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Sample records for activation foils method

  1. Validation of computational methods for treatment planning of fast-neutron therapy using activation foil techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wemple, C.A.; Hartwell, J.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Risler, R.

    1997-12-01

    A closed-form direct method for unfolding neutron spectra from foil activation data is presented. The method is applied to measurements of the free-field neutron spectrum produced by the proton-cyclotron-based fast-neutron radiotherapy facility at the University of Washington (UW) School of Medicine. The results compare favorably with theoretical expectations based on an a-priori calculational model of the target and neutron beamline configuration of the UW facility

  2. Corrections in the gold foil activation method for determination of neutron beam density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    A finite foil thickness and deviation in the cross section from the 1ν law imply corrections in the determination of neutron beam densities by means of foil activation. These corrections, which depend on the neutron velocity distribution, have been examined in general and are given in a specific...... example for a reactor beam transmitted through a 30 cm Bi filter. The effective cross section differs 0.5% from the capture cross section at 2200 m/s. For a 20 mg/cm2 Au foil the correction for beam attenuation and hardening through the foil is 0.7% and the activity correction is 1.5%....

  3. Corrections in the gold foil activation method for determination of neutron beam density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    A finite foil thickness and deviation in the cross section from the 1ν law imply corrections in the determination of neutron beam densities by means of foil activation. These corrections, which depend on the neutron velocity distribution, have been examined in general and are given in a specific...

  4. Use of the foil activation method with arbitrary trial functions to determine neutron energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Vehar, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron Spectra have been measured by the foil activation method in thirteen different environments in and around the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR-III), the White Sands Missile Range FBR, and the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). The unfolded spectra were obtained by using the SANDII code in a manner which was not dependent on the initial trial. This altered technique is, therefore, better suited for the determination of spectra in environments that are difficult to predict by calculation, and it tends to reveal features that may be biased out by the use of standard trial functions

  5. NEUTRON FIELD MEASUREMENT OF P(35)+Be SOURCE USING THE MULTI-FOIL ACTIVATION METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Milan; Bem, Pavel; Majerle, Mitja; Novak, Jan; Simeckova, Eva; Stursa, Jan

    2017-12-05

    Neutron field from the p+Be interaction was investigated at the NPI CAS for a proton beam energy of 35 MeV and thick beryllium target. Broad neutron spectra at close source-to-sample distances were determined using the multi-foil activation technique. Two large sets of dosimetry foils containing the Ni, Co, Au, In, Ti, Al, Y, Lu, Nb and Fe were irradiated at a distance of 74 mm at direct neutron beam axis and at a distance of 34 mm from beam axis. Supporting Monte-Carlo MCNPX calculations of the irradiation system were performed as well. From measured reaction rates, the neutron energy spectra at both positions were reconstructed employing the modified version of the SAND-II unfolding code and activation cross-section data from the EAF-2010 library. At the position of irradiated samples, the total fast neutron flux reaches the value up to 1010 cm-2 s-1, and the neutron field is utilizable for radiation hardness study and integral benchmark experiments within the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Neutron measurement at the thermal column of the Malaysian Triga Mark II reactor using gold foil activation method and TLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalbi, Safwan; Salleh, Wan Norhayati Wan; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Aliff Ashraff Rosdi, Muhammad; Syahir Sarkawi, Muhammad; Liyana Jamsari, Nur; Nasir, Nur Aishah Mohd

    2018-01-01

    In order to design facilities for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), the neutron measurement must be considered to obtain the optimal design of BNCT facility such as collimator and shielding. The previous feasibility study showed that the thermal column could generate higher thermal neutrons yield for BNCT application at the TRIGA MARK II reactor. Currently, the facility for BNCT are planned to be developed at thermal column. Thus, the main objective was focused on the thermal neutron and epithermal neutron flux measurement at the thermal column. In this measurement, pure gold and cadmium were used as a filter to obtain the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes from inside and outside of the thermal column door of the 200kW reactor power using a gold foil activation method. The results were compared with neutron fluxes using TLD 600 and TLD 700. The outcome of this work will become the benchmark for the design of BNCT collimator and the shielding

  7. Radioactivity analysis in niobium activation foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.E.

    1995-06-01

    The motivation for this study was to measure and analyze the activity of six (6) niobium (Nb) foils (the x-rays from an internal transition in Nb-93m) and apply this information with previously obtained activation foil data. The niobium data was used to determine the epithermal to MeV range for the neutron spectrum and fluence. The foil activation data was re-evaluated in a spectrum analysis code (STAY`SL) to provide new estimates of the exposure at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effect Facility (LASREF). The activity of the niobium foils was measured and analyzed at the University of Missouri-Columbia (UMC) under the direction of Professor William Miller. The spectrum analysis was performed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) by Professor Gary Mueller.

  8. Measurement of 14 MeV neutron cross section of {sup 129}I with foil activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Isao; Nakano, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The {sup 129}I, which is one of the most famous fission products (FPs), is of very important concern from the standpoint of waste transmutation due to its extremely long half life. The accurate reaction cross section data of {sup 129}I induced by 14 MeV neutrons are indispensable when evaluating the performance to transmute it in a fusion reactor. However, there was no available experimental data reported until now. We measured 14 MeV neutron induced reaction cross sections of {sup 129}I to give the reference cross section data for evaluation of transmutation performance and nuclear data, using OKTAVIAN facility of Osaka university, Japan. Since the available amount of {sup 129}I as a sample is quite small, probably less than 1 mg, the foil activation method was adopted in the measurement. The sample was a sealed source of {sup 129}I and the {gamma}-rays from the irradiated sample were measured with a Hp-Ge detector. Several {gamma}-rays peaks which could be expected to be caused by two nuclear reactions of {sup 129}I(n,2n) and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) were observed. We confirmed that these peaks corresponded to those of {sup 128}I and {sup 130}I through ascertaining each energy and half life. From the measurement, the cross section of {sup 129}I(n,2n) and the effective production cross section of {sup 130}I produced by the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reaction including the contribution of {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130m}I reaction, that were estimated to be 1.1{+-}0.1 b and 0.032{+-}0.003 b, respectively at 14.8 MeV, were obtained with an acceptable accuracy of about 10 %, though the errors caused by the uncertainty of {gamma} decay scheme data still existed. The measured cross sections were compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. For the {sup 129}I(n,2n) reaction, the evaluations overestimate the cross section by 30-40 %, while for the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) reaction, the evaluations underestimate by at least one order of magnitude

  9. Method of forming a thin unbacked metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    In a method of forming a thin (foil having a desired curviplanar shape, a soluble polymeric film, preferably comprising polyvinyl alcohol, is formed on a supporting structure having a shape that defines the desired shape of the foil product. A layer of metal foil is deposited onto one side of the soluble film, preferably by vacuum vapor deposition. The metallized film is then immersed in a suitable solvent to dissolve the film and thereby leave the metal foil as an unbacked metal foil element mounted on the supporting structure. Aluminum foils less than 0.2 .mu.m (2,000 .ANG.) thick and having an areal density of less than 54 .mu.g/cm.sup.2 have been obtained.

  10. Method of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jackie G [Seymour, TN; DeMint, Amy L [Kingston, TN

    2012-04-24

    Methods of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil are described. The foil may be substantially pure uranium, or may be a uranium alloy such as a uranium-molybdenum alloy. The method typically includes a series of hot rolling operations on a cast plate material to form a thin sheet. These hot rolling operations are typically performed using a process where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant percentage. The sheet is typically then annealed and then cooled. The process typically concludes with a series of cold rolling passes where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant thickness amount to form the foil.

  11. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.; Frees, G.; Peric, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  12. Method and apparatus for tensile testing of metal foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, O. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method for obtaining accurate and reproducible results in the tensile testing of metal foils in tensile testing machines is described. Before the test specimen are placed in the machine, foil side edges are worked until they are parallel and flaw free. The specimen are also aligned between and secured to grip end members. An aligning apparatus employed in the method is comprised of an alignment box with a longitudinal bottom wall and two upright side walls, first and second removable grip end members at each end of the box, and a means for securing the grip end members within the box.

  13. Measurement of Photo-Neutron Dose from an 18-MV Medical Linac Using a Foil Activation Method in View of Radiation Protection of Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Yücel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High-energy linear accelerators are increasingly used in the medical field. However, the unwanted photo-neutrons can also be contributed to the dose delivered to the patients during their treatments. In this study, neutron fluxes were measured in a solid water phantom placed at the isocenter 1-m distance from the head of an 18-MV linac using the foil activation method. The produced activities were measured with a calibrated well-type Ge detector. From the measured fluxes, the total neutron fluence was found to be (1.17 ± 0.06 × 107 n/cm2 per Gy at the phantom surface in a 20 × 20 cm2 X-ray field size. The maximum photo-neutron dose was measured to be 0.67 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy at dmax = 5 cm depth in the phantom at isocenter. The present results are compared with those obtained for different field sizes of 10 × 10cm2, 15 × 15cm2, and 20 × 20cm2 from 10-, 15-, and 18-MV linacs. Additionally, ambient neutron dose equivalents were determined at different locations in the room and they were found to be negligibly low. The results indicate that the photo-neutron dose at the patient position is not a negligible fraction of the therapeutic photon dose. Thus, there is a need for reduction of the contaminated neutron dose by taking some additional measures, for instance, neutron absorbing-protective materials might be used as aprons during the treatment.

  14. Determination of neutron fluxes at the self-shielded PET cyclotron and the electron liniac apparatus of Tokushima University Hospital using activation foil method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakama, Minoru; Tanii, Takashi; Maezawa, Hiroshi; Saze, Takuya; Maeda, Kouji; Sato, Kazuo; Honda, Eiichi; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2008-01-01

    Up till now, from a radiation safety management point of view, it has been discussed to construct guidelines on estimation of neutron fluxes produced via operating various medical small accelerators and to establish uniformly the clearance system related to having neutron activation effects into each accelerator facility. That is, it was the aim of this investigation to accumulate the data on estimation basis of neutron flux measurements at those medical small accelerators by an activation foil method. In this work, the neutron fluxes at the self-shielded PET cyclotron and the electron liniac apparatus of Tokushima University Hospital have been measured as the medical small accelerator. As a result, for the self-shielded PET cyclotron, it was found that the thermal neutron flux is (1.04±0.05) x10 7 cm -2 s -1 and the fast neutron fluxes are distributed over the range 1x10 4 (the neutron energy E n =9 MeV) to 1x10 7 (E n =1.5 MeV) cm -2 s -1 into the radiation shelter, and while the thermal neutron fluxes would be distributed over the range 5.0x10 1 to 9.9x10 1 cm -2 s -1 and then the fast neutron dose leakages were not detected outside there. For the 6/10 MV electron liniac apparatus, it was also found that nearly the same thermal neutron fluxes would be distributed all around the liniac room and those measured values are over the range (1.01±0.18)x10 3 to (1.32±0.10)x10 3 cm -2 s -1 . (author)

  15. Determination of neutron flux with an arbitrary energy distribution by measurement of irradiated foils activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljubenov, V.; Milosevic, M.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for the neutron flux determination in a neutron field with an arbitrary energy spectrum, based on the using of standard methods for the measurement of irradiated foils activity and on the application of the SCALE-4.4a code system for averaged cross section calculation is described in this paper. Proposed procedure allows to include the energy spectrum of neutron flux reestablished in the location of irradiated foils and the resonance self-shielding effects in the foils also. Example application of this procedure is given for the neutron flux determination inside the neutron filter with boron placed in the centre of heavy water critical assembly RB at the Vinca Institute (author)

  16. 78 FR 28577 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, LLFlex, LLC, Subzone 29J (Foil Backed Paperboard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity, LLFlex, LLC, Subzone 29J (Foil...) was received on May 6, 2013. The subzone currently has authority to produce aluminum foil liner stock. The current request would add foil backed paperboard to the list of approved finished products...

  17. Comparison of Americium-Beryllium neutron spectrum obtained using activation foil detectors and NE-213 spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunny, Sunil; Subbaiah, K.V.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron spectrum of Americium - Beryllium (α,n) source is measured with two different spectrometers vis-a-vis activation foils (foil detectors) and NE-213 organic scintillator. Activity induced in the foils is measured with 4π-β-γ sodium iodide detector by integrating counts under photo peak and the saturation activity is found by correcting to elapsed time before counting. The data on calculated activity is fed into the unfolding code, SAND-II to obtain neutron spectrum. In the case of organic scintillator, the pulse height spectrum is obtained using MCA and this is processed with unfolding code DUST in order to get neutron spectrum. The Americium - Beryllium (α,n) neutron spectrum thus obtained by two different methods is compared. It is inferred that the NE-213 scintillator spectrum is in excellent agreement with the values beyond 1MeV. Neutron spectrum obtained by activation foils depends on initial guess spectrum and is found to be in reasonable agreement with NE-213 spectrum. (author)

  18. Standard test methods of tension testing of metallic foil

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1993-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the tension testing of metallic foil at room temperature in thicknesses less than 0.006 in. (0.150 mm). Note 1—Exception to these methods may be necessary in individual specifications or test methods for a particular material. 1.2 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Measurements by activation foils and comparative computations by MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2008-01-01

    Systematic study of the radioactive waste minimisation problem is subject of the SPHINX project. Its idea is that burning or transmutation of the waste inventory problematic part will be realized in a nuclear reactor the fuel of which is in the form of liquid fluorides. In frame of the project, several experiments have been performed with so-called inserted experimental channel. The channel was filled up by the fluorides mixture, surrounded by six fuel assemblies with moderator and placed into LR-0 reactor vessel. This formation was brought to critical state and measurement with activation foil detectors were carried out at selected positions of the inserted channel. Main aim of the measurements was to determine reaction rates for the detectors mentioned. For experiment evaluation, comparative computations were accomplished by code MCNP4a. The results obtained show that very often, computed values of reaction rates differ substantially from the values that were obtained from the experiment. This contribution deals with analysis of the reasons of these differences from the point of view of computations by Monte Carlo method. The analysis of concrete cases shows that the inaccuracy of reaction rate computed is caused mostly by three circumstances:-space region that is occupied by detector is relatively very small;- microscopic effective cross-section R(E) of the reaction changes strongly with energy just in the energy interval that gives the greatest contribution to the reaction; - in the energy interval that gives the greatest contribution to reaction rate, the error of the computed neutron flux is great. These circumstances evoke that the computation of reaction rate with casual accuracy submits extreme demands on computing time. (Author)

  20. Compositional characterization of thin foil by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Pal, Sujit; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.; Venkataramani, B.

    2007-01-01

    The elemental composition of a thin (2 mm) Havar foil was determined by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis (HIAA). The recoiled products, coming out of thin target, were separated and absorbed in graded thickness of aluminum catcher foils as per their recoil ranges. Activation technique was followed for the quantitative estimation using elemental standards by comparator technique. (author)

  1. Absolute measurements of the thermal neutron flux by the foil activation method using the 4πβ-γ coincidence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Amado Furieri, R.C. de.

    1977-12-01

    An analysis of the correction factors required for the β-γ coincidence method is presented together with a listing of the various formulae involved in the determination of radioactive sources. The detection system including the activation detectores are described and the results are shown for the absolute measurements of thermal neutron flux carried out in the core of the Argonaut Reactor, at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Brazil. (Author) [pt

  2. Models of printed boards for solderless mounting of electronic components by foil perforation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimenko A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents models of printed circuit boards for an improved foil perforation method. The density of electrical connections of such printed circuit boards is estimated in comparison with circuit boards obtained using the methods of mounting in holes and surface mounting. The technological differences in the manufacture of printed circuit boards for the foil perforation method and the traditional method are considered.

  3. SU-E-T-557: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac Devices Irradiated During Proton Therapy Using Indium Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, S; Christodouleas, J; Delaney, K; Diffenderfer, E; Brown, K [University of Pennsylvania, Sicklerville, NJ (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac devices Irradiated during Proton Therapy using Indium Foils Methods: The foils had dimensions of 25mm x 25mm x 1mm. After being activated, the foils were placed in a Canberra Industries well chamber utilizing a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The resulting gamma spectrum was acquired and analyzed using Genie 2000 spectroscopy software. One activation foil was placed over the upper, left chest of RANDO where a pacemaker would be. The rest of the foils were placed over the midline of the patient at different distances, providing a spatial distribution over the phantom. Using lasers and BBs to align the patient, 200 MU square fields were delivered to various treatment sites: the brain, the pancreas, and the prostate. Each field was shot at least a day apart, giving more than enough time for activity of the foil to decay (t1=2 = 54.12 min). Results: The net counts (minus background) of the three aforementioned peaks were used for our measurements. These counts were adjusted to account for detector efficiency, relative photon yields from decay, and the natural abundance of 115-In. The average neutron flux for the closed multi-leaf collimator irradiation was measured to be 1.62 x 106 - 0.18 x 106 cm2 s-1. An order of magnitude estimate of the flux for neutrons up to 1 keV from Diffenderfer et al. gives 3 x 106 cm2 s-1 which does agree on the order of magnitude. Conclusion: Lower energy neutrons have higher interaction cross-sections and are more likely to damage pacemakers. The thermal/slow neutron component may be enough to estimate the overall risk. The true test of the applicability of activation foils is whether or not measurements are capable of predicting cardiac device malfunction. For that, additional studies are needed to provide clinical evidence one way or the other.

  4. SU-E-T-557: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac Devices Irradiated During Proton Therapy Using Indium Foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S; Christodouleas, J; Delaney, K; Diffenderfer, E; Brown, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac devices Irradiated during Proton Therapy using Indium Foils Methods: The foils had dimensions of 25mm x 25mm x 1mm. After being activated, the foils were placed in a Canberra Industries well chamber utilizing a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The resulting gamma spectrum was acquired and analyzed using Genie 2000 spectroscopy software. One activation foil was placed over the upper, left chest of RANDO where a pacemaker would be. The rest of the foils were placed over the midline of the patient at different distances, providing a spatial distribution over the phantom. Using lasers and BBs to align the patient, 200 MU square fields were delivered to various treatment sites: the brain, the pancreas, and the prostate. Each field was shot at least a day apart, giving more than enough time for activity of the foil to decay (t1=2 = 54.12 min). Results: The net counts (minus background) of the three aforementioned peaks were used for our measurements. These counts were adjusted to account for detector efficiency, relative photon yields from decay, and the natural abundance of 115-In. The average neutron flux for the closed multi-leaf collimator irradiation was measured to be 1.62 x 106 - 0.18 x 106 cm2 s-1. An order of magnitude estimate of the flux for neutrons up to 1 keV from Diffenderfer et al. gives 3 x 106 cm2 s-1 which does agree on the order of magnitude. Conclusion: Lower energy neutrons have higher interaction cross-sections and are more likely to damage pacemakers. The thermal/slow neutron component may be enough to estimate the overall risk. The true test of the applicability of activation foils is whether or not measurements are capable of predicting cardiac device malfunction. For that, additional studies are needed to provide clinical evidence one way or the other

  5. Test preparation and lifetime measurement of very thin carbon stripper foils made by a controlled DC arc-discharge method

    CERN Document Server

    Sugai, I; Oyaizu, M; Kawakami, H; Hattori, Y; Kawasaki, K; Hayashizaki, N

    2002-01-01

    We have prepared very thin plastic supported carbon stripper foils (1.2+-0.3 mu g/cm sup 2) using a controlled DC arc-discharge (CDAD) method. The lifetime of these foils was measured with 3.2 MeV Ne sup + ions. These foils recorded lifetimes about four times longer at the maximum and three times longer on the average than those commercially available foils produced by evaporation-condensation.

