; Pallast, Stefanie; Hoell, Patrick; Krieglstein, Josef

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test whether growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) undergo autophosphorylation and whether this affects their biological activity. Incubation of those growth factors with [gamma-(32)P]ATP resulted in phosphorylation in vitro. The phosphate bond was resistant to alkaline pH, yet acid-labile. Addition of alkaline phosphatase resulted in time and protein dependent dephosphorylation. Concomitantly, alkaline phosphatase abolished the neuroprotective effect of those growth factors upon oxygen and glucose deprivation and upon staurosporine-induced cell death. For those studies, we were using primary cultures of cortical and hippocampal neurons from embryonic and neonatal rats. Incubation of bFGF with non-hydrolyzable ATP-gammaS resulted in phosphorylation and in neuroprotection resistant to alkaline phosphatase. We conclude that bFGF, NGF and BDNF undergo autophosphorylation on site(s) other than serine, threonine, tyrosine and/or ATP-binding, and that this binding of phosphate is essential for neuroprotection in vivo.

  14. Biological Activity of Recombinant Accessory Cholerae Enterotoxin (Ace on Rabbit Ileal Loops and Antibacterial Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Anvari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae causes a potentially lethal disease named cholera. The cholera enterotoxin (CT is a major virulence factor of V. cholerae. In addition to CT, V. cholerae produces other putative toxins, such as the zonula occludens toxin (Zot and accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace. The ace gene is the third gene of the V. cholerae virulence cassette. The Ace toxin alters ion transport, causes fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops, and is a cause of mild diarrhea. The aim of this study is the cloning and overexpression of the ace gene into Escherichia coli (E. coli and determination of some characteristics of the recombinant Ace protein.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the ace gene was amplified from V. cholerae strain 62013, then cloned in a pET28a expression vector and transformed into an E. coli (DH5 α host strain. Subsequently, the recombinant vector was retransformed into E. coli BL21 for expression, induced by isopropythio-β-D-galctoside (IPTG at a different concentration, and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. A rabbit ileal loop experiment was conducted. Antibacterial activity of the Ace protein was assessed for E. coli, Stapylococcus aureus (S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa.Results: The recombinant Ace protein with a molecular weight of 18 kDa (dimeric form was expressed in E. coli BL21. The Ace protein showed poor staining with Coomassie blue stain, but stained efficiently with silver stain. Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant Ace protein reacted with rabbit anti-V. cholerae polyclonal antibody. The Ace protein had antibacterial activity at a concentration of ≥200 μg/ml and caused significant fluid accumulation in the ligated rabbit ileal loop test.Conclusion: This study described an E. coli cloning and expression system (E. coli BL21- pET-28a-ace for the Ace protein of V. cholerae. We confirmed the antibacterial properties and enterotoxin

  15. Human-in-the-loop evaluation of RMS Active Damping Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.

    1993-01-01

    Active Damping Augmentation is the insertion of Controls-Structures Integration Technology to benefit the on-orbit performance of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The goal is to reduce the vibration decay time of the Remote Manipulator System following normal payload maneuvers and operations. Simulation of Active Damping Augmentation was conducted in the realtime human-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The objective of this study was to obtain a qualitative measure of operational performance improvement from astronaut operators and to obtain supporting quantitative performance data. Sensing of vibratory motions was simulated using a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the end of the lower boom of the Remote Manipulator System. The sensed motions were used in a feedback control law to generate commands to the joint servo mechanisms which reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the Remote Manipulator System with an attached 3990 lb. payload was successfully demonstrated. Six astronaut operators examined the performance of an Active Damping Augmentation control law following single-joint and coordinated six-joint translational and rotational maneuvers. Active Damping Augmentation disturbance rejection of Orbiter thruster firings was also evaluated. Significant reductions in the dynamic response of the 3990 lb. payload were observed. Astronaut operators recommended investigation of Active Damping Augmentation benefits to heavier payloads where oscillations are a bigger problem (e.g. Space Station Freedom assembly operators).

  16. Human-in-the-loop evaluation of RMS Active Damping Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.

    1993-01-01

    Active Damping Augmentation is the insertion of Controls-Structures Integration Technology to benefit the on-orbit performance of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The goal is to reduce the vibration decay time of the Remote Manipulator System following normal payload maneuvers and operations. Simulation of Active Damping Augmentation was conducted in the realtime human-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The objective of this study was to obtain a qualitative measure of operational performance improvement from astronaut operators and to obtain supporting quantitative performance data. Sensing of vibratory motions was simulated using a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the end of the lower boom of the Remote Manipulator System. The sensed motions were used in a feedback control law to generate commands to the joint servo mechanisms which reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the Remote Manipulator System with an attached 3990 lb. payload was successfully demonstrated. Six astronaut operators examined the performance of an Active Damping Augmentation control law following single-joint and coordinated six-joint translational and rotational maneuvers. Active Damping Augmentation disturbance rejection of Orbiter thruster firings was also evaluated. Significant reductions in the dynamic response of the 3990 lb. payload were observed. Astronaut operators recommended investigation of Active Damping Augmentation benefits to heavier payloads where oscillations are a bigger problem (e.g. Space Station Freedom assembly operators).

  17. Nocturnal activation of aurora C in rat pineal gland: its role in the norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D M; Kanyo, R; Steinberg, N; Chik, C L; Ho, A K

    2009-05-01

    We have shown previously that Ser10 phosphorylation of histone H3 occurs in rat pinealocytes after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) and that histone modifications such as acetylation appear to play an important role in pineal gene transcription. Here we report the nocturnal phosphorylation of a Ser10 histone H3 kinase, Aurora C, in the rat pineal gland. The time profile of this phosphorylation parallels the increase in the level of phospho-Ser10 histone H3. Studies with cultured pinealocytes indicate that Aurora C phosphorylation is induced by NE and this induction can be blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP, but not other kinase activators, mimics the effect of NE on Aurora C phosphorylation. These results indicate that Aurora C is phosphorylated primarily by a beta-adrenergic/protein kinase A-mediated mechanism. Treatment with an Aurora C inhibitor reduces the NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation and suppresses the NE-stimulated induction of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), the rhythm-controlling enzyme of melatonin synthesis, and melatonin production. The effects of Aurora C inhibitors on adrenergic-induced genes in rat pinealocytes are gene specific: inhibitory for Aa-nat and inducible cAMP repressor but stimulatory for c-fos. Together our results support a role for the NE-stimulated phosphorylation of Aurora C and the subsequent remodeling of chromatin in NE-stimulated Aa-nat transcription. This phenomenon suggests that activation of this mitotic kinase can be induced by extracellular signals to participate in the transcriptional induction of a subset of genes in the rat pineal gland.

  18. The role of β18-β19 loop structure in insecticidal activity of Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA LiQiu; WANG FaXiang; DING XueZhi; ZHAO XinMin; FU ZuJiao; QUAN MeiFang; YU ZiNiu

    2008-01-01

    The β18-β19 loop in domain Ⅲ of Cry1Ac toxin is unique among Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. In this study, the role of the loop structure in insecticidal activity of Cry1Ac toxin was investigated. Alanine scanning mutations within the loop were initially generated and most mutants were over-expressed and reduced toxicity at different degrees, except mutant N546A that showed almost 2 times enhanced toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Further mutagenic analysis of N546 re-vealed that a charged amino acid in this position would cause very unfavorable influence on insecti-cidal activity. In addition, the deletion of N546 led to protein instability because of destruction of the loop integrity. Besides, mutant W544F was much more toxic than W544Y, indicating that hydrophobic nature of the position was important for maintaining the stability and activity of Cry1Ac protein. These findings are the first biological evidence for a structural function of β18-β19 loop in insecticidal activity of the Cry1Ac toxin.

  19. Astragalus polysaccharide stimulates glucose uptake in L6 myotubes through AMPK activation and AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIU; Si-tu YANG; Lang BU; Jing-ping OU-YANG; Jing-fang ZHANG; Jin-zhi LU; De-ling ZHANG; Ke LI; Ke SU; Jing WANG; Ye-min ZHANG; Nian WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To establish the mechanism responsible for the stimulation of glucose uptake by Astragalus polysaccharide (APS),extracted from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge,in L6 myotubes in vitro.Methods:APS-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes was measured using the 2-deoxy-[3H]-D-glucose method.The adenine nucleotide contents in the cells were measured by HPLC.The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) was examined using Western blot analysis.The cells transfected with 4P mutant AS160 (AS160-4P) were constructed using gene transfer approach.Results:Treatment of L6 myotubes with APS (100-1600 μg/mL) significantly increased glucose uptake in time-and concentration-dependent manners.The maximal glucose uptake was reached in the cells treated with APS (400 μg/mL) for 36 h.The APS-stimulated glucose uptake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with Compound C,a selective AMPK inhibitor or in the cells overexpressing AS160-4P.Treatment of L6 myotubes with APS strongly promoted the activation of AMPK.We further demonstrated that either Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) or liver kinase B1 (LKB1) mediated APS-induced activation of AMPK in L6 myotubes,and the increased cellular AMP:ATP ratio was also involved.Treatment of L6 myotubes with APS robustly enhanced the phosphorylation of AS160,which was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with Compound C.Conclusion:Our results demonstrate that APS stimulates glucose uptake in L6 myotubes through the AMP-AMPK-AS160 pathway,which may contribute to its hypoglycemic effect.

  20. Density functional theory studies of MTSL nitroxide side chain conformations attached to an activation loop

    CERN Document Server

    Concilio, Maria Grazia; Bayliss, Richard; Burgess, Selena G

    2016-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical (QM) method rooted on density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to determine conformations of the methane-thiosulfonate spin label (MTSL) attached to a fragment extracted from the activation loop of Aurora-A kinase. The features of the calculated energy surface revealed low energy barriers between isoenergetic minima and the system could be described in a population of 76 rotamers that can be also considered for other systems since it was found that the X3, X4 and X5 do not depend on the previous two dihedral angles. Conformational states obtained were seen to comparable to those obtained in the {\\alpha}-helix systems studied previously, indicating that the protein backbone does not affect the torsional profiles significantly and suggesting the possibility to use determined conformations for other protein systems for further modelling studies.

  1. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis.

  2. Comparison of Two Coronal Magnetic Field Models to Reconstruct a Sigmoidal Solar Active Region with Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Aiying; Jiang, Chaowei; Hu, Qiang; Zhang, Huai; Gary, G. Allen; Wu, S. T.; Cao, Jinbin

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic field extrapolation is an important tool to study the three-dimensional (3D) solar coronal magnetic field, which is difficult to directly measure. Various analytic models and numerical codes exist, but their results often drastically differ. Thus, a critical comparison of the modeled magnetic field lines with the observed coronal loops is strongly required to establish the credibility of the model. Here we compare two different non-potential extrapolation codes, a nonlinear force-free field code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF) and a non-force-free field (NFFF) code, in modeling a solar active region (AR) that has a sigmoidal configuration just before a major flare erupted from the region. A 2D coronal-loop tracing and fitting method is employed to study the 3D misalignment angles between the extrapolated magnetic field lines and the EUV loops as imaged by SDO/AIA. It is found that the CESE-MHD-NLFFF code with preprocessed magnetogram performs the best, outputting a field that matches the coronal loops in the AR core imaged in AIA 94 Å with a misalignment angle of ˜10°. This suggests that the CESE-MHD-NLFFF code, even without using the information of the coronal loops in constraining the magnetic field, performs as good as some coronal-loop forward-fitting models. For the loops as imaged by AIA 171 Å in the outskirts of the AR, all the codes including the potential field give comparable results of the mean misalignment angle (˜30°). Thus, further improvement of the codes is needed for a better reconstruction of the long loops enveloping the core region.

  3. Biological activities of the homologous loop regions in the laminin α chain LG modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Yuji; Urushibata, Shunsuke; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-06-10

    Each laminin α chain (α1-α5 chains) has chain-specific diverse biological functions. The C-terminal globular domain of the α chain consists of five laminin-like globular (LG1-5) modules and plays a critical role in biological activities. The LG modules consist of a 14-stranded β-sheet (A-N) sandwich structure. Previously, we described the chain-specific biological activities of the loop regions between the E and F strands in the LG4 modules using five homologous peptides (G4EF1-G4EF5). Here, we further analyze the biological activities of the E-F strands loop regions in the rest of LG modules. We designed 20 homologous peptides (approximately 20 amino acid length), and 17 soluble peptides were used for the cell attachment assay. Thirteen peptides promoted cell attachment activity with different cell morphologies. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, G2EF1, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by heparin, and peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, and G2EF1 specifically bound to syndecan-overexpressing cells. Cell attachment to peptides G2EF3, G3EF1, G3EF3, G5EF1, G5EF3, and G5EF5 was inhibited EDTA. Further, cell attachment to peptides G3EF3, G5EF1, and G5EF5 was inhibited by both anti-integrin α2 and β1 antibodies, whereas cell attachment to peptide G5EF3 was inhibited by only anti-integrin β1 antibody. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF4, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by both heparin and EDTA and was not inhibited by anti-integrin antibodies. The active peptide sequence alignments suggest that the syndecan-binding peptides contain a "basic amino acid (BAA)-Gly-BAA" motif in the middle of the molecule and that the integrin-binding peptides contain an "acidic amino acid (AAA)"-Gly-BAA motif. Core-switched peptide analyses suggested that the "BAA-Gly-BAA" motif is critical for binding to syndecans and that the "AAA-Gly-BAA" motif has potential to recognize integrins. These findings are useful for understanding chain-specific biological activities of laminins and to evaluate

  4. COX-2 activation is associated with Akt phosphorylation and poor survival in ER-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Julie E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inducible cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2 is commonly overexpressed in breast tumors and is a target for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the association of COX-2 with breast cancer survival and how this association is influenced by tumor estrogen and HER2 receptor status and Akt pathway activation. Methods Tumor COX-2, HER2 and estrogen receptor α (ER expression and phosphorylation of Akt, BAD, and caspase-9 were analyzed immunohistochemically in 248 cases of breast cancer. Spearman's correlation and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between COX-2 and disease-specific survival. Results COX-2 was significantly associated with breast cancer outcome in ER-negative [Hazard ratio (HR = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.36-5.41; comparing high versus low COX-2] and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer (HR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.07-7.52. However, the hazard of poor survival associated with increased COX-2 was highest among patients who were both ER-negative and HER2-positive (HR = 5.95; 95% CI, 1.01-34.9. Notably, COX-2 expression in the ER-negative and HER2-positive tumors correlated significantly with increased phosphorylation of Akt and of the two Akt targets, BAD at Ser136 and caspase-9 at Ser196. Conclusions Up-regulation of COX-2 in ER-negative and HER2-positive breast tumors is associated with Akt pathway activation and is a marker of poor outcome. The findings suggest that COX-2-specific inhibitors and inhibitors of the Akt pathway may act synergistically as anticancer drugs in the ER-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtype.

  5. Gain control of gamma frequency activation by a novel feed forward disinhibitory loop: implications for normal and epileptic neural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab eBirjandian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of excitatory (pyramidal neurons directly dampens their activity resulting in a suppression of neural network output. The inhibition of inhibitory cells is more complex. Inhibitory drive is known to gate neural network synchrony, but there is also a widely held view that it may augment excitability by reducing inhibitory cell activity, a process termed disinhibition. Surprisingly, however, disinhibition has never been demonstrated to be an important mechanism that augments or drives the activity of excitatory neurons in a functioning neural circuit. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging (VSDI we show that 20-80 Hz stimulus trains, (beta-gamma activation, of the olfactory cortex pyramidal cells in layer II leads to a subsequent reduction in inhibitory interneuron activity that augments the efficacy of the initial stimulus. This disinhibition occurs with a lag of about 150-250 ms after the initial excitation of the layer 2 pyramidal cell layer. In addition activation of the endopiriform nucleus also arises just before the disinhibitory phase with a lag of about 40-80 ms. Preventing the spread of action potentials from layer II stopped the excitation of the endopiriform nucleus, abolished the disinhibitory activity and reduced the excitation of layer II cells. After the induction of experimental epilepsy the disinhibition was more intense with a concomitant increase in excitatory cell activity. Our observations provide the first evidence of feed forward disinhibition loop that augments excitatory neurotransmission, a mechanism that could play an important role in the development of epileptic seizures.

  6. Role of ligand-dependent GR phosphorylation and half-life in determination of ligand-specific transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenant, Chanel; Ronacher, Katharina; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Louw, Ann; Hapgood, Janet P

    2010-10-07

    A central question in glucocorticoid mechanism of action via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is what determines ligand-selective transcriptional responses. Using a panel of 12 GR ligands, we show that the extent of GR phosphorylation at S226 and S211, GR half-life and transcriptional response, occur in a ligand-selective manner. While GR phosphorylation at S226 was shown to inhibit maximal transcription efficacy, phosphorylation at S211 is required for maximal transactivation, but not for transrepression efficacy. Both ligand-selective GR phosphorylation and half-life correlated with efficacy for transactivation and transrepression. For both expressed and endogenous GR, in two different cell lines, agonists resulted in the greatest extent of phosphorylation and the greatest extent of GR downregulation, suggesting a link between these functions. However, using phosphorylation-deficient GR mutants we established that phosphorylation of the GR at S226 or S211 does not determine the rank order of ligand-selective GR transactivation. These results are consistent with a model whereby ligand-selective GR phosphorylation and half-life are a consequence of upstream events, such as ligand-specific GR conformations, which are maintained in the phosphorylation mutants.

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cross-talks with canonical Wnt signaling via phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junxing; Yue, Wanfu; Zhu, Mei J. [Developmental Biology Group, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Sreejayan, Nair [School of Pharmacy, College of Health Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Du, Min, E-mail: mindu@uwyo.edu [Developmental Biology Group, Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2010-04-23

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy metabolism; its activity is regulated by a plethora of physiological conditions, exercises and many anti-diabetic drugs. Recent studies show that AMPK involves in cell differentiation but the underlying mechanism remains undefined. Wingless Int-1 (Wnt)/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through enhancing {beta}-catenin/T-cell transcription factor 1 (TCF) mediated transcription. The objective of this study was to determine whether AMPK cross-talks with Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling through phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin. C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells were used. Chemical inhibition of AMPK and the expression of a dominant negative AMPK decreased phosphorylation of {beta}-catenin at Ser 552. The {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription was correlated with AMPK activity. In vitro, pure AMPK phosphorylated {beta}-catenin at Ser 552 and the mutation of Ser 552 to Ala prevented such phosphorylation, which was further confirmed using [{gamma}-{sup 32}P]ATP autoradiography. In conclusion, AMPK phosphorylates {beta}-catenin at Ser 552, which stabilizes {beta}-catenin, enhances {beta}-catenin/TCF mediated transcription, expanding AMPK from regulation of energy metabolism to cell differentiation and development via cross-talking with the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  8. Effect of resistance exercise under conditions of reduced blood insulin on AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation and AMPK pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Kohei; Yokokawa, Takumi; Ato, Satoru; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    Insulin stimulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake via activation of the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) pathway. Recent studies suggest that insulin downregulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity via Ser485/491 phosphorylation of the AMPK α-subunit. Thus lower blood insulin concentrations may induce AMPK signal activation. Acute exercise is one method to stimulate AMPK activation; however, no study has examined the relationship between blood insulin levels and acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized that the acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation would be augmented by disruptions in insulin secretion through a decrease in AMPKα Ser485/491 inhibitory phosphorylation. To test the hypothesis, 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered the toxin streptozotocin (STZ; 55 mg/kg) to destroy the insulin secreting β-cells. Three days postinjection, the right gastrocnemius muscle from STZ and control rats was subjected to resistance exercise by percutaneous electrical stimulation. Animals were killed 0, 1, or 3 h later; activation of the Akt/AMPK and downstream pathways in the muscle tissue was analyzed by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Notably, STZ rats showed a significant decrease in basal Akt and AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation, but substantial exercise-induced increases in both AMPKα Thr172 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) Ser79 phosphorylation were observed. Although no significant impact on resistance exercise-induced Akt pathway activation or glucose uptake was found, resistance exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) gene expression was augmented by STZ treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating insulin levels may regulate acute resistance exercise-induced AMPK pathway activation and AMPK-dependent gene expression relating to basal AMPKα Ser485/491 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017

  9. Rac1/p21-activated kinase pathway controls retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and E2F transcription factor activation in B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldua, Natalia; Llavero, Francisco; Artaso, Alain; Gálvez, Patricia; Lacerda, Hadriano M; Parada, Luis A; Zugaza, José L

    2016-02-01

    Small GTPases of the Ras superfamily are capable of activating E2F-dependent transcription leading to cell proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, using immortalized chicken DT40 B cell lines to investigate the role of the Vav/Rac signalling cascade on B cell proliferation, it is shown that the proliferative response triggered by B cell receptor activation is dramatically reduced in the absence of Vav3 expression. Analysis of this proliferative defect shows that in the absence of Vav3 expression, retinoblastoma protein (RB) phosphorylation and the subsequent E2F activation do not take place. By combining pharmacological and genetic approaches, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) were identified as the key regulatory signalling molecules upstream of the Vav3/Rac pathway leading to RB phosphorylation and E2F transcription factor activation. Additionally, vav3(-/-) and plcγ2(-/-) DT40 B cells were not able to activate the RB-E2F complex wild-type phenotype when these genetically modified cells were transfected with constitutively active forms of RhoA or Cdc42. However, when these knockout cells were transfected with different constitutively active versions of PLCγ, Vav or Rac1, not only activation of the RB-E2F complex wild-type phenotype was recovered but also the cellular proliferation. Furthermore, by evaluating the effect of two known effector mutants of Rac1 (Rac1(Q61L/F37A) and Rac1(Q61L/Y40C) ), the RB-E2F complex activation dependency on p21-activated kinase (PAK) and protein kinase Cε (PKCε) activities was established, being independent of both actin cytoskeleton reorganization and Ras activity. These results suggest that PAK1 and PKCε may be potential therapeutic targets to stop uncontrolled B cell proliferation mediated by the Vav/Rac pathway.