  6. A new method for alkaline dissolution of uranium metal foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, A.V.; Wilkinson, M.V.; Manzini, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop a production process of 99 Mo by fission of low-enriched uranium, the first purification step, which consists of dissolution of a uranium metal foil target, was studied. It was found that alkaline NaClO gave good results, reaching the dissolution of up to 300 μm of uranium foil. The different conditions for the dissolution were studied and the optimum ones were found. The influence of NaClO and NaOH concentration, temperature, dissolving solution volume per unit of surface and dissolution time were investigated. During this step, a gas identified as H 2 , was generated, and a precipitate characterized as Na 2 U 2 O 7 was observed. A stoichiometric reaction for this uranium dissolution is proposed. (author)

  7. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  8. Neutron spectrum determination of d(20)+Be source reaction by the dosimetry foils method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Milan; Bem, Pavel; Majerle, Mitja; Novak, Jan; Simeckova, Eva

    2017-11-01

    The cyclotron-based fast neutron generator with the thick beryllium target operated at the NPI Rez Fast Neutron Facility is primarily designed for the fast neutron production in the p+Be source reaction at 35 MeV. Besides the proton beam, the isochronous cyclotron U-120M at the NPI provides the deuterons in the energy range of 10-20 MeV. The experiments for neutron field investigation from the deuteron bombardment of thick beryllium target at 20 MeV were performed just recently. For the neutron spectrum measurement of the d(20)+Be source reaction, the dosimetry foils activation method was utilized. Neutron spectrum reconstruction from resulting reaction rates was performed using the SAND-II unfolding code and neutron cross-sections from the EAF-2010 nuclear data library. Obtained high-flux white neutron field from the d(20)+Be source is useful for the intensive irradiation experiments and cross-section data validation.

  9. Validation of MCNP NPP Activation Simulations for Decommissioning Studies by Analysis of NPP Neutron Activation Foil Measurement Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmert Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant (NPP activation methodology is presented and the work towards its validation by in-situ NPP foil irradiation campaigns is outlined. Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG in The Netherlands has been given the task of performing the corresponding neutron metrology. For this purpose, small Aluminium boxes containing a set of circular-shaped neutron activation foils have been prepared. After being irradiated for one complete reactor cycle, the sets have been successfully retrieved, followed by gamma-spectrometric measurements of the individual foils at NRG. Along with the individual activities of the foils, the reaction rates and thermal, intermediate and fast neutron fluence rates at the foil locations have been determined. These determinations include appropriate corrections for gamma self-absorption and neutron self-shielding as well as corresponding measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the NPP Monte Carlo calculations with the results of the foil measurements is done by using an individual generic MCNP model functioning as an interface and allowing the simulation of individual foil activation by predetermined neutron spectra. To summarize, the comparison between calculation and measurement serve as a sound validation of the Swiss NPP activation methodology by demonstrating a satisfying agreement between measurement and calculation. Finally, the validation offers a chance for further improvements of the existing NPP models by ensuing calibration and/or modelling optimizations for key components and structures.

  10. Antimicrobial activities of CuO films deposited on Cu foils by solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai, E-mail: schthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Monoclinic CuO thin films on Cu foils were successfully synthesized by a simple wet chemical method in alkaline solution with the pH of 13 at room temperature for different lengths of time. The as-synthesized thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Formation mechanism of the phase and morphologies was also discussed according to the experimental results. In this research, assemblies of pure CuO nanospindles with different orientations containing in the thin film synthesized for 2 weeks with 400 nm and 413 nm violet emissions showed better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than E. coli.

  11. Antimicrobial activities of CuO films deposited on Cu foils by solution chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2013-07-01

    Monoclinic CuO thin films on Cu foils were successfully synthesized by a simple wet chemical method in alkaline solution with the pH of 13 at room temperature for different lengths of time. The as-synthesized thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Formation mechanism of the phase and morphologies was also discussed according to the experimental results. In this research, assemblies of pure CuO nanospindles with different orientations containing in the thin film synthesized for 2 weeks with 400 nm and 413 nm violet emissions showed better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than E. coli.

  12. Measurements of activation products associated with Havar foils from a GE PETtrace medical cyclotron using high resolution gamma spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Vivek; Brey, Richard R; Jenkins, Peter A; Christian, Paul E

    2009-02-01

    Havar foils are specially engineered for beam-line windows used in the General Electric (GE) PETtrace medical cyclotron that can withstand the high pressure differentials and also temperatures developed near the target with proton bombardment. These foils effectively separate components along the beam line of the cyclotron. Various activation products are produced in the foils from the primary proton beam and other secondary radiations. An accurate estimate of the activation products is necessary for the disposal of these foils. The foils were assayed using two High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors calibrated over a wide energy range. These were positioned at different distances (0.10 m, 0.24 m, and 1.74 m) away from the detector faces to accommodate their high activities. A summary of the anticipated relative abundance of each activation product and a scatter plot of the average exposure rate per unit charge incident on the foil vs. time post-activation are provided. A detailed spectral analysis of the foils in the energy ranges between 12 keV to 300 keV and 12 keV through 2,500 keV revealed the residual activation products 56Co, 57Co, 58Co, 54Mn, and 183Re at 264 d post-irradiation. Spectral examinations of the different foils removed between 2003 and 2005 show the same activation products regardless of the irradiation time or foil position in the target assembly. The information presented in this paper can be used along with the integrated charge incident on the foils in estimating the activity of Havar foils for the purpose of disposal.

  13. 78 FR 55057 - Subzone 29J, Authorization of Production Activity, LLFlex, LLC; (Foil Backed Paperboard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 29J, Authorization of Production Activity, LLFlex, LLC; (Foil Backed Paperboard), Louisville, Kentucky On May 6, 2013, LLFlex, LLC submitted a notification of proposed production...

  14. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references

  15. Application of neural networks for unfolding neutron spectra measured by means of Bonner spheres and activation foils

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, C C

    2001-01-01

    A neural network structure has been used for unfolding neutron spectra measured by means of a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer set and a foil activation set using several neutron induced reactions. The present work used the SNNS (Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator) as the interface for designing, training and validation of the Multilayer Perceptron network. The back-propagation algorithm was applied. The Bonner Sphere set chosen has been calibrated at the National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom, and uses gold activation foils as thermal neutron detectors. The neutron energy covered by the response functions goes from 0.0001 eV to 14 MeV. The foil activation set chosen has been irradiated at the IEA-R1 research reactor and measured at the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two types of neutron spectra were numerically investigated: monoenergetic and continuous The unfolded spectra were compared to a conventional method using code SAND-II as part of the neutron dosimetry system SAIPS. Good results wer...

  16. Neutron spectrum determination of d(20)+Be source reaction by the dosimetry foils method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefánik, Milan; Bém, Pavel; Majerle, Mitja; Novák, Jan; Šimečková, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, NOV (2017), s. 466-470 ISSN 0969-806X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : multi-foil activation technique * accelerator-based neutron source * neutron spectrometry * Gamma-ray spectrometry * reaction rate * charged particle accelerator Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.315, year: 2016

  17. Hydrodynamic modeling with grey-box method of a foil-like underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-yu; Li, Yi-ping; Wang, Ya-xing; Feng, Xi-sheng

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a dynamic modeling method for foil-like underwater vehicles is introduced and experimentally verified in different sea tests of the Hadal ARV. The dumping force of a foil-like underwater vehicle is sensitive to swing motion. Some foil-like underwater vehicles swing periodically when performing a free-fall dive task in experiments. Models using conventional modeling methods yield solutions with asymptotic stability, which cannot simulate the self-sustained swing motion. By improving the ridge regression optimization algorithm, a grey-box modeling method based on 378 viscous drag coefficients using the Taylor series expansion is proposed in this study. The method is optimized for over-fitting and convergence problems caused by large parameter matrices. Instead of the PMM test data, the unsteady computational fluid dynamics calculation results are used in modeling. The obtained model can better simulate the swing motion of the underwater vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show a good consistency in free-fall tests during sea trials, as well as a prediction of the dive speed in the swing state.

  18. Foil Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    Foil can be shaped into almost anything--it is the all-purpose material for children's art. Foil is a unique drawing surface. It reflects, distorts and plays with light and imagery as young artists draw over it. Foil permits quick impressions of a model or object to be sketched. Foil allows artists to track their drawing moves, seeing the action…

  19. Nanocomposite of polystyrene foil grafted with metallaboranes for antimicrobial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benkocká, M.; Kolářová, K.; Matoušek, J.; Semerádtová, A.; Šícha, Václav; Kolská, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 441, MAY (2018), s. 120-129 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Chemical grafting * Metallaboranes * Piranha solution * Polystyrene * Surface properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  20. Method and apparatus for coating thin foil with a boron coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-16

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for applying a boron coating to a thin foil. Preferably, the process is a continuous, in-line process for applying a coating to a thin foil comprising wrapping the foil around a rotating and translating mandrel, cleaning the foil with glow discharge in an etching chamber as the mandrel with the foil moves through the chamber, sputtering the foil with boron carbide in a sputtering chamber as the mandrel moves through the sputtering chamber, and unwinding the foil off the mandrel after it has been coated. The apparatus for applying a coating to a thin foil comprises an elongated mandrel. Foil preferably passes from a reel to the mandrel by passing through a seal near the initial portion of an etching chamber. The mandrel has a translation drive system for moving the mandrel forward and a rotational drive system for rotating mandrel as it moves forward. The etching chamber utilizes glow discharge on a surface of the foil as the mandrel moves through said etching chamber. A sputtering chamber, downstream of the etching chamber, applies a thin layer comprising boron onto the surface of the foil as said mandrel moves through said sputtering chamber. Preferably, the coated foil passes from the mandrel to a second reel by passing through a seal near the terminal portion of the sputtering chamber.

  1. Measurement of high dose rates of 60Co by gamma activation of115In and 111Cd foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh; Qattan, M.; Taleb, A.

    2009-12-01

    The high gamma dose rate measurement technique using nuclear reaction (γ,(γ ' ') was introduced in this work. This technique is cheap, easy, reliable, and independent of chemical and physical factors, which affect other techniques. The response to the absorbed dose in this technique is linear and can be used for high dose. Cd and In foils were irradiated using 60 Co source and the resulted isomer activities were measured using gamma spectrometer. These foils were calibrated to be used as dosemeter and its results were compared with conventional one. The dose distribution in the irradiation field was determined using In foils. (authors)

  2. Some observations on the carburization of type 316 stainless steel foil in a low carbon activity sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorley, A.W.; Jeffcoat, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    Work currently being undertaken to establish the equilibrium composition of carbides which form in stainless steel foils during their exposure to low carbon activity sodium environment is described. The time it takes the carbon to reach equilibrium during exposure to sodium of different carbon activity is discussed. The lowest carbon activity measureable in test loops where the sodium is just above carburizing to stainless steel is reported. Analytical techniques are used to determine the composition of the carbide and the austenite matrix and hence estimate the carbon activity of the equilibrium structure. This provides a comparison with carbon activity values determined by alternative methods such as the Harwell Carbon Meter and nickel tab techniques

  3. Method of accurate thickness measurement of boron carbide coating on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Regmi, Murari

    2017-11-07

    A method is disclosed of measuring the thickness of a thin coating on a substrate comprising dissolving the coating and substrate in a reagent and using the post-dissolution concentration of the coating in the reagent to calculate an effective thickness of the coating. The preferred method includes measuring non-conducting films on flexible and rough substrates, but other kinds of thin films can be measure by matching a reliable film-substrate dissolution technique. One preferred method includes determining the thickness of Boron Carbide films deposited on copper foil. The preferred method uses a standard technique known as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) to measure boron concentration in a liquid sample prepared by dissolving boron carbide films and the Copper substrates, preferably using a chemical etch known as ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). Measured boron concentration values can then be calculated.

  4. Neutron intensity monitor with activation foil for p-Li neutron source for BNCT--Feasibility test of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isao; Otani, Yuki; Sato, Fuminobu

    2015-12-01

    Proton-lithium (p-Li) reaction is being examined worldwide as a candidate nuclear production reaction for accelerator based neutron source (ABNS) for BNCT. In this reaction, the emitted neutron energy is not so high, below 1 MeV, and especially in backward angles the energy is as low as about 100 keV. The intensity measurement was thus known to be difficult so far. In the present study, a simple method was investigated to monitor the absolute neutron intensity of the p-Li neutron source by employing the foil activation method based on isomer production reactions in order to cover around several hundreds keV. As a result of numerical examination, it was found that (107)Ag, (115)In and (189)Os would be feasible. Their features found out are summarized as follows: (107)Ag: The most convenient foil, since the half life is short. (115)In: The accuracy is the best at 0°, though it cannot be used for backward angles. And (189)Os: Suitable nuclide which can be used in backward angles, though the gamma-ray energy is a little too low. These would be used for p-Li source monitoring depending on measuring purposes in real BNCT scenes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutron Spectrum Determination of the p(35 MeV)-Be Source Reaction by the Dosimetry Foils Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefánik, Milan; Bém, Pavel; Götz, Miloslav; Katovsky, K.; Majerle, Mitja; Novák, Jan; Šimečková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 119, MAY (2014), s. 425-427 ISSN 0090-3752 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * foil method * neutron production Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.571, year: 2014

  6. Neutron dose measurements in PET medical cyclotron by foil activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, S.; Sathian, V.; Phadnis, U.V.; Pal, Rupali; Jayalakshmi, V.; Chaurasiya, G.; Kannan, S.; Soni, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclides are being used in diagnostic purpose as well as therapeutic purpose under medical category for early detection of malignancies, the diagnosis using radionuclides are playing very important role. PET scan is a miles stone in medical history. These scan is done using a positron emitter 18 F. This radionuclide is produced by the reaction 18 O (p, n) 18 F. In RMC this is produced using accelerated proton using cyclotron. The neutron production is an unwanted by product. These neutrons will make lot of radiation protection problem as neutron itself and also these neutrons will produce induced activity in the different elements of cyclotron shielding material as well as the wall materials in long run. So the accurate neutron dose measurement is very important. The measurement of neutron dose in cyclotron of RMC using activation foil technique is presented in this paper

  7. Method to Increase Performance of Foil Bearings Through Passive Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a new approach to designing foil bearings to increase their load capacity and improve their reliability through passive thermal management. In the present case, the bearing is designed in such a way as to prevent the carryover of lubricant from the exit of one sector to the inlet of the ensuing sector of the foil bearing. When such passive thermal management techniques are used, bearing load capacity is improved by multiples, and reliability is enhanced when compared to current foil bearings. This concept has recently been tested and validated, and shows that load capacity performance of foil bearings can be improved by a factor of two at relatively low speeds with potentially greater relative improvements at higher speeds. Such improvements in performance with respect to speed are typical of foil bearings. Additionally, operation of these newly conceived bearings shows much more reliability and repeatable performance. This trait can be exploited in machine design to enhance safety, reliability, and overall performance. Finally, lower frictional torque has been demonstrated when operating at lower (non-load capacity) loads, thus providing another improvement above the current state of the art. The objective of the invention is to incorporate features into a foil bearing that both enhance passive thermal management and temperature control, while at the same time improve the hydrodynamic (load capacity) performance of the foil bearing. Foil bearings are unique antifriction devices that can utilize the working fluid of a machine as a lubricant (typically air for turbines and motors, liquids for pumps), and as a coolant to remove excess energy due to frictional heating. The current state of the art of foil bearings utilizes forced cooling of the bearing and shaft, which represents poor efficiency and poor reliability. This invention embodies features that utilize the bearing geometry in such a manner as to both support load and provide an inherent and

  8. Electrical properties of Al foil/n-4H-SiC Schottky junctions fabricated by surface-activated bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Sho; Liang, Jianbo; Matsubara, Moeko; Dhamrin, Marwan; Nishio, Yoshitaka; Shigekawa, Naoteru

    2018-02-01

    We fabricate 17-µm-thick Al foil/n-4H-SiC Schottky junctions by surface-activated bonding. Their current–voltage and capacitance–voltage characteristics are compared with those of Schottky junctions fabricated by evaporating Al layers on n-4H-SiC epilayers. We find that the ideality factor of Al foil/SiC junctions is larger than that of conventional junctions, which is due to the irradiation of the fast atom beam (FAB) of Ar. The ideality factor of Al foil/SiC junctions is improved by annealing at 400 °C. We also find that the Schottky barrier height is increased by FAB irradiation, which is likely to be due to the negative charges formed at SiC surfaces.

  9. Single- and multi-foils {sup 27}Al(p,3pn){sup 24}Na activation technique for monitoring the intensity of high-energy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curioni, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, 20156 Milan (Italy); Froeschl, R.; Glaser, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Iliopoulou, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); La Torre, F.P. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Pozzi, F., E-mail: fabio.pozzi@cern.ch [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ravotti, F.; Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-06-21

    This paper discusses an experimental study of the spallation reaction {sup 27}Al(p,3pn){sup 24}Na in Al foils exposed to 24 GeV c{sup −1} protons, in the context of monitoring the intensity of multi-GeV proton beams through foil activation techniques. Since this reaction is sensitive to secondary neutrons and other energetic secondary hadrons, it is important to evaluate the impact of the foil thickness on the calculation of the beam intensity. This effect is determined experimentally using a stack of Al foils of varying thickness. The experimental results are then compared to Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Advanced foil activation techniques for the measurement of within-pin distributions of the 63Cu(n,γ)64Cu reaction rate in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macku, K.; Jatuff, F.; Murphy, M.F.; Joneja, O.P.; Bischofberger, R.; Chawla, R.