  10. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jian

    2012-03-06

    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E 2) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E 2 elevated [Ca 2+] i and increased Ca 2+ oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E 2 mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E 2 activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E 2 induces the non-genomic responses Ca 2+ release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E 2 responses. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Induces Serine Phosphorylation of EGFR via Novel TAK1-p38 Activation Pathway in an HB-EGF-Independent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Refaat, Alaa; Zhou, Yue; Sualeh Muhammad, Jibran; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Saiki, Ikuo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of Helicobacter pylori with gastric epithelial cells can result in the activation of transcription factor NF-κB via TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). In this study, we have demonstrated the role of H. pylori in the activation of EGFR via TAK1-mediated phosphorylation of p38. Gastric epithelial AGS or MKN-45 cells were co-cultured with wild-type or cagA(-) H. pylori strains. H. pylori was added to the cells, and the activation of EGFR, p65 (NF-κB) subunit, p38, ERK, and TAK1 was examined by Western blotting. Infected cells were pretreated with or without ligands, chemical inhibitors, anti-HB-EGF antibody, and siRNAs to evaluate the effects on phosphorylation of various EGFR residues. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were performed to detect the internalization of EGFR. Incubating cells with wild-type and CagA(-) H. pylori strains resulted in the rapid and transient phosphorylation of serine residues of EGFR. RNAi experiments using siRNA against TAK1 and p38 pathways blocked the phosphorylation of serine residue. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry revealed that EGFR was internalized in H. pylori-infected cells after EGFR phosphorylation in a p38-dependent manner. In contrast, pretreatment with gefitinib and anti-HB-EGF antibody did not block both the phosphorylation and internalization of EGFR. Helicobacter pylori induces internalization of EGFR via novel TAK1-p38-serine activation pathway which is independent of HB-EGF. The interaction between TAK1 and EGFR in H. pylori-infected cells might open new dimensions in understanding H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Protein Phosphatase 1c Associated with the Cardiac Sodium Calcium Exchanger 1 Regulates Its Activity by Dephosphorylating Serine 68-phosphorylated Phospholemman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Hodne, Kjetil; Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Dalhus, Bjørn; Lunde, Per Kristian; Lunde, Marianne; Martinsen, Marita; Enger, Ulla Helene; Fuller, William; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William Edward; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2016-02-26

    The sodium (Na(+))-calcium (Ca(2+)) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Serine 68-phosphorylated phospholemman (pSer-68-PLM) inhibits NCX1 activity. In the context of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) regulation, pSer-68-PLM is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 also associates with NCX1; however, the molecular basis of this association is unknown. In this study, we aimed to analyze the mechanisms of PP1 targeting to the NCX1-pSer-68-PLM complex and hypothesized that a direct and functional NCX1-PP1 interaction is a prerequisite for pSer-68-PLM dephosphorylation. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we show that PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) co-localized, co-fractionated, and co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1 in rat cardiomyocytes, left ventricle lysates, and HEK293 cells. Bioinformatic analysis, immunoprecipitations, mutagenesis, pulldown experiments, and peptide arrays constrained PP1c anchoring to the K(I/V)FF motif in the first Ca(2+) binding domain (CBD) 1 in NCX1. This binding site is also partially in agreement with the extended PP1-binding motif K(V/I)FF-X5-8Φ1Φ2-X8-9-R. The cytosolic loop of NCX1, containing the K(I/V)FF motif, had no effect on PP1 activity in an in vitro assay. Dephosphorylation of pSer-68-PLM in HEK293 cells was not observed when NCX1 was absent, when the K(I/V)FF motif was mutated, or when the PLM- and PP1c-binding sites were separated (mimicking calpain cleavage of NCX1). Co-expression of PLM and NCX1 inhibited NCX1 current (both modes). Moreover, co-expression of PLM with NCX1(F407P) (mutated K(I/V)FF motif) resulted in the current being completely abolished. In conclusion, NCX1 is a substrate-specifying PP1c regulator protein, indirectly regulating NCX1 activity through pSer-68-PLM dephosphorylation.

  13. Inhibition of ALK enzymatic activity in T-cell lymphoma cells induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation independently of Jak3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Kasprzycka, Monika; Ptasznik, Andrzej;

    2005-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the ALK tyrosine kinase as a chimeric protein with nucleophosmin (NPM) and other partners plays a key role in malignant cell transformation of T-lymphocytes and other cells. Here we report that two small-molecule, structurally related, quinazoline-type compounds, WHI-131...... and WHI-154, directly inhibit enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK as demonstrated by in vitro kinase assays using a synthetic tyrosine-rich oligopeptide and the kinase itself as the substrates. The inhibition of NPM/ALK activity resulted in malignant T cells in suppression of their growth, induction...... of apoptosis and inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, the key effector of the NPM/ALK-induced oncogenesis. We also show that the STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated in the malignant T cells by NPM/ALK independently of Jak3 kinase as evidenced by the presence of STAT3 phosphorylation...

  14. Site-specific phosphorylation of casein kinase 1 δ (CK1δ) regulates its activity towards the circadian regulator PER2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Gracie Wee Ling; Edison; Virshup, David M

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are intrinsic ~24 hour cycles that regulate diverse aspects of physiology, and in turn are regulated by interactions with the external environment. Casein kinase 1 delta (CK1δ, CSNK1D) is a key regulator of the clock, phosphorylating both stabilizing and destabilizing sites on the PER2 protein, in a mechanism known as the phosphoswitch. CK1δ can itself be regulated by phosphorylation on its regulatory domain, but the specific sites involved, and the role this plays in control of circadian rhythms as well as other CK1-dependent processes is not well understood. Using a sensitized PER2::LUC reporter assay, we identified a specific phosphorylation site, T347, on CK1δ, that regulates CK1δ activity towards PER2. A mutant CK1δ T347A was more active in promoting PER2 degradation. This CK1δ regulatory site is phosphorylated in cells in trans by dinaciclib- and staurosporine-sensitive kinases, consistent with their potential regulation by cyclin dependent and other proline-directed kinases. The regulation of CK1δ by site-specific phosphorylation via the cell cycle and other signaling pathways provides a mechanism to couple external stimuli to regulation of CK1δ-dependent pathways including the circadian clock.

  15. Enhancement of TGF-β-induced Smad3 activity by c-Abl-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of its coactivator SKI-interacting protein (SKIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Kazumasa; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Iwasawa, Shuto; Takakura, Yuki; Aoyama, Kazumasa; Yuki, Ryuzaburo; Nakayama, Yuji; Kuga, Takahisa; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2017-08-26

    c-Abl is a non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Furthermore, although c-Abl is involved in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling, its molecular functions in TGF-β signaling are not fully understood. Here, we found that c-Abl phosphorylates SKI-interacting protein (SKIP), a nuclear cofactor of the transcription factor Smad3. The c-Abl inhibitor imatinib suppressed TGF-β-induced expression of Smad3 targets as well as SKIP/Smad3 interaction. TGF-β-stimulation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of SKIP, and this phosphorylation was suppressed by imatinib. Tyr(292), Tyr(430), and Tyr(433) residues in SKIP were shown to be involved in c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation. Phosphomimetic glutamic acid substitution at Tyr(292) in SKIP enhanced, whereas its phospho-dead phenylalanine substitution attenuated TGF-β-induced SKIP/Smad3 interaction. Moreover, the phosphomimetic mutant of SKIP augmented transcriptional activity of Smad3. Taken together, these results suggest that c-Abl phosphorylates SKIP mainly at Tyr(292) and promotes SKIP/Smad3 interaction for the full activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of proteolytic activities in ROS 17/2.8 cell lysates which cleave peptide substrates for protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, P T; Harrison, P

    1996-04-01

    We have observed two proteolytic activities in cell lysates from the rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line ROS 17/2.8 which are capable of cleaving a peptide substrate for protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation, and other peptides containing similar sequences. Both activities are inhibited by Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, while one of the activities is inhibited by either EDTA or aprotinin. The protease inhibitors pepstatin, bestatin, E-64, leupeptin and phosphoramidon do not block either of these proteolytic activities.

  17. Mechanistic Coupling of Transport and Phosphorylation Activity by Enzyme IImtl of the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependent Phosphotransferase System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.; Duurkens, Hinderika; Swaving Dijkstra, Dolf; Robillard, George T.

    1991-01-01

    Mannitol bound to enzyme II(mtl) could be trapped specifically by rapid phosphorylation with P-HPr. The assay was used to demonstrate transport of mannitol across the cytoplasmic membrane with and without phosphorylation of mannitol. The latter was 2-3 orders of magnitude slower. The fraction of bou

  18. Shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization of protease-activated receptor 1 can be separated by mutation of putative phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, S R; Shapiro, M J; Coughlin, S R

    1999-07-20

    The thrombin receptor PAR1 becomes rapidly phosphorylated upon activation by either thrombin or exogenous SFLLRN agonist peptide. Substitution of alanine for all serine and threonine residues in the receptor's cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail ablated phosphorylation and yielded a receptor defective in both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. These observations suggested that activation-dependent phosphorylation of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail is required for both shutoff and agonist-triggered internalization. To identify the phosphorylation site(s) that are necessary for these functions, we generated three mutant receptors in which alanine was substituted for serine and threonine residues in the amino-terminal, middle, and carboxyl-terminal thirds of PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. When stably expressed in fibroblasts, all three mutated receptors were rapidly phosphorylated in response to agonist, while a mutant in which all serines and threonines in the cytoplasmic tail were converted to alanines was not. This result suggests that phosphorylation can occur at multiple sites in PAR1's cytoplasmic tail. Alanine substitutions in the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the tail had no effect on either receptor shutoff or agonist-triggered internalization. By contrast, alanine substitutions in the "middle" serine cluster between Ser(391) and Ser(406) yielded a receptor with considerably slower shutoff of signaling after thrombin activation than the wild type. Surprisingly, this same mutant was indistinguishable from the wild type in agonist-triggered internalization and degradation. Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and GRK3 "suppressed" the shutoff defect of the S --> A (391-406) mutant, consistent with this defect being due to altered receptor phosphorylation. These results suggest that specific phosphorylation sites are required for rapid receptor shutoff, but phosphorylation at multiple alternative sites is sufficient for agonist

  19. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation independently of beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated FSH receptor internalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepieux Pascale

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R is a seven transmembrane spanning receptor (7TMR which plays a crucial role in male and female reproduction. Upon FSH stimulation, the FSH-R activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK. However, the mechanisms whereby the agonist-stimulated FSH-R activates ERK are poorly understood. In order to activate ERK, some 7 TMRs require beta-arrestin-and dynamin-dependent internalization to occur, whereas some others do not. In the present study, we examined the ability of the FSH-activated FSH-R to induce ERK phosphorylation, in conditions where its beta-arrestin- and dynamin-mediated internalization was impaired. Methods Human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells were transiently transfected with the rat FSH-R. Internalization of the FSH-R was manipulated by co-expression of either a beta-arrestin (319–418 dominant negative peptide, either an inactive dynamin K44A mutant or of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2. The outcomes on the FSH-R internalization were assayed by measuring 125I-FSH binding at the cell surface when compared to internalized 125I-FSH binding. The resulting ERK phosphorylation level was visualized by Western blot analysis. Results In HEK 293 cells, FSH stimulated ERK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Co-transfection of the beta- arrestin (319–418 construct, or of the dynamin K44A mutant reduced FSH-R internalization in response to FSH, without affecting ERK phosphorylation. Likewise, overexpression of wild-type beta-arrestin 1 or 2 significantly increased the FSH-R internalization level in response to FSH, without altering FSH-induced ERK phosphorylation. Conclusion From these results, we conclude that the FSH-R does not require beta-arrestin- nor dynamin-mediated internalization to initiate ERK phosphorylation in response to FSH.

  20. Enhancement of Cry19Aa Mosquitocidal Activity against Aedes aegypti by Mutations in the Putative Loop Regions of Domain II

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Donald H Dean

    2004-01-01

    Improvements in the mosquitocidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry19Aa were achieved by protein engineering of putative surface loop residues in domain II through rational design. The improvement of Aedes toxicity in Cry19Aa was 42,000-fold and did not affect its toxicity against Anopheles or Culex.

  1. Active-Flux-Based, V/f-with-Stabilizing-Loops Versus Sensorless Vector Control of IPMSM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Ana; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

    2011-01-01

    . By this control strategy, a fast dynamic speed response, without steady state error and without speed or current regulators, for all AC machines is obtained. The second control method is a sensorless vector control strategy which also has been implemented and tested, just for comparison.......This paper proposes two control methods for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) Drives. The first one is a V/f control with two stabilizing loops: one loop based on active flux balance for voltage magnitude correction and a second, based on speed error, with voltage phase correction...

  2. SDO/AIA AND HINODE/EIS OBSERVATIONS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN AN EUV WAVE AND ACTIVE REGION LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Wei [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Shen, Yuandeng, E-mail: yangliheng@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: zjun@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: liting@bao.ac.cn [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We present detailed analysis of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave and its interaction with active region (AR) loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). This wave was initiated from AR 11261 on 2011 August 4 and propagated at velocities of 430-910 km s{sup –1}. It was observed to traverse another AR and cross over a filament channel on its path. The EUV wave perturbed neighboring AR loops and excited a disturbance that propagated toward the footpoints of these loops. EIS observations of AR loops revealed that at the time of the wave transit, the original redshift increased by about 3 km s{sup –1}, while the original blueshift decreased slightly. After the wave transit, these changes were reversed. When the EUV wave arrived at the boundary of a polar coronal hole, two reflected waves were successively produced and part of them propagated above the solar limb. The first reflected wave above the solar limb encountered a large-scale loop system on its path, and a secondary wave rapidly emerged 144 Mm ahead of it at a higher speed. These findings can be explained in the framework of a fast-mode magnetosonic wave interpretation for EUV waves, in which observed EUV waves are generated by expanding coronal mass ejections.

  3. Effect of nitric oxide-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of calcium-activated potassium channel α subunit on vascular hyporesponsiveness in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rong; LIU Liang-ming; HU De-yao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of nitric oxide-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channel α subunit on vascular hyporesponsiveness in rats. Methods: A total of 46 Wistar rats of either sex, weighing 250 g±20 g, were used in this study. Models of vascular hyporesponsiveness induced by hemorrhagic shock (30 mm Hg for 2 hours) in vivo and by L-arginine in vitro were established respectively. The vascular responsiveness of isolated superior mesenteric arteries to norepinephrine was observed. Tyrosine phosphorylation of BKCa α subunit was evaluated with methods of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Results: In the smooth muscle cells of the superior mesenteric arteries, the expression of BKCa α subunit tyrosine phosphorylation increased following hemorrhagic shock, and L-arginine could induce BKCa channel α subunit tyrosine phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. L-NAME (Nω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester), a nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor, could partly restore the decreased vasoresponsiveness of the superior mesenteric arteries after hemorrhagic shock in rats. Down-regulating the protein tyrosine phosphorylation with genistein, a widely-used special protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, could partly improve the decreased vasoresponsiveness of the superior mesenteric arteries induced by L-arginine in vitro, while up-regulating the protein tyrosine phosphorylation with Na3VO4, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, could further decrease the nitric oxide-induced vascular hyporesponsiveness, which could be partly ameliorated by 0.1 mmol/L tetrabutylammonium chloride (TEA), a selective BKCa inhibitor at this concentration. Conclusions: Nitric oxide can induce the tyrosine phosphorylation of BKCa α subunit, which influences the vascular hyporesponsiveness in hemorrhagic shock rats or induced by L-arginine in vitro.

  4. Transcription-Replication Conflict Orientation Modulates R-Loop Levels and Activates Distinct DNA Damage Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamperl, Stephan; Bocek, Michael J; Saldivar, Joshua C; Swigut, Tomek; Cimprich, Karlene A

    2017-08-10

    Conflicts between transcription and replication are a potent source of DNA damage. Co-transcriptional R-loops could aggravate such conflicts by creating an additional barrier to replication fork progression. Here, we use a defined episomal system to investigate how conflict orientation and R-loop formation influence genome stability in human cells. R-loops, but not normal transcription complexes, induce DNA breaks and orientation-specific DNA damage responses during conflicts with replication forks. Unexpectedly, the replisome acts as an orientation-dependent regulator of R-loop levels, reducing R-loops in the co-directional (CD) orientation but promoting their formation in the head-on (HO) orientation. Replication stress and deregulated origin firing increase the number of HO collisions leading to genome-destabilizing R-loops. Our findings connect DNA replication to R-loop homeostasis and suggest a mechanistic basis for genome instability resulting from deregulated DNA replication, observed in cancer and other disease states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dopamine-induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation of NR2B (Tyr1472 is Essential for ERK1/2 Activation and Processing of Novel Taste Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit eDavid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the heterosynaptic interaction between glutamatergic and neuromodulatory synapses is highly important for revealing brain function in health and disease. For instance, the interaction between dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission is vital for memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation, and is known to converge on ERK-MAPK signaling in neurons. Previous studies suggest that dopamine induces NMDA receptor phosphorylation at the NR2B Y1472 subunit, influencing receptor internalization at the synaptic plasma membrane. However, it is unclear whether this phosphorylation is upstream to and/or necessary for ERK1/2 activation, which is known to be crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B at Y1472 is correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine and necessary for it as well. We find that dopamine receptor D1, but not D2, activates ERK1/2 and leads to NR2BY1472 phosphorylation in the mature hippocampus and cortex. Moreover, our results indicate that NR2B Y1472 phosphorylation is necessary for ERK1/2 activation. Importantly, application of dopamine or the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 to hippocampal slices from NR2B F1472 mutant mice did not result in ERK1/2 activation, suggesting this site is not only correlated with ERK1/2 activation by dopamine stimulation, but also necessary for it. In addition, NR2B F1472 mice show impairment in learning of attenuation of taste neophobia, but not associative taste learning. Our study shows that the dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission converge on the NMDA receptor itself, at the Y1472 site of the NR2B subunit, and that this convergence is essential for ERK1/2 activation in the mature brain and for processing new sensory information in the cortex.

  6. Activation of phosphorylating-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and its relationship with localization of intestinal stem cells in rats after ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bing Fu; Feng Xing; Yin-Hui Yang; Tong-Zhu Sun; Bao-Chen Guo

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of phosphorylating p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in rat small intestine after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) insult and its relationship with the localization of intestinal stem cells.METHODS: Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups, namely intestinal ischemia-reperfusion group (R), intestinal ischemia group (Ⅰ) and sham-operated control group (C). In group I, the animals were killed 45minutes after superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion,while in group R the rats sustained SMA occlusion for 45 minutes and reperfusion for 2, 6, 12 or 24 hours respectively. In shamoperated control group, SMA was separated, but without occlusion. The activity of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO)was determined. Intestinal tissue samples were also taken for histological analysis and immunohistochemical analysis of MAPK p38 detection and intestinal stem cell localization.RESULTS: The changes in histological structure and plasma DAO levels indicated that the intestinal barrier was damaged after intestinal I/R injury. In group C and I, each crypt contained 5-6 p38 MAPK positive cells, which were mainly located in the lower region of the crypts. This was consistent with the distribution of intestinal stem cells. The presence of positive cells in crypts increased with the time of reperfusion and reached its peak at 12 hours after reperfusion (35.6%).CONCLUSION: After intestinal T/R injury, the expression of phosphorylating-p38 MAPK in small intestine increased with the duration of reperfusion, and its distribution coincided with that of intestinal stem cells and their daughter cells,indicating that phosphorylating-p38 might be a possible marker of intestinal stem cells.

  7. Tumor suppressor PTEN affects tau phosphorylation: deficiency in the phosphatase activity of PTEN increases aggregation of an FTDP-17 mutant Tau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant hyperphosphorylation of tau protein has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Although a number of protein kinases have been shown to phosphorylate tau in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms by which tau phosphorylation is regulated pathophysiologically are largely unknown. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests a link between tau phosphorylation and PI3K signaling. In this study, phosphorylation, aggregation and binding to the microtubule of a mutant frontal temporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17 tau in the presence of tumor suppressor PTEN, a major regulatory component in PI3K signaling, were investigated. Results Phosphorylation of the human mutant FTDP-17 tau, T40RW, was evaluated using different phospho-tau specific antibodies in the presence of human wild-type or phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN. Among the evaluated phosphorylation sites, the levels of Ser214 and Thr212 phospho-tau proteins were significantly decreased in the presence of wild-type PTEN, and significantly increased when the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN was ectopically expressed. Fractionation of the mutant tau transfected cells revealed a significantly increased level of soluble tau in cytosol when wild-type PTEN was expressed, and an elevated level of SDS-soluble tau aggregates in the presence of the mutant PTEN. In addition, the filter/trap assays detected more SDS-insoluble mutant tau aggregates in the cells overexpressing the mutant PTEN compared to those in the cells overexpressing wild-type PTEN and control DNA. This notion was confirmed by the immunocytochemical experiment which demonstrated that the overexpression of the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN caused the mutant tau to form aggregates in the COS-7 cells. Conclusion Tumor suppressor PTEN can alleviate the phosporylation of the mutant FTDP-17 tau at specific sites, and the phosphatase activity

  8. Phosphorylation- and nucleotide-binding-induced changes to the stability and hydrogen exchange patterns of JNK1ß1 provide insight into its mechanisms of activation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Owen, GR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available –deuterium exchange (HX) mass spectrometry were used to investigate the changes to the stability and conformation/conformational dynamics of JNK1ß1 induced by phosphorylative activation. Equivalent studies were also employed to determine the effects of nucleotide...

  9. Src-mediated phosphorylation of the tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3 is required for PRL-3 promotion of Rho activation, motility and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiordalisi, James J; Dewar, Brian J; Graves, Lee M; Madigan, James P; Cox, Adrienne D

    2013-01-01

    The metastasis-associated tyrosine phosphatase PRL-3/PTP4A is upregulated in numerous cancers, but the mechanisms modulating PRL-3 activity other than its expression levels have not been investigated. Here we report evidence for both Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PRL-3 and Src-mediated regulation of PRL-3 biological activities. We used structural mutants, pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA to demonstrate Src-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous PRL-3 in SW480 colon cancer cells. We also demonstrated that PRL-3 was not tyrosine phosphorylated in SYF mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in Src, Yes and Fyn unless Src was re-expressed. Further, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can stimulate PRL-3 phosphorylation in a Src-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PRL-3-induced cell motility, Matrigel invasion and activation of the cytoskeleton-regulating small GTPase RhoC were abrogated in the presence of the phosphodeficient PRL-3 mutant Y53F, or by use of a Src inhibitor. Thus, PRL-3 requires the activity of a Src kinase, likely Src itself, to promote these cancer-associated phenotypes. Our data establish a model for the regulation of PRL-3 by Src that supports the possibility of their coordinate roles in signaling pathways promoting invasion and metastasis, and supports simultaneous use of novel molecularly targeted therapeutics directed at these proteins.

  10. Integrated compensatory network is activated in the absence of NCC phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, P Richard; Lazo-Fernandez, Yoskaly; Delpire, Eric; Wall, Susan M; Dorsey, Susan G; Weinman, Edward J; Coleman, Richard; Wade, James B; Welling, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Thiazide diuretics are used to treat hypertension; however, compensatory processes in the kidney can limit antihypertensive responses to this class of drugs. Here, we evaluated compensatory pathways in SPAK kinase-deficient mice, which are unable to activate the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC (encoded by Slc12a3). Global transcriptional profiling, combined with biochemical, cell biological, and physiological phenotyping, identified the gene expression signature of the response and revealed how it establishes an adaptive physiology. Salt reabsorption pathways were created by the coordinate induction of a multigene transport system, involving solute carriers (encoded by Slc26a4, Slc4a8, and Slc4a9), carbonic anhydrase isoforms, and V-type H⁺-ATPase subunits in pendrin-positive intercalated cells (PP-ICs) and ENaC subunits in principal cells (PCs). A distal nephron remodeling process and induction of jagged 1/NOTCH signaling, which expands the cortical connecting tubule with PCs and replaces acid-secreting α-ICs with PP-ICs, were partly responsible for the compensation. Salt reabsorption was also activated by induction of an α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) paracrine signaling system. Coordinate regulation of a multigene α-KG synthesis and transport pathway resulted in α-KG secretion into pro-urine, as the α-KG-activated GPCR (Oxgr1) increased on the PP-IC apical surface, allowing paracrine delivery of α-KG to stimulate salt transport. Identification of the integrated compensatory NaCl reabsorption mechanisms provides insight into thiazide diuretic efficacy.

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 positively regulates interaction with IRF3 and hence TRIM21 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B Stacey

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE have elevated type I interferon (IFN levels which correlate with disease activity and severity. TRIM21, an autoantigen associated with SLE, has been identified as an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets the transcription factor IRF3 in order to turn off and limit type I IFN production following detection of viral and bacterial infection by Toll Like Receptors (TLRs. However, how the activity of TRIM21 is regulated downstream of TLRs is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that TRIM21 is tyrosine phosphorylated following TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation, suggesting that its activity is potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using Netphos, we have identified three key tyrosines that are strongly predicted to be phosphorylated, two of which are conserved between the human and murine forms of TRIM21, at residues 343, 388, and 393, all of which have been mutated from tyrosine to phenylalanine (Y343F, Y388F, and Y393F. We have observed that tyrosine phosphorylation of TRIM21 only occurs in the substrate binding PRY/SPRY domain, and that Y393, and to a lesser extent, Y388 are required for TRIM21 to function as a negative regulator of IFN-β promoter activity. Further studies revealed that mutating Y393 to phenylalanine inhibits the ability of TRIM21 to interact with its substrate, IRF3, thus providing a molecular explanation for the lack of activity of Y393 on the IFN-β promoter. Our data demonstrates a novel role for tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating the activity of TRIM21 downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. Given the pathogenic role of TRIM21 in systemic autoimmunity, these findings have important implications for the development of novel therapeutics.

  12. Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH2-terminal (sites 2+2a) phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Richter, Erik;

    2013-01-01

    was positively associated with pAkt-T308 (P=0.01) and Akt2 activity (P=0.04), but not pAkt-S473 or IRS-1-PI3K activity. Furthermore, pAkt-T308 and Akt2 activity were negatively associated with NH(2)-terminal GS phosphorylation (P=0.001 for both), which in turn was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated GS...

  13. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    PKCβII controls the pathologic features of diabetic nephropathy, including glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy. PKCβII contains the COOH-terminal hydrophobic motif site Ser-660. Whether this hydrophobic motif phosphorylation contributes to high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy has not been determined. Here we show that, in mesangial cells, high glucose increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. Using siRNAs to downregulate PKCβII, dominant negative PKCβII, and PKCβII hydrophobic motif phosphorylation-deficient mutant, we found that PKCβII regulates activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose. PKCβII via its phosphorylation at Ser-660 regulated phosphorylation of Akt at both catalytic loop and hydrophobic motif sites, resulting in phosphorylation and inactivation of its substrate PRAS40. Specific inhibition of mTORC2 increased mTORC1 activity and induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. In contrast, inhibition of mTORC2 decreased the phosphorylation of PKCβII and Akt, leading to inhibition of PRAS40 phosphorylation and mTORC1 activity and prevented mesangial cell hypertrophy in response to high glucose; expression of constitutively active Akt or mTORC1 restored mesangial cell hypertrophy. Moreover, constitutively active PKCβII reversed the inhibition of high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by suppression of mTORC2. Finally, using renal cortexes from type 1 diabetic mice, we found that increased phosphorylation of PKCβII at Ser-660 was associated with enhanced Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation. Collectively, our findings identify a signaling route connecting PI3-kinase to mTORC2 to phosphorylate PKCβII at the hydrophobic motif site necessary for Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 activation, leading to mesangial cell hypertrophy.

  14. Type 2 diabetes is associated with altered NF-¿B DNA binding activity, JNK phosphorylation, and AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle after LPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anne Sofie; Kelly, Meghan; Berg, Ronan Martin Griffin

    2011-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is often associated with impaired glucose metabolism. We therefore studied the activation of inflammatory pathway intermediates that interfere with glucose uptake during systemic inflammation by applying a standardised inflammatory stimulus in vivo. After ethical approval, i...

  15. Protein phosphorylation and photorespiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, M; Jossier, M; Boex-Fontvieille, E; Tcherkez, G

    2013-07-01

    Photorespiration allows the recycling of carbon atoms of 2-phosphoglycolate produced by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) oxygenase activity, as well as the removal of potentially toxic metabolites. The photorespiratory pathway takes place in the light, encompasses four cellular compartments and interacts with several other metabolic pathways and functions. Therefore, the regulation of this cycle is probably of paramount importance to plant metabolism, however, our current knowledge is poor. To rapidly respond to changing conditions, proteins undergo a number of different post-translational modifications that include acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation, but protein phosphorylation is probably the most common. The reversible covalent addition of a phosphate group to a specific amino acid residue allows the modulation of protein function, such as activity, subcellular localisation, capacity to interact with other proteins and stability. Recent data indicate that many photorespiratory enzymes can be phosphorylated, and thus it seems that the photorespiratory cycle is, in part, regulated by protein phosphorylation. In this review, the known phosphorylation sites of each Arabidopsis thaliana photorespiratory enzyme and several photorespiratory-associated proteins are described and discussed. A brief account of phosphoproteomic protocols is also given since the published data compiled in this review are the fruit of this approach.

  16. Activation of the TASK-2 channel after cell swelling is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Signe Skyum; Lambert, Ian Henry; Gammeltoft, Steen;

    2010-01-01

    (K,vol) indicating that inhibition of RVD reflects inhibition of TASK-2. We find that in EATC the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits RVD by 90%, and that the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor monoperoxo(picolinato)-oxo-vanadate(V) [mpV(pic)] shifted the volume set point for inactivation of the channel...... to a lower cell volume. Swelling-activated K(+) efflux was impaired by genistein and the Src kinase family inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) and enhanced by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor mpV(pic). With the use of the TASK-2 inhibitor clofilium......, it is demonstrated that mpV(pic) increased the volume-sensitive part of the K(+) efflux 1.3 times. To exclude K(+) efflux via a KCl cotransporter, cellular Cl(-) was substituted with NO(3)(-). Also under these conditions K(+) efflux was completely blocked by genistein. Thus tyrosine kinases seem to be involved...

  17. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang-Hwan; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX) has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI-) 1 and fibronectin (FN) and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms.

  18. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Geol Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI- 1 and fibronectin (FN and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms.

  19. Calcium-Mediated Induction of Paradoxical Growth following Caspofungin Treatment Is Associated with Calcineurin Activation and Phosphorylation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvvadi, Praveen R; Muñoz, Alberto; Lamoth, Frédéric; Soderblom, Erik J; Moseley, M Arthur; Read, Nick D; Steinbach, William J

    2015-08-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drug caspofungin at high concentrations reverses the growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus, a phenomenon known as the "paradoxical effect," which is not consistently observed with other echinocandins (micafungin and anidulafungin). Previous studies of A. fumigatus revealed the loss of the paradoxical effect following pharmacological or genetic inhibition of calcineurin, yet the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we utilized a codon-optimized bioluminescent Ca(2+) reporter aequorin expression system in A. fumigatus and showed that caspofungin elicits a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]c) in the fungus that acts as the initial trigger of the paradoxical effect by activating calmodulin-calcineurin signaling. While the increase in [Ca(2+)]c was also observed upon treatment with micafungin, another echinocandin without the paradoxical effect, a higher [Ca(2+)]c increase was noted with the paradoxical-growth concentration of caspofungin. Treatments with a Ca(2+)-selective chelator, BAPTA [1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid], or the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil abolished caspofungin-mediated paradoxical growth in both the wild-type and the echinocandin-resistant (EMFR-S678P) strains. Concomitant with increased [Ca(2+)]c levels at higher concentrations of caspofungin, calmodulin and calcineurin gene expression was enhanced. Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that calcineurin is activated through phosphorylation at its serine-proline-rich region (SPRR), a domain previously shown to be essential for regulation of hyphal growth, only at a paradoxical-growth concentration of caspofungin. Our results indicate that as opposed to micafungin, the increased [Ca(2+)]c at high concentrations of caspofungin activates calmodulin-calcineurin signaling at both a transcriptional and a posttranslational level and ultimately leads to paradoxical fungal growth.

  20. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces oxidative phosphorylation by activating cytochrome c oxidase in human cultured neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Gloria; Pichaud, Nicolas; Ballard, J William O; Bessede, Alban; Marcal, Helder; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-02-16

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting energy impairment have been identified as features of many neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this energy impairment is the cause of the disease or the consequence of preceding impairment(s) is still under discussion, however a recovery of cellular bioenergetics would plausibly prevent or improve the pathology. In this study, we screened different natural molecules for their ability to increase intracellular adenine triphosphate purine (ATP). Among them, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol from green tea, presented the most striking results. We found that it increases ATP production in both human cultured astrocytes and neurons with different kinetic parameters and without toxicity. Specifically, we showed that oxidative phosphorylation in human cultured astrocytes and neurons increased at the level of the routine respiration on the cells pre-treated with the natural molecule. Furthermore, EGCG-induced ATP production was only blocked by sodium azide (NaN3) and oligomycin, inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO; complex IV) and ATP synthase (complex V) respectively. These findings suggest that the EGCG modulates CcO activity, as confirmed by its enzymatic activity. CcO is known to be regulated differently in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, EGCG treatment is acting differently on the kinetic parameters of the two cell types. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that EGCG promotes CcO activity in human cultured neurons and astrocytes. Considering that CcO dysfunction has been reported in patients having neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), we therefore suggest that EGCG could restore mitochondrial function and prevent subsequent loss of synaptic function.

  1. Combined subthreshold dose inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and MMP-2 activity provides cardioprotection from ischaemic/reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadete, Virgilio J J; Sawicka, Jolanta; Bekar, Lane K; Sawicki, Grzegorz

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorylation and degradation of myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) during myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a well-established phenomenon. It has been established that MMP-2 is involved in MLC1 degradation and that this degradation is increased when MLC1 is phosphorylated. We hypothesized that simultaneous inhibition of MLC1 phosphorylation and MMP-2 activity will protect hearts from I/R injury. As phosphorylation of MLC1 and MMP-2 activity is important for normal heart function, we used a cocktail consisting combination of low (subthreshold for any protective effect alone) doses of MLC kinase, MMP-2 inhibitors and subthreshold dose of an MLC phosphatase activator. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 20 min of global, no-flow ischaemia and 30 min reperfusion in the absence and presence of inhibitors of MLC1 phosphorylation and degradation. The recovery of cardiac function was improved in a concentration-dependent manner by the MLC kinase inhibitor, ML-7 (1-5 μM), the MLC phosphatase activator, Y-27632 (0.05-1 μM) or the MMP inhibitor, doxycycline (Doxy, 1-30 μM). Co-administration of subthreshold doses of ML-7 (1 μM) and Y-27632 (0.05 μM) showed a potential synergistic effect in protecting cardiac contractility and MLC1 levels in I/R hearts. Further combination with a subthreshold concentration of Doxy (1 μM) showed additional protection that resulted in full recovery to control levels. The results of this study exemplify a novel low-dose multidrug approach to pharmacological prevention of reperfusion injury that will enable a reduction of unwanted side effects and/or cytotoxicity associated with currently available MMP-2 and kinase inhibiting drugs. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. (S)-Lacosamide Binding to Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 (CRMP2) Regulates CaV2.2 Activity by Subverting Its Phosphorylation by Cdk5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutal, Aubin; François-Moutal, Liberty; Perez-Miller, Samantha; Cottier, Karissa; Chew, Lindsey Anne; Yeon, Seul Ki; Dai, Jixun; Park, Ki Duk; Khanna, May; Khanna, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    The neuronal circuit remodels during development as well as in human neuropathologies such as epilepsy. Neurite outgrowth is an obligatory step in these events. We recently reported that alterations in the phosphorylation state of an axon specification/guidance protein, the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), play a major role in the activity-dependent regulation of neurite outgrowth. We also identified (S)-LCM, an inactive stereoisomer of the clinically used antiepileptic drug (R)-LCM (Vimpat®), as a novel tool for preferentially targeting CRMP2-mediated neurite outgrowth. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which (S)-LCM affects CRMP2 phosphorylation by two key kinases, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). (S)-LCM application to embryonic cortical neurons resulted in reduced levels of Cdk5- and GSK-3β-phosphorylated CRMP2. Mechanistically, (S)-LCM increased CRMP2 binding to both Cdk5- and GSK-3β without affecting binding of CRMP2 to its canonical partner tubulin. Saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) experiments demonstrated direct binding of (S)-LCM to CRMP2. Using an in vitro luminescent kinase assay, we observed that (S)-LCM specifically inhibited Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of CRMP2. Cross-linking experiments and analytical ultracentrifugation showed no effect of (S)-LCM on the oligomerization state of CRMP2. The increased association between Cdk5-phosphorylated CRMP2 and CaV2.2 was reduced by (S)-LCM in vitro and in vivo. This reduction translated into a decrease of calcium influx via CaV2.2 in (S)-LCM-treated neurons compared to controls. (S)-LCM, to our knowledge, is the first molecule described to directly inhibit CRMP2 phosphorylation and may be useful for delineating CRMP2-facilitated functions.

  3. Activation of the plasma membrane Na/H antiporter salt-overly-sensitive 1 (SOS1) by phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory C-terminal domain

    KAUST Repository

    Quintero, Francisco J.

    2011-01-24

    The plasma membrane sodium/proton exchanger Salt-Overly-Sensitive 1 (SOS1) is a critical salt tolerance determinant in plants. The SOS2-SOS3 calcium-dependent protein kinase complex upregulates SOS1 activity, but the mechanistic details of this crucial event remain unresolved. Here we show that SOS1 is maintained in a resting state by a C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain that is the target of SOS2-SOS3. The auto-inhibitory domain interacts intramolecularly with an adjacent domain of SOS1 that is essential for activity. SOS1 is relieved from auto-inhibition upon phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory domain by SOS2-SOS3. Mutation of the SOS2 phosphorylation and recognition site impeded the activation of SOS1 in vivo and in vitro. Additional amino acid residues critically important for SOS1 activity and regulation were identified in a genetic screen for hypermorphic alleles.

  4. Dietary agent, benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation and collaborates with sulforaphane in the growth suppression of PANC-1 cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deangelis Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT proteins comprise a family of latent transcription factors with diverse functions. STAT3 has well established roles in cell proliferation, growth and survival, and its persistent activation has been detected with high frequency in many human cancers. As constitutive activation of STAT3 appears to be vital for the continued survival of these cancerous cells, it has emerged as an attractive target for chemotherapeutics. We examined whether the inhibitory activities of bioactive compounds from cruciferous vegetables, such as Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and sulforaphane, extended to STAT3 activation in PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells. BITC and sulforaphane were both capable of inhibiting cell viability and inducing apoptosis in PANC-1. Sulforaphane had minimal effect on the direct inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, however, suggesting its inhibitory activities are most likely STAT3-independent. Conversely, BITC was shown to inhibit the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3, but not the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, MAPK and p70S6 kinase. These results suggest that STAT3 may be one of the targets of BITC-mediated inhibition of cell viability in PANC-1 cancer cells. In addition, we show that BITC can prevent the induction of STAT3 activation by Interleukin-6 in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, combinations of BITC and sulforaphane inhibited cell viability and STAT3 phosphorylation more dramatically than either agent alone. These findings suggest that the combination of the dietary agents BITC and sulforaphane has potent inhibitory activity in pancreatic cancer cells and that they may have translational potential as chemopreventative or therapeutic agents.

  5. Application of CATE 2.0 code on evaluating activated corrosion products in a PWR cooling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Lu; Chen, Yixue [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering

    2017-03-15

    In PWR plants, most Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) for personnel results from Activated Corrosion Products (ACPs) in the cooling loop. In order to evaluate the ACPs in the cooling loop, a three-region transport model is built up based on the theory of driving force from the concentration difference in CATE 2.0 code. In order to analyze the nuclide composition of ACPs, the EAF-2007 nuclear database is embedded in CATE 2.0. The case of MIT PCCL test loop is simulated to test the availability of CATE 2.0 on PWR ACPs evaluation, and the activity of Co-58 and Co-60 after operation for 42 days calculated by CATE 2.0 is consistent with that from the code CRUDSIM adopted by MIT. Then, the nuclide composition of ACPs is analyzed in detail respectively for operation of 42 days and 12 months using CATE 2.0. The results show that the short-lived nuclides contribute a majority of the activity in the regions of in-flux wall and coolant, while the long-lived nuclides contribute most of the activity in the region of out-flux wall.

  6. Lyn- and PLC-beta3-dependent regulation of SHP-1 phosphorylation controls Stat5 activity and myelomonocytic leukemia-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenbin; Ando, Tomoaki; Wang, Huan-You; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki

    2010-12-23

    Hyperactivation of the transcription factor Stat5 leads to various leukemias. Stat5 activity is regulated by the protein phosphatase SHP-1 in a phospholipase C (PLC)-β3-dependent manner. Thus, PLC-β3-deficient mice develop myeloproliferative neoplasm, like Lyn (Src family kinase)- deficient mice. Here we show that Lyn/PLC-β3 doubly deficient lyn(-/-);PLC-β3(-/-) mice develop a Stat5-dependent, fatal myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, similar to human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). In hematopoietic stem cells of lyn(-/-);PLC-β3(-/-) mice that cause the CMML-like disease, phosphorylation of SHP-1 at Tyr(536) and Tyr(564) is abrogated, resulting in reduced phosphatase activity and constitutive activation of Stat5. Furthermore, SHP-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(564) by Lyn is indispensable for maximal phosphatase activity and for suppression of the CMML-like disease in these mice. On the other hand, Tyr(536) in SHP-1 can be phosphorylated by Lyn and another kinase(s) and is necessary for efficient interaction with Stat5. Therefore, we identify a novel Lyn/PLC-β3-mediated regulatory mechanism of SHP-1 and Stat5 activities.