    2006-01-01

    Different foil activation techniques have been used for measuring spatial distributions of the 63 Cu(n,γ) 64 Cu reaction within two pins of a SVEA-96 Optima2 boiling water reactor fuel assembly, at the critical facility PROTEUS. This reaction is of interest because its 1/v cross-section gives it a good representation of the 235 U fission rate. Initially, radial capture rate profiles were measured with mechanically punched copper foils. More detailed profiles were then determined by using a 0.2 mm copper wire spiral (∼200 μm resolution), as well as 5-, 10-, and 20-ring UV-lithography, electroplating, and molding (UV-LIGA) foils (up to a 100 μm resolution). For azimuthal measurements, apart from manually cut activation foils (into 8 sectors), 8- and 12-sector LIGA foils were used. The highly versatile LIGA foils have the additional advantage of being very easily separated into individual pieces after irradiation without the use of punches or other cutting tools. In order to account for the invasive character of the foil activation techniques, corrections to account for sample perturbations and for self-shielding effects were determined via simplified Monte Carlo (MCNP4C) modeling of the experimental setup. The final results from the various measurements of 63 Cu(n,γ) 64 Cu within-pin distributions have been compared with MCNP computations employing a detailed model of the full SVEA Optima2 fuel assembly

  11. Energy extraction from a semi-passive flapping-foil turbine with active heave and passive pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Matthieu; Dumas, Guy; Gunther, Kevin; CFD Laboratory LMFN Team

    2017-11-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of the mechanisms needed to prescribe the heaving and the pitching motions of optimal flapping-foil turbines, several research groups are now investigating the potential of using unconstrained passive motions. The amplitude, the phase and the frequency of such free motions are thus the result of the interaction of the blade with the flow and its elastic supports, namely springs and dampers. In parallel with our current study on fully-passive flapping-foil turbines, we investigate in this work the possibility of using a semi-passive turbine. Unlike previous semi-passive turbines studied in the literature, we propose a turbine with a passive pitching motion and an active heaving motion constrained to be a sine wave with desired amplitude and frequency. As most of the energy extracted by flapping-foil turbines comes from the heaving motion, it is natural to connect an electric generator to this degree of freedom, thereby allowing one to constrain this motion. It is found that large-amplitude pitching motions leading to a considerable energy extraction can arise under different circumstances and mechanisms, either forced by the heaving motion or driven by an instability of the pitching motion itself. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Tyler Lewis Clean Energy Research Foundation, Calcul Québec and Compute Canada.

  12. FOIL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1963-07-16

    A method of making a foil-type fuel element is described. A foil of fuel metal is perforated in; regular design and sheets of cladding metal are placed on both sides. The cladding metal sheets are then spot-welded to each other through the perforations, and the edges sealed. (AEC)

  13. kFOIL: Learning simple relational kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Niels; Passerini, Andrea; De Raedt, Luc; Frasconi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A novel and simple combination of inductive logic programming with kernel methods is presented. The kFOIL algorithm integrates the well-known inductive logic programming system FOIL with kernel methods. The feature space is constructed by leveraging FOIL search for a set of relevant clauses. The search is driven by the performance obtained by a support vector machine based on the resulting kernel. In this way, kFOIL implements a dynamic propositionalization approach. Both classification an...

  14. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  15. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  16. A Facile Green Synthetic Route for the Preparation of Highly Active γ-Al2O3from Aluminum Foil Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmed I; Abu-Dahrieh, Jehad K; McLaren, Mathew; Laffir, Fathima; Nockemann, Peter; Rooney, David

    2017-06-15

    A novel green preparation route to prepare nano-mesoporous γ-Al 2 O 3 from AlCl 3 .6H 2 O derived from aluminum foil waste and designated as ACFL550 is demonstrated, which showed higher surface area, larger pore volume, stronger acidity and higher surface area compared to γ-Al 2 O 3 that is produced from the commercial AlCl 3 precursor, AC550. The produced crystalline AlCl 3 .6H 2 O and Al(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O in the first stage of the preparation method were characterized by single-crystal XRD, giving two crystal structures, a trigonal (R-3c) and monoclinic (P2 1 /c) structure, respectively. EDX analysis showed that ACFL550 had half the chlorine content (Cl%) relative to AC550, which makes ACFL550 a promising catalyst in acid-catalysed reactions. Pure and modified ACFL550 and AC550 were applied in acid-catalysed reactions, the dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether and the total methane oxidation reactions, respectively. It was found that ACFL550 showed higher catalytic activity than AC550. This work opens doors for the preparation of highly active and well-structured nano-mesoporous alumina catalysts/supports from aluminum foil waste and demonstrates its application in acid-catalysed reactions.

  17. Foil Electron Multiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Baldonado, Juan R.; Dors, Eric E.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Skoug, Ruth M.

    2006-03-28

    An apparatus for electron multiplication by transmission that is designed with at least one foil having a front side for receiving incident particles and a back side for transmitting secondary electrons that are produced from the incident particles transiting through the foil. The foil thickness enables the incident particles to travel through the foil and continue on to an anode or to a next foil in series with the first foil. The foil, or foils, and anode are contained within a supporting structure that is attached within an evacuated enclosure. An electrical power supply is connected to the foil, or foils, and the anode to provide an electrical field gradient effective to accelerate negatively charged incident particles and the generated secondary electrons through the foil, or foils, to the anode for collection.

  18. Thick-foils activation technique for neutron spectrum unfolding with the MINUIT routine-Comparison with GEANT4 simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagena, E.; Theodorou, K.; Stoulos, S.

    2018-04-01

    Neutron activation technique has been applied using a proposed set of twelve thick metal foils (Au, As, Cd, In, Ir, Er, Mn, Ni, Se, Sm, W, Zn) for off-site measurements to obtain the neutron spectrum over a wide energy range (from thermal up to a few MeV) in intense neutron-gamma mixed fields such as around medical Linacs. The unfolding procedure takes into account the activation rates measured using thirteen (n , γ) and two (n , p) reactions without imposing a guess solution-spectrum. The MINUIT minimization routine unfolds a neutron spectrum that is dominated by fast neutrons (70%) peaking at 0.3 MeV, while the thermal peak corresponds to the 15% of the total neutron fluence equal to the epithermal-resonances area. The comparison of the unfolded neutron spectrum against the simulated one with the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo code shows a reasonable agreement within the measurement uncertainties. Therefore, the proposed set of activation thick-foils could be a useful tool in order to determine low flux neutrons spectrum in intense mixed field.

  19. Determination of neutron spectra formed by 40-MeV deuteron bombardment of a lithium target with multi-foil activation technique

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, F; Wada, M; Wilson, P P H; Ikeda, Y

    2000-01-01

    Neutron flux spectra at an irradiation field produced by a 40-MeV deuteron bombardment on a thick lithium-target at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, have been determined by the multi-foil activation technique. Twenty-seven dosimetry reactions having a wide energy range of threshold energies up to 38 MeV were employed as detectors for the neutron flux spectra extending to 55 MeV. The spectra were adjusted with the SAND-II code with the experimental reaction rates based on an iterative method. The adjusted spectra validated quantitatively the Monte Carlo deuteron-lithium (d-Li) neutron source model code (M sup C DeLi) which was used to calculate initial guess spectra and also has been used for IFMIF nuclear designs. Accuracy of the adjusted spectra was approx 10% that was suitable for successive integral tests of activation cross section data.

  20. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); Gomez-Ros, J.M. [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Perez, L. [INFN-LNF (Frascati National Laboratories), Via E. Fermi n. 40-00044 Frascati (Italy); Angelone, M. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Tana, L. [A.O. Universitaria Pisana-Ospedale S. Chiara, Via Bonanno Pisano, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-21

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  1. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J.M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

    2012-01-01

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  2. Workplace testing of the new single sphere neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-SSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, R.; Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Chiti, M.; Palacios-Pérez, L.; Angelone, M.; Tana, L.

    2012-08-01

    A photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of a single moderating polyethylene sphere with Dysprosium activation foils arranged along three perpendicular axes was designed by CIEMAT and INFN. The device is called Dy-SSS (Dy foil-based Single Sphere Spectrometer). It shows nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence up to 20 MeV. The first prototype, previously calibrated with 14 MeV neutrons, has been recently tested in workplaces having different energy and directional distributions. These are a 2.5 MeV nearly mono-chromatic and mono-directional beam available at the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) and the photo-neutron field produced in a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa). Both neutron spectra are known through measurements with a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. In both cases the experimental response of the Dy-SSS agrees with the reference data. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spectrometric capability of the new device are independent from the directional distribution of the neutron field. This opens the way to a new generation of moderation-based neutron instruments, presenting all advantages of the Bonner sphere spectrometer without the disadvantage of the repeated exposures. This concept is being developed within the NESCOFI@BTF project of INFN (Commissione Scientifica Nazionale 5).

  3. Energy distribution of the neutron flux measurements at the Chilean Reactor RECH-1 using multi-foil neutron activation and the Expectation Maximization unfolding algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, F; Aguilera, P; Romero-Barrientos, J; Arellano, H F; Agramunt, J; Medel, J; Morales, J R; Zambra, M

    2017-11-01

    We present a methodology to obtain the energy distribution of the neutron flux of an experimental nuclear reactor, using multi-foil activation measurements and the Expectation Maximization unfolding algorithm, which is presented as an alternative to well known unfolding methods such as GRAVEL. Self-shielding flux corrections for energy bin groups were obtained using MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulations. We have made studies at the at the Dry Tube of RECH-1 obtaining fluxes of 1.5(4)×10 13 cm -2 s -1 for the thermal neutron energy region, 1.9(5)×10 12 cm -2 s -1 for the epithermal neutron energy region, and 4.3(11)×10 11 cm -2 s -1 for the fast neutron energy region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oscillating foil propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady foil theory is discussed and applied on several cases of an oscillating foil. The oscillating foil is meant as a propulsion system for a platform supply vessel.Four case studies of foil oscillation have been performed. A thrust coefficient of 0.1 was achieved at an efficiency of 0.75. A thrust coefficient of minimum 0.184 is necessary to overcome the calm water resistance of the foil.Issues connected to coupled vessel-foil models are discussed.

  5. Fabrication of CdTe/NiTe films on Ni foils by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yannan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Yao, Huizhen; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Chen, Yanli; Wang, Jun; Fu, Wuyou; Song, Wenxu; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of T s on CdTe deposited on Ni by magnetron sputtering is investigated. • An effective method is studied of making CdTe/NiTe without post-treatment. • As-prepared CdTe/NiTe raised optical absorption and PEC properties. • Pre-deposited Te can react with Ni to generate NiTe at T s = 350 °C. - Abstract: Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) semiconductor thin films are fabricated on flexible Ni foil substrates using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under different substrate temperatures. The crystal structure and properties of the prepared functional thin films were characterized with series analysis technologies. The characterization results revealed that Nickel Telluride (NiTe) phase formatted at the interface of CdTe and Ni substrate when substrate temperature (T s ) is 450 °C. Specially, XRD results demonstrated that CdTe/NiTe films could also be obtained by pre-depositing Te film on Ni and reducing T s to 350 °C. The investigation on optical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the products illustrated that compact CdTe/NiTe films had improved the absorption in the visible region. Furthermore, PEC measurements indicated that CdTe/NiTe/Ni photoelectrode can have a promising application in photovoltaic devices

  6. A New Method of Gold Foil Damage Detection in Stone Carving Relics Based on Multi-Temporal 3D LiDAR Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaole Hou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The timely detection of gold foil damage in gold-overlaid stone carvings and the associated maintenance of these relics pose several challenges to both the research and heritage protection communities internationally. This paper presents a new method for detecting gold foil damage by making use of multi-temporal 3D LiDAR point clouds. By analyzing the errors involved in the detection process, a formula is developed for calculation of the damage detection threshold. An improved division method for the linear octree that only allocates memory to the non-blank nodes, is proposed, which improves storage and retrieval efficiency for the point clouds. Meanwhile, the damage-occurrence regions are determined according to Hausdorff distances. Using a triangular mesh, damaged regions can be identified and measured in order to determine the relic’s total damaged area. Results demonstrate that this method can effectively detect gold foil damage in stone carvings. The identified surface area of damaged regions can provide the information needed for subsequent restoration and protection of relics of this type.

  7. Multichord time-resolved electron temperature measurements by the x-ray absorber-foil method on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, J.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.

    1985-09-01

    Absorber foils have been installed in the TFTR X-Ray Imaging System to permit measurement of the electron temperature along 10 to 30 chords spaced at 5-12.5 cm with a time resolution of less than 100 μs. The technique uses the ratio of x-ray fluxes transmitted through two different foils. The ratio depends mainly on electron temperature. Simulations show that strong impurity line radiation can distort this ratio. To correct for these effects, special beryllium-scandium filters are employed to select the line-free region between 2 and 4.5 keV. Other filter pairs allow corrections for Fe L and Ni L line radiation as well as Ti K and Ni K emission. Good accuracy is also obtained with simple beryllium filters, provided that impurity corrections are incorporated in the analysis, taking line intensities from the x-ray pulse-height analysis diagnostic. A description of modeling calculations and a comparison of temperature values from this diagnostic with data from the x-ray pulse height analysis, the electron cyclotron emission, and the Thomson scattering diagnostics are presented. Several applications of the absorber foil electron temperature diagnostic on TFTR are discussed

  8. Do Learning Activities Improve Students' Ability to Construct Explanatory Models with a Prism Foil Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojkošek, Mihael; Sliško, Josip; Planinšic, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge is considered to be a fundamental goal of education; therefore, knowing and understanding the conditions that influence the efficiency of the transfer from learning activity to problem solving play a decisive role in the improvement of science education. In this article, the results of a study of 196 high school students'…

  9. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleuel D.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ∼20–200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM, 25–50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n′ reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  10. Foil-to-foil lamination and electrical interconnection of printed components on flexible substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vásquez Quintero, A.; Remoortere, B. van; Smits, E.C.P.; Brand, J. van den; Briand, D.; Schoo, H.F.M.; Rooij, N.F. de

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and compares two integration methods to structurally laminate and interconnect foil-based components with flexible polymeric substrates. The first method uses isotropic conductive adhesives (ICA) confined in laser-ablated through foil vias (TFV), while the second one uses an

  11. Foil activation detectors - some remarks on the choice of detectors, the adjustment of cross-sections and the unfolding of flux spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, A.K.; Packwood, A.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy in a favourable environment can yield without supporting calculations a wealth of spectral detail which cannot be approached by the multiple foil analysis (MFA) method. On the other hand in hostile environments only MFA methods are available and they require validation and/or improvement by exposing them to comparison with other types of measurement and definitive calculation in tightly controlled test neutron spectra. This paper considers some problems related to MFA unfolding of flux spectra, systematic and random errors in detector measurements and the choice of detectors which will be of maximum use in all environments of current interest

  12. Foil Face Seal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  13. Facile and Scalable Synthesis of Robust Ni(OH)2Nanoplate Arrays on NiAl Foil as Hierarchical Active Scaffold for Highly Efficient Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shuai; Jiang, Wen-Jie; Tang, Tang; Zhang, Yun; Li, Ji-Hui; Hu, Jin-Song

    2017-08-01

    Developing highly efficient low-cost electrocatalysts for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolyte is essential to advance water electrolysis technology. Herein, Ni(OH) 2 nanoplates aligned on NiAl foil (Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl) are developed by simply dealloying NiAl foil in KOH, which exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for OER with a small overpotential of 289 mV to achieve 10 mA cm -2 and outstanding durability with no detectable degradation during long-term operation. Furthermore, such Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl can effectively act as an active and robust hierarchical scaffold to simply electrodeposit other catalysts with intrinsically higher activity such as NiMo and NiFe nanoparticles for highly efficient HER and OER, respectively. The prepared NiFe/Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl displays superior OER catalytic activity with overpotentials of 246, 315, and 374 mV at 10, 100, and 500 mA cm -2 , respectively. While NiMo/Ni(OH) 2 /NiAl catalyst exhibits remarkable HER performance with a small overpotential of 78 mV to deliver 10 mA cm -2 . Consequently, the electrolysis device composed of the above two electrocatalysts demonstrates superb water splitting performance with a cell voltage of 1.59 V at 10 mA cm -2 . These results open up opportunities to explore and optimize low-cost advanced catalysts for energy applications.