  7. Lyn- and PLC-β3–dependent regulation of SHP-1 phosphorylation controls Stat5 activity and myelomonocytic leukemia-like disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenbin; Ando, Tomoaki; Wang, Huan-You; Kawakami, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the transcription factor Stat5 leads to various leukemias. Stat5 activity is regulated by the protein phosphatase SHP-1 in a phospholipase C (PLC)–β3-dependent manner. Thus, PLC-β3–deficient mice develop myeloproliferative neoplasm, like Lyn (Src family kinase)– deficient mice. Here we show that Lyn/PLC-β3 doubly deficient lyn−/−;PLC-β3−/− mice develop a Stat5-dependent, fatal myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, similar to human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). In hematopoietic stem cells of lyn−/−;PLC-β3−/− mice that cause the CMML-like disease, phosphorylation of SHP-1 at Tyr536 and Tyr564 is abrogated, resulting in reduced phosphatase activity and constitutive activation of Stat5. Furthermore, SHP-1 phosphorylation at Tyr564 by Lyn is indispensable for maximal phosphatase activity and for suppression of the CMML-like disease in these mice. On the other hand, Tyr536 in SHP-1 can be phosphorylated by Lyn and another kinase(s) and is necessary for efficient interaction with Stat5. Therefore, we identify a novel Lyn/PLC-β3–mediated regulatory mechanism of SHP-1 and Stat5 activities. PMID:20858858

  8. Phosphorylation of β-arrestin2 at Thr383 by MEK underlies β-arrestin-dependent activation of Erk1/2 by GPCRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier, Elisabeth; Gallay, Nathalie; Bourquard, Thomas; Claeysen, Sylvie; Bockaert, Joël; Crépieux, Pascale; Poupon, Anne; Reiter, Eric; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck

    2017-01-01

    In addition to their role in desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), β-arrestins are essential scaffolds linking GPCRs to Erk1/2 signaling. However, their role in GPCR-operated Erk1/2 activation differs between GPCRs and the underlying mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors, which engage Erk1/2 pathway via a β-arrestin-dependent mechanism, promotes MEK-dependent β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383, a necessary step for Erk recruitment to the receptor/β-arrestin complex and Erk activation. Likewise, Thr383 phosphorylation is involved in β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 stimulation elicited by other GPCRs such as β2-adrenergic, FSH and CXCR4 receptors, but does not affect the β-arrestin-independent Erk1/2 activation by 5-HT4 receptor. Collectively, these data show that β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383 underlies β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 activation by GPCRs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23777.001 PMID:28169830

  9. Phosphorylation of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerases ser29 and ser42 by protein kinase C-related kinase 2 regulates viral RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Hee; Kim, Seong-Jun; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Tae-Eun; Moon, Jae-Su; Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Cho, Kun; Yoo, Jong Shin; Son, Woo Sung; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Han, Seung Hyun; Oh, Jong-Won

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), is the key enzyme for HCV RNA replication. We previously showed that HCV RdRp is phosphorylated by protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2). In the present study, we used biochemical and reverse-genetics approaches to demonstrate that HCV NS5B phosphorylation is crucial for viral RNA replication in cell culture. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that PRK2 phosphorylates NS5B exclusively at its serine residues in vitro and in vivo. Using in vitro kinase assays and mass spectrometry, we identified two phosphorylation sites, Ser29 and Ser42, in the Δ1 finger loop region that interacts with the thumb subdomain of NS5B. Colony-forming assays using drug-selectable HCV subgenomic RNA replicons revealed that preventing phosphorylation by Ala substitution at either Ser29 or Ser42 impairs HCV RNA replication. Furthermore, reverse-genetics studies using HCV infectious clones encoding phosphorylation-defective NS5B confirmed the crucial role of these PRK2 phosphorylation sites in viral RNA replication. Molecular-modeling studies predicted that the phosphorylation of NS5B stabilizes the interactions between its Δ1 loop and thumb subdomain, which are required for the formation of the closed conformation of NS5B known to be important for de novo RNA synthesis. Collectively, our results provide evidence that HCV NS5B phosphorylation has a positive regulatory role in HCV RNA replication. While the role of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) in viral RNA replication is clear, little is known about their functional regulation by phosphorylation. In this study, we addressed several important questions about the function and structure of phosphorylated hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B). Reverse-genetics studies with HCV replicons encoding phosphorylation-defective NS5B mutants and analysis of their RdRp activities revealed previously unidentified

  10. Zipper-mediated oligomerization of the mixed lineage kinase SPRK/MLK-3 is not required for its activation by the GTPase cdc 42 but Is necessary for its activation of the JNK pathway. Monomeric SPRK L410P does not catalyze the activating phosphorylation of Thr258 of murine MITOGEN-ACTIVATED protein kinase kinase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacratsis, P O; Gallo, K A

    2000-09-08

    Src homology 3 domain-containing proline-rich kinase (SPRK)/mixed lineage kinase-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has been identified as an upstream activator of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. SPRK is capable of activating MKK4 by phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues, and mutant forms of MKK4 that lack the phosphorylation sites Ser(254) and Thr(258) block SPRK-induced JNK activation. A region of 63 amino acids following the kinase domain of SPRK is predicted to form a leucine zipper. The leucine zipper domain of SPRK has been shown to be necessary and sufficient for SPRK oligomerization, but its role in regulating activation of SPRK and downstream signaling remains unclear. In this study, we substituted a proposed stabilizing leucine residue in the zipper domain with a helix-disrupting proline to abrogate zipper-mediated SPRK oligomerization. We demonstrate that constitutively activated Cdc42 fully activates this monomeric SPRK mutant in terms of both autophosphorylation and histone phosphorylation activity and induces the same in vivo phosphorylation pattern as wild type SPRK. However, this catalytically active SPRK zipper mutant is unable to activate JNK. Our data show that the monomeric SPRK mutant fails to phosphorylate one of the two activating phosphorylation sites, Thr(258), of MKK4. These studies suggest that zipper-mediated SPRK oligomerization is not required for SPRK activation by Cdc42 but instead is critical for proper interaction and phosphorylation of a downstream target, MKK4.

  11. Serine 83 in DosR, a response regulator from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, promotes its transition from an activated, phosphorylated state to an inactive, unphosphorylated state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Kang, Beom Sik

    2014-02-21

    A sensor kinase, DosS, and its corresponding response regulator, DosR, constitute a two component system for regulating gene expression under hypoxic conditions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among response regulators in M. tuberculosis, NarL has high sequence similarity to DosR, and autophosphorylated DosS transfers its phosphate group not only to DosR but also to NarL. Phosphorylated DosR is more rapidly dephosphorylated than phosphorylated NarL. DosR and NarL differ with respect to the amino acids at positions T+1 and T+2 around the phosphorylation sites in the N-terminal phosphoacceptor domain; NarL has S83 and Y84, whereas DosR has A90 and H91. A DosR S83A mutant shows prolonged phosphorylation. Structural comparison with a histidinol phosphate phosphatase suggests that the hydroxyl group of DosR S83 could play a role in activating the water molecule involved in the triggering of autodephosphorylation.

  12. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Sherman, David R.; Hol, Wim G. J.

    2008-01-01

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one third of the world’s population. Here we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 Å and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 Å resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected (βα)4 topology instead of the canonical (βα)5 fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation which contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix α10 which provides Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix α10 residues different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism. PMID:18353359

  13. Enhanced Activity and Altered Specificity of Phospholipase A2 by Deletion of a Surface Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Oscar P.; Thunnissen, Marjolein M.G.M.; Geus, Pieter de; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Drenth, Jan; Verheij, Hubertus M.; Haas, Gerard H. de

    1989-01-01

    Protein engineering and x-ray crystallography have been used to study the role of a surface loop that is present in pancreatic phospholipases but is absent in snake venom phospholipases. Removal of residues 62 to 66 from porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 does not change the binding constant for mi

  14. Enhanced Activity and Altered Specificity of Phospholipase A2 by Deletion of a Surface Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Oscar P.; Thunnissen, Marjolein M.G.M.; Geus, Pieter de; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Drenth, Jan; Verheij, Hubertus M.; Haas, Gerard H. de

    1989-01-01

    Protein engineering and x-ray crystallography have been used to study the role of a surface loop that is present in pancreatic phospholipases but is absent in snake venom phospholipases. Removal of residues 62 to 66 from porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 does not change the binding constant for mi

  15. Homology models of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9 with a focus on loop predictions near the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummey, Christian; Metz, Günther

    2007-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DP4) inhibitors are currently under intensive investigation in late-stage clinical trials as a treatment for type II diabetes. Lack of selectivity toward the related enzymes DP8 and DP9 has recently emerged as a possible source of drug-induced toxicity. Unlike DP4, X-ray structures of DP8 and DP9 are not yet available. As an aid to understanding the structural basis for selectivity, the authors have constructed homology models of DP8 and DP9 based on the X-ray coordinates of DP4. Accurate sequence alignment reveals common structural features indicative for a well-preserved overall fold comprising two domains, namely, a hydrolase domain and a so-called beta-propeller, which together form the active site deeply buried within the protein. The conformation of two loops inside this deep cavity is particularly relevant for the active sites. The authors used a published protocol for loop prediction based on conformational sampling and energy analysis to generate plausible solutions for these two loops. The predictive power of the approach was successfully evaluated for the template protein DP4 and two additional known structures from the same protein family, namely, FAP and DPX. The authors also show that inclusion of the covalent ligand NVP-728 greatly enhances the refinement. Based on the established evaluation protocol, the corresponding loops of DP8 and DP9 were predicted and the resulting active sites were compared with DP4. In particular, the authors conclude that differences in the P2-pocket are relevant for the design of selective DP4 inhibitors. The loss of key interactions in DP8 and DP9 as predicted from their models is consistent with the selectivity profile of the DP4 clinical candidate MK-431.

  16. Active Site Loop Dynamics of a Class IIa Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegan, Scott D. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Rukseree, Kamolchanok [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), Tha Khlong (Thailand); Capodagli, Glenn C. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Baker, Erica A. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States); Krasnykh, Olga [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Franzblau, Scott G. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Mesecar, Andrew D. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-01-08

    The class II fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs, EC 4.1.2.13) comprises one of two families of aldolases. Instead of forming a Schiff base intermediate using an ε-amino group of a lysine side chain, class II FBAs utilize Zn(II) to stabilize a proposed hydroxyenolate intermediate (HEI) in the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, forming glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). As class II FBAs have been shown to be essential in pathogenic bacteria, focus has been placed on these enzymes as potential antibacterial targets. Although structural studies of class II FBAs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtFBA), other bacteria, and protozoa have been reported, the structure of the active site loop responsible for catalyzing the protonation–deprotonation steps of the reaction for class II FBAs has not yet been observed. We therefore utilized the potent class II FBA inhibitor phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) as a mimic of the HEI- and DHAP-bound form of the enzyme and determined the X-ray structure of the MtFBA–PGH complex to 1.58 Å. Remarkably, we are able to observe well-defined electron density for the previously elusive active site loop of MtFBA trapped in a catalytically competent orientation. Utilization of this structural information and site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic studies conducted on a series of residues within the active site loop revealed that E169 facilitates a water-mediated deprotonation–protonation step of the MtFBA reaction mechanism. Furthermore, solvent isotope effects on MtFBA and catalytically relevant mutants were used to probe the effect of loop flexibility on catalytic efficiency. Additionally, we also reveal the structure of MtFBA in its holoenzyme form.

  17. Activation of high and low affinity dopamine receptors generates a closed loop that maintains a conductance ratio and its activity correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf-Dieter Christian Krenz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulators alter network output and have the potential to destabilize a circuit. The mechanisms maintaining stability in the face of neuromodulation are not well described. Using the pyloric network in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, we show that dopamine (DA does not simply alter circuit output, but activates a closed loop in which DA-induced alterations in circuit output consequently drive a change in an ionic conductance to preserve a conductance ratio and its activity correlate. DA acted at low affinity type 1 receptors (D1Rs to induce an immediate modulatory decrease in the transient potassium current (IA of a pyloric neuron. This, in turn, advanced the activity phase of that component neuron, which disrupted its network function and thereby destabilized the circuit. DA simultaneously acted at high affinity D1Rs on the same neuron to confer activity-dependence upon the hyperpolarization activated current (Ih such that the DA-induced changes in activity subsequently reduced Ih. This DA-enabled, activity-dependent, intrinsic plasticity exactly compensated for the modulatory decrease in IA to restore the IA:Ih ratio and neuronal activity phase, thereby closing an open loop created by the modulator. Activation of closed loops to preserve conductance ratios may represent a fundamental operating principle neuromodulatory systems use to ensure stability in their target networks.

  18. Recombinant production of enzymatically active male contraceptive drug target hTSSK2 - Localization of the TSKS domain phosphorylated by TSSK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jagathpala; Sinville, Rondedrick; Shumilin, Igor A; Minor, Wladek; Zhang, Jianhai; Hawkinson, Jon E; Georg, Gunda I; Flickinger, Charles J; Herr, John C

    2016-05-01

    The testis-specific serine/threonine kinase 2 (TSSK2) has been proposed as a candidate male contraceptive target. Development of a selective inhibitor for this kinase first necessitates the production of highly purified, soluble human TSSK2 and its substrate, TSKS, with high yields and retention of biological activity for crystallography and compound screening. Strategies to produce full-length, soluble, biologically active hTSSK2 in baculovirus expression systems were tested and refined. Soluble preparations of TSSK2 were purified by immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by gel filtration chromatography. The biological activities of rec.hTSSK2 were verified by in vitro kinase and mobility shift assays using bacterially produced hTSKS (isoform 2), casein, glycogen synthase peptide (GS peptide) and various TSKS peptides as target substrates. Purified recombinant hTSSK2 showed robust kinase activity in the in vitro kinase assay by phosphorylating hTSKS isoform 2 and casein. The ATP Km values were similar for highly and partially purified fractions of hTSSK2 (2.2 and 2.7 μM, respectively). The broad spectrum kinase inhibitor staurosporine was a potent inhibitor of rec.hTSSK2 (IC50 = 20 nM). In vitro phosphorylation experiments carried out with TSKS (isoform 1) fragments revealed particularly strong phosphorylation of a recombinant N-terminal region representing aa 1-150 of TSKS, indicating that the N-terminus of human TSKS is phosphorylated by human TSSK2. Production of full-length enzymatically active recombinant TSSK2 kinase represents the achievement of a key benchmark for future discovery of TSSK inhibitors as male contraceptive agents.

  19. Phosphorylated Histone 3 at Serine 10 Identifies Activated Spinal Neurons and Contributes to the Development of Tissue Injury-Associated Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pérez, Jose Vicente; Sántha, Péter; Varga, Angelika; Szucs, Peter; Sousa-Valente, Joao; Gaal, Botond; Sivadó, Miklós; Andreou, Anna P; Beattie, Sara; Nagy, Bence; Matesz, Klara; C. Arthur, J. Simon; Jancsó, Gábor; Nagy, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional changes in superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons (SSDHN) are essential in the development and maintenance of prolonged pain. Epigenetic mechanisms including post-translational modifications in histones are pivotal in regulating transcription. Here, we report that phosphorylation of serine 10 (S10) in histone 3 (H3) specifically occurs in a group of rat SSDHN following the activation of nociceptive primary sensory neurons by burn injury, capsaicin application or sustained electrical activation of nociceptive primary sensory nerve fibres. In contrast, brief thermal or mechanical nociceptive stimuli, which fail to induce tissue injury or inflammation, do not produce the same effect. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors or activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, or blocking or deleting the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases 1 and 2 (MSK1/2), which phosphorylate S10 in H3, inhibit up-regulation in phosphorylated S10 in H3 (p-S10H3) as well as fos transcription, a down-stream effect of p-S10H3. Deleting MSK1/2 also inhibits the development of carrageenan-induced inflammatory heat hyperalgesia in mice. We propose that p-S10H3 is a novel marker for nociceptive processing in SSDHN with high relevance to transcriptional changes and the development of prolonged pain. PMID:28120884

  20. A closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjurul Islam, Md.; Ding, Xuejun; He, Yuping

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) with active trailer steering (ATS) systems. AHVs have poor manoeuvrability at low speeds and exhibit low lateral stability at high speeds. From the design point of view, there exists a trade-off relationship between AHVs' manoeuvrability and stability. For example, fewer articulation points and longer wheelbases will improve high-speed lateral stability, but they will degrade low-speed manoeuvrability. To tackle this conflicting design problem, a systematic method is proposed for the design of AHVs with ATS systems. In order to evaluate vehicle performance measures under a well-defined testing manoeuvre, a driver model is introduced and it 'drivers' the vehicle model to follow a prescribed route at a given speed. Considering the interactions between the mechanical trailer and the ATS system, the proposed design method simultaneously optimises the active design variables of the controllers and passive design variables of the trailer in a single design loop (SDL). Through the design optimisation of an ATS system for an AHV with a truck and a drawbar trailer combination, this SDL method is compared against a published two design loop method. The benchmark investigation shows that the former can determine better trade-off design solutions than those derived by the latter. This SDL method provides an effective approach to automatically implement the design synthesis of AHVs with ATS systems.

  1. Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation complex activity: effects of tissue-specific metabolic stress within an allometric series and acute changes in workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Darci; Covian, Raul; Aponte, Angel M; Glancy, Brian; Taylor, Joni F; Chess, David; Balaban, Robert S

    2012-05-01

    The concentration of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes (MOPCs) is tuned to the maximum energy conversion requirements of a given tissue; however, whether the activity of MOPCs is altered in response to acute changes in energy conversion demand is unclear. We hypothesized that MOPCs activity is modulated by tissue metabolic stress to maintain the energy-metabolism homeostasis. Metabolic stress was defined as the observed energy conversion rate/maximum energy conversion rate. The maximum energy conversion rate was assumed to be proportional to the concentration of MOPCs, as determined with optical spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. The resting metabolic stress of the heart and liver across the range of resting metabolic rates within an allometric series (mouse, rabbit, and pig) was determined from MPOCs content and literature respiratory values. The metabolic stress of the liver was high and nearly constant across the allometric series due to the proportional increase in MOPCs content with resting metabolic rate. In contrast, the MOPCs content of the heart was essentially constant in the allometric series, resulting in an increasing metabolic stress with decreasing animal size. The MOPCs activity was determined in native gels, with an emphasis on Complex V. Extracted MOPCs enzyme activity was proportional to resting metabolic stress across tissues and species. Complex V activity was also shown to be acutely modulated by changes in metabolic stress in the heart, in vivo and in vitro. The modulation of extracted MOPCs activity suggests that persistent posttranslational modifications (PTMs) alter MOPCs activity both chronically and acutely, specifically in the heart. Protein phosphorylation of Complex V was correlated with activity inhibition under several conditions, suggesting that protein phosphorylation may contribute to activity modulation with energy metabolic stress. These data are consistent with the notion that metabolic

  2. Structural Characterization of the Loop at the Alpha-Subunit C-Terminus of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia Protein Activating Protease Taspase1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van den Boom

    Full Text Available Type 2 asparaginases, a subfamily of N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn hydrolases, are activated by limited proteolysis. This activation yields a heterodimer and a loop region at the C-terminus of the α-subunit is released. Since this region is unresolved in all type 2 asparaginase crystal structures but is close to the active site residues, we explored this loop region in six members of the type 2 asparaginase family using homology modeling. As the loop model for the childhood cancer-relevant protease Taspase1 differed from the other members, Taspase1 activation as well as the conformation and dynamics of the 56 amino acids loop were investigated by CD and NMR spectroscopy. We propose a helix-turn-helix motif, which can be exploited as novel anticancer target to inhibit Taspase1 proteolytic activity.

  3. Synaptically Driven Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Is Differentially Regulated at Active Synapses versus Dendrites and Cell Bodies by MAPK and PI3K/mTOR Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2017-01-01

    High-frequency stimulation of the medial perforant path triggers robust phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in activated dendritic domains and granule cell bodies. Here we dissect the signaling pathways responsible for synaptically driven rpS6 phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus using pharmacological agents to inhibit PI3-kinase/mTOR…

  4. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  5. Rapamycin inhibition of baculovirus recombinant (BVr ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1 is mediated by an event other than phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beigh Mushtaq A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1(S6K1 is an evolutionary conserved kinase that is activated in response to growth factors and viral stimuli to influence cellular growth and proliferation. This downstream effector of target of rapamycin (TOR signaling cascade is known to be directly activated by TOR- kinase mediated hydrophobic motif (HM phosphorylation at Threonine 412 (T412. Selective loss of this phosphorylation by inactivation of TOR kinase or activation/recruitment of a phosphatase has accordingly been implicated in mediating inhibition by rapamycin. Findings We present evidence that baculovirus driven expression of S6K1 in insect cells (Sf9 fails to activate the enzyme and instead renders it modestly active representing 4-6 folds less activity than its fully active mammalian counterpart. Contrary to the contention that viral infection activates TOR signaling pathway, we report that BVr enzyme fails to exhibit putative TOR dependent phosphorylation at the HM and the resultant phosphorylation at the activation loop (AL of the enzyme, correlating with the level of activity observed. Surprisingly, the BVr enzyme continued to exhibit sensitivity to rapamycin that remained unaffected by mutations compromised for TOR phosphorylation (T412A or deletions compromised for TOR binding (ΔNH 2-46/ΔCT104. Conclusions These data together with the ability of the BVr enzyme to resist inactivation by phosphatases indicate that inhibition by rapamycin is not mediated by any phosphorylation event in general and TOR dependent phosphorylation in particular.

  6. Discrete nuclear structures in actively growing neuroblastoma cells are revealed by antibodies raised against phosphorylated neurofilament proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raabe Timothy D

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear objects that have in common the property of being recognized by monoclonal antibodies specific for phosphoprotein epitopes and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (in particular, SMI-31 and RT-97 have been reported in glial and neuronal cells, in situ and in vitro. Since neurofilament and glial filaments are generally considered to be restricted to the cytoplasm, we were interested in exploring the identity of the structures labeled in the nucleus as well as the conditions under which they could be found there. Results Using confocal microscopy and western analysis techniques, we determined 1 the immunolabeled structures are truly within the nucleus; 2 the phosphoepitope labeled by SMI-31 and RT-97 is not specific to neurofilaments (NFs and it can be identified on other intermediate filament proteins (IFs in other cell types; and 3 there is a close relationship between DNA synthesis and the amount of nuclear staining by these antibodies thought to be specific for cytoplasmic proteins. Searches of protein data bases for putative phosphorylation motifs revealed that lamins, NF-H, and GFAP each contain a single tyrosine phosphorylation motif with nearly identical amino acid sequence. Conclusion We therefore suggest that this sequence may be the epitope recognized by SMI-31 and RT-97 mABs, and that the nuclear structures previously reported and shown here are likely phosphorylated lamin intermediate filaments, while the cytoplasmic labeling revealed by the same mABs indicates phosphorylated NFs in neurons or GFAP in glia.

  7. Comparison of Peptide Array Substrate Phosphorylation of c-Raf and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parikh, Kaushal; Diks, Sander H.; Tuynman, Jurriaan H. B.; Verhaar, Auke; Lowenberg, Mark; Hommes, Daan W.; Joore, Jos; Pandey, Akhilesh; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2009-01-01

    Kinases are pivotal regulators of cellular physiology. The human genome contains more than 500 putative kinases, which exert their action via the phosphorylation of specific substrates. The determinants of this specificity are still only partly understood and as a consequence it is difficult to pred

  8. Phosphoproteomic analysis of protein kinase C signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of eisosome core components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaraque, Victoria; Hernáez, María Luisa; Jiménez-Sánchez, María; Hansen, Rasmus; Gil, Concha; Martín, Humberto; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María

    2013-03-01

    The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway of the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thoroughly studied as a paradigm of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. It consists of a classic MAPK module comprising the Bck1 MAPK kinase kinase, two redundant MAPK kinases (Mkk1 and Mkk2), and the Slt2 MAPK. This module is activated under a variety of stimuli related to cell wall homeostasis by Pkc1, the only member of the protein kinase C family in budding yeast. Quantitative phosphoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture is a powerful tool for globally studying protein phosphorylation. Here we report an analysis of the yeast phosphoproteome upon overexpression of a PKC1 hyperactive allele that specifically activates CWI MAPK signaling in the absence of external stimuli. We found 82 phosphopeptides originating from 43 proteins that showed enhanced phosphorylation in these conditions. The MAPK S/T-P target motif was significantly overrepresented in these phosphopeptides. Hyperphosphorylated proteins provide putative novel targets of the Pkc1-cell wall integrity pathway involved in diverse functions such as the control of gene expression, protein synthesis, cytoskeleton maintenance, DNA repair, and metabolism. Remarkably, five components of the plasma-membrane-associated protein complex known as eisosomes were found among the up-regulated proteins. We show here that Pkc1-induced phosphorylation of the eisosome core components Pil1 and Lsp1 was not exerted directly by Pkc1, but involved signaling through the Slt2 MAPK module.

  9. Modulation of constitutive activity and signaling bias of the ghrelin receptor by conformational constraint in the second extracellular loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokrosinski, Jacek; Frimurer, Thomas M; Sivertsen, Bjoern

    2012-01-01

    phenotypes as the negatively charged Glu residue. Computational chemistry analysis indicated that the propensity for the C-terminal segment of ECL2b to form an extended a-helix was increased from 15% in the wild type to 89% and 82% by introduction in position 204(C+6) of a Glu or a Lys residue, respectively....... Moreover, the constitutive activity of the receptor was inhibited by Zn(2+) binding in an engineered metal-ion site stabilizing an a-helical conformation of this loop segment. It is concluded that the high constitutive activity of the ghrelin receptor is dependent upon flexibility in the C-terminal segment...

  10. Active ERK1/2 protein interacts with the phosphorylated nuclear constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3), repressing dephosphorylation and sequestering CAR in the cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osabe, Makoto; Negishi, Masahiko

    2011-10-14

    The nuclear constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) is inactivated and sequestered in the cytoplasm when Thr-38 is phosphorylated. Here, we have demonstrated that activated ERK1/2 interacts with phosphorylated CAR to repress dephosphorylation of Thr-38. The phosphorylation-dependent interaction between CAR and ERK1/2 was examined by co-immunoprecipitation experiments of ectopically expressed FLAG-tagged CAR T38A and CAR T38D mutants with endogenous phospho-ERK1/2 in Huh-7 cells. Phospho-ERK1/2 coprecipitated only the phosphorylation-mimicking CAR T38D mutant; this coprecipitation was mediated by the interaction with the xenochemical response signal peptide near the C terminus of CAR. This interaction increased after EGF treatment and decreased after treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126 as well as after knockdown of MEK1/2 by shRNA in Huh-7 cells. The phosphorylation levels of Thr-38 of CAR decreased in U0126-treated Huh-7 cells. Thus, activated ERK1/2 interacts with CAR and represses dephosphorylation of Thr-38, providing a cell signal-regulated mechanism for CAR activation.

  11. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Moraes, Carlos T.; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Edwards, Brian F. P.; Hüttemann, Maik

    2016-10-07

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc. Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr28 in vivo. We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via “controlled respiration,” preventing ΔΨm hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis.

  12. Structural ordering of disordered ligand-binding loops of biotin protein ligase into active conformations as a consequence of dehydration.

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    Vibha Gupta

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, a dreaded pathogen, has a unique cell envelope composed of high fatty acid content that plays a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Acetyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase (ACC, an important enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction of fatty acid biosynthesis, is biotinylated by biotin acetyl-CoA carboxylase ligase (BirA. The ligand-binding loops in all known apo BirAs to date are disordered and attain an ordered structure only after undergoing a conformational change upon ligand-binding. Here, we report that dehydration of Mtb-BirA crystals traps both the apo and active conformations in its asymmetric unit, and for the first time provides structural evidence of such transformation. Recombinant Mtb-BirA was crystallized at room temperature, and diffraction data was collected at 295 K as well as at 120 K. Transfer of crystals to paraffin and paratone-N oil (cryoprotectants prior to flash-freezing induced lattice shrinkage and enhancement in the resolution of the X-ray diffraction data. Intriguingly, the crystal lattice rearrangement due to shrinkage in the dehydrated Mtb-BirA crystals ensued structural order of otherwise flexible ligand-binding loops L4 and L8 in apo BirA. In addition, crystal dehydration resulted in a shift of approximately 3.5 A in the flexible loop L6, a proline-rich loop unique to Mtb complex as well as around the L11 region. The shift in loop L11 in the C-terminal domain on dehydration emulates the action responsible for the complex formation with its protein ligand biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP domain of ACCA3. This is contrary to the involvement of loop L14 observed in Pyrococcus horikoshii BirA-BCCP complex. Another interesting feature that emerges from this dehydrated structure is that the two subunits A and B, though related by a noncrystallographic twofold symmetry, assemble into an asymmetric dimer representing the ligand-bound and ligand-free states of the protein, respectively. In

  13. Ineffective Phosphorylation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Hog1p in Response to High Osmotic Stress in the Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Zavala, Nancy; Rodríguez-González, Miriam; Navarro-Olmos, Rocío; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Kawasaki, Laura; Torres-Quiroz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    When treated with a hyperosmotic stimulus, Kluyveromyces lactis cells respond by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) K. lactis Hog1 (KlHog1) protein via two conserved branches, SLN1 and SHO1. Mutants affected in only one branch can cope with external hyperosmolarity by activating KlHog1p by phosphorylation, except for single ΔKlste11 and ΔKlste50 mutants, which showed high sensitivity to osmotic stress, even though the other branch (SLN1) was intact. Inactivation of both branches by deletion of KlSHO1 and KlSSK2 also produced sensitivity to high salt. Interestingly, we have observed that in ΔKlste11 and ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutants, which exhibit sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and contrary to what would be expected, KlHog1p becomes phosphorylated. Additionally, in mutants lacking both MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) present in K. lactis (KlSte11p and KlSsk2p), the hyperosmotic stress induced the phosphorylation and nuclear internalization of KlHog1p, but it failed to induce the transcriptional expression of KlSTL1 and the cell was unable to grow in high-osmolarity medium. KlHog1p phosphorylation via the canonical HOG pathway or in mutants where the SHO1 and SLN1 branches have been inactivated requires not only the presence of KlPbs2p but also its kinase activity. This indicates that when the SHO1 and SLN1 branches are inactivated, high-osmotic-stress conditions activate an independent input that yields active KlPbs2p, which, in turn, renders KlHog1p phosphorylation ineffective. Finally, we found that KlSte11p can alleviate the sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress displayed by a ΔKlsho1 ΔKlssk2 mutant when it is anchored to the plasma membrane by adding the KlSho1p transmembrane segments, indicating that this chimeric protein can substitute for KlSho1p and KlSsk2p. PMID:26150414

  14. Activation of cyclin D1 by estradiol and spermine in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: a mechanism involving the p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylation of ATF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joan S; Vijayanathan, Veena; Thomas, T J; Pestell, Richard G; Albanese, Chris; Gallo, Michael A; Thomas, Thresia

    2005-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) and the naturally occurring polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) play important roles in breast cancer cell growth and differentiation. We examined the effects of E2 and spermine on the phosphorylation and DNA binding of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATF-2 is a transcription factor involved in estrogenic regulation of cyclin D1 gene, and thereby cell cycle progression. DNA affinity immunoblot assays showed a six- to eightfold increase in the binding of ATF-2 to a 74-mer ATF/CRE oligonucleotide (ODN1) from cyclin D1 promoter in the presence of 4 nM E2 and 0.5 mM spermine, compared to untreated control. Individual treatments with E2 or spermine caused a twofold or lower increase in ATF-2 binding to ODN1. Immunoblotting with phospho-ATF-2 antibody showed that increased DNA binding of ATF-2 was associated with its phosphorylation. A p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, PD169316, inhibited ATF-2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the MEK-ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, or the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, had no significant effect on DNA binding of ATF-2. Cyclin D1 promoter (-1745CD1) activity increased by approximately 12-fold (above control) in the presence of E2 and spermine, compared to a sixfold increase in the presence of E2 alone and a twofold increase with spermine. Cells transfected with a dominant negative mutant of ATF-2 showed decreased transactivation of cyclin D1 promoter in response to E2 and spermine. These results indicate that spermine can enhance E2-induced cell signaling and cyclin D1 transcription by activation of the p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylation of ATF-2, contributing to breast cancer cell proliferation.

  15. A Requirement for SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Phosphorylation in Bcr-Abl-Induced Tumorigenesis

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    Xiaoxue Qiu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 (SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 are inhibitors of the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT pathway and function in a negative feedback loop during cytokine signaling. Abl transformation is associated with constitutive activation of JAK/STAT-dependent signaling. However, the mechanism by which Abl oncoproteins bypass SOCS inhibitory regulation remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that coexpression of Bcr-Abl with SOCS-1 or SOCS-3 results in tyrosine phosphorylation of these SOCS proteins. Interestingly, SOCS-1 is highly tyrosine phosphorylated in one of five primary chronic myelogenous leukemia samples. Bcr-Abl-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 occurs mainly on Tyr 155 and Tyr 204 residues of SOCS-1 and on Tyr 221 residue of SOCS-3. We observed that phosphorylation of these SOCS proteins was associated with their binding to Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl-dependent phosphorylation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 diminished their inhibitory effects on the activation of JAK and STAT5 and thereby enhanced JAK/STAT5 signaling. Strikingly, disrupting the tyrosine phosphorylation of SOCS-1 or SOCS-3 impaired the expression of Bcl-XL protein and sensitized K562 leukemic cells to undergo apoptosis. Moreover, selective mutation of tyrosine phosphorylation sites of SOCS-1 or SOCS-3 significantly blocked Bcr-Abl-mediated tumorigenesis in nude mice and inhibited Bcr-Abl-mediated murine bone marrow transformation. Together, these results reveal a mechanism of how Bcr-Abl may overcome SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibition to constitutively activate the JAK/STAT-dependent signaling, and suggest that Bcr-Abl may critically requires tyrosine phosphorylation of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 to mediate tumorigenesis when these SOCS proteins are present in cells.

  16. Physical Activity Capture Technology With Potential for Incorporation Into Closed-Loop Control for Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlani, Vikash; Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Dassau, Eyal; Kudva, Yogish C

    2015-10-18

    Physical activity is an important determinant of glucose variability in type 1 diabetes (T1D). It has been incorporated as a nonglucose input into closed-loop control (CLC) protocols for T1D during the last 4 years mainly by 3 research groups in single center based controlled clinical trials involving a maximum of 18 subjects in any 1 study. Although physical activity data capture may have clinical benefit in patients with T1D by impacting cardiovascular fitness and optimal body weight achievement and maintenance, limited number of such studies have been conducted to date. Clinical trial registries provide information about a single small sample size 2 center prospective study incorporating physical activity data input to modulate closed-loop control in T1D that are seeking to build on prior studies. We expect an increase in such studies especially since the NIH has expanded support of this type of research with additional grants starting in the second half of 2015. Studies (1) involving patients with other disorders that have lasted 12 weeks or longer and tracked physical activity and (2) including both aerobic and resistance activity may offer insights about the user experience and device optimization even as single input CLC heads into real-world clinical trials over the next few years and nonglucose input is introduced as the next advance.

  17. Interaction between 2 extracellular loops influences the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Steven D; Wang, Wuyang; Linsdell, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is thought to be controlled by cytoplasmic factors. However, recent evidence has shown that overall channel activity is also influenced by extracellular anions that interact directly with the extracellular loops (ECLs) of the CFTR protein. Very little is known about the structure of the ECLs or how substances interacting with these ECLs might affect CFTR function. We used patch-clamp recording to investigate the accessibility of cysteine-reactive reagents to cysteines introduced throughout ECL1 and 2 key sites in ECL4. Furthermore, interactions between ECL1 and ECL4 were investigated by the formation of disulfide crosslinks between cysteines introduced into these 2 regions. Crosslinks could be formed between R899C (in ECL4) and a number of sites in ECL1 in a manner that was dependent on channel activity, suggesting that the relative orientation of these 2 loops changes on activation. Formation of these crosslinks inhibited channel function, suggesting that relative movement of these ECLs is important to normal channel function. Implications of these findings for the effects of mutations in the ECLs that are associated with cystic fibrosis and interactions with extracellular substances that influence channel activity are discussed.

  18. Amplification activation loop between caspase-8 and -9 dominates artemisinin-induced apoptosis of ASTC-a-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fenglian; Gao, Weijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2012-06-01

    Although caspases have been demonstrated to be involved in artemisinin (ARTE)-induced apoptosis, their exact functions are not well understood. The aim of this report is to explore the roles of caspase-8, -9 and -3 during ARTE-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells. ARTE treatment induces a rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ROS-dependent apoptosis as well as the activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3 via time- and dose-dependent fashion. Of upmost importance, inhibition of caspase-8 or -9, but not caspase-3, almost completely blocks the ARTE-induced not only activation of the caspase-8, -9 and -3 but also apoptosis. In addition, the apoptotic process triggered by ARTE does not involve the Bid cleavage, tBid translocation, significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Moreover, silencing Bax/Bak does not prevent the ATRE-induced cell death as well as the activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3. Collectively, our data firstly demonstrate that ARTE triggers a ROS-mediated positive feedback amplification activation loop between caspase-8 and -9 independent of mitochondria, which dominantly mediated the ARTE-induced apoptosis via a caspase-3-independent apoptotic pathway in ASTC-a-1 cells. Our findings imply a potential to develop new derivatives from artemisinin to effectively initiate the amplification activation loop of caspases.

  19. Short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in tonically-active and in tonically-inactive dopamine neurons: effects of haloperidol and protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuvone, P M

    1983-09-26

    Dopamine (DA)-containing neurons of retina were employed as an experimental model for studying the short-term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in tonically-active and tonically-inactive neurons. These DA-containing neurons are trans-synaptically activated by light. Two mechanisms have been observed in this system for regulation of TH activity. A short-term activation of TH that is characterized by a decreased apparent Km for pteridine cofactors occurs in response to rapid increases of neuronal activity. A second mechanism occurs in response to prolonged, tonic changes of neuronal activity and is characterized by changes of Vmax. Both the Km changes and Vmax changes represent changes of specific activity of TH rather than enzyme induction. To determine the effects of short-term increases of neuronal activity on TH in tonically-active and tonically-inactive neurons, the effects of acute administration of haloperidol were examined in rats that were continuously light-exposed or light-deprived for 4 days. Haloperidol increased TH activity in both light-exposed and light-deprived retinas. The drug elicited the same percent stimulation in both experimental conditions. However, because the basal activity of TH was higher in the light-exposed than the light-deprived retinas, the absolute increase of TH specific activity was greater in the light-exposed samples. The effect of protein phosphorylation on TH activity in extracts of chronically light-exposed or light-deprived retinas was also examined to determine if the differences in the response to haloperidol might be due to a difference in the amount of TH available for short-term activation. Phosphorylation by endogenous cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (APK) or by purified catalytic subunit of APK resulted in larger increases of TH specific activity in extracts of light-exposed retinas than in those of light-deprived retinas. As was observed for haloperidol-induced activation, the percent stimulation elicited

  20. Differential regulation of phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein after activation of EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors by prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Hiromichi; Salvi, Sambhitab; Regan, John W

    2005-07-01

    The EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors whose activation by their endogenous ligand, prostaglandin (PG) E2, stimulates the formation of intracellular cAMP. We have previously reported that the stimulation of cAMP formation in EP4-expressing cells is significantly less than in EP2-expressing cells, despite nearly identical levels of receptor expression (J Biol Chem 277:2614-2619, 2002). In addition, a component of EP4 receptor signaling, but not of EP2 receptor signaling, was found to involve the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). In this study, we report that PGE2 stimulation of cells expressing either the EP2 or EP4 receptor results in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at serine-133. Pretreatment of cells with N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline (H-89), an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), attenuated the PGE2-mediated phosphorylation of CREB in EP2-expressing cells, but not in EP4-expressing cells. Pretreatment of cells with wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, had no effects on the PGE2-mediated phosphorylation of CREB in either EP2- or EP4-expressing cells, although it significantly increased the PGE2-mediated activation of PKA in EP4-expressing cells. However, combined pretreatment with H-89 and wortmannin blocked PGE2-mediated phosphorylation in EP2-expressing cells as well as in EP2-expressing cells. PGE2-mediated intracellular cAMP formation was not affected by pretreatment with wortmannin, or combined treatment with wortmannin and H-89, in either the EP2- or EP4-expressing cells. These findings suggest that PGE2 stimulation of EP4 receptors, but not EP2 receptors, results in the activation of a PI3K signaling pathway that inhibits the activity of PKA and that the PGE2-mediated phosphorylation of CREB by these receptors occurs through different signaling pathways

  1. The Mechanism of Phosphoryl Transfer Reaction and the Role of Active Site Residues on the Basis of Ribokinase-Like Kinases

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    Edyta Dyguda

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of ribokinase-like carbohydrate kinases consists in ATP dependent phosphorylation of small molecules containing hydroxymethyl group. Although they differ substantially in structural terms and exhibit a broad substrate specificity, some family-wide conserved features can be distinguished suggesting the common mode of action. 4-methyl-5-β-hydroxyethylthiazole kinase (Thz kinase was chosen as a representative model and the mechanism proposed in X-ray crystal structure paper provided the basis for calculations. In particular, the possible role of several active site residues (Arg121 and Cys198 among others and of the two magnesium ions was examined. Static and dynamic catalytic fields for the reaction were generated revealing the most favourable environment for the preferential transition state stabilization. An attempt to model the phosphoryl transfer reaction as well as to investigate the influence of the cysteine residue on the reaction course at the semiempirical PM3 level of theory was undertaken.

  2. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase and IkappaB phosphorylation by 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) in activated murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, A; Díaz-Guerra, M J; Hortelano, S; Martín-Sanz, P; Boscá, L

    2000-03-01

    Activation of the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces the expression of gene products involved in host defense, among them type 2 nitric oxide synthase. Treatment of cells with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15dPGJ(2)) inhibited the LPS- and IFN-gamma-dependent synthesis of NO, a process that was not antagonized by similar concentrations of prostaglandin J(2), prostaglandin E(2), or rosiglitazone, a peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand. Incubation of activated macrophages with 15dPGJ(2) inhibited the degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta and increased their levels in the nuclei. NF-kappaB activity, as well as the transcription of NF-kappaB-dependent genes, such as those encoding type 2 nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, was impaired under these conditions. Analysis of the steps leading to IkappaB phosphorylation showed an inhibition of IkappaB kinase by 15dPGJ(2) in cells treated with LPS and IFN-gamma, resulting in an impaired phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, at least in the serine 32 residue required for targeting and degradation of this protein. Incubation of partially purified activated IkappaB kinase with 2 microM 15dPGJ(2) reduced by 83% the phosphorylation in serine 32 of IkappaBalpha, suggesting that this prostaglandin exerts direct inhibitory effects on the activity of the IkappaB kinase complex. These results show rapid actions of 15dPGJ(2), independent of peroxisomal proliferator receptor gamma activation, in macrophages challenged with low doses of LPS and IFN-gamma.

  3. ERK MAP kinase activation in spinal cord regulates phosphorylation of Cdk5 at serine 159 and contributes to peripheral inflammation induced pain/hypersensitivity.