  14. Effects of Aluminum Foil Packaging on Elemental Analysis of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lyniece; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Burned skeletal material is often very fragile and at high risk for fragmentation during packaging and transportation. One method that has been suggested to protect bones in these cases is to carefully wrap them in aluminum foil. Traces of aluminum, however, are known to transfer from foil packaging materials to food products. If such transfer occurs between aluminum foil and bones, it could interfere with subsequent chemical, elemental and isotopic analyses, which are becoming more common in forensic anthropological investigations. This study examined aluminum levels in bones prior to and following the use of aluminum foil packaging and storage for a 6-week period. Results indicate no significant change in the detected levels of aluminum (p > 0.05), even when packaged in compromised foil and exposed to elevated temperatures. Aluminum foil can therefore continue to be recommended as a packaging medium without affecting subsequent chemical examinations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Actinide Foil Production for MPACT Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, Denis

    2012-10-30

    or UO2 in extremely thin layers (1 to 2 mg/cm2) on various media such as films, foils, or discs. After many months of investigation and trials in FY10 and 11, UNLV researchers developed a new method to produce pure UO2 deposits on foils using a unique approach, which has never been demonstrated, that involves dissolution of U3O8 directly into room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) followed by electrodeposition from the RTIL-uDU solution (Th deposition from RTIL had been previously demonstrated). The high-purity dissolution of the U3O8 permits the use of RTIL solutions for deposition of U on metal foils in layers without introducing contamination. In FY10 and early FY11 a natural U surrogate for the uDU was used to investigate this and other techniques. In this research project UNLV will deposit directly from RTIL to produce uDU and Th foils devoid of possible contaminants. After these layers have been deposited, they will be examined for purity and uniformity. UNLV will complete the development and demonstration of the RTIL technology/ methodology to prepare uDU and Th samples for use in constructing fast-neutron detectors. Although this material was purchased for use in research using fast-fission chamber detectors for active inspection techniques for MPACT, it could also contribute to R&D for other applications, such as cross section measurements or neutron spectroscopy for national security

  16. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  17. Lifetime measurements on carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auble, R.L.; Galbraith, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most exciting recent developments in accelerator technology is the new breed of electrostatic accelerators. These machines have terminal potentials of 25 million volts and higher and are being built to accelerate intense beams of heavy ions. One such accelerator is now nearing completion at ORNL. A crucial component in these--as in any electrostatic accelerator--is a tiny bit of carbon in the form of a very thin foil. These foils, called stripper foils, are used to strip electrons from atoms so that they will be accelerated to high energy by the electrostatic potential. While carbon foils are not the only method of stripping electrons, they have a number of advantages over the alternative gas strippers. In particular, they produce higher charge states which are essential for providing the energetic ions required for heavy ion physics experiments. Because of the importance of stripper foils to the most efficient operation of the new ORNL accelerator, we are quite interested in their properties and in improving their performance

  18. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  19. Foil fabrication for the ROMANO event. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo, J.G. Jr.; Weed, J.W.; Griggs, G.E.; Brown, T.G.; Tassano, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Vacuum Processes Lab (VPL), of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division (MFD), conducted various vacuum related support activities for the ROMANO nuclear physics experiment. This report focuses on the foil fabrication activities carried out between July and November 1983 for the ROMANO event. Other vacuum related activities for ROMANO, such as outgassing tests of materials, are covered in separate documentation. VPL was asked to provide 270 coated Parylene foils for the ROMANO event. However, due to the developmental nature of some of the procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were processed. In addition, VPL interacted with MFD's Plastics Shop to help supply Parylene substrates to other organizations (i.e., LBL and commercial vendors) which had also been asked to provide coated foils for ROMANO. The purposes of this report are (A) to document the processes developed and the techniques used to produce the foils, and (B) to suggest future directions. The report is divided into four sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, (3) calibration foil fabrication, and (4) foil and substrate inspections

  20. Calculation of electron transmission through aluminium foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Mel'ker, A.I.; Mikhajlin, A.I.; Sirotinkin, V.V.; Tokmakov, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    Calculated by Monte Carlo method energy and angular distributions of electrons transmitted through aluminium foil with 50 μm thickness are presented. 200-500 electron energy ranges and angles of electron incidence on foil from 0 to 40 deg C are considered. That allows to use results for more universal accelerator group, for example, for accelerators with scanning beam used in industry. The received values of angular and energy characteristics allow to increase essentially estimation accuracy of accelerator extraction devices and dose distribution on irradiating item

  1. Safe and consistent method of spot-welding platinum thermocouple wires and foils for high temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, G.; Roth, M.

    2012-08-01

    A low-voltage (mV) electronically triggered spot welding system for fabricating fine thermocouples and thin sheets used in high-temperature characterization of materials' properties is suggested. The system is based on the capacitance discharge method with a timed trigger for obtaining reliable and consistent welds. In contrast to existing techniques based on employing high voltage DC supplies for charging the capacitor or supplies with positive and negative rails, this method uses a simple, standard dual power supply available at most of the physical laboratories or can be acquired at a low cost. In addition, an efficient and simple method of fabricating non-sticking electrodes that do not contaminate the weld area is suggested and implemented.

  2. Thermal Sensitive Foils in Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek; Konecný, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a set of physics demonstration experiments where thermal sensitive foils are used for the detection of the two dimensional distribution of temperature. The method is used for the demonstration of thermal conductivity, temperature change in adiabatic processes, distribution of electromagnetic radiation in a microwave oven and…

  3. Neutron Field Measurement of p(35)+Be Source using the Multi-foil Activation Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefánik, Milan; Bém, Pavel; Majerle, Mitja; Novák, Jan; Šimečková, Eva; Štursa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 249. E-ISSN 1742-3406 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : p+Be * Be target * neutron spectrum Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect)

  4. Development of activation foils method for the IFMIF neutron flux chracterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simakov, S. P.; Bém, Pavel; Burjan, Václav; Fischer, U.; Götz, Miloslav; Honusek, Milan; Kroha, Václav; Novák, Jan; Šimečková, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 82, 15-24 (2007), s. 2510-2517 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : IFMIF Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.058, year: 2007

  5. Measurement of excitation functions for natPb( p, xn)199,200,201Pb reactions with stacked foil activation technique at KOMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Yoon, Jungran; Ro, Taeik; Lee, Samyol

    2018-01-01

    The excitation functions of natPb( p, xn)199,200,201Pb reactions within the proton energy of 71.5 - 91.7 MeV were measured by using the 100-MeV linear accelerator at the Korea Multi-Purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The stacked foil activation and off-line gamma-ray spectrometric technique was used in the present study. The 27Al( p, 3 p + n)24Na monitor reaction was used to estimate the proton flux. The excitation functions of natPb( p, xn)199,200,201Pb reactions were derived from the photo-peak activities of delayed γ-rays of the produced nuclei. The present results have been compared with the literature data and the theoretical values from TENDL-2015 library. The natPb( p, xn)199,201Pb reaction cross-sections at the proton energy of 91.7 MeV has been measured for the first time, whereas for the proton energies of 71.5 - 84.5 MeV are in general agreement with the literature data within limits of uncertainty. Overall, the experimental data from the present work and literature show increase trend with proton energy similar to the theoretical values of TENDL-2015 library with some systematic differences.

  6. Design, Fabrication and Performance of Open Source Generation I and II Compliant Hydrodynamic Gas Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.; Bruckner, Robert J.; Howard, S. Adam

    2007-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost top foil layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while a layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Foil bearings are used in many lightly loaded, high-speed turbo-machines such as compressors used for aircraft pressurization, and small micro-turbines. Foil gas bearings provide a means to eliminate the oil system leading to reduced weight and enhanced temperature capability. The general lack of familiarity of the foil bearing design and manufacturing process has hindered their widespread dissemination. This paper reviews the publicly available literature to demonstrate the design, fabrication and performance testing of both first and second generation bump style foil bearings. It is anticipated that this paper may serve as an effective starting point for new development activities employing foil bearing technology.

  7. Development of bonding techniques between W and Cu-alloys for plasma facing components by HIP method (3). Bonding tests with Au-foil insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma a facing components (PFC), like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, Cu-alloys, like OFHC-Cu or DS-Cu, are proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. It is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to fabricate PFC. JAERI has developed the hot isostatic press (HIP) bonding process to bond W with Cu-alloys. In this experiments, bonding tests with Au-foil insert were performed. We could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and Cu-alloys with Au-foil as 1123K x 2hours x 147MPa. It was shown that the HIP temperature was 150K lower than that of without Au-foil. Furthermore, the tensile strength was similar to that of with without Au-foil. (author)

  8. Consequences of FOIL for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Lori; Sisneros-Thiry, Simone

    2015-01-01

    FOIL is a well-known mnemonic that is used to find the product of two binomials. We conduct a large sample (n = 252) observational study of first-year college students and show that while the FOIL procedure leads to the accurate expansion of the product of two binomials for most students who apply it, only half of these students exhibit conceptual…

  9. Foil Gas Thrust Bearings for High-Speed Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Brian; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dykas, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the design and construction of simple foil thrust bearings intended for parametric performance testing and low marginal costs, supporting continued development of oil-free turbomachinery. A bearing backing plate is first machined and surface-ground to produce flat and parallel faces. Partial-arc slots needed to retain the foil components are then machined into the plate by wire electrical discharge machining. Slot thicknesses achievable by a single wire pass are appropriate to accommodate the practical range of foil thicknesses, leaving a small clearance in this hinged joint to permit limited motion. The backing plate is constructed from a nickel-based superalloy (Inconel 718) to allow heat treatment of the entire assembled bearing, as well as to permit hightemperature operation. However, other dimensionally stable materials, such as precipitation-hardened stainless steel, can also be used for this component depending on application. The top and bump foil blanks are cut from stacks of annealed Inconel X-750 foil by the same EDM process. The bump foil has several azimuthal slits separating it into five individual bump strips. This configuration allows for variable bump spacing, which helps to accommodate the effects of the varying surface velocity, thermal crowning, centrifugal dishing, and misalignment. Rectangular tabs on the foil blanks fit into the backing plate slots. For this application, a rather traditional set of conventionally machined dies is selected, and bump foil blanks are pressed into the dies for forming. This arrangement produces a set of bump foil dies for foil thrust bearings that provide for relatively inexpensive fabrication of various bump configurations, and employing methods and features from the public domain.

  10. Preparation of self-supporting metallic foils of nickel isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    This is the fourth report on the practical methods of target preparation for use in low energy nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-J-150). An electroplating method has been developed as a dependable and reproducible technique for making self-supporting metallic foils of nickel in the thickness range of 0.5 to 10 mg/cm 2 . The procedures minimized the necessary amount of material so that nickel isotopes could be processed economically. Impurity contamination of the nickel foils during the electroplating process was less than 500 ppm, and the thickness variation in each foil was less than 3% of the central thickness. (auth.)

  11. Mock-up experiment at Birmingham University for BNCT project of Osaka University--Neutron flux measurement with gold foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, S; Sakai, M; Yoshihashi, S; Manabe, M; Zushi, N; Murata, I; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S; Nagasaki, M; Horiike, H

    2015-12-01

    Mock-up experiment for development of accelerator based neutron source for Osaka University BNCT project was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. In this paper, spatial distribution of neutron flux intensity was evaluated by foil activation method. Validity of the design code system was confirmed by comparing measured gold foil activities with calculations. As a result, it was found that the epi-thermal neutron beam was well collimated by our neutron moderator assembly. Also, the design accuracy was evaluated to have less than 20% error. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies of PMMA sintering foils with and without coating by magnetron sputtering Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, M.; Mackova, A.; Torrisi, L.; Vad, K.; Csik, A.; Ando', L.; Svecova, B.

    2017-09-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate thin foils were prepared by using physical and chemical processes aimed at changing certain properties. The density and the optical properties were changed obtaining clear and opaque foils. DC magnetron sputtering method was used to cover the foils with thin metallic palladium layers. The high optical absorbent foils were obtained producing microstructured PMMA microbeads with and without thin metallic coatings. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, optical investigation and microscopy were employed to characterize the prepared foils useful in the field study of laser-matter interaction.

  13. Neutron Activation Foil and Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Responses to a Polyethylene Reflected Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Salives (France). Valduc Centre for Nuclear Studies; Piot, Jerome [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Salives (France). Valduc Centre for Nuclear Studies; Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Salives (France). Valduc Centre for Nuclear Studies; Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Salives (France). Valduc Centre for Nuclear Studies; Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 19, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. The CIDAS detects gammas with a Geiger-Muller tube and the Rocky Flats detects neutrons via charged particles produced in a thin 6LiF disc depositing energy in a Si solid state detector. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  14. Neutron Activation Foil and Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Responses to a Lead Reflected Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Isbell, Kimberly McMahan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Yi-kang [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Authier, Nicolas [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Piot, Jerome [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jacquet, Xavier [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 13, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. The CIDAS detects gammas with a Geiger-Muller tube, and the Rocky Flats detects neutrons via charged particles produced in a thin 6LiF disc, depositing energy in a Si solid-state detector. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  15. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  16. On the use of Indium ({sup 115}In) activation foils for the study of neutron radiation field surrounding a not shielded cyclotron; Sobre o uso de folhas de ativacao de Indio ({sup 115}In) para o estudo do campo de radiacao neutronica ao redor de um ciclotron nao blindado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana, E-mail: amgr@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais; Rodrigues, Sergio Luiz Moreira; Andrade, Ricardo Severino [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SECPRA/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEPRA/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Protecao Radiologica; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SERAS/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico das Radiacoes Aplicadas a Saude

    2011-10-26

    Use activation foils of {sup 115}In were evaluated for study of neutron radiation field surrounding a non shielded 16.5 MeV cyclotron, during the production of fluorine-18. Two foils of {sup 115}In were used which were exposed to the neutron flux of target-chamber of the GEPETtrace-8 of CDTN/CNEN, Brazil. The first foil were positioned in front of cyclotron beam, and the second one in the diametral opposed position to the beam. It was possible to distinguish for the first foil the 417 keV photo peaks, attributed to the thermal and the 417 keV neutrons attributed to the fast neutrons. On the second foil it was only distinguished the 417 keV photopeak. The results had shown that it is possible to evaluate the fast and thermal neutron fraction surrounding the cyclotron by using indium foils. However, the short half life of the {sup 115}In makes unviable the simultaneous irradiation of a great number of foils

  17. A new modal-based approach for modelling the bump foil structure in the simultaneous solution of foil-air bearing rotor dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Hassan, M. F.; Bonello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Recently-proposed techniques for the simultaneous solution of foil-air bearing (FAB) rotor dynamic problems have been limited to a simple bump foil model in which the individual bumps were modelled as independent spring-damper (ISD) subsystems. The present paper addresses this limitation by introducing a modal model of the bump foil structure into the simultaneous solution scheme. The dynamics of the corrugated bump foil structure are first studied using the finite element (FE) technique. This study is experimentally validated using a purpose-made corrugated foil structure. Based on the findings of this study, it is proposed that the dynamics of the full foil structure, including bump interaction and foil inertia, can be represented by a modal model comprising a limited number of modes. This full foil structure modal model (FFSMM) is then adapted into the rotordynamic FAB problem solution scheme, instead of the ISD model. Preliminary results using the FFSMM under static and unbalance excitation conditions are proven to be reliable by comparison against the corresponding ISD foil model results and by cross-correlating different methods for computing the deflection of the full foil structure. The rotor-bearing model is also validated against experimental and theoretical results in the literature.

  18. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernicka, John C.; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    A method of welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads.

  19. An inexpensive and recyclable silver-foil catalyst for the cyclopropanation of alkenes with diazoacetates under mechanochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longrui; Bovee, Mark O; Lemma, Betsegaw E; Keithley, Kimberlee S M; Pilson, Sara L; Coleman, Michael G; Mack, James

    2015-09-14

    The diastereoselective cyclopropanation of various alkenes with diazoacetate derivatives can be achieved under mechanochemical conditions using metallic silver foil and a stainless-steel vial and ball system. This solvent-free method displays analogous reactivity and selectivity to solution-phase reactions without the need for slow diazoacetate addition or an inert atmosphere. The heterogeneous silver-foil catalyst system is easily recyclable without any appreciable loss of activity or selectivity being observed. The cyclopropanation products were obtained with excellent diastereoselectivities (up to 98:2 d.r.) and in high yields (up to 96 %). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Viscous investigation of a flapping foil propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posri, Attapol; Phoemsapthawee, Surasak; Thaweewat, Nonthipat

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by how fishes propel themselves, a flapping-foil device is invented as an alternative propulsion system for ships and boats. The performance of such propulsor has been formerly investigated using a potential flow code. The simulation results have shown that the device has high propulsive efficiency over a wide range of operation. However, the potential flow gives good results only when flow separation is not present. In case of high flapping frequency, the flow separation can occur over a short instant due to fluid viscosity and high angle of attack. This may cause a reduction of propulsive efficiency. A commercial CFD code based on Lattice Boltzmann Method, XFlow, is then employed in order to investigate the viscous effect over the propulsive performance of the flapping foil. The viscous results agree well with the potential flow results, confirming the high efficiency of the propulsor. As expected, viscous results show lower efficiency in high flapping frequency zone.

  1. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  2. A procedure for rapid evaluation of carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auble, R.L.; Galbraith, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Lifetime measurements on carbon foils can become prohibitively time consuming and expensive with conventional particle accelerator beams. Therefore, a method has been developed which utilizes a beam of low energy (20 keV) nitrogen ions which allows tests to be conducted on relatively inexpensive equipment at very high damage rates. The beam is obtained from a General Ionex Model 1080 Sputterbell. Beam currents of the order of 1 μA cm -2 lead to failure of glow-discharge type foils on a time scale of, typically, 5-10 min. Lifetime ratios for glow-discharge versus evaporated foils obtained with this technique are in good agreement with those obtained with higher energy beams. Relative lifetimes for high energy and low energy bombardments are also found to be in good agreement with those predicted by damage energy calculations. The technique is currently being applied to the testing of glow discharge foils made with different feed gases and discharge conditions. (orig.)

  3. Using activation method to measure neutron spectrum in an irradiation chamber of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuemei; Liu Guimin; Wang Xiaohe; Li Da; Meng Lingjie

    2014-01-01

    Neutron spectrum should be measured before test samples are irradiated. Neutron spectrum in an irradiation chamber of a research reactor was measured by using activation method when the reactor is in normal operation under 2 MW. Sixteen kinds of non-fission foils (19 reaction channels) were selected, of which 10 were sensitive to thermal and intermediate energy regions, while the others were of different threshold energy and sensitive to fast energy regions. By measuring the foil radioactivity, the neutron spectrum was unfolded with the iterative methods SAND-II and MSIT. Finally, shielding corrections of group cross-section and main factors affecting the calculation accuracy were studied and the uncertainty of solution was analyzed using the Monte Carlo method in the process of SAND-II. (authors)

  4. Foil-to-foil system integration through capillary self-alignment directed by laser patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Arutinov, G Gari; Mastrangeli, M; Smits, ECP Edsger; Heck, van, G; Toonder, den, JMJ Jaap; Dietzel, AH Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new integration technology for cost-effective high-precision mechanical and electrical integration of mesoscopic functional foil components onto foil substrates. The foil-to-foil assembly process is based on topological surface structuring via laser patterning that enables accurate capillarity-driven self-alignment of foil dies. The concurrent establishment of high-yield electrical interconnections is obtained through conductive adhesives. The foil surface energy contr...

  5. Post-foil interaction in foil-induced molecular dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Kanter, E.P.; Koenig, W.; Plesser, I.; Vager, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have investigated the foil-induced dissociation of 175- 250- keV/amu CH + , NH + , and OH + , FH + and NeH + ions by coincident detection of the fragment atoms. The dissociation energies corresponding to in-foil and post-foil interactions were deduced from the measured relative flight times of the fragment pairs to a set of detectors downstream from the target. The authors considered final states consisting of a) a proton and a heavy-ion and, b) a hydrogen atom and a heavy-ion. Surprisingly, in both cases the energy released in the post-target interaction shows a similar linear increase with the charge state of the heavy partner

  6. Electrospray ionization with aluminum foil: A versatile mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2014-03-19

    In this study, we developed a novel electrospray ionization (ESI) technique based on household aluminum foil (Al foil) and demonstated the desirable features and applications of this technique. Al foil can be readily cut and folded into desired configuration for effective ionization and for holding sample solution in bulk to allowing acquisition of durable ion signals. The present technique was demonstrated to be applicable in analysis of a wide variety of samples, ranging from pure chemical and biological compounds, e.g., organic compounds and proteins, to complex samples in liquid, semi-solid, and solid states, e.g., beverages, skincare cream, and herbal medicines. The inert, hydrophobic and impermeable surface of Al foil allows convenient and effective on-target extraction of solid samples and on-target sample clean-up, i.e., removal of salts and detergents from proteins and peptides, extending ESI device from usually only for sample loading and ionization to including sample processing. Moreover, Al foil is an excellent heat-conductor and highly heat-tolerant, permitting direct monitoring of thermal reactions, e.g., thermal denaturation of proteins. Overall, the present study showed that Al-foil ESI could be an economical and versatile method that allows a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development progress of wide LEU foils for Mo-99 irradiation target at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Son, Myung Koon; Lee, Don Bae; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute , Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    As the uranium foils for Mo-99 irradiation target, which are charged into a reactor, can be conventionally fabricated at laboratory scale, but not yet at a commercialized scale by a hot rolling method due to some problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, an attention has shifted to the development of new improved technology. Under these circumstances, an alternative fabrication method of U polycrystalline foils has been investigated using a cooling roll casting method, in order to produce a fission isotope {sup 99}Mo, the parent nuclide of {sup 99m}Tc. The fabrication method of wide LEU foils produced by a coolingroll casting was recently developed to improve the quality of the uranium foils and the economic efficiency of the foil fabrication with modifications of the casting apparatus and adjustments of the process parameters. A continuous polycrystalline LEU foil with a thickness range of 100 to 150{mu}m and a width of about 50 mm, exceeding 5m in length for a batch procedure, could be fabricated with a better quality of the uranium foil and a higher yield of the foil fabrication, through improvements of the casting apparatus and variations of the process parameters.

  8. Development progress of wide LEU foils for Mo-99 irradiation target at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Son, Myung Koon; Lee, Don Bae; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2005-01-01

    As the uranium foils for Mo-99 irradiation target, which are charged into a reactor, can be conventionally fabricated at laboratory scale, but not yet at a commercialized scale by a hot rolling method due to some problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, an attention has shifted to the development of new improved technology. Under these circumstances, an alternative fabrication method of U polycrystalline foils has been investigated using a cooling roll casting method, in order to produce a fission isotope 99 Mo, the parent nuclide of 99m Tc. The fabrication method of wide LEU foils produced by a coolingroll casting was recently developed to improve the quality of the uranium foils and the economic efficiency of the foil fabrication with modifications of the casting apparatus and adjustments of the process parameters. A continuous polycrystalline LEU foil with a thickness range of 100 to 150μm and a width of about 50 mm, exceeding 5m in length for a batch procedure, could be fabricated with a better quality of the uranium foil and a higher yield of the foil fabrication, through improvements of the casting apparatus and variations of the process parameters

  9. Pure commercial gold foils as neutron flux monitor: Neutron self-shielding assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.; Haj-Hassan, H.; Helal, W.

    2007-01-01

    An assessment of pure commercial (99.9%) gold foils as neutron flux monitor was performed. A thin foils of pure commercial gold were prepared as an in-house reference material for neutron flux measurement. The assessed foils are available commercially and its cost is much less than the certified ones. Determination of the neutron self-shielding factors in these foils for both thermal and epithermal neutrons have been done experimentally. These foils show good results repeatability and good agreement with certified activation monitors. According to the well-known physical constants of the nuclide and its low cost comparing with certified foils, it can be used as an in-house reference monitor

  10. Numerical and experimental investigation of bump foil mechanical behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    Corrugated foils are utilized in air foil bearings to introduce compliance and damping thus accurate mathematical predictions are important. A corrugated foil behaviour is investigated experimentally as well as theoretically. The experimental investigation is performed by compressing the foil...

  11. Foil-to-Foil system integration through capillary self-alignment directed by laser patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutinov, G.; Mastrangeli, M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Heck, G. van; Toonder, J.M.J. den; Dietzel, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new integration technology for cost-effective high-precision mechanical and electrical integration of mesoscopic functional foil components onto foil substrates. The foil-to-foil assembly process is based on topological surface structuring via laser patterning that enables

  12. Performance of Simple Gas Foil Thrust Bearings in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Foil bearings are self-acting hydrodynamics devices used to support high speed rotating machinery. The advantages that they offer to process fluid lubricated machines include: high rotational speed capability, no auxiliary lubrication system, non-contacting high speed operation, and improved damping as compared to rigid hydrodynamic bearings. NASA has had a sporadic research program in this technology for almost 6 decades. Advances in the technology and understanding of foil journal bearings have enabled several new commercial products in recent years. These products include oil-free turbochargers for both heavy trucks and automobiles, high speed electric motors, microturbines for distributed power generation, and turbojet engines. However, the foil thrust bearing has not received a complimentary level of research and therefore has become the weak link of oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to both provide machine designers with basic performance parameters and to elucidate the underlying physics of foil thrust bearings, NASA Glenn Research Center has completed an effort to experimentally measure the performance of simple gas foil thrust bearing in air. The database includes simple bump foil supported thrust bearings with full geometry and manufacturing techniques available to the user. Test conditions consist of air at ambient pressure and temperatures up to 500 C and rotational speeds to 55,000 rpm. A complete set of axial load, frictional torque, and rotational speed is presented for two different compliant sub-structures and inter-pad gaps. Data obtained from commercially available foil thrust bearings both with and without active cooling is presented for comparison. A significant observation made possible by this data set is the speed-load capacity characteristic of foil thrust bearings. Whereas for the foil journal bearing the load capacity increases linearly with rotational speed, the foil thrust bearing operates in the hydrodynamic high speed limit. In

  13. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  14. Test methods for foil and textile fibre hoses for the rehabilitation of gas piplines; Pruefmethoden fuer Folien- und Gewebeschlaeuche zum Sanieren von Gasleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driesen, H.E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). DVGW-Forschungsstelle am Engler-Bunte-Institut

    1995-01-01

    The Standard for ``means for the subsequent sealing of joints of gaspipes laid in the ground`` (DIN 30658) required a supplement, after various processes were developed, not only for sealing the leaking sleeve joints, but for cladding long sections of pipe with foil or woven hoses. The functional tests on sealed sleeve joints taken over largely unchanged were supplemented by specific tests of the cladding, which concern the opening of existing house connection and the production of new ones, the bridging of corrosion damage and unused tee-offs, and for woven hoses the behaviour during pipe fractures with the raising of the maximum permitted working pressure from 1 bar in DIN 30658 to 4 bar. There is a report on the results of a research project financed by DVGW for working out test proceedures and requirements. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Norm ueber ``Mittel zum nachtraeglichen Abdichten von Verbindungen erdverlegter Gasleitungen`` (DIN 30658) bedurfte einer Ergaenzung, nachdem verschiedene Verfahren entwickelt wurden, nicht nur gezielt die undichten Muffenverbindungen abzudichten, sondern laengere Leitungsabschnitte mit Folien- oder Gewebeschlaeuchen auszukleiden. Die im wesentlichen unveraendert uebernommenen Funktionspruefungen an abgedichteten Muffenverbindungen wurden durch spezifische Pruefungen der Auskleidung ergaenzt, die das Oeffnen bestehender und die Erstellung neuer Hausanschluesse, die Ueberbrueckung von Korrosionsschaeden und stillgelegten Abgaengen sowie bei Gewebeschlaeuchen das Verhalten bei Rohrbruechen bei Anhebung des max. zulaessigen Betriebsdruckes von 1 bar in DIN 30658 auf 4 bar betreffen. Ueber die Ergebnisse eines vom DVGW finanzierten Forschungsvorhabens zur Erarbeitung von Pruefverfahren und Anforderungen wird berichtet. (orig.)

  15. The Los Alamos foil implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.; Parker, J.; Bartsch, R.; Benage, J.; Bowers, R.; Cochrane, J.; Forman, P.; Goforth, J.; Greene, A.; Kruse, H.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Los Alamos foil implosion project is to produce an intense (>100 TW), multi-megajoule, laboratory soft x-ray source for material studies and fusion experiments. The concept involves the implosion of annular, current-carrying, cylindrical metallic plasmas via their self-magnetic forces. The project features inductive storage systems using both capacitor banks and high explosive-driven flux compression generators as prime energy sources. Fast opening switches are employed to shorten the electrical pulses. The program will be described and activities to date will be summarized

  16. Compliant Foil Journal Bearings - Investigation of Dynamic Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    and dynamic coefficients, of the compliant foil bearing together with an efficient solution method, which can be easily adopted and implemented by mechanical engineers. A theoretical model of a radial compliant foil bearing that incorporates compressibility of the lubricating gas and flexibility...... a Bubnow-Galerkin approach. This constitutes the main original contribution of this work, considering the fact that the finite difference method is commonly used and thouroughly investigated in the literature. The finite element method leads to a set of non-linear equations for the static fluid film...... on the compliant foil bearings, and the understanding of their dynamic behaviour is growing. However, practical design involving these bearings are still associated with a large degree of trial and error. This study aims at establishing an accurate mathematical model, to calculate the pressure, film height...

  17. Development and preparation of thin, supported targets and stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Petek, M.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Gibson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Usually, it is desirable to prepare thin films that are self-supporting so that any extraneous support materials will not interfere with experimental measurements. However, films with very low areal densities, films other than metals or films covering large areas may require the use of a backing or support. Two classes of supported thin films are being developed by the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML). Electrodeposition of oxide thin films is a fairly common target preparation technique that is usually performed on backings such as thin metal foils or low atomic number materials like Be and to a lesser extent, C foils. Techniques have been developed by IRML that result in electrodeposition of oxide films up to 500 μg/cm 2 on carbon foils or aluminized mylar. Electrodeposition is a very attractive target fabrication method since it is very efficient in the usage of rare and/or valuable isotopes. The ability to prepare these films on carbon or mylar foils provides a target that has, in most applications, far less interference resulting from the backing. Thin films of carbon, aluminum, boron and titanium are being used as stripper foils in the generation of neutral (H - →H 0 ) particle beams with energies of 50 MeV or greater. Neutralizer foils as large as 25 cm x 25 cm have been prepared from Al and C in thicknesses ranging from 5 to 12 μg/cm 2 that are mounted on thin nickel grids with a transmittance of approximately 90%. Significantly larger foils are currently under development. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of GEM foils and materials simulation, measurements and interferometric monitoring tools

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The GE1/1 CMS project consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 qm active area each, based on the triple GEMs technology, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS endcap during the long shutdown of LHC in 2108-2019. GE1/1 chambers will be operated for decades in harsh environment, and are expected to perform consistently providing good space and time resolution and excellent rate capabilities. An extensive material science simulation and measurement campaign is in progress to characterize GEM materials, with main focus on the GEM foils. Results are presented on full Finite Element Analysis simulations, measurement of tensile properties and humidity absorption coefficients, both for unused and irradiated samples. Preliminary results are shown on interferometric methods based on Moirè fringes for the monitoring of GEM foils mechanical properties during chamber construction.

  19. Development of a new foil positioning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Q.N.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Gupta, A.K.; Choudhury, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    In a tandem accelerator, negative ions are accelerated to high voltage terminal where beam pass through a foil stripper/gas stripper or combination of both, ultimately positive ions accelerated. The optimum thickness of stripper foil is in the range of 3-5 μg/cm 2 for 14 MeV ion beam. A new foil changing system for Pelletron Accelerator has been developed based on micro-stepping stepper motor arrangement. Present Geneva based mechanism is driven by the AC motor using belt and pulley, which rotates by 90° for each revolution of motor shaft and brings the foil in position with beam axis. The belt carries 200 foils and due to prolonged usage and subsequent slackness of the belt, the foil position is not reproducible. Also, it is found that sometimes foil position is proper either in increase or in decrease mode. There is no provision to adjust foil position with respect to beam axis in the current mechanism. To overcome this problem a new stepper motor based system is under development which uses smooth rotation and fine positioning. Micro-controller chip used is programmed to control the rotation and select the foils in increase/decrease mode. In addition, a fine control is also provided to adjust the angular position of foil to avail optimum transmission. This paper presents the salient features of the foil positioning mechanism. (author)

  20. The determination of 210Pb, 210Bi, 210Po by counting gross α and gross β rate of spontaneous deposited samples on Ni foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxue; Guo Dongfa; Huang Qiuhong

    2012-01-01

    The optimum spontaneous deposition conditions of 210 Bi and 210 Po on Ni foil is studied in this paper, and a simultaneous or continuous testing method of 210 Pb, 210 Bi, 210 Po in samples by counting gross α and gross β rate of spontaneous deposited samples on Ni foil is set up. The research results show that under the conditions of the Ni foil area being 3.14 cm 2 , the concentration of HCl being 1.0 mol/L, the volume of HCl being 25 mL, the constant experiment temperature being 90℃, the vibration frequency being 180/min, the vibration amplitude being 20 mm and the spontaneous deposition time being 60 min, 210 Bi and 210 Po on Ni foil can be simultaneously and quantitatively deposited. The linear correlation coefficient between 210 Po activity and its α-counting rate is 0.9998, 210 Bi activity and its β-counting rate is 0.9997. The effects of 210 Bi and 210 Po short half-time radioisotopes on testing will decrease while standing the Ni foil for a certain length of time before measuring, in case of hydrazine hydrochloride and tartaric acid presence, lots of coexisting elements do not produce interference to testing. Degree of precision of this testing technology si higher than 5%, total recovery rate reaches 99.5%∼100.5%. (authors)

  1. Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Martins, Bavari, Zika Vaccine Development 1 Zika Vaccine Development: Flavivirus Foils Martins KAO, Bavari S. The current Zika virus...contrast, work had been underway for decades on the development of an Ebola virus vaccine , laying the groundwork for a rapid response in 2014. The...broader community’s extensive experience with Dengue virus vaccine development and with the pros and cons of different vaccine platforms has led to

  2. Activity based costing (ABC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Saveta Tudorache

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the need and advantages are presented of using the Activity BasedCosting method, need arising from the need of solving the information pertinence issue. This issue has occurreddue to the limitation of classic methods in this field, limitation also reflected by the disadvantages ofsuch classic methods in establishing complete costs.

  3. Foil assisted replica molding for fabrication of microfluidic devices and their application in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal, Issac J; Vidyasagar, Aditya J; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Mekala, Naveen Kumar; Asthana, Amit; Rao, Ch Mohan

    2014-10-07

    We present a simple, rapid, benchtop, Foil Assisted Rapid Molding (FARM) method for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. This novel technique involves the use of aluminium foil, pen and an X-Y plotter to create semi-circular or plano-concave, shallow microchannels. It is an easy do-it-yourself (DIY) technique for creating a microfluidic device in three simple steps: (1) create a channel design using the CAD software, (2) plot the patterns on aluminium foil and (3) use the reverse of the engraved foil as a mold to create microfluidic devices. In this report, we present a detailed study of the proposed method by varying a range of parameters such as foil thickness, tip material, and tip sizes and by investigating their effect on the creation of channels with varying geometry. Furthermore, we demonstrated the cytocompatibility of these devices in vitro.

  4. Technical Development Path for Gas Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.

  5. Performance Analysis of Gas Foil Bearing with Different Foil Pivot Configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Babasaheb Patil; Karuna Kalita; Sashindra K. Kakoty

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in order to find out the performance characteristics of gas foil bearings. The static performance analysis of gas foil bearings has been carried out using an elastic foundation model of the foil. The steady state results have been compared with the experimental and theoretical results available in the literature. The characteristics of the bearing have been investigated with change in foil pivot position. It has been shown that the load carrying capacity is diff...

  6. Sensitivity of LDEF foil analyses using ultra-low background germanium vs. large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    Cobalt foils and stainless steel samples were analyzed for induced 6O Co activity with both an ultra-low background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer and with a large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometer, both of which use electronic anticoincidence shielding to reduce background counts resulting from cosmic rays. Aluminum samples were analyzed for 22 Na. The results, in addition to the relative sensitivities and precisions afforded by the two methods, are presented

  7. Radiation lifetimes and failure mechanisms of carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auble, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes of thin carbon foils under heavy-ion irradiation are compiled and recent advances in stripper foil technology are reviewed. The impact of recent foil lifetime improvements, many by more than an order of magnitude, on heavy-ion electrostatic accelerators is discussed. Foil inhomogeneities, particularly those caused by sputtering are suggested to be a prime factor in usable foil lifetimes

  8. Room temperature thin foil SLIM-cut using an epoxy paste: experimental versus theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, Pierre; Serra, Joao; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Bernacki, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The stress induced lift-off method (SLIM) -cut technique allows the detachment of thin silicon foils using a stress inducing layer. In this work, results of SLIM-cut foils obtained using an epoxy stress inducing layer at room temperature are presented. Numerical analyses were performed in order to study and ascertain the important experimental parameters. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Indeed, large area (5 × 5 cm 2 ) foils were successfully detached at room temperature using an epoxy thickness of 900 μm and a curing temperature of 150 °C. Moreover, three foils (5 × 3 cm 2 ) with thickness 135, 121 and 110 μm were detached from the same monocrystalline substrate. Effective minority carrier lifetimes of 46, 25 and 20 μs were measured using quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique in these foils after iodine ethanol surface passivation. (paper)

  9. Nondestructive analysis of silver in gold foil using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshio; Shimoda, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Small particles of gold foil detached from an indoor decoration might be important evidence to associate a suspect with a crime scene. We have investigated the application of elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to discriminate small particles of gold foil. Eight kinds of gold foil samples collected in Japan were used in the experiments. As a result of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, only two elements, gold and silver, were detected from all gold foil samples. The intensity ratios of AgK α /AuL α showed good correlation with the content ratios of Ag/Au. The variation of intensity ratio within a same sample was sufficiently small compared with those of different samples. Therefore the comparison of this intensity ratio can be an effective method to discriminate small particles originating from different types of gold foil. (author)

  10. A metal-lustrous porphyrin foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisue, Mitsuhiko; Hoshino, Yuki; Shimizu, Masaki; Tomita, Shogo; Sasaki, Sono; Sakurai, Shinichi; Hikima, Takaaki; Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Matsui, Jun; Yamao, Takeshi

    2017-09-26

    A metal-lustrous self-standing film, named "porphyrin foil", was formed from a glass-forming polymeric porphyrin. The amorphous glass nature of the porphyrin foil played a key role in spontaneously producing a smooth surface. Its sharp contrast in intense absorption and specular reflection of light at each wavelength provided a brilliant metallic lustre.