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    Xiaoqin Zhang

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase and its activity participates in the regulation of nociceptive signaling. Like binding with the activators (P35 or P25, the phosphorylation of Cdk5 plays a critical role in Cdk5 activation. However, it is still unclear whether Cdk5 phosphorylation (p-Cdk5 contributes to pain hyperalgesia. The aim of our current study was to identify the roles of p-Cdk5 and its upstream regulator in response to peripheral inflammation. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA injection induced acute peripheral inflammation and heat hyperalgesia, which was accompanied by sustained increases in phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2 and phospho-Cdk5(S159 (p-Cdk5(S159 in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH. CFA-induced p-ERK primarily colocalized with p-Cdk5(S159 in superficial dorsal horn neurons. Levels in p-ERK and p-Cdk5 were also increased in the 2(nd phase of hyperalgesia induced by formalin injection, which can produce acute and tonic inflammatory pain. MAP kinase kinase inhibitor U0126 intrathecal delivery significantly suppressed the elevation of p-Cdk5(S159, Cdk5 activity and pain response behavior (Heat hyperalgesia, Spontaneous flinches induced by CFA or formalin injection. Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine intrathecal administration also suppressed CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia and Cdk5 phosphorylation, but did not attenuate ERK activation. All these findings suggested that p-Cdk5(S159 regulated by ERK pathway activity may be a critical mechanism involved in the activation of Cdk5 in nociceptive spinal neurons contributes to peripheral inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.

  4. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  5. Preparation of Na+,K+-ATPase with near maximal specific activity and phosphorylation capacity: evidence that the reaction mechanism involves all of the sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D W; Sachs, J R

    1999-06-01

    The phosphorylation capacity of Na+,K+-ATPase preparations in common use is much less than expected on the basis of the molecular weight of the enzyme deduced from cDNA sequences. This has led to the popularity of half-of-the-sites or flip-flop models for the enzyme reaction mechanism. We have prepared Na+,K+-ATPase from nasal salt glands of salt-adapted ducks which has a phosphorylation capacity and specific activity near the theoretical maxima. Preparations with specific activities of >60 micromol (mg of protein)-1 min-1 at 37 degrees C had phosphorylation capacities of >60 nmol/mg of protein, and the rate of turnover of the enzyme was 9690 min-1, within the range reported for the enzyme from other sources. The fraction of the maximal specific activity of the enzyme compared well with the fraction of the protein on SDS-PAGE which was alpha and beta chains, especially at the highest specific activity which indicates that all of the alphabeta protomers are active. The gels of the most reactive preparations contained only alpha and beta chains, but less active preparations contained a number of extraneous proteins. The major contaminant was actin. The preparation did not contain any protein which migrated in the molecular weight range of the gamma subunit. The subunit composition of the enzyme was alpha1 and beta1 only. This is the first report of a pure, homogeneous, fully active preparation of the protein. Reaction models which incorporate a half-of-the-sites or flip-flop mechanism do not apply to this enzyme.

  6. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates STAT3 and androgen receptor activation through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷ on STAT3 in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fu-Ning; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Peng, Yu-Ting; Li, Pei-Chi; Lin, Eugene; Chiang, Ming-Ching; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Lin, Ho

    2013-10-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is known to regulate prostate cancer metastasis. Our previous results indicated that Cdk5 activates androgen receptor (AR) and supports prostate cancer growth. We also found that STAT3 is a target of Cdk5 in promoting thyroid cancer cell growth, whereas STAT3 may play a role as a regulator to AR activation under cytokine control. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Cdk5 and its activator p35 on STAT3/AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our results show that Cdk5 biochemically interacts with STAT3 and that this interaction depends on Cdk5 activation in prostate cancer cells. The phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser⁷²⁷ (p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3) is regulated by Cdk5 in cells and xenograft tumors. The mutant of STAT3 S727A reduces its interaction with Cdk5. We further show that the nuclear distribution of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and the expression of STAT3-regulated genes (junB, c-fos, c-myc, and survivin) are regulated by Cdk5 activation. STAT3 mutant does not further decrease cell proliferation upon Cdk5 inhibition, which implies that the role of STAT3 regulated by Cdk5 correlates to cell proliferation control. Interestingly, Cdk5 may regulate the interaction between STAT3 and AR through phosphorylation of Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 and therefore upregulate AR protein stability and transactivation. Correspondingly, clinical evidence shows that the level of p-Ser⁷²⁷-STAT3 is significantly correlated with Gleason score and the levels of upstream regulators (Cdk5 and p35) as well as downstream protein (AR). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cdk5 regulates STAT3 activation through Ser⁷²⁷ phosphorylation and further promotes AR activation by protein-protein interaction in prostate cancer cells.

  7. Bacillus licheniformis BlaR1 L3 loop is a zinc metalloprotease activated by self-proteolysis.

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    Stéphanie Berzigotti

    Full Text Available In Bacillus licheniformis 749/I, BlaP β-lactamase is induced by the presence of a β-lactam antibiotic outside the cell. The first step in the induction mechanism is the detection of the antibiotic by the membrane-bound penicillin receptor BlaR1 that is composed of two functional domains: a carboxy-terminal domain exposed outside the cell, which acts as a penicillin sensor, and an amino-terminal domain anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, which works as a transducer-transmitter. The acylation of BlaR1 sensor domain by the antibiotic generates an intramolecular signal that leads to the activation of the L3 cytoplasmic loop of the transmitter by a single-point cleavage. The exact mechanism of L3 activation and the nature of the secondary cytoplasmic signal launched by the activated transmitter remain unknown. However, these two events seem to be linked to the presence of a HEXXH zinc binding motif of neutral zinc metallopeptidases. By different experimental approaches, we demonstrated that the L3 loop binds zinc ion, belongs to Gluzincin metallopeptidase superfamily and is activated by self-proteolysis.

  8. 3D-Stereoscopic Analysis of Solar Active Region Loops. 2; SoHo/EIT Observations at Temperatures of 1.5-2.5 MK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Alexander, David; Hurlburt, Neal; Newmark, Jeffrey S.; Neupert, Werner M.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Gary, G. Allen

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study the three-dimensional (3D) structure of hot (T(sub e) approximately equals 1.5 - 2.5 MK) loops in solar active region NOAA 7986, observed on 1996 August 30 with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). This complements a first study on cooler (T(sub e) approximately equals 1.0 - 1.5 MK) loops of the same active region, using the same method of Dynamic Stereoscopy to reconstruct the 3D geometry. We reconstruct the 3D-coordinates x(s), y(s), z(s), the density n(sub e)(s), and temperature profile T(sub e)(s) of 35 individual loop segments (as function of the loop coordinate s) using EIT 195 A and 284 A images. The major findings are: (1) All loops are found to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, in the entire temperature regime of T(sub e) = 1.0 - 2.5 MK; (2) The analyzed loops have a height of 2-3 scale heights, and thus only segments extending over about one vertical scale height have sufficient emission measure contrast for detection; (3) The temperature gradient over the lowest scale height is of order dT/ds is approximately 1 - 4 K/km; (4) The radiative loss rate is found to exceed the conductive loss rate by about two orders or magnitude, making thermal conduction negligible to explain the temperature structure of the loops; (5) A steady-state can only be achieved when the heating rate E(sub H) matches the radiative loss rate in hydrostatic equilibrium, requiring a heat deposition length lambda(sub H) of the half density scale height lambda, predicting a scaling law with the loop base pressure, EH varies as p(sub 0 exp 2). This favors coronal heating mechanisms that operate near the loop footpoints; (6) We find a reciprocal correlation between the loop pressure p(sub 0) and loop length L, i.e. p(sub 0) varies as 1/L, implying a scaling law of the steady-state requirement with loop length, i.e. E(sub H ) varies as 1/L(exp 2). The heating rate shows no correlation with the loop

  9. HDAC3 as a molecular chaperone for shuttling phosphorylated TR2 to PML: a novel deacetylase activity-independent function of HDAC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Gupta

    Full Text Available TR2 is an orphan nuclear receptor specifically expressed in early embryos (Wei and Hsu, 1994, and a transcription factor for transcriptional regulation of important genes in stem cells including the gate keeper Oct4 (Park et al. 2007. TR2 is known to function as an activator (Wei et al. 2000, or a repressor (Chinpaisal et al., 1998, Gupta et al. 2007. Due to the lack of specific ligands, mechanisms triggering its activator or repressor function have remained puzzling for decades. Recently, we found that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA triggers the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2, which phosphorylates TR2 and stimulates its partitioning to promyelocytic leukemia (PML nuclear bodies, thereby converting the activator function of TR2 into repression (Gupta et al. 2008; Park et al. 2007. Recruitment of TR2 to PML is a crucial step in the conversion of TR2 from an activator to a repressor. However, it is unclear how phosphorylated TR2 is recruited to PML, an essential step in converting TR2 from an activator to a repressor. In the present study, we use both in vitro and in vivo systems to address the problem of recruiting TR2 to PML nuclear bodies. First, we identify histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3 as an effector molecule. HDAC3 is known to interact with TR2 (Franco et al. 2001 and this interaction is enhanced by the atRA-stimulated phosphorylation of TR2 at Thr-210 (Gupta et al. 2008. Secondly, in this study, we also find that the carrier function of HDAC3 is independent of its deacetylase activity. Thirdly, we find another novel activity of atRA that stimulates nuclear enrichment of HDAC3 to form nuclear complex with PML, which is ERK2 independent. This is the first report identifying a deacetylase-independent function for HDAC3, which serves as a specific carrier molecule that targets a specifically phosphorylated protein to PML NBs. This is also the first study delineating how protein recruitment to PML nuclear bodies occurs

  10. D6 PROTEIN KINASE activates auxin transport-dependent growth and PIN-FORMED phosphorylation at the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Inês C R; Zourelidou, Melina; Willige, Björn C; Weller, Benjamin; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2014-06-23

    The directed cell-to-cell transport of the phytohormone auxin by efflux and influx transporters is essential for proper plant growth and development. Like auxin efflux facilitators of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family, D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) from Arabidopsis thaliana localizes to the basal plasma membrane of many cells, and evidence exists that D6PK may directly phosphorylate PINs. We find that D6PK is a membrane-bound protein that is associated with either the basal domain of the plasma membrane or endomembranes. Inhibition of the trafficking regulator GNOM leads to a rapid internalization of D6PK to endomembranes. Interestingly, the dissociation of D6PK from the plasma membrane is also promoted by auxin. Surprisingly, we find that auxin transport-dependent tropic responses are critically and reversibly controlled by D6PK and D6PK-dependent PIN phosphorylation at the plasma membrane. We conclude that D6PK abundance at the plasma membrane and likely D6PK-dependent PIN phosphorylation are prerequisites for PIN-mediated auxin transport.

  11. Structural and dynamic insights into the free energy barrier for activation loop rearrangement in FGFR1 tyrosine kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Tobias; Vajpai, Navratna; Phillips, Jonathan J; Davies, Gareth,; Holdgate, Geoffrey A.; Phillips, Chris; Tucker, Julie A.; Norman, Richard A; Scott, Andrew D; Higazi, Daniel R.; Lowe, David; Thompson, Gary S.; Breeze, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from NPG via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8877 Protein tyrosine kinases differ widely in their propensity to undergo rearrangements of the N-terminal Asp–Phe–Gly (DFG) motif of the activation loop, with some, including FGFR1 kinase, appearing refractory to this so-called ‘DFG flip’. Recent inhibitor-bound structures have unexpectedly revealed FGFR1 for the first time in a ‘DFG-out’ state. Here we use conformationally...

  12. Proteasome activity is important for replication recovery, CHK1 phosphorylation and prevention of G2 arrest after low-dose formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Green, Samantha E.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly, E-mail: anatoly_zhitkovich@brown.edu

    2015-07-15

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a human carcinogen with numerous sources of environmental and occupational exposures. This reactive aldehyde is also produced endogenously during metabolism of drugs and other processes. DNA–protein crosslinks (DPCs) are considered to be the main genotoxic lesions for FA. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPC repair in high eukaryotes involves proteolysis of crosslinked proteins. Here, we examined a role of the main cellular proteolytic machinery proteasomes in toxic responses of human lung cells to low FA doses. We found that transient inhibition of proteasome activity increased cytotoxicity and diminished clonogenic viability of FA-treated cells. Proteasome inactivation exacerbated suppressive effects of FA on DNA replication and increased the levels of the genotoxic stress marker γ-H2AX in normal human cells. A transient loss of proteasome activity in FA-exposed cells also caused delayed perturbations of cell cycle, which included G2 arrest and a depletion of S-phase populations at FA doses that had no effects in control cells. Proteasome activity diminished p53-Ser15 phosphorylation but was important for FA-induced CHK1 phosphorylation, which is a biochemical marker of DPC proteolysis in replicating cells. Unlike FA, proteasome inhibition had no effect on cell survival and CHK1 phosphorylation by the non-DPC replication stressor hydroxyurea. Overall, we obtained evidence for the importance of proteasomes in protection of human cells against biologically relevant doses of FA. Biochemically, our findings indicate the involvement of proteasomes in proteolytic repair of DPC, which removes replication blockage by these highly bulky lesions. - Highlights: • Proteasome inhibition enhances cytotoxicity of low-dose FA in human lung cells. • Active proteasomes diminish replication-inhibiting effects of FA. • Proteasome activity prevents delayed G2 arrest in FA-treated cells. • Proteasome inhibition exacerbates replication stress by FA in

  13. Cell type-specific anti-cancer properties of valproic acid: independent effects on HDAC activity and Erk1/2 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfryd, Kamil; Skladchikova, Galina; Lepekhin, Eugene E

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) has attracted attention as an anti-cancer agent. Methods: The present study investigated effects of VPA exposure on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, cell growth, cell speed, and the degree of Erk1/2 phosphorylation in 10 cell...... lines (BT4C, BT4Cn, U87MG, N2a, PC12-E2, CSML0, CSML100, HeLa, L929, Swiss 3T3). Results: VPA induced significant histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in most of the cell lines, but the degree of inhibition was highly cell type-specific. Moreover, cell growth, motility and the degree of Erk1....../2 phosphorylation were inhibited, activated, or unaffected by VPA in a cell type-specific manner. Importantly, no relationship was found between the effects of VPA on HDAC inhibition and changes in the degree of Erk1/2 phosphorylation, cell growth, or motility. In contrast, VPA-induced modulation of the MAPK...

  14. Beta-amyloid overload does not directly correlate with SAPK/JNK activation and tau protein phosphorylation in the cerebellar cortex of Ts65Dn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomoio, Selene; Scherini, Elda; Necchi, Daniela

    2009-11-10

    It is known that in the nervous tissue beta-amyloid overproduction and its extracellular or intracellular deposition can activate mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in tau protein phosphorylation. Hyperphosphorylated tau is not more able to bind neuron microtubules, leading to their disassembly and axon degeneration. We have previously described that at 10 months of age in the cerebellum of Ts65Dn mice, which are partially trisomic for the chromosome 16 and are considered a valuable model for Down syndrome, Purkinje cells undergo axon degeneration. Taking into consideration that Ts65Dn mice carry three copies of the gene encoding for the amyloid precursor protein, to characterize potential signaling events triggering the degenerative phenomenon, specific antibodies were used to examine the role of beta-amyloid overload in the activation of the stress activated kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and tau protein phosphorylation in the cerebellar cortex of 12-month-old Ts65Dn mice. We found small extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid at the borderline between the granule cell layer and the white matter, i.e., in the vicinity of the area where calbindin immunostaining of Purkinje cell axons revealed clusters of newly formed terminals of injured axons. Moreover, intracellular deposits were present in the somata of Purkinje cells. The level of activation of SAPK/JNK was greatly increased. The activation occurred in the "pinceaux" made by basket interneuron axons at the axon hillock of Purkinje cells. Antibody directed against tau protein phosphorylated at Ser-396/Ser-404 revealed positive NG2 cells and Bergman fibers in the molecular layer and oligodendrocytes in the white matter. Data indicate that beta-amyloid extracellular deposits could have exerted a local cytotoxic effect, leading to Purkinje cell axon degeneration. The activation of SAPK/JNK in basket cell "pinceaux" may be a consequence of altered functionality of Purkinje cells and may represent

  15. Transcriptional activation of p21(WAF¹/CIP¹) is mediated by increased DNA binding activity and increased interaction between p53 and Sp1 via phosphorylation during replicative senescence of human embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Heo, Jee-In; Park, Seong-Hoon; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kang, Hong-Jun; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Sung Chan; Kim, Jaebong; Park, Jae-Bong; Lee, Jae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Although p21(WAF1/CIP1) is known to be elevated during replicative senescence of human embryonic fibroblasts (HEFs), the mechanism for p21 up-regulation has not been elucidated clearly. In order to explore the mechanism, we analyzed expression of p21 mRNA and protein and luciferase activity of full-length p21 promoter. The result demonstrated that p21 up-regulation was accomplished largely at transcription level. The promoter assay using serially-deleted p21 promoter constructs revealed that p53 binding site was the most important site and Sp1 binding sites were necessary but not sufficient for transcriptional activation of p21. In addition, p53 protein was shown to interact with Sp1 protein. The interaction was increased in aged fibroblasts and was regulated by phosphorylation of p53 and Sp1. DNA binding activity of p53 was significantly elevated in aged fibroblasts but that of Sp1 was not. DNA binding activities of p53 and Sp1 were also regulated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine-15 and of Sp1 at serines appears to be involved. Taken together, the result demonstrated that p21 transcription during replicative senescence of HEFs is up-regulated by increase in DNA binding activity and interaction between p53 and Sp1 via phosphorylation.

  16. Enhanced casein kinase II activity during mouse embryogenesis. Identification of a 110-kDa phosphoprotein as the major phosphorylation product in mouse embryos and Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, H R; Reichert, G H; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    , increased phosphorylation of a 110-kDa protein is observed. Treatment of the embryo extracts with heparin, a highly specific inhibitor of CKII activity, results in a drastic reduction of the 110-kDa protein phosphorylation indicating that the protein might be a CKII-specific substrate. Rapidly proliferating...... mouse tumour cells also show an enhanced CKII activity. Here too, a 110-kDa phosphoprotein was the major phosphoryl acceptor. Partial proteolytic digestion shows that both proteins are identical. Other protein kinases tested (cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases) only show a basal level of enzyme...

  17. Localization of active, dually phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in colorectal cancer with or without activating BRAF and KRAS mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Bonde, Jesper; Pedersen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    detectable increases in phosphorylation of ERK (pERK), we stained biopsies from 36 CRC patients with activating mutations in the BRAF gene (BRAFV600E: BRAF(m)), the KRAS gene (KRAS(m)) or in neither (BRAF/KRAS(n)) with this optimized method. Staining was scored in blind-coded specimens by two observers....... Staining of stromal cells was used as a positive control. BRAF(m) or KRAS(m) tumors did not show higher staining scores than BRAF/KRAS(n) tumors. Although BRAFV600E staining occurred in over 90% of cancer cells in all 9 BRAF(m) tumors, 3 only showed staining for pERK in less than 10% of cancer cell nuclei....... The same applied to 4 of the 14 KRAS(m) tumors. A phophorylation-insensitive antibody demonstrated that lack of pERK staining did not reflect defect expression of ERK1/2 protein. Thus, increased staining for pERK does not correlate to BRAF or KRAS mutations even with a highly optimized procedure. Further...

  18. Activation of Cdk5/p25 and tau phosphorylation following chronic brain hypoperfusion in rats involves microRNA-195 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Hua; Ban, Tao; Liu, Cheng-Di; Chen, Qing-Xin; Wang, Xu; Yan, Mei-Ling; Hu, Xue-Ling; Su, Xiao-Lin; Bao, Ya-Nan; Sun, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Lin-Jing; Pei, Shuang-Chao; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Zong, De-Kang; Ai, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH) is a common clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Our previous study reported that the down-regulation of microRNA-195 (miR-195) promotes amyloidogenesis via regulation of amyloid precursor protein and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression at the post-transcriptional level in CBH rats with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). CBH owing to unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO) increases tau phosphorylation levels at multiple phosphorylation sites in the brain, but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether miR-195 could both deregulate amyloid metabolism and indirectly deregulate tau phosphorylation in CBH. We observed that 2VO leads to tau hyperphosphorylation at Ser202/Thr205, Ser262, Thr231, and Ser422 and to the conversion from cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)/p35 to Cdk5/p25 in rat hippocampi. Endogenous miR-195 was knocked down using over-expression of its antisense molecule (pre-AMO-miR-195) via a lentivirus (lenti-pre-AMO-miR-195); this knockdown increased the tau phosphorylation at Ser202/Thr205, Ser262, Thr231, Ser422, and the Cdk5/p25 activation, but over-expression of miR-195 using lenti-pre-miR-195 decreased the tau phosphorylation and Cdk5/p25 activation. Further in vitro studies demonstrated that miR-195 over-expression prevented tau hyperphosphorylation and Cdk5/p35 activity, which were increased by miR-195 inhibition. A dual luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-195 bound to the Cdk5r1 gene, which encodes p35 protein, in the 3'UTR and inhibited p35 expression. We concluded that tau hyperphosphorylation involves the down-regulation of miR-195, which is mediated by Cdk5/p25 activation in 2VO rats. Our findings demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-195 led to increased vulnerability via the regulation of multiple targets

  19. Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkup, Ward G; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J; Carlisle, Holly J; Graham, Robert L; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-02-20

    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Dynamin Reduces Pyk2 Y402 Phosphorylation and Src Binding in Osteoclasts ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Neff, Lynn; Sandoval, Amanda; Du, Liping; Horne, William C.; Baron, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Signaling via the Pyk2-Src-Cbl complex downstream of integrins contributes to the assembly, organization, and dynamics of podosomes, which are the transient adhesion complexes of highly motile cells such as osteoclasts and dendritic cells. We previously demonstrated that the GTPase dynamin is associated with podosomes, regulates actin flux in podosomes, and promotes bone resorption by osteoclasts. We report here that dynamin associates with Pyk2, independent of dynamin's GTPase activity, and reduces Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation in a GTPase-dependent manner, leading to decreased Src binding to Pyk2. Overexpressing dynamin decreased the macrophage colony-stimulating factor- and adhesion-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 in osteoclastlike cells, suggesting that dynamin is likely to regulate Src-Pyk2 binding downstream of integrins and growth factor receptors with important cellular consequences. Furthermore, catalytically active Src promotes dynamin-Pyk2 association, and mutating specific Src-phosphorylated tyrosine residues in dynamin blunts the dynamin-induced decrease in Pyk2 phosphorylation. Thus, since Src binds to Pyk2 through its interaction with phospho-Y402, our results suggest that Src activates a negative-feedback loop downstream of integrin engagement and other stimuli by promoting both the binding of dynamin to Pyk2-containing complexes and the dynamin-dependent decrease in Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation, ultimately leading to the dissociation of Src from Pyk2. PMID:19380485

  1. Dynamin reduces Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation and SRC binding in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, Angela; Neff, Lynn; Sandoval, Amanda; Du, Liping; Horne, William C; Baron, Roland

    2009-07-01

    Signaling via the Pyk2-Src-Cbl complex downstream of integrins contributes to the assembly, organization, and dynamics of podosomes, which are the transient adhesion complexes of highly motile cells such as osteoclasts and dendritic cells. We previously demonstrated that the GTPase dynamin is associated with podosomes, regulates actin flux in podosomes, and promotes bone resorption by osteoclasts. We report here that dynamin associates with Pyk2, independent of dynamin's GTPase activity, and reduces Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation in a GTPase-dependent manner, leading to decreased Src binding to Pyk2. Overexpressing dynamin decreased the macrophage colony-stimulating factor- and adhesion-induced phosphorylation of Pyk2 in osteoclastlike cells, suggesting that dynamin is likely to regulate Src-Pyk2 binding downstream of integrins and growth factor receptors with important cellular consequences. Furthermore, catalytically active Src promotes dynamin-Pyk2 association, and mutating specific Src-phosphorylated tyrosine residues in dynamin blunts the dynamin-induced decrease in Pyk2 phosphorylation. Thus, since Src binds to Pyk2 through its interaction with phospho-Y402, our results suggest that Src activates a negative-feedback loop downstream of integrin engagement and other stimuli by promoting both the binding of dynamin to Pyk2-containing complexes and the dynamin-dependent decrease in Pyk2 Y402 phosphorylation, ultimately leading to the dissociation of Src from Pyk2.

  2. Using Coronal Loops to Reconstruct the Magnetic Field of an Active Region Before and After a Major Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Malanushenko, A; DeRosa, M L; Wheatland, M S

    2013-01-01

    The shapes of solar coronal loops are sensitive to the presence of electrical currents that are the carriers of the nonpotential energy available for impulsive activity. We use this information in a new method for modeling the coronal magnetic field of AR 11158 as a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF). The observations used are coronal images around time of major flare activity on 2011/02/15, together with the surface line-of-sight magnetic field measurements. The data are from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (HMI and AIA, respectively) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The model fields are constrained to approximate the coronal loop configurations as closely as possible, while also subject to the force-free constraints. The method does not use transverse photospheric magnetic field components as input, and is thereby distinct from methods for modeling NLFFFs based on photospheric vector magnetograms. We validate the method using observations of AR 11158 at a t...

  3. Germinal-center kinase-like kinase co-crystal structure reveals a swapped activation loop and C-terminal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Douglas; Rushe, Mia; M Arduini, Robert; Lukacs, Christine; Atkins, Kateri; Sun, Xin; Little, Kevin; Cullivan, Michael; Paramasivam, Murugan; Patterson, Thomas A; Hesson, Thomas; D McKee, Timothy; May-Dracka, Tricia L; Xin, Zhili; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Bhisetti, Govinda R; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Silvian, Laura F

    2017-02-01

    Germinal-center kinase-like kinase (GLK, Map4k3), a GCK-I family kinase, plays multiple roles in regulating apoptosis, amino acid sensing, and immune signaling. We describe here the crystal structure of an activation loop mutant of GLK kinase domain bound to an inhibitor. The structure reveals a weakly associated, activation-loop swapped dimer with more than 20 amino acids of ordered density at the carboxy-terminus. This C-terminal PEST region binds intermolecularly to the hydrophobic groove of the N-terminal domain of a neighboring molecule. Although the GLK activation loop mutant crystallized demonstrates reduced kinase activity, its structure demonstrates all the hallmarks of an "active" kinase, including the salt bridge between the C-helix glutamate and the catalytic lysine. Our compound displacement data suggests that the effect of the Ser170Ala mutation in reducing kinase activity is likely due to its effect in reducing substrate peptide binding affinity rather than reducing ATP binding or ATP turnover. This report details the first structure of GLK; comparison of its activation loop sequence and P-loop structure to that of Map4k4 suggests ideas for designing inhibitors that can distinguish between these family members to achieve selective pharmacological inhibitors.

  4. Increased activity of the Vesicular Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor TI-VAMP/VAMP7 by Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Longin Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Andrea; Casano, Alessandra M.; Kuster, Aurelia; Arold, Stefan T.; Wang, Guan; Nola, Sébastien; Verraes, Agathe; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Galli, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular (v)- and target (t)-SNAREs play essential roles in intracellular membrane fusion through the formation of cytoplasmic α-helical bundles. Several v-SNAREs have a Longin N-terminal extension that, by promoting a closed conformation, plays an autoinhibitory function and decreases SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion efficiency. The molecular mechanism leading to Longin v-SNARE activation is largely unknown. Here we find that exocytosis mediated by the Longin v-SNARE TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is activated by tonic treatment with insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 but not by depolarization and intracellular calcium rise. In search of a potential downstream mechanism, we found that TI-VAMP is phosphorylated in vitro by c-Src kinase on tyrosine 45 of the Longin domain. Accordingly, a mutation of tyrosine 45 into glutamate, but not phenylalanine, activates both t-SNARE binding and exocytosis. Activation of TI-VAMP-mediated exocytosis thus relies on tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:23471971

  5. Increased activity of the vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor TI-VAMP/VAMP7 by tyrosine phosphorylation in the Longin domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Andrea; Casano, Alessandra M; Kuster, Aurelia; Arold, Stefan T; Wang, Guan; Nola, Sébastien; Verraes, Agathe; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Galli, Thierry

    2013-04-26

    Vesicular (v)- and target (t)-SNAREs play essential roles in intracellular membrane fusion through the formation of cytoplasmic α-helical bundles. Several v-SNAREs have a Longin N-terminal extension that, by promoting a closed conformation, plays an autoinhibitory function and decreases SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion efficiency. The molecular mechanism leading to Longin v-SNARE activation is largely unknown. Here we find that exocytosis mediated by the Longin v-SNARE TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is activated by tonic treatment with insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 but not by depolarization and intracellular calcium rise. In search of a potential downstream mechanism, we found that TI-VAMP is phosphorylated in vitro by c-Src kinase on tyrosine 45 of the Longin domain. Accordingly, a mutation of tyrosine 45 into glutamate, but not phenylalanine, activates both t-SNARE binding and exocytosis. Activation of TI-VAMP-mediated exocytosis thus relies on tyrosine phosphorylation.

  6. SIRT1 Activity Is Linked to Its Brain Region-Specific Phosphorylation and Is Impaired in Huntington’s Disease Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulino, Raffaella; Benjamin, Agnesska C.; Jolinon, Nelly; Smith, Donna L.; Chini, Eduardo N.; Carnemolla, Alisia; Bates, Gillian P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which there are no disease-modifying treatments. SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that is implicated in maintaining neuronal health during development, differentiation and ageing. Previous studies suggested that the modulation of SIRT1 activity is neuroprotective in HD mouse models, however, the mechanisms controlling SIRT1 activity are unknown. We have identified a striatum-specific phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanism of SIRT1 induction under normal physiological conditions, which is impaired in HD. We demonstrate that SIRT1 activity is down-regulated in the brains of two complementary HD mouse models, which correlated with altered SIRT1 phosphorylation levels. This SIRT1 impairment could not be rescued by the ablation of DBC1, a negative regulator of SIRT1, but was linked to changes in the sub-cellular distribution of AMPK-α1, a positive regulator of SIRT1 function. This work provides insights into the regulation of SIRT1 activity with the potential for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26815359

  7. Proteasome activity is important for replication recovery, CHK1 phosphorylation and prevention of G2 arrest after low-dose formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Green, Samantha E.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a human carcinogen with numerous sources of environmental and occupational exposures. This reactive aldehyde is also produced endogenously during metabolism of drugs and other processes. DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) are considered to be the main genotoxic lesions for FA. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPC repair in high eukaryotes involves proteolysis of crosslinked proteins. Here, we examined a role of the main cellular proteolytic machinery proteasomes in toxic responses of human lung cells to low FA doses. We found that transient inhibition of proteasome activity increased cytotoxicity and diminished clonogenic viability of FA-treated cells. Proteasome inactivation exacerbated suppressive effects of FA on DNA replication and increased the levels of the genotoxic stress marker γ-H2AX in normal human cells. A transient loss of proteasome activity in FA-exposed cells also caused delayed perturbations of cell cycle, which included G2 arrest and a depletion of S-phase populations at FA doses that had no effects in control cells. Proteasome activity diminished p53-Ser15 phosphorylation but was important for FA-induced CHK1 phosphorylation, which is a biochemical marker of DPC proteolysis in replicating cells. Unlike FA, proteasome inhibition had no effect on cell survival and CHK1 phosphorylation by the non-DPC replication stressor hydroxyurea. Overall, we obtained evidence for the importance of proteasomes in protection of human cells against biologically relevant doses of FA. Biochemically, our findings indicate the involvement of proteasomes in proteolytic repair of DPC, which removes replication blockage by these highly bulky lesions. PMID:25817892

  8. Neurotensin-induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation and growth of human colonic cancer cells are independent from growth factors receptors activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Fabienne; Tormo, Aurelie; Beraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry [Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France); Mazella, Jean, E-mail: mazella@ipmc.cnrs.fr [Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS UMR 6097, 660 route des Lucioles, 06560 Valbonne (France)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} We compare intracellular pathways of NT and EGF in HT29 cells. {yields} NT does not transactivate EGFR. {yields} Transactivation of EGFR is not a general rule in cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Neurotensin (NT) promotes the proliferation of human colonic cancer cells by undefined mechanisms. We already demonstrated that, in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29, the effects of NT were mediated by a complex formed between the NT receptor-1 (NTSR1) and-3 (NTSR3). Here we examined cellular mechanisms that led to NT-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and growth factors receptors transactivation in colonic cancer cells and proliferation in HT29 cells. With the aim to identify upstream signaling involved in NT-elicited MAP kinase activation, we found that the stimulatory effects of the peptide were totally independent from the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) both in the HT29 and the HCT116 cells. NT was unable to promote phosphorylation of EGFR and to compete with EGF for its binding to the receptor. Pharmacological approaches allowed us to differentiate EGF and NT signaling in HT29 cells since only NT activation of Erk1/2 was shown to be sensitive to PKC inhibitors and since only NT increased the intracellular level of calcium. We also observed that NT was not able to transactivate Insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our findings indicate that, in the HT29 and HCT116 cell lines, NT stimulates MAP kinase phosphorylation and cell growth by a pathway which does not involve EGF system but rather NT receptors which transduce their own intracellular effectors. These results indicate that depending on the cell line used, blocking EGFR is not the general rule to inhibit NT-induced cancer cell proliferation.

  9. Theoretical Study on the Activity of α-COOH and β-COOH of N-Phosphoryl Aspartic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The bio-mimic reactions of N-phosphoryl amino acids are very important in the study of many biochemical processes. The difference of reactivity between α-COOH and β-COOH in phosphoryl aspartic acid was studied by theoretical study (Hartree-Fock and Density Functional methods) in this paper. The intermediates Ⅱ containing five-membered ring were more stable than Ⅲ with six-membered ring. While for intermediates Ⅲ, the isomers with six-membered ring in apical-equatorial spanning arrangement were more stable than those with di-equatorial spanning arrangement. At B3LYP/6-31G** level, it was shown that transition states Ⅳ and V involving α-COOH or β-COOH group had energy barriers of ΔE = 58.67 kJ·mol-1 and 103.94 kJ·mol-1, respectively. These results were in agreement with the experimental data. So the α-COOH group was involved in form of the intramolecular penta-coordinate phosphoric-carboxylic mixed anhydride intermediates, but not β-COOH group.

  10. Key motifs in EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-encoded protein kinase for phosphorylation activity and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershburg, Svetlana; Murphy, Leann; Marschall, Manfred; Gershburg, Edward

    2010-10-15

    A sole EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-encoded protein kinase (EBV-PK) (the BGLF4 gene product) plays important roles in viral infection. Although a number of targets of this protein have been identified, the kinase itself remains largely unstudied with regard to its enzymology and structure. In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis has been employed to generate mutations targeting residues involved in nuclear localization of the EBV-PK, core residues in subdomain III of the protein kinase domain conserved in most protein kinases or residues in subdomain VIa conserved only within the HPK (herpesvirus-encoded protein kinase) group. Deletion of amino acids 389-391 resulted in exclusive cytoplasmic localization of the protein, indicating the involvement of this region in nuclear translocation of the EBV-PK. Mutations at the amino acids Glu113 (core component), Phe175, Leu178, Phe184, Leu185 and Asn186 (conserved in HPKs) resulted in loss of EBV-PK autophosphorylation, protein substrate [EBV EA-D (early antigen diffused)] phosphorylation, and ability to facilitate ganciclovir phosphorylation. These results reiterate the unique features of this group of kinases and present an opportunity for designing more specific antiviral compounds.

  11. Translation of the radioresistance kinase TLK1B is induced by γ-irradiation through activation of mTOR and phosphorylation of 4E-BP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Benedetti Arrigo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian protein kinase TLK1 is a homologue of Tousled, a gene involved in flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana. The function of TLK1 is not well known, although knockout of the gene in Drosophila, or expression of a dominant negative mutant in mouse cells causes loss of nuclear divisions and chromosome missegregation probably due to alterations in chromatin remodeling capacity. Overexpression of TLK1B, a spliced variant of the TLK1 mRNA, in a model mouse cell line increases their resistance to ionizing radiation, also likely through changes in chromatin remodeling. The TLK1B mRNA is translationally repressed by its 5'UTR and is regulated by the availability of eIF4E. We now report that radiation or doxorubicin result in an increase in the translation of TLK1B, and we have uncovered the likely mechanism for this effect. Results Radiation causes a shift in the polysomal distribution of TLK1B mRNA, from the untranslated region and small polysomes to the large polysomes, concomitant with an increase in the expression of TLK1B protein. This change is preceded by an increase in phosphorylation of the eIF4E inhibitory protein 4E-BP1, which releases eIF4E when it is phosphorylated. The phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 depends on mTOR, since rapamycin blocked the increase in phosphorylation induced by radiation, and prevented the increase in TLK1B protein expression. The activation of mTOR was likely due to the rapid activation of Akt following radiation. The activation of Akt could be inhibited with wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3 kinase, hence placing PI3 kinase upstream of Akt as a very early event following radiation. Wortmannin also inhibited translation of TLK1B mRNA following activation by IR. This was shown both by western blot and by measuring the initiation capacity of the mRNA, as indicated by its distribution on polysomes. Conclusions The translational upregulation of TLK1B elicited by DNA double strand breaks

  12. The inflammatory and tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin, activates platelets by selective mobilization of calcium as shown by protein phosphorylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastrup, Ole; Linnebjerg, H; Bjerrum, P J

    1987-01-01

    , raised cytoplasmic free calcium level and phosphorylation of platelet proteins was examined in platelet-rich plasma and washed platelet suspension. In contrast to A23187 and thrombin, the platelet activation induced by thapsigargin developed slowly, with maximal response obtained after 2-3 min. Both...... obtained by stimulation of the passive calcium transport through specific channels. These thapsigargin-sensitive channels should predominantly be located in the membranes of intracellular calcium stores rather than in the plasma membrane, because removal of extracellular calcium by EGTA had only...

  13. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and stimulation of T-cell factor signaling following activation of EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors by prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Hiromichi; West, Kimberly A; Regan, John W

    2002-01-25

    Recently we have shown that the FP(B) prostanoid receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor that couples to Galpha(q), activates T-cell factor (Tcf)/lymphoid enhancer factor (Lef)-mediated transcriptional activation (Fujino, H., and Regan, J. W. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 12489-12492). We now report that the EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors, which couple to Galpha(s), also activate Tcf/Lef signaling. By using a Tcf/Lef-responsive luciferase reporter gene, transcriptional activity was stimulated approximately 10-fold over basal by 1 h of treatment with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in HEK cells that were stably transfected with the human EP(2) and EP(4) receptors. This stimulation of reporter gene activity was accompanied by a PGE(2)-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of both glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and Akt kinase. H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), completely blocked the agonist-dependent phosphorylation of GSK-3 in both EP(2)- and EP(4)-expressing cells. However, H-89 pretreatment only blocked PGE(2)-stimulated Lef/Tcf reporter gene activity by 20% in EP(4)-expressing cells compared with 65% inhibition in EP(2)-expressing cells. On the other hand wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, had the opposite effect and inhibited PGE(2)-stimulated reporter gene activity to a much greater extent in EP(4)-expressing cells as compared with EP(2)-expressing cells. These findings indicate that the activation of Tcf/Lef signaling by EP(2) receptors occurs primarily through a PKA-dependent pathway, whereas EP(4) receptors activate Tcf/Lef signaling mainly through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. This is the first indication of a fundamental difference in the signaling potential of EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors.

  14. Hyperforin attenuates microglia activation and inhibits p65-Ser276 NFκB phosphorylation in the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Min-Ju; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2014-08-01

    Hyperforin, a lipophilic constituent of medicinal herb St. John's Wort, has neurobiological effects including antidepressant activity, antibiotic potency, anti-inflammatory activity and anti-tumoral properties. Furthermore, hyperforin activates transient receptor potential conical channel-6 (TRPC6), a nonselective cation channel. To elucidate the roles of hyperforin and TRPC6 in neuroinflammation in vivo, we investigated the effect of hyperforin on neuroinflammatory responses and its related events in the rat piriform cortex (PC) following status epilepticus (SE). Hyperforin attenuated microglial activation, p65-serine 276 NFκB phosphorylation, and suppressed TNF-α expression in the PC following SE. Hyperforin also effectively alleviated SE-induced vasogenic edema formation, neuronal damage, microglial TRPC6 induction and blood-derived monocyte infiltration. Our findings suggest that hyperforin may effectively attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the TRPC6-independent manner.

  15. 3D-Stereoscopic Analysis of Solar Active Region Loops: I: SoHo/EIT Observations at Temperatures of 1.0-1.5 MK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Newmark, Jeff; Delaboudiniere, Jean-Pierre; Neupert, Werner M.; Portier-Fozzani, Fabrice; Gary, G. Allen; Zucker, Arik

    1998-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of solar active region NOAA 7986 observed on 1996 August 30 with the Extrem-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) is analyzed. We develop a new method of Dynamic Stereoscopy to reconstruct the 3D geometry of dynamically changing loops, which allows us to determine the orientation of the loop plane with respect to the line-of-sight, a prerequisite to correct properly for projection effects in 3D loop models. With this method and the filter-ratio technique applied to EIT 171 A and 195 A images we determine the 3D coordinates (x(s), y(s), z(s)), the loop width) w(s), the electron density n(sub e)(s), and the electron temperature T(sub e)(s) as function of the loop length s for 30 loop segments. Fitting the loop densities with an exponential density model n(sub e)(h) we find that the so inferred scale height temperatures, T(sub e)(sup lambda) = 1.22 +/- 0.23 MK, match closely the EIT filter-ratio temperatures, T(sub e)(sup FIT) = 1.21 +/- 0.06 MK. We conclude that these rather large-scale loops (with heights of h approx. equals 50 - 200 Mm) that dominate EIT 171 A images are close to thermal equilibrium. Most of the loops show no significant thickness variation w(s), but many exhibit a trend of increasing temperature (dT/ds greater than 0) above the footpoint.

  16. Observational Evidence for Loop-Loop Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiping, W.; Guangli, H.; Yuhua, T.; Aoao, X.

    2004-01-01

    Through analysis of the data including the hard x-ray(BASTE) microwave(NoRP) and magnetogram(MDI from SOHO) as well as the images of soft x-ray(YHKOH) and EIT(SOHO) on Apr. 151998 solar flare in the active region 8203(N30W12) we found: (1) there are similar quasi period oscillation in the profile of hard x-ray flux (25-5050-100keV) and microwave flux(1GHz) with duration of 85+/-25s every peak includes two sub-peak structures; (2) in the preheat phase of the flare active magnetic field changes apparently and a s-pole spot emerges ; (3) several EIT and soft x-ray loops exist and turn into bright . All of these may suggest that loop-loop interaction indeed exist. Through reconnection the electrons may be accelerated and the hard x-ray and microwave emission take place.