  11. Dress Images on Gold-foil Figures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla; Andersson Strand, Eva Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production.......From the Late Iron Age settlement Sorte Muld on Bornholm both gold foil figures with depictions of costumes and textile tools can tell about textile production....

  12. Report on Plasma Spraying of Full-Sized Foils (FY13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Kendall J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-27

    This report is the deliverable fulfilling task B40700. The application of the Zr diffusion barrier between the U-­Mo fuel and the Al cladding has been an ongoing area of research [1-8]. The goal of the research described in this report was to demonstrate the plasma spraying technique for depositing zirconium (Zr) onto full sized U-Mo foils to demonstrate scale up of the process from the mini foil samples (1”x4”x ~0.015”) coated previously. Full size denotes one of the actual fuel foil sizes for one of the five research reactors (MURR, NIST, MIT, HFIR, ATR) to be converted to LEU fuel in the US research reactor Convert program. The smallest full sized fuel foil is for the NIST reactor with a size of 11.37”x2.436”x0.020”. The largest full sized fuel foil is for the ATR reactor with a size of 48.01”x3.43”x0.020”. The widest full sized fuel foil is for the MURR reactor with a size of 24”x4.052”x0.020”. The current LANL vacuum plasma spray system can accommodate a foil length of 24” or less. Therefore, as a demonstration of the widest foil in the program and the maximum length foil that can be processed on the current LANL system, a nominal 24”x4”x0.020” foil was chosen as the goal for scale up activities.

  13. Activity – based costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èuchranová Katarína

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity based costing is a method of identifying and tracking the operating costs directly associated with processing items. It is the practice of focusing on some unit of output, such as a purchase order or an assembled automobile and attempting to determine its total as precisely as poccible based on the fixed and variable costs of the inputs.You use ABC to identify, quantify and analyze the various cost drivers (such as labor, materials, administrative overhead, rework. and to determine which ones are candidates for reduction.A processes any activity that accepts inputs, adds value to these inputs for customers and produces outputs for these customers. The customer may be either internal or external to the organization. Every activity within an organization comprimes one or more processes. Inputs, controls and resources are all supplied to the process.A process owner is the person responsible for performing and or controlling the activity.The direction of cost through their contact to partial activity and processes is a new modern theme today. Beginning of this method is connected with very important changes in the firm processes.ABC method is a instrument , that bring a competitive advantages for the firm.

  14. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  15. Synthetic Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Copper Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    review the synthesis and properties of CVD -grown graphene , demonstrated using examples pimarily from our work in re- cent years. Particularly, we will...promise for many applica- tions.60 Compared to other large-scale graphene synthesis methods, CVD -grown graphene on copper foil substrates has been shown to...methods. Despite the fact that CVD - grown graphene films may be less perfect (the presence of domain boundaries, defects, wrinkles, impurities and

  16. Hyaluronan-lecithin foils and their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BiaIopiotrowicz, Tomasz [Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-SkIodowska University, Maria Curie-SkIodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Janczuk, BronisIaw [Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-SkIodowska University, Maria Curie-SkIodowska Square 3, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Fiedorowicz, Maciej [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland); Khachatryan, Gohar [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland); Tomasik, Piotr [Department of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Krakow, Mickiewicz Ave., 21, 31 120 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: rrtomasi@cyf-kr.edu.pl; Bakos, Dusan [Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak Technical University, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-01-10

    Thin, elastic foils of good resistance to the air exposure, patented as wound healing aids, were prepared by evaporation of a blend of lecithin (L) and sodium hyaluronan (H) taken under varying proportions. The contact angle for water, glycerol, formamide, ethylene glycol and diiodomethane, was determined for these foils. The contact angle was correlated against the H:L foil composition. For all liquids but formamide the highest contact angle was noted for the H:L = 2:1 (g g{sup -1}) ratio. The contact angles provided estimation of the work of adhesion. At the same L:H ratio the work of adhesion was the lowest. It was suggested that lecithin cross-linked hyaluronan. Since the work of adhesion of the studied liquids was similar to that of diiodomethane, it could be concluded that almost all functional groups on the foil surface were completely blocked. Perhaps, at H:L = 2:1 (g g{sup -1}) a stoichiometric complex of hyaluronic acid with lecithin was formed, and polar functional groups from both reagents were involved. Foils seem to be electrostatic complexes of H with L. Foils with the H:L equal to 2:1 exhibited specific properties confirmed by the IR reflectance spectra of the foils. The thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) also revealed unique thermal behaviour confirming other specific properties of the foil of this composition. For the same ratio a thorough inspection of the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed few irregularly distributed perforations of 1-2 {mu}m in diameter seen as black points, which can be recognized as pores. Properties of the foils determined in the contact angle measurements are nicely backed by the results from thermogravimetric and scanning electron microscopic studies.

  17. Thin layer chromatography-spray mass spectrometry: a method for easy identification of synthesis products and UV filters from TLC aluminum foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelsbach, Markus; Waser, Mario; Klampfl, Christian W

    2014-06-01

    A straightforward procedure for direct mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of spots from thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates, without the need of an external ion source, was developed using the aluminum plate backing as spray tip. The spots were cut out shaped as a tip with a 60° angle, mounted in front of the MS orifice, and after addition of a spray solvent spectra were obtained immediately. A high-resolution time-of-flight MS was used since the method is of particular interest for rapid identification or confirmation of spots from TLC plates. The practical benefits of this technique were demonstrated by detection of by-products of organic reactions, by identification of degradation products, and by accurate confirmation of spots when UV filters in sunscreens were analyzed by TLC. Employing the described method TLC spots can be evaluated fast without the need of an external ion source or devices for analyte transfer from TLC to MS, only a basic MS instrument and a high-voltage power supply is required.

  18. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  19. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R

    2005-03-07

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  1. The activation method for determining neutron spectra and fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogel, J.; Vespalec, R.

    1980-01-01

    3 mm thick foils of 4 and 17 mm in diameter were used for measurements. NaI scintillation detectors 45 mm in diameter by 50 mm thick and 40 mm in diameter by 1 mm thick, and a Ge-Li spectrometer of 53 cm 3 in volume were used for gamma detection. A photopeak or a certain part of the integral spectrum was measured for each radionuclide. Computer code PIKAR was applied in automatic calculation of a simple gamma spectrum obtained using the semiconductor spectrometer. The FACT code was used for calculating foil activity. Codes SAND II and RFSP were used for neutron spectra unfolding. Ge-Li detector spectrometry was used for determining neutron fluence. Code FLUE was used for determining the mean value of neutron flux density and fluence. (J.P.)

  2. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide

    2013-08-08

    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  3. Bonded Invar Clip Removal Using Foil Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, James T.; Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    A new process uses local heating and temperature monitoring to soften the adhesive under Invar clips enough that they can be removed without damaging the composite underneath or other nearby bonds. Two 1x1 in. (approx.2.5x2.5 cm), 10-W/sq in. (approx.1.6-W/sq cm), 80-ohm resistive foil Kapton foil heaters, with pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, are wired in parallel to a 50-V, 1-A limited power supply. At 1 A, 40 W are applied to the heater pair. The temperature is monitored in the clip radius and inside the tube, using a dual thermocouple readout. Several layers of aluminum foil are used to speed the heat up, allowing clips to be removed in less than five minutes. The very local heating via the foil heaters allows good access for clip removal and protects all underlying and adjacent materials.

  4. A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingyuan; Ning, Jiamin; Ye, Fan; Meng, Shijian; Xu, Rongkun; Yang, Jianlun; Chu, Yanyun; Qin, Yi; Fu, Yuecheng; Chen, Faxin; Xu, Zeping

    2016-10-01

    A free-standing thin foil bolometer for measuring soft x-ray fluence in z-pinch experiments is developed. For the first time, we present the determination of its sensitivity by different methods. The results showed great consistency for the different methods, which confirms the validity of the sensitivity and provides confidence for its application in z-pinch experiments. It should be highlighted that the sensitivity of a free-standing foil bolometer could be calibrated directly using Joule heating without any corrections that will be necessary for a foil bolometer with substrate because of heat loss. The difference of the waveforms between the free-standing foil bolometer and that with substrate is obvious. It reveals that the heat loss to the substrate should be considered for the latter in despite of the short x-ray pulse when the peak value is used to deduce the total deposited energy. The quantitative influence is analyzed through a detailed simulation.

  5. Magnetic collimation and metal foil filtering for electron range and fluence modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaisangittisakul, N.; D'Souza, W.D.; Ma Lijun

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the use of magnetically collimated electron beams together with metal filters for electron fluence and range modulation. A longitudinal magnetic field collimation method was developed to reduce skin dose and to improve the electron beam penumbra. Thin metal foils were used to adjust the energies of magnetically collimated electrons. The effects for different types of foils such as Al, Be, Cu, Pb, and Ti were studied using Monte Carlo calculations. An empirical pencil beam dose calculation model was developed to calculate electron dose distributions under magnetic collimation and foil modulation. An optimization method was developed to produce conformal dose distributions for simulated targets such as a horseshoe-shaped target. Our results show that it is possible to produce an electron depth dose enhancement peak using similar techniques of producing a spread-out Bragg peak. In conclusion, our study demonstrates new aspects of using magnetic collimation and foil filtration for producing fluence and range modulated electron dose distributions

  6. Transient and steady state behaviour of elasto–aerodynamic air foil bearings, considering bump foil compliance and top foil inertia and flexibility: A numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2017-01-01

    This work gives a theoretical contribution to the problem of modelling air foil bearings considering large sagging effects in the calculation of the non-linear transient and steady state response of a rigid rotor. This paper consists of two parts: the development of a miltiphysics model of the air...... foils and one air foil bearing with a fully supported top foil. The steady state responses of a journal supported by these air foil bearings are investigated for varied rotational speeds and journal unbalances as well as the top foil sagging in the unsupported area. The study reveals that sub...

  7. Measurements of Sound Velocity of Laser-Irradiated Iron Foils Relevant to Earth Core Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemori, K.; Ichinose, D.; Otani, K.; Shiota, T.; Sakaiya, T.; Azechi, H.; Irifune, T.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a novel method to measure sound velocity of laser-irradiated iron foils by side-on x-ray radiograph technique. Iron foils were irradiated with two-stepped laser pulse to reach the earth's core condition. We obtained not only the sound velocity but also temperature, pressure, shock velocity, compressibility, and particle velocity of the laser-irradiated iron. The experimental results are in good agreements with previous experimental results and with one-dimensional simulation results

  8. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  9. Spin-polarized radioactive isotope beam produced by tilted-foil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu; Mihara, Mototsugu; Watanabe, Yutaka; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Miyatake, Hiroari; Momota, Sadao; Hashimoto, Takashi; Imai, Nobuaki; Matsuta, Kensaku; Ishiyama, Hironobu; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Tetsuro; Izumikawa, Takuji; Katayama, Ichiro; Kawakami, Hirokane; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Makii, Hiroyuki; Mitsuoka, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Detail study for tilted foil technique. • New equation for estimating nuclear polarization dependence on the beam energy. • Production of nuclear polarization for heaviest nucleus 123 In in ground state. -- Abstract: The tilted-foil method for producing spin-polarized radioactive isotope beams has been studied using the re-accelerated radioactive 8 Li and 123 In beams produced at Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC) facility. We successfully produced polarization in a 8 Li beam of 7.3(5)% using thin polystyrene foils (4.2 μg/cm 2 ). The systematic study of the nuclear polarization as a function of the number of foils and beam energy has been performed, confirming the features of the tilted-foil technique experimentally. After the study, a spin-polarized radioactive 123 In beam, which is the heaviest ever polarized in its ground state by this method, has been successfully generated by the tilted-foil method, for the nuclear spectroscopy around the doubly magic nucleus 132 Sn

  10. TEKNIK AKTIVASI FOIL INDIUM UNTUK MENENTUKAN DISTRIBUSI NEUTRON TERMAL DALAM FANTOM PADAT DI BAWAH IRADIASI LINAC 15MV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risalatul Latifah

    2015-03-01

    cancer activity intensively use. The advantages of linac compared to teletherapy plane are no longer using radioactive sources and have a variety of energy thus can be adapted to the needs . When a linac is operated above 10 MV , there will be a photoneutron reaction (γ,n from the interaction of high X-rays energy striking the material components of linac such as target , collimator and filter. Photoneutron reaction will produce neutrons. Measurement of neutron flux is very important to the safety in the radiotherapy due to neutron emission is a secondary radiation that would increase the risk of secondary cancers in patients due to increasing the dose of radiation received . This study evaluated the neutron flux generated by the 15 MV linac using foil activation technique. The 45 foils inserted in a solid phantom irradiated by the linac to determine the neutron flux on the function of depth. This value will be used to estimate the additional dose to the patient while undergoing treatment using the linac operating above 10 MV. By using a gamma spectrometer analysis of the activated indium foil, flux values increase by adding depth of up to 7 cm below the surface with a value of 2.6 x 106 ncm-2s-1 and it would be decrease by increasing depth. This pattern occurs because the neutron thermalization process. By using the method of thermal neutron dose conversion factor, additional dose for maximum neutron flux that received by patients was 0.86 mSv/min. This dose contribution is relatively small, it is only 0.1 % of the therapeutic dose. Keywords: Thermal neutron flux, LINAC, indium, phantom, activation foil.

  11. Microcutting and forming of thin aluminium foils for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Mortensen, Dennis; Rombach, Pirmin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple procedure for simultaneous cutting and forming of thin Al foils for use in MEMS components. The procedure makes use of scaled down macroscopic sheet forming and cutting techniques by using a hydraulic press, a soft counterpart, and a microfabricated stamp tool....... The relation between applied pressure and forming and cutting features has been characterized for a specific set of stamp geometries and boundary conditions. The results show that 10 μm forming features can be transferred to 4 m thick Al foils, which simultaneously can be cut into products by 25 μm wide cut...... lines. Using the procedure presented in this paper scaled to full 4-8 in. silicon wafer stamp tools, a fast and adequate method for high volume production of MEMS components is obtained. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  12. Controllable growth and transfer of monolayer MoS2 on Au foils and its potential application in hydrogen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianping; Ma, Donglin; Han, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Qingqing; Gao, Teng; Sun, Jingyu; Song, Xiuju; Li, Cong; Zhang, Yanshuo; Lang, Xing-You; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-10-28

    Controllable synthesis of monolayer MoS2 is essential for fulfilling the application potentials of MoS2 in optoelectronics and valleytronics, etc. Herein, we report the scalable growth of high quality, domain size tunable (edge length from ∼ 200 nm to 50 μm), strictly monolayer MoS2 flakes or even complete films on commercially available Au foils, via low pressure chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown MoS2 samples can be transferred onto arbitrary substrates like SiO2/Si and quartz with a perfect preservation of the crystal quality, thus probably facilitating its versatile applications. Of particular interest, the nanosized triangular MoS2 flakes on Au foils are proven to be excellent electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction, featured by a rather low Tafel slope (61 mV/decade) and a relative high exchange current density (38.1 μA/cm(2)). The excellent electron coupling between MoS2 and Au foils is considered to account for the extraordinary hydrogen evolution reaction activity. Our work reports the synthesis of monolayer MoS2 when introducing metal foils as substrates, and presents sound proof that monolayer MoS2 assembled on a well selected electrode can manifest a hydrogen evolution reaction property comparable with that of nanoparticles or few-layer MoS2 electrocatalysts.

  13. One-step synthesis of TiO₂ nanorod arrays on Ti foil for supercapacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Chen, Jiajun; Yoshida, Ryuji; Gao, Xiang; Tarr, Kayla; Ikuhara, Yumi H; Zhou, Weilie

    2014-10-31

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays grown directly on Ti metal foil were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method, in which the Ti foil serves as both substrate and precursor. The nanorods are tetragonal rutile single crystal with growth orientation along the [001] direction. The electrochemical properties of the TiO2 nanorod arrays were systematically investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a three-electrode system. As a result, the TiO2 nanorod arrays exhibit good areal specific capacitance and excellent cyclic stability by retaining more than 98% of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. In addition, a good flexibility of the Ti foil with TiO2 nanorod arrays was demonstrated by the stable electrochemical performance under different bending angles, which indicates that TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on Ti foil could be a promising electrode material for flexible supercapacitor application.

  14. Use of Soller slits to remove reference foil fluorescence from transmission spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Justin J; George, Graham N; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2011-05-01

    Measurement of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in transmission is the method of choice for strong or concentrated samples. In a typical XAS experiment above 5 keV the sample is placed between the first (I(0)) and second (I(1)) ion chambers and a standard foil is placed between the second (I(1)) and third (I(2)) ion chambers for simultaneous calibration of energy during sample analysis. However, some fluorescence from the foil may be registered in I(1), causing anomalies in the transmission signal of the sample, especially when the sample edge jump is relatively small. To remedy this, Soller slits were constructed and placed between the foil and I(1) to minimize back-fluorescence from the foil. A comparison of blank and standard samples, measured with or without Soller slits or under a worst-case scenario, demonstrates the advantages of Soller slits when analyzing weak signal samples via transmission XAS.

  15. Ultrathin foils used for low-energy neutral atom imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Barraclough, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetospheric imaging by remote detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are created by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral geocoronal atoms has been proposed as a method to provide global information of magnetospheric dynamics. For LENA detecting, carbon foils can be implemented to (1) ionize the LENAs and electrostatically remove them from the large background of solar UV scattered by the geocorona to which LENA detectors (e.g., microchannel plates) are sensitive and (2) generate secondary electrons to provide coincidence and/or LENA trajectory information. Quantification of LENA-foil interactions are crucial in defining LENA imager performance. The authors present equilibrium charge state distributions due to foil contamination from exposure to air. Angular scattering that results from the projectile-foil interaction is quantified and is shown to be independent of the charge state distribution

  16. Simulation of thin aluminium-foil in the packaging industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskil, Andreasson; Lindström, Tommy; Käck, Britta; Malmberg, Christoffer; Asp, Ann-Magret

    2017-10-01

    This work present an approach of how to account for the anisotropic mechanical material behaviour in the simulation models of the thin aluminium foil layer (≈10 µm) used in the Packaging Industry. Furthermore, the experimental results from uniaxial tensile tests are parameterised into an analytical expression and the slope of the hardening subsequently extended way beyond the experimental data points. This in order to accommodate the locally high stresses present in the experiments at the neck formation. An analytical expression, denominated Ramberg-Osgood, is used to describe the non-linear mechanical behaviour. Moreover it is possible with a direct method to translate the experimental uniaxial tensile test results into useful numerical material model parameters in Abaqus™. In addition to this the extended material behaviour including the plastic flow i.e. hardening, valid after onset of localisation, the described procedure can also capture the microscopic events, i.e. geometrical thinning, ongoing in the deformation of the aluminium foil. This method has earlier successfully been applied by Petri Mäkelä for paperboard material [1]. The engineering sound and parameterised description of the mechanical material behaviour facilitates an efficient categorisation of different aluminium foil alloys and aid the identification of the correct anisotropic (RD/TD/45°) mechanical material behaviour derived from the physical testing.