  17. The protein C omega-loop substitution Asn2Ile is associated with reduced protein C anticoagulant activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Preston, Roger J S

    2012-02-01

    We report a kindred with heritable protein C (PC) deficiency in which two siblings with severe thrombosis showed a composite type I and IIb PC deficiency phenotype, identified using commercial PC assays (proband: PC antigen 42 u\\/dl, amidolytic activity 40 u\\/dl, anticoagulant activity 9 u\\/dl). The independent PROC nucleotide variations c.669C>A (predictive of Ser181Arg) and c.131C>T (predictive of Asn2Ile) segregated with the type I and type IIb PC deficiency phenotypes respectively, but co-segregated in the siblings with severe thrombosis. Soluble thrombomodulin (sTM)-mediated inhibition of plasma thrombin generation from an individual with PC-Asn2Ile was lower (endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) 56 +\\/- 1% that of ETP determined without sTM) than control plasma (ETP 15 +\\/- 2%) indicating reduced PC anticoagulant activity. Recombinant APC-Asn2Ile exhibited normal amidolytic activity but impaired anticoagulant activity. Protein S (PS)-dependent anticoagulant activity of recombinant APC-Asn2Ile and binding of recombinant APC-Asn2Ile to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) were reduced compared to recombinant wild-type APC. Asn2 lies within the omega-loop of the PC\\/APC Gla domain and this region is critical for calcium-induced folding and subsequent interactions with anionic phospholipids, EPCR and PS. The disruption of these interactions in this naturally-occurring PC variant highlights their collective importance in mediating APC anticoagulant activity in vivo.

  18. Distribution of phosphorylated Elk-1 in rat brain after Y-maze active avoidance training in a temporal manner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuhong Chen; Siyun Shu; Zhenjiang Liang; Xinmin Bao; Lixue Chen; Yongming Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elk-1 mRNA distributes extensively in the neurons of mice, rat and human brains, and the Elk-1 expression may be correlated with the synaptic plasticity, learning and memory.OBJECTIVE: To observe the distribution of phosphorylated Elk-1 (pElk-1) in whole brain of rats received Y-maze active avoidance training and the changes of pElk-1 expression at different time points after training.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTING: Research Room of Neurobiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University.MATERIALS: Fifty-five male clean-degree SD rats of 3-4 months old, weighing 200-250 g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Southern Medical University. The rabbit anti-monoclonal pElk-1 antibody was purchased from Cell Signal Transduction Company, and ABC kit from Vector Company.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Research Room of Neurobiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University from September 2004 to February 2005. ① Grouping: The rats were randomly divided into training group (n = 25), sham-training group (n = 25) and norm al control group (n = 5), and the training and sham-training groups were observed at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours after training, which represented the five phases in the process of learning and memory. ② Y-maze training: The rats were preconditioned in the electrical Y-maze apparatus, 20 minutes a day for 3 days continuously, and training began from the 4th day. In the training group, the rats were trained with the combination of light and electricity. Each rat repeated for 60 times in each training, and the correct times were recorded, those correct for less than 25 times were taken as unqualified, and excluded from the training group, and supplemented by other rats in time. In the sham-training group, there was no fixed correlation between the application of light and electricity. The rats in the normal control group were given not any training. ③Detection of p

  19. The extreme COOH terminus of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb is required for phosphorylation on Thr-373 and activation of E2F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, Laura L; Lents, Nathan H; Baldassare, Joseph J

    2008-11-01

    The retinoblastoma protein pRb plays a pivotal role in G(1)- to S-phase cell cycle progression and is among the most frequently mutated gene products in human cancer. Although much focus has been placed on understanding how the A/B pocket and COOH-terminal domain of pRb cooperate to relieve transcriptional repression of E2F-responsive genes, comparatively little emphasis has been placed on the function of the NH(2)-terminal region of pRb and the interaction of the multiple domains of pRb in the full-length context. Using "reverse mutational analysis" of Rb(DeltaCDK) (a dominantly active repressive allele of Rb), we have previously shown that restoration of Thr-373 is sufficient to render Rb(DeltaCDK) sensitive to inactivation via cyclin-CDK phosphorylation. This suggests that the NH(2)-terminal region plays a more critical role in pRb regulation than previously thought. In the present study, we have expanded this analysis to include additional residues in the NH(2)-terminal region of pRb and further establish that the mechanism of pRb inactivation by Thr-373 phosphorylation is through the dissociation of E2F. Most surprisingly, we further have found that removal of the COOH-terminal domain of either RbDeltaCDK(+T373) or wild-type pRb yields a functional allele that cannot be inactivated by phosphorylation and is repressive of E2F activation and S-phase entry. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the NH(2)-terminal domain of pRb and the necessity for cooperation of multiple domains for proper pRb regulation.

  20. SARM modulates MyD88-mediated TLR activation through BB-loop dependent TIR-TIR interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emil; Ding, Jeak Ling; Byrne, Bernadette

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and initiate an innate immune response by recruiting intracellular adaptor proteins via heterotypic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain interactions. Of the five TIR domain-containing adaptor proteins identified, Sterile α- and armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM) is functionally unique; suppressing immune signalling instead of promoting it. Here we demonstrate that the recombinantly expressed and purified SARM TIR domain interacts with both the major human TLR adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. A single glycine residue located in the BB-loop of the SARM TIR domain, G601, was identified as essential for interaction. A short peptide derived from this motif was also found to interact with MyD88 in vitro. SARM expression in HEK293 cells was found to significantly suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and TNF-α, an effect lost in the G601A mutant. The same result was observed with cytokine activation initiated by MyD88 expression and stimulation of TLR2 with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), suggesting that SARM is capable of suppressing both TRIF- and MyD88- dependent TLR signalling. Our findings indicate that SARM acts on a broader set of target proteins than previously thought, and that the BB-loop motif is functionally important, giving further insight into the endogenous mechanisms used to suppress inflammation in immune cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The PP-motif in luminal loop 2 of ZnT transporters plays a pivotal role in TNAP activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shigeyuki; Tsuji, Tokuji; Fujiwara, Takashi; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Merriman, Chengfeng; Fukunaka, Ayako; Nishito, Yukina; Fu, Dax; Hoch, Eitan; Sekler, Israel; Fukue, Kazuhisa; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Kambe, Taiho

    2016-09-01

    Secretory and membrane-bound zinc-requiring enzymes are thought to be activated by binding zinc in the early secretory pathway. One such enzyme, tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), is activated through a two-step mechanism, via protein stabilization and subsequent enzyme activation through metalation, by ZnT5-ZnT6 heterodimers or ZnT7 homodimers. However, little is known about the molecular basis underlying the activation process. In the present study, we found that the di-proline motif (PP-motif) in luminal loop 2 of ZnT5 and ZnT7 is important for TNAP activation. TNAP activity was significantly reduced in cells lacking ZnT5-ZnT6 heterodimers and ZnT7 homodimers [triple knockout (TKO) cells]. The decreased TNAP activity was restored by expressing hZnT5 with hZnT6 or hZnT7, but significantly less so (almost 90% less) by expressing mutants thereof in which the PP-motif was mutated to alanine (PP-AA). In TKO cells, overexpressed hTNAP was not completely activated, and it was converted less efficiently into the holo form by expressing a PP-AA mutant of hZnT5 with hZnT6, whose defects were not restored by zinc supplementation. The zinc transport activity of hZnT7 was not significantly impaired by the PP-AA mutation, indicating that the PP-motif is involved in the TNAP maturation process, although it does not control zinc transport activity. The PP-motif is highly conserved in ZnT5 and ZnT7 orthologues, and its importance for TNAP activation is conserved in the Caenorhabditis elegans hZnT5 orthologue CDF5. These results provide novel molecular insights into the TNAP activation process in the early secretory pathway.

  2. Insulin Activates RSK (p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase) to Trigger a New Negative Feedback Loop That Regulates Insulin Signaling for Glucose Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja-Lamère, Nicolas; Shum, Michael; Déléris, Paul; Roux, Philippe P.; Abe, Jun-Ichi; Marette, André

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the mTORC1/S6K1 pathway is activated by insulin and nutrient overload (e.g. amino acids (AA)), which leads to the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway via the inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, notably on serine 1101 (Ser-1101). However, even in the absence of AA, insulin can still promote IRS-1 Ser-1101 phosphorylation by other kinases that remain to be fully characterized. Here, we describe a new negative regulator of IRS-1, the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK). Computational analyses revealed that Ser-1101 within IRS-1 falls into the consensus motif of RSK. Moreover, recombinant RSK phosphorylated IRS-1 C-terminal fragment on Ser-1101, which was prevented by mutations of this site or when a kinase-inactive mutant of RSK was used. Using antibodies directed toward the phosphorylation sites located in the activation segment of RSK (Ser-221 or Ser-380), we found that insulin activates RSK in L6 myocytes in the absence of AA overload. Inhibition of RSK using either the pharmacological inhibitor BI-D1870 or after adenoviral expression of a dominant negative RSK1 mutant (RSK1-DN) showed that RSK selectively phosphorylates IRS-1 on Ser-1101. Accordingly, expression of the RSK1-DN mutant in L6 myocytes and FAO hepatic cells improved insulin action on glucose uptake and glucose production, respectively. Furthermore, RSK1 inhibition prevented insulin resistance in L6 myocytes chronically exposed to high glucose and high insulin. These results show that RSK is a novel regulator of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism and a potential mediator of insulin resistance, notably through the negative phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser-1101. PMID:24036112

  3. PD-1 inhibits T-cell receptor induced phosphorylation of the ZAP70/CD3zeta signalosome and downstream signaling to PKCtheta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly-Ann; Fitz, Lori J; Lee, Julie M; Benander, Christina; George, Judith A; Wooters, Joe; Qiu, Yongchang; Jussif, Jason M; Carter, Laura L; Wood, Clive R; Chaudhary, Divya

    2004-09-10

    Engagement of the immunoinhibitory receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) attenuates T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of IL-2 production and T-cell proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that PD-1 modulation of T-cell function involves inhibition of TCR-mediated phosphorylation of ZAP70 and association with CD3zeta. In addition, PD-1 signaling attenuates PKCtheta activation loop phosphorylation in a cognate TCR signal. PKCtheta has been shown to be required for T-cell IL-2 production. A phosphorylated PD-1 peptide, corresponding to the C-terminal immunoreceptor tyrosine-switch motif (ITSM), acts as a docking site in vitro for both SHP-2 and SHP-1, while the phosphorylated peptide containing the N-terminal PD-1 immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motif (ITIM) associates only with SHP-2.

  4. Ras-activated RSK1 phosphorylates EBP50 to regulate its nuclear localization and promote cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hooi Cheng; Jou, Tzuu-Shuh

    2016-03-01

    Differential subcellular localization of EBP50 leads to its controversial role in cancer biology either as a tumor suppressor when it resides at the membrane periphery, or a tumor facilitator at the nucleus. However, the mechanism behind nuclear localization of EBP50 remains unclear. A RNA interference screening identified the downstream effector of the Ras-ERK cascade, RSK1, as the molecule unique for nuclear transport of EBP50. RSK1 binds to EBP50 and phosphorylates it at a conserved threonine residue at position 156 (T156) under the regulation of growth factor. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed the significance of T156 residue in nuclear localization of EBP50, cellular proliferation, and oncogenic transformation. Our study sheds light on a possible therapeutic strategy targeting at this aberrant nuclear expression of EBP50 without affecting the normal physiological function of EBP50 at other subcellular localization.

  5. miR-486 sustains NF-κB activity by disrupting multiple NF-κB-negative feedback loops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libing Song; Chuyong Lin; Hui Gong; Chanjuan Wang; Liping Liu; Jueheng Wu; Sha Tao

    2013-01-01

    Deubiquitinases,such as CYLD,A20 and Cezanne,have emerged as important negative regulators that balance the strength and the duration of NF-κB signaling through feedback mechanisms.However,how these serial feedback loops are simultaneously disrupted in cancers,which commonly exhibit constitutively activated NF-κB,remains puzzling.Herein,we report that miR-486 directly suppresses NF-κB-negative regulators,CYLD and Cezanne,as well as multiple A20 activity regulators,including ITCH,TNIP-1,TNIP-2 and TNIP-3,resulting in promotion of ubiquitin conjugations in NF-κB signaling and sustained NF-κB activity.Furthermore,we demonstrate that upregulation of miR-486 promotes glioma aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo through activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.Importantly,miR-486 levels in primary gliomas significantly correlate with NF-κB activation status.These findings uncover a novel mechanism for constitutive NF-κB activation in gliomas and support a functionally and clinically relevant epigenetic mechanism in cancer progression.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the oil palm fruit mesocarp reveals elevated oxidative phosphorylation activity is critical for increased storage oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loei, Hendrick; Lim, Justin; Tan, Melvin; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qing Song; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chung, Maxey C M

    2013-11-01

    Palm oil is a highly versatile commodity with wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and biofuel industries. Storage oil in the oil palm mesocarp can make up a remarkable 80% of its dry mass, making it the oil crop with the richest oil content in the world. As such, there has been an ongoing interest in understanding the mechanism of oil production in oil palm fruits. To identify the proteome changes during oil palm fruit maturation and factors affecting oil yield in oil palm fruits, we examined the proteomic profiles of oil palm mesocarps at four developing stages--12, 16, 18, and 22 weeks after pollination--by 8-plex iTRAQ labeling coupled to 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. It was found that proteins from several important metabolic processes, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty acid biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation, were differentially expressed in a concerted manner. These increases led to an increase in carbon flux and a diversion of resources such as ATP and NADH that are required for lipid biosynthesis. The temporal proteome profiles between the high-oil-yielding (HY) and low-oil-yielding (LY) fruits also showed significant differences in the levels of proteins involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In particular, the expression level of the β subunit of the ATP synthase complex (complex IV of the electron transport chain) was found to be increased during fruit maturation in HY but decreased in the LY during the fruit maturation. These results suggested that increased energy supply is necessary for augmented oil yield in the HY oil palm trees.

  7. Crystal Structures of Trypanosoma cruzi UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase Implicate Flexibility of the Histidine Loop in Enzyme Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhatwalia, Richa; Singh, Harkewal; Oppenheimer, Michelle; Sobrado, Pablo; Tanner, John J. (Virginia Tech); (UMC)

    2012-11-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Here we report crystal structures of the galactofuranose biosynthetic enzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) from T. cruzi, which are the first structures of this enzyme from a protozoan parasite. UGM is an attractive target for drug design because galactofuranose is absent in humans but is an essential component of key glycoproteins and glycolipids in trypanosomatids. Analysis of the enzyme-UDP noncovalent interactions and sequence alignments suggests that substrate recognition is exquisitely conserved among eukaryotic UGMs and distinct from that of bacterial UGMs. This observation has implications for inhibitor design. Activation of the enzyme via reduction of the FAD induces profound conformational changes, including a 2.3 {angstrom} movement of the histidine loop (Gly60-Gly61-His62), rotation and protonation of the imidazole of His62, and cooperative movement of residues located on the si face of the FAD. Interestingly, these changes are substantially different from those described for Aspergillus fumigatus UGM, which is 45% identical to T. cruzi UGM. The importance of Gly61 and His62 for enzymatic activity was studied with the site-directed mutant enzymes G61A, G61P, and H62A. These mutations lower the catalytic efficiency by factors of 10-50, primarily by decreasing k{sub cat}. Considered together, the structural, kinetic, and sequence data suggest that the middle Gly of the histidine loop imparts flexibility that is essential for activation of eukaryotic UGMs. Our results provide new information about UGM biochemistry and suggest a unified strategy for designing inhibitors of UGMs from the eukaryotic pathogens.

  8. Evidence against a role for the JIL-1 kinase in H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment to active genes in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available JIL-1 is the major kinase controlling phosphorylation of histone H3S10 and has been demonstrated to function to counteract heterochromatization and gene silencing. However, an alternative model has been proposed in which JIL-1 is required for transcription to occur, additionally phosphorylates H3S28, and recruits 14-3-3 to active genes. Since these findings are incompatible with our previous demonstration that there are robust levels of transcription in the complete absence of JIL-1 and that JIL-1 is not present at developmental or heat shock-induced polytene chromosome puffs, we have reexamined JIL-1's possible role in H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment. Using two different H3S28ph antibodies we show by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting that in Drosophila the H3S28ph mark is not present at detectable levels above background on polytene chromosomes at interphase but only on chromosomes at pro-, meta-, and anaphase during cell division in S2 cells and third instar larval neuroblasts. Moreover, this mitotic H3S28ph signal is also present in a JIL-1 null mutant background at undiminished levels suggesting that JIL-1 is not the mitotic H3S28ph kinase. We also demonstrate that H3S28ph is not enriched at heat shock puffs. Using two different pan-specific 14-3-3 antibodies as well as an enhancer trap 14-3-3ε-GFP line we show that 14-3-3, while present in salivary gland nuclei, does not localize to chromosomes but only to the nuclear matrix surrounding the chromosomes. In our hands 14-3-3 is not recruited to developmental or heat shock puffs. Furthermore, using a lacO repeat tethering system to target LacI-JIL-1 to ectopic sites on polytene chromosomes we show that only H3S10ph is present and upregulated at such sites, not H3S28ph or 14-3-3. Thus, our results argue strongly against a model where JIL-1 is required for H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment at active genes.

  9. Gomisin A enhances tumor necrosis factor-α-induced G1 cell cycle arrest via signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-mediated phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiwut, Pornthip; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Yokoyama, Satoru; Saiki, Ikuo; Sakurai, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Gomisin A, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, has been reported as an anti-cancer substance. In this study, we investigated the effects of gomisin A on cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. Gomisin A significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner after 72 h treatment, especially in the presence of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), due to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase with the downregulation of cyclin D1 expression and Retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation. In addition, gomisin A in combination with TNF-α strongly suppressed the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Inhibition of STAT1 pathways by a small-interfering RNA against STAT1 and AG490 Janus kinase (JAK) kinase inhibitor AG490 reduced the cyclin D1 expression and RB phosphorylation, indicating that JAK-mediated STAT1 activation is involved in gomisin A-induced G1 cell cycle arrest.

  10. Antidepressant-like activity of resveratrol treatment in the forced swim test and tail suspension test in mice: the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of ERK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Gu, Jianhua; Wang, Xueer; Xie, Kai; Luan, Qinsong; Wan, Nianqing; Zhang, Qun; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Dexiang

    2013-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol enriched in Polygonum cuspidatum and has diverse biological activities. There is only limited information about the antidepressant-like effect of resveratrol. The present study assessed whether resveratrol treatment (20, 40 and 80mg/kg, i.p., 21days) has an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice and examined what its molecular targets might be. The results showed that resveratrol administration produced antidepressant-like effects in mice, evidenced by the reduced immobility time in the FST and TST, while it had no effect on the locomotor activity in the open field test. Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone levels, which had been elevated by the FST and TST. Moreover, resveratrol increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. All of these antidepressant-like effects of resveratrol were essentially similar to those observed with the clinical antidepressant, fluoxetine. These results suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of resveratrol in the FST and TST are mediated, at least in part, by modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, BDNF and ERK phosphorylation expression in the brain region of mice.

  11. Ser-2030, but not Ser-2808, is the major phosphorylation site in cardiac ryanodine receptors responding to protein kinase A activation upon beta-adrenergic stimulation in normal and failing hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bailong; Zhong, Guofeng; Obayashi, Masakazu; Yang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyun; Walsh, Michael P; Shimoni, Yakhin; Cheng, Heping; Ter Keurs, Henk; Chen, S R Wayne

    2006-05-15

    We have recently shown that RyR2 (cardiac ryanodine receptor) is phosphorylated by PKA (protein kinase A/cAMP-dependent protein kinase) at two major sites, Ser-2030 and Ser-2808. In the present study, we examined the properties and physiological relevance of phosphorylation of these two sites. Using site- and phospho-specific antibodies, we demonstrated that Ser-2030 of both recombinant and native RyR2 from a number of species was phosphorylated by PKA, indicating that Ser-2030 is a highly conserved PKA site. Furthermore, we found that the phosphorylation of Ser-2030 responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) stimulation in rat cardiac myocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, whereas Ser-2808 was already substantially phosphorylated before beta-adrenergic stimulation, and the extent of the increase in Ser-2808 phosphorylation after beta-adrenergic stimulation was much less than that for Ser-2030. Interestingly, the isoproterenol-induced phosphorylation of Ser-2030, but not of Ser-2808, was markedly inhibited by PKI, a specific inhibitor of PKA. The basal phosphorylation of Ser-2808 was also insensitive to PKA inhibition. Moreover, Ser-2808, but not Ser-2030, was stoichiometrically phosphorylated by PKG (protein kinase G). In addition, we found no significant phosphorylation of RyR2 at the Ser-2030 PKA site in failing rat hearts. Importantly, isoproterenol stimulation markedly increased the phosphorylation of Ser-2030, but not of Ser-2808, in failing rat hearts. Taken together, these observations indicate that Ser-2030, but not Ser-2808, is the major PKA phosphorylation site in RyR2 responding to PKA activation upon beta-adrenergic stimulation in both normal and failing hearts, and that RyR2 is not hyperphosphorylated by PKA in heart failure. Our results also suggest that phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser-2030 may be an important event associated with altered Ca2+ handling and cardiac arrhythmia that is commonly observed in heart failure upon beta

  12. Ser-2030, but not Ser-2808, is the major phosphorylation site in cardiac ryanodine receptors responding to protein kinase A activation upon β-adrenergic stimulation in normal and failing hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bailong; Zhong, Guofeng; Obayashi, Masakazu; Yang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyun; Walsh, Michael P.; Shimoni, Yakhin; Cheng, Heping; ter Keurs, Henk; Chen, S. R. Wayne

    2006-01-01

    We have recently shown that RyR2 (cardiac ryanodine receptor) is phosphorylated by PKA (protein kinase A/cAMP