  17. Effect of phototherapy with alumunium foil reflectors on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ijong Dachlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH is one of the most common problems in neonates, but it can be treated with blue light phototherapy. Developing countries with limited medical equipment and funds have difficulty providing effective phototherapy to treat NH, leading to increased risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. Phototherapy with white reflecting curtains can decrease the duration of phototherapy needed to reduce bilirubin levels. Objective To compare the duration of phototherapy needed in neonates with NH who underwent phototherapy with and without aluminum foil reflectors. Methods This open clinical trial was conducted from July to August 2013 at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The inclusion criteria were term neonates with uncomplicated NH presenting in their first week of life. Subjects were randomized into two groups, those who received phototherapy with or without aluminum foil reflectors. Serum bilirubin is taken at 12th, 24th, 48th hours, then every 24 hours if needed until phototherapy can be stopped according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The outcome measured was the duration of phototherapy using survival analysis. The difference between the two groups was tested by Gehan method. Results Seventy newborns who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had similar characteristics were randomized into two groups. The duration of phototherapy needed was significantly less in the group with aluminum foil reflectors than in the group without reflectors [72 vs. 96 hours, respectively, (P<0.01]. Conclusion The required duration of phototherapy with aluminum foil reflectors is significantly less than that of phototherapy without reflectors, in neonates with NH.

  18. Axial and radial distribution of neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 using foil activation analysis and Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, G.R.

    2009-02-01

    The Monte-Carlo method and experimental methods were used to determine the neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels of the Ghana Research Reactor -1. The MCNP5 code was used for this purpose to simulate the radial and axial distribution of the neutron fluxes within all the ten irradiation channels. The results obtained were compared with the experimental results. After the MCNP simulation and experimental procedure, it was observed that axially, the fluxes rise to a peak before falling and then finally leveling out. Axially and radially, it was also observed that the fluxes in the centre of the channels were lower than on the sides. Radially, the fluxes dip in the centre while it increases steadily towards the sides of the channels. The results have shown that there are flux variations within the irradiation channels both axially and radially. (au)

  19. Capillary self-alignment of mesoscopic foil components for sensor-systems-in-foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutinov, G.; Smits, E.C.P.; Mastrangeli, M.; Heck, G. van; Brand, J. van den; Schoo, H.F.M.; Dietzel, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the effective use of capillary self-alignment for low-cost and time-efficient assembly of heterogeneous foil components into a smart electronic identification label. Particularly, we demonstrate the accurate (better than 50m) alignment of cm-sized functional foil dies. We

  20. Optical imaging of irradiated cyclotron target window foils using Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A. E.; Boschi, F.; Calandrino, R.

    2017-05-01

    Radioisotopes production for PET radiopharmaceuticals is performed using cyclotrons resulting in radio activation of different cyclotron components. It is thus necessary to measure the level of radiation exposure and, if possible, to image the areas where most of the radiations are emitted in particular during maintenance or decommissioning procedures. In this work we present a novel optical imaging approach using Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI). CLI was performed by placing a glass Cerenkov radiator on a target window (Havar foils) and RLI data were obtained by covering the Havar foils with an intensifying screen. CLI or RLI were acquired using a small animal optical imaging system used in bioluminescence mode without the use of any optical filters. The analysis of the normalized radiance line profiles of both CLI and RLI images showed a similar pattern, however the absolute radiance of the RLI signal is several order of magnitude higher with respect to CLI. We conclude that optical imaging with CLI and RLI can be considered a novel method to detect and image activation areas in irradiated samples from a medical cyclotron.

  1. Optical imaging of irradiated cyclotron target window foils using Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, A.E.; Boschi, F.; Calandrino, R.

    2017-01-01

    Radioisotopes production for PET radiopharmaceuticals is performed using cyclotrons resulting in radio activation of different cyclotron components. It is thus necessary to measure the level of radiation exposure and, if possible, to image the areas where most of the radiations are emitted in particular during maintenance or decommissioning procedures. In this work we present a novel optical imaging approach using Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI). CLI was performed by placing a glass Cerenkov radiator on a target window (Havar foils) and RLI data were obtained by covering the Havar foils with an intensifying screen. CLI or RLI were acquired using a small animal optical imaging system used in bioluminescence mode without the use of any optical filters. The analysis of the normalized radiance line profiles of both CLI and RLI images showed a similar pattern, however the absolute radiance of the RLI signal is several order of magnitude higher with respect to CLI. We conclude that optical imaging with CLI and RLI can be considered a novel method to detect and image activation areas in irradiated samples from a medical cyclotron.

  2. Balanced (C_7, C_8)-Foil Designs and Related Designs

    OpenAIRE

    USHIO, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] In graph theory, the decomposition problem of graphs is a very important topic. Various type of decompositions of many graphs can be seen in the literature of graph theory. This paper gives balanced (C_7, C_8)-foil designs, balanced C_15-foil designs, balanced (C_〈14〉, C_〈16〉)-foil designs, balanced C_〈30〉-foil designs, balanced C_45-foil designs, balanced C_〈60〉-foil designs, balanced C_〈75〉-foil designs, balanced C_〈90〉-foil designs, balanced C_〈105〉-foil designs, balanced C_〈120...

  3. Activating teaching methods in french language teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kulhánková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is activating teaching methods in french language teaching. This thesis outlines the issues acitvating teaching methods in the concept of other teaching methods. There is a definition of teaching method, classification of teaching methods and characteristics of each activating method. In the practical part of this work are given concrete forms of activating teaching methods appropriate for teaching of french language.

  4. Additional security features for optically variable foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Allan C.; Russo, Frank

    1998-04-01

    For thousands of years, man has exploited the attraction and radiance of pure gold to adorn articles of great significance. Today, designers decorate packaging with metallic gold foils to maintain the prestige of luxury items such as perfumes, chocolates, wine and whisky, and to add visible appeal and value to wide range of products. However, today's products do not call for the hand beaten gold leaf of the Ancient Egyptians, instead a rapid production technology exists which makes use of accurately coated thin polymer films and vacuum deposited metallic layers. Stamping Foils Technology is highly versatile since several different layers may be combined into one product, each providing a different function. Not only can a foil bring visual appeal to an article, it can provide physical and chemical resistance properties and also protect an article from human forms of interference, such as counterfeiting, copying or tampering. Stamping foils have proved to be a highly effective vehicle for applying optical devices to items requiring this type of protection. Credit cards, bank notes, personal identification documents and more recently high value packaged items such as software and perfumes are protected by optically variable devices applied using stamping foil technology.

  5. Cryostat with Foil and MLI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Peter K.F.; Gung, Chen-yu

    2005-10-06

    Induction cores are used to accelerate heavy ion beam array, which are built around the outer diameter of the cryostat housing the superconducting quadruple array. Compact cryostat is highly desirable to reduce the cost of the induction cores. Recent experiences in fabrication of a cryostat for single beam transport revealed that it is possible to reduce the spacing in the cryostat vacuum jacket by using low-emissivity thermal insulation material instead of conventional MLI. However, it is labor-intensive to install the new type of insulation as compared with using MLI. It is promising to build a cost-effective compact cryostat for quadruple magnet array for heavy ion beam array transport by using low-emissivity material combined with conventional MLI as radiation insulation. A matrix of insulation designs and tests will be performed as the feasibility study and for the selection of the optimal thermal insulation as the Phase I work. The selected mixed insulation will be used to build prototype compact cryostats in the Phase II project, which are aiming for housing quadruple doublet array. In this STTR phase I study, a small cryostat has been designed and built to perform calorimetric characterization of the heat load in a liquid helium vessel insulated with a vacuum layer with a nominal clearance of 3.5 mm. The vacuum clearance resembled that used in the warm-bore beam tube region in a prototype cryostat previously built for the heavy ion beam transport experiment. The vacuum clearance was geometrically restricted with a heater shell with the temperature controlled at near 300 K. Various combinations of radiation and thermal shields were installed in the tight vacuum clearance for heat load measurements. The measured heat loads are reported and compared with previous test result using a compact vacuum layer. Further developments of the thermal insulations used in the present study are discussed. The compact cryostat with foil and MLI insulation may be used in the

  6. Alpha Oscillations during Incidental Encoding Predict Subsequent Memory for New "Foil" Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, David A; Gruber, Matthias; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2018-01-11

    People can employ adaptive strategies to increase the likelihood that previously encoded information will be successfully retrieved. One such strategy is to constrain retrieval toward relevant information by reimplementing the neurocognitive processes that were engaged during encoding. Using EEG, we examined the temporal dynamics with which constraining retrieval toward semantic versus nonsemantic information affects the processing of new "foil" information encountered during a memory test. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data acquired during an initial study phase revealed that semantic compared with nonsemantic processing was associated with alpha decreases in a left frontal electrode cluster from around 600 msec after stimulus onset. Successful encoding of semantic versus nonsemantic foils during a subsequent memory test was related to decreases in alpha oscillatory activity in the same left frontal electrode cluster, which emerged relatively late in the trial at around 1000-1600 msec after stimulus onset. Across participants, left frontal alpha power elicited by semantic processing during the study phase correlated significantly with left frontal alpha power associated with semantic foil encoding during the memory test. Furthermore, larger left frontal alpha power decreases elicited by semantic foil encoding during the memory test predicted better subsequent semantic foil recognition in an additional surprise foil memory test, although this effect did not reach significance. These findings indicate that constraining retrieval toward semantic information involves reimplementing semantic encoding operations that are mediated by alpha oscillations and that such reimplementation occurs at a late stage of memory retrieval, perhaps reflecting additional monitoring processes.

  7. Development and Application of Integrated Aerodynamic Protuberant Foil Journal and Thrust Bearing in Turboexpander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwei Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foil bearing provides compliant support and moderate Coulomb friction for rotor-bearing system, which is conducive to stability and reliability of high speed rotating machinery. In this paper, both hydrodynamic lubricated foil journal and foil thrust bearings are applied in a 150 m3·h−1 turboexpander for air separation. In the bearings, protuberant foil is chosen as the supporting subfoil due to its merits of easy fabrication and assembly. Static loading and deflection of the bearings are tested, respectively, before integration into the turboexpander. Afterwards, the loading and deflection curves of the journal and thrust bearings are polynomial fitted using least-square method. Then, performance tests are carried out on the rotor-bearing system, including transient speed-up, high speed, and speed-down processes. In the tests, the turboexpander supported by the hydrodynamic foil bearings operates smoothly with repeatability. Maximal rotor speed of the turboexpander reaches 52000 rpm with hydrodynamic lubricated protuberant foil bearings.

  8. Optofluidic dye laser in a foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Mappes, Timo

    2010-01-01

    First order distributed feedback optofluidic dye lasers embedded in a 350 mu m thick TOPAS (R) foil are demonstrated. They are designed in order to give high output pulse energies. Microfluidic channels and first order distributed feedback gratings are fabricated in parallel by thermal nanoimprint...... into a 100 mu m foil. The channels are closed by thermal bonding with a 250 mu m thick foil and filled with 5.10(-3) mol/l Pyrromethene 597 in benzyl alcohol. The fluid forms a liquid core single mode slab waveguide of 1.6 mu m height on a nanostructured grating area of 0.5 x 0.5 mm(2). This results...

  9. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G [Los Angeles, CA; McCabe, Niall [Torrance, CA; Gee, Mark [South Pasadena, CA

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  10. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  11. Examination of the picture properties of luminescence memory foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewert, U.; Heine, S.; Nockemann, C.; Stade, J.; Tillack, G.R.; Wessel, H.; Zscherpel, U.; Mattis, A.

    1995-01-01

    Luminescence memory foils are a new medium for radiography without films. They are known by the name of image plates or digital memory foils. The suitability of such systems for industrial radiography is examined. (orig.) [de

  12. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our key innovation will be the use of single-layer graphene as LENA conversion foils, with appropriate microgrids and nanogrids to support the foils. Phase I...

  13. Fish sampling with active methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubečka, Jan; Godo, O. R.; Hickley, P.; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Rudstam, L.; Welcomme, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 123, July (2012), s. 1-3 ISSN 0165-7836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish stock assessment * active and passive gear * intercalibration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2012

  14. Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

  15. 6Li foil thermal neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macarthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on the design of a multilayer thermal neutron detector based on {sup 6}Li reactive foil and thin film plastic scintillators. The {sup 6}Li foils have about twice the intrinsic efficiency of {sup 10}B films and about four times higher light output due to a unique combination of high energy of reaction particles, low self absorption, and low ionization density of tritons. The design configuration provides for double sided readout of the lithium foil resulting in a doubling of the efficiency relative to a classical reactive film detector and generating a pulse height distribution with a valley between neutron and gamma signals similar to {sup 3}He tubes. The tens of microns thickness of plastic scintillator limits the energy deposited by gamma rays, which provides the necessary neutron/gamma discrimination. We used MCNPX to model a multilayer Li foil detector design and compared it with the standard HLNCC-II (18 {sup 3}He tubes operated at 4 atm). The preliminary results of the {sup 6}Li configuration show higher efficiency and one third of the die-away time. These properties, combined with the very short dead time of the plastic scintillator, offer the potential of a very high performance detector.

  16. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  17. Vortex wakes of a flapping foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street, inv...

  18. Beam-foil study of neon in the EUV with foils of carbon, silver and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarest, J.A.; Watson, R.L.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station

    1988-01-01

    A beam-foil study of 40 MeV neon was conducted in the EUV with a 1-meter grazing incidence spectrometer configured with a position sensitive microchannel plate detector. A number of new lines of Ne IX, mainly from transitions to n = 3 levels, were detected in the wavelength region covering 50-350 A. Comparison of the spectra obtained using the different foils revealed that the average charge state of the neon projectiles was nearly one unit higher with carbon than with either of the two metals. Measurements of line intensities versus distance from the foils showed that cascade contributions were greatly reduced for the metals. It was also found that n = 3 states of low l were overpopulated relative to a statistical distribution, irrespective of the foil material. (orig.)

  19. Identification of dynamic properties of radial air-foil bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, Vikas; Arora, V.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; de Boer, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost “top foil” layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Air-foil bearings are

  20. Orientation and alignment in beam tilted-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    The production of atomic orientation and alignment, by anisotropic excitation is analyzed. The stokes parameters of the light emitted from tilted-foil excited ions provide measurements of orientation and alignment, and some examples are given. The variations of the stokes parameters with foil tilt angle, excited state, ion velocity and foil material are compared with existing theories

  1. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  2. Scaling laws for radial foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavara Prasad, Srikanth

    The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims

  3. Measurement of neutron multiplication in Pb by Mn foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuan; Liu Rong; Guo Haiping; Jiang Wenmian; Shen Jian

    1994-01-01

    The Leakage neutron multiplication in bulk lead has been measured using the total absorption detector and relative method. The polyethylene sphere of 138 cm in diameter is used as the moderator and total absorption detector. The measured results from 55 Mn foils and 6 Li glass are compared. The neutron multiplication is 1.74 with the lead shell of 23.1 cm thick. The measured result is consistent with the calculated one with ANISN code and ENDF/B-6 evaluated data within the experimental error. (4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  4. Use of special radioactive molds of gold-198 foils for brachytherapy in skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for manufacturing molds of radioactive gold-198 foils for treatment of skin tumors. The metallic purity of the gold foils produced by the Brazilian market is analyzed and compared to the characteristics of imported materials. Techniques for analyses of the activation homogeneity and dose profile in the plane of the mold are presented. The MicroShield, Version 4 System is used in the theoretical determination of the dose rate along the radioactive molds with different geometries and a comparison with experimental values obtained by optic density readings from special films used in quality control of radiotherapy equipment, dosimetry for thimble ionization chamber and thermoluminescent dosimeters is performed. The dosimeter calibration curve (dose-answer) obtained for the gold-198 energy, is compared with that obtained by a high dose rate iridium-192 small source, commonly used in the brachytherapy procedures. The studies show that the best homogeneity of dose distribution is obtained distributing the radioactive material in the form of concentric rings, with different activities, in number and dimensions dependent on the area to be treated. The method of the radiation dose calculation of the molds presented in this work, is compared with the traditional method used by brachytherapy services for low dose rate. Twenty lesions were treated with the proposed molds. The effectiveness of this methodology is further supported by the cosmetic-therapeutic results of the clinical applications, as well as cost analysis of the procedures. Also, it is analyzed the homogeneity of the dose rate distribution for an irradiated disk with attenuation by two silver coin, objectifying to eliminate loss of mass and consequently uncertainties in the activation when the sections of the disks are made in concentric rings. (author)

  5. In situ calibration of the foil detector for an infrared imaging video bolometer using a carbon evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K; Peterson, B J; Takayama, S; Sano, R

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method. Also, the principle of the in situ calibration system was justified.

  6. In situ calibration of the foil detector for an infrared imaging video bolometer using a carbon evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K.; Peterson, B. J.; Takayama, S.; Sano, R.

    2016-11-01

    The InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a useful diagnostic for the multi-dimensional measurement of plasma radiation profiles. For the application of IRVB measurement to the neutron environment in fusion plasma devices such as the Large Helical Device (LHD), in situ calibration of the thermal characteristics of the foil detector is required. Laser irradiation tests of sample foils show that the reproducibility and uniformity of the carbon coating for the foil were improved using a vacuum evaporation method. Also, the principle of the in situ calibration system was justified.

  7. Intense heavy ion beam-induced effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Katharina

    2016-08-15

    Amorphous carbon or carbon-based stripper foils are commonly applied in accelerator technology for electron stripping of ions. At the planned facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, thin carbon stripper foils provide an option for directly delivering ions of intermediate charge states to the heavy ion synchrotron, SIS 18, in order to mitigate space charge limitations during high-intensity operation. In case of desired high end-energies in the synchrotron, a second stripping process by a thicker carbon foil provides ions of higher charge states for injection into the SIS18. High beam intensities and a pulsed beam structure as foreseen at FAIR pose new challenges to the stripper foils which experience enhanced degradation by radiation damage, thermal effects, and stress waves. In order to ensure reliable accelerator operation, radiation-hard stripper foils are required. This thesis aims to a better understanding of processes leading to degradation of carbon-based thin foils. Special focus is placed on ion-beam induced structure and physical property changes and on the influence of different beam parameters. Irradiation experiments were performed at the M3-beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI, using swift heavy ion beams with different pulse lengths and repetition rates. Tested carbon foils were standard amorphous carbon stripper foils produced by the GSI target laboratory, as well as commercial amorphous and diamond-like carbon foils and buckypaper foils. Microstructural changes were investigated with various methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and chromatic aberration measurements. For the investigation of structural changes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), in-situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and small angle X

  8. Intense heavy ion beam-induced effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Amorphous carbon or carbon-based stripper foils are commonly applied in accelerator technology for electron stripping of ions. At the planned facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) at the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, thin carbon stripper foils provide an option for directly delivering ions of intermediate charge states to the heavy ion synchrotron, SIS 18, in order to mitigate space charge limitations during high-intensity operation. In case of desired high end-energies in the synchrotron, a second stripping process by a thicker carbon foil provides ions of higher charge states for injection into the SIS18. High beam intensities and a pulsed beam structure as foreseen at FAIR pose new challenges to the stripper foils which experience enhanced degradation by radiation damage, thermal effects, and stress waves. In order to ensure reliable accelerator operation, radiation-hard stripper foils are required. This thesis aims to a better understanding of processes leading to degradation of carbon-based thin foils. Special focus is placed on ion-beam induced structure and physical property changes and on the influence of different beam parameters. Irradiation experiments were performed at the M3-beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) at GSI, using swift heavy ion beams with different pulse lengths and repetition rates. Tested carbon foils were standard amorphous carbon stripper foils produced by the GSI target laboratory, as well as commercial amorphous and diamond-like carbon foils and buckypaper foils. Microstructural changes were investigated with various methods such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), profilometry and chromatic aberration measurements. For the investigation of structural changes X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), in-situ Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and small angle X

  9. Applying a foil queue micro-electrode in micro-EDM to fabricate a 3D micro-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Guo, Kang; Wu, Xiao-yu; Lei, Jian-guo; Liang, Xiong; Guo, Deng-ji; Ma, Jiang; Cheng, Rong

    2018-05-01

    Applying a 3D micro-electrode in a micro electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) can fabricate a 3D micro-structure with an up and down reciprocating method. However, this processing method has some shortcomings, such as a low success rate and a complex process for fabrication of 3D micro-electrodes. By focusing on these shortcomings, this paper proposed a novel 3D micro-EDM process based on the foil queue micro-electrode. Firstly, a 3D micro-electrode was discretized into several foil micro-electrodes and these foil micro-electrodes constituted a foil queue micro-electrode. Then, based on the planned process path, foil micro-electrodes were applied in micro-EDM sequentially and the micro-EDM results of each foil micro-electrode were able to superimpose the 3D micro-structure. However, the step effect will occur on the 3D micro-structure surface, which has an adverse effect on the 3D micro-structure. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes to reduce this adverse effect by rounded corner wear at the end of the foil micro-electrode and studies the impact of machining parameters on rounded corner wear and the step effect on the micro-structure surface. Finally, using a wire cutting voltage of 80 V, a current of 0.5 A and a pulse width modulation ratio of 1:4, the foil queue micro-electrode was fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining. Also, using a pulse width of 100 ns, a pulse interval of 200 ns, a voltage of 100 V and workpiece material of 304# stainless steel, the foil queue micro-electrode was applied in micro-EDM for processing of a 3D micro-structure with hemispherical features, which verified the feasibility of this process.

  10. Improvement of energy-conversion efficiency from laser to proton beam in a laser-foil interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodera, Y; Kawata, S; Onuma, N; Limpouch, J; Klimo, O; Kikuchi, T

    2008-10-01

    Improvement of energy-conversion efficiency from laser to proton beam is demonstrated by particle simulations in a laser-foil interaction. When an intense short-pulse laser illuminates the thin-foil target, the foil electrons are accelerated around the target by the ponderomotive force. The hot electrons generate a strong electric field, which accelerates the foil protons, and the proton beam is generated. In this paper a multihole thin-foil target is proposed in order to increase the energy-conversion efficiency from laser to protons. The multiholes transpiercing the foil target help to enhance the laser-proton energy-conversion efficiency significantly. Particle-in-cell 2.5-dimensional ( x, y, vx, vy, vz) simulations present that the total laser-proton energy-conversion efficiency becomes 9.3% for the multihole target, though the energy-conversion efficiency is 1.5% for a plain thin-foil target. The maximum proton energy is 10.0 MeV for the multihole target and is 3.14 MeV for the plain target. The transpiercing multihole target serves as a new method to increase the energy-conversion efficiency from laser to ions.

  11. The Synthesis of Highly Aligned Cupric Oxide Nanowires by Heating Copper Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of grain size and orientation of copper substrates for the growth of cupric oxide nanowires by thermal oxidation method. Long, less-roughness, high-density, and aligned cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized by heating (200 oriented copper foils with small grain size in air gas. Long and aligned nanowires of diameter around 80 nm can only be formed within a short temperature range from 400 to 700°C. On the other hand, uniform, smooth-surface, and aligned nanowires were not formed in the case of larger crystallite size of copper foils with (111 and (200 orientation. Smaller grain size of copper foil with (200 orientation is favorable for the growth of highly aligned, smooth surface, and larger-diameter nanowires by thermal oxidation method.

  12. Carbon stripper foils held in place with carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, Connie S.; Miller, Shawn A.; Stoner, John O.; Ladd, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) currently under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is planned to initially utilize carbon stripper foils having areal densities approximately 260 μg/cm 2 . The projected design requires that each foil be supported by only one fixed edge. For stability of the foil, additional support is to be provided by carbon fibers. The feasibility of manufacturing and shipping such mounted carbon foils produced by arc evaporation was studied using two prototypes. Production of the foils is described. Fibers were chosen for satisfactory mechanical strength consistent with minimal interference with the SNS beam. Mounting of the fibers, and packaging of the assemblies for shipping are described. Ten completed assemblies were shipped to SNS for further testing. Preliminary evaluation of the survivability of the foils in the SNS foil changer is described

  13. Advances in targetry with thin diamond-like carbon foils

    CERN Document Server

    Liechtenstein, V K; Olshanski, E D; Repnow, R; Levin, J; Hellborg, R; Persson, P; Schenkel, T

    2002-01-01

    Thin and stable diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils, which were fabricated at the Kurchatov Institute by sputter deposition, have proved recently to be advantageous for stripping and secondary electron timing of high energy heavy ions in a number of accelerator experiments. This resulted in expanding applications of these DLC foils which necessitated further development efforts directed toward the following applications of DLC targetry: (i) thin stripper foils for lower energy tandem accelerators, (ii) enlarged (up to 66 mm in diameter) stop foils for improved time-of-flight elastic recoil detection ion beam analysis, and (iii) ultra-thin (about 0.6 mu g/cm sup 2) DLC foils for some fundamental and applied physics experiments. Along with the fabrication of thin DLC stripper foils for tandem accelerators, much thicker (up to 200 mu g/cm sup 2) foils for post-stripping of heavy-ion beams in higher energy linacs, are within reach.

  14. A calorimetric method to determine water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Wadsö, Lars

    2011-11-01

    A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg(-1) to 3 mol kg(-1) and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl(2), NaBr, NaCl, KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4)) with known water activities. The performance of the method was adequate over the complete water activity scale. At high water activities the performance was excellent, which is encouraging as many other methods used for water activity determination have limited performance at high water activities. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  15. Activation of Students with Various Teaching Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2011-01-01

    A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students.......A group of teaching methodes to active engineer students have been tried out. The methodes are developed based on the Pedagogical Cyclic Workflow (PCW). Comparing with earlier evaluation, positive feedback is achieved among the students....

  16. Analysis of Cartilage-Polydioxanone Foil Composite Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James H.; Wong, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an analytical investigation into the mechanical behavior of a cartilage-polydioxanone (PDS) plate composite grafts. Numerical methods are used to provide a first-order, numerical model of the flexural stiffness of a cartilage-PDS graft. Flexural stiffness is a measure of resistance to bending and is inversely related to the amount of deformation a structure may experience when subjected to bending forces. The cartilage-PDS graft was modeled as a single composite beam. Using Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, a closed form equation for the theoretical flexural stiffness of the composite graft was developed. A parametric analysis was performed to see how the flexural properties of the composite model changed with varying thicknesses of PDS foil. The stiffness of the cartilage-PDS composite using 0.15-mm-thick PDS was four times higher than cartilage alone. The composite with a 0.5-mm-thick PDS graft was only 1.7 times stiffer than the composite with the 0.15-mm-thick PDS graft. Although a thicker graft material will yield higher flexural stiffness for the composite, the relationship between composite stiffness and PDS thickness is nonlinear. After a critical point, increments in graft thickness produce gradually smaller improvements in flexural stiffness. The small increase in stiffness when using the thicker PDS foils versus the 0.15 mm PDS foil may not be worth the potential complications (prolonged foreign body reaction, reduction in nutrient diffusion to cartilage) of using thicker artificial grafts. PMID:24327249

  17. Ultrathin foils used for low-energy neutral atom imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Barraclough, Bruce L.

    1993-12-01

    Magnetospheric imaging by remote detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are created by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral geocoronal atoms has been proposed as a method to provide global information of magnetospheric dynamics. For LENA detection, carbon foils can be implemented to (1) ionize the LENAs and electrostatically remove them from the large background of solar UV scattered by the geocorona and (2) generate secondary electrons to provide coincidence and/or LENA trajectory information. Quantification of LENA-foil interactions are crucial in defining LENA imager performance. We present equilibrium charge state and angular scatter distributions for 1 to 30-keV atomic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen transiting nominal 0.5 (mu) g cm-2 carbon foils. Results obtained after coating the exit surface of foils with either aluminum or gold suggest that the intended alteration of the exit surface chemistry has no effect on the charge state distributions due to foil contamination from exposure to air.

  18. Brazing Inconel 625 Using the Copper Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2013-12-01

    Brazing Inconel 625 (IN-625) using the copper foil has been investigated in this research. The brazed joint is composed of nanosized CrNi3 precipitates and Cr/Mo/Nb/Ni quaternary compound in the Cu/Ni-rich matrix. The copper filler 50 μm in thickness is enough for the joint filling. However, the application of Cu foil 100 μm in thickness has little effect on the shear strength of the brazed joint. The specimen brazed at 1433 K (1160 °C) for 1800 seconds demonstrates the best shear strength of 470 MPa, and its fractograph is dominated by ductile dimple fracture with sliding marks. Decreasing the brazing temperature slightly decreases the shear strength of the brazed joint due to the presence of a few isolated solidification shrinkage voids smaller than 15 μm. Increasing the brazing temperature, especially for the specimen brazed at 1473 K (1200 °C), significantly deteriorates the shear strength of the joint below 260 MPa because of coalescence of isothermal solidification shrinkage voids in the joint. The Cu foil demonstrates potential in brazing IN-625 for industrial application.

  19. Radon-thoron discrimination using a polythene foil: an application in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Singh, M.; Sandhu, A.S.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated measurements of radon concentrations in subsurface soil are being used extensively for uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. For uranium exploration only the radon signals are needed; however, a part of the α-activity may derive from thoron. To exclude thoron, a polythene foil has been used as an anti-thoron membrane to delay the entry of thoron into the detector system so that only the longer lived isotope 222 Rn survives to be measured. A long term integrated measurement has been carried out using LR-115 and CR-39 plastic track detectors. The observed track density has been determined as a function of foil thickness. It is found that a polythene foil of appropriate thickness could be successfully employed for the separation of radon and thoron in soil. (author)

  20. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2010-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed....

  1. Active teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching.......Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching....

  2. Local deposition of Copper on Aluminum based MWT Back Contact Foil using Cold Spray Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    MWT cell and module technology has been shown to result in modules with up to 5% higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this study, the use of a low cost conductive back-sheet with aluminium as the current carrier in combination with locally applied copper (5 to 30 {mu}m) using the cold spray method is benchmarked against a standard PVF-PET-copper foil in 2 x 2 cell modules. Cell to module losses and reliability during climate chamber tests according to IEC61215 ed. 2, are comparable to module made with the standard foil. Optimizing the cold spray process can result in a cost reduction of more than a factor 10 of the current carrying component, when compared to a full copper conductive back-sheet foil.

  3. Monitoring the degradation of partly decomposable plastic foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rétháti Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE, MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242 and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297 in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.

  4. Foil changer for the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Kilborn, R.I.; Mouris, J.E.; Proulx, D.R.; Weaver, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Capture of an injected beam in the Chalk River superconducting cyclotron requires that a carbon stripping foil be accurately placed in a dee to intercept the incoming beam. Foil radial position must be precisely adjustable and foils must be easily replaced. A foil changing apparatus has been designed, built and tested to meet these requirements. The main components are a supply magazine, a transport system, and unloading and loading mechanisms. The magazine is on top of the cyclotron. It holds 300 foils and can be isolated from machine vacuum for refilling. Each foil is mounted on a stainless steel frame. A stainless steel roller chain fitted with 33 copper sleeves (shrouds) carries foils, one per shroud, down a dee stem to the midplane. A 12-bit absolute optical shaft encoder senses foil position. To replace a foil a shroud is positioned at the top of the cyclotron, a foil is removed, and another is transferred from the magazine to the empty shroud. Three stepping motors and associated electronics provide mechanical drive and are interfaced with a CAMAC control system

  5. Potentiality of the composite fulleren based carbon films as the stripper foils for tandem accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vasin, A V; Rusavsky, A V; Totsky, Y I; Vishnevski, I N

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the radiation resistance of the carbon stripper foils is considered. The short review of the experimental data available in literature and original experimental results of the are presented. In the paper discussed is the possibility of composite fulleren based carbon films to be used for preparation of the stripper foils. Some technological methods for preparation of composite fulleren based carbon films are proposed. Raman scattering and atom force microscopy were used for investigation of the fulleren and composite films deposited by evaporation of the C sub 6 sub 0 fulleren powder.

  6. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  7. SEM-EDS Analyses of Small Craters in Stardust Aluminum Foils: Implications for the Wild-2 Dust Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, J.; Horz, F.; Bridges, J. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Djouadi, Z.; Floss, C.; Graham, G. A.; Green, S. F.; Heck, P. R.; Hoppe, P.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium foils were used on Stardust to stabilize the aerogel specimens in the modular collector tray. Part of these foils were fully exposed to the flux of cometary grains emanating from Wild 2. Because the exposed part of these foils had to be harvested before extraction of the aerogel, numerous foil strips some 1.7 mm wide and 13 or 33 mm long were generated during Stardusts's Preliminary Examination (PE). These strips are readily accommodated in their entirety in the sample chambers of modern SEMs, thus providing the opportunity to characterize in situ the size distribution and residue composition - employing EDS methods - of statistically more significant numbers of cometary dust particles compared to aerogel, the latter mandating extensive sample preparation. We describe here the analysis of nearly 300 impact craters and their implications for Wild 2 dust.

  8. Extreme extensibility of copper foil under compound forming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbo; Liu, Xianghua; Tang, Delin

    2013-12-19

    A copper foil with an extreme extensibility up to 43,684% was obtained without any intermediate annealing by means of asynchronous rolling with high tension. It was found that under the combination of compression, shearing and tension, the copper foil represents a wonderful phenomenon. As the reduction increases, the specimen hardness increases up to a peak value 138 HV0.05 when the foil thickness rolled to around 100 μm, and then it decreases down to 78 HV0.05 when the foil thickness rolled to the final size 19 μm. It tells us that the strain-softening effect occurs when the foil thickness is rolled down to a threshold level. The experimental results bring us some fresh ideas different with the traditional understanding on the strain-hardening mechanism of metals, which provides an experimental basis to establish the forming mechanism of the thin foil.

  9. Microfabricated Segmented-Involute-Foil Regenerator for Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Danila, Daniel; Simon, Terrence; Mantell, Susan; Sun, Liyong; Gedeon, David; Qiu, Songgang; Wood, Gary; Kelly, Kevin; McLean, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    An involute-foil regenerator was designed, microfabricated, and tested in an oscillating-flow test rig. The concept consists of stacked involute-foil nickel disks (see figure) microfabricated via a lithographic process. Test results yielded a performance of about twice that of the 90-percent random-fiber currently used in small Stirling converters. The segmented nature of the involute- foil in both the axial and radial directions increases the strength of the structure relative to wrapped foils. In addition, relative to random-fiber regenerators, the involute-foil has a reduced pressure drop, and is expected to be less susceptible to the release of metal fragments into the working space, thus increasing reliability. The prototype nickel involute-foil regenerator was adequate for testing in an engine with a 650 C hot-end temperature. This is lower than that required by larger engines, and high-temperature alloys are not suited for the lithographic microfabrication approach.

  10. Superhydrophobic Properties of Nanotextured Polypropylene Foils Fabricated by Roll-to-Roll Extrusion Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecka, Agnieszka; Murthy, Swathi; Sun, Ling

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of roll-to-roll extrusion coating (R2R-EC) for fabrication of nanopatterned polypropylene (PP) foils with strong antiwetting properties. The antiwetting nanopattern is originated from textured surfaces fabricated on silicon wafers by a single-step method of reactive ion etc...

  11. Soft-lithographic patterning of room termperature-sintering Ag Nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Bat, E.; Voorthuijzen, W. Pim; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by

  12. Soft-lithographic patterning of room temperaturesintering Ag nanoparticles on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen,P.F.; Bat,E.; Voorthuijzen, W.P.; Huskens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature-sintering, poly(acrylic acid)-capped silver nanoparticles (Ag-PAA NPs) were used in a wide range of nanofabrication methods to form metallic silver microstructures on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Silver wires on top of PET foil were patterned by

  13. Flapping foil power generator performance enhanced with a spring-connected tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengliang; Tian, Fang-Bao; Young, John; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The flexibility effects on the performance of a flapping foil power generator are numerically studied by using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method at a Reynolds number of 1100. The flapping foil system consists of a rigid NACA0015 foil undergoing harmonic pitch and plunge motions and a passively actuated flat plate pinned to the trailing edge of the rigid foil. The flexibility is modeled by a torsional spring model at the conjuncture of the rigid foil and the tail. Here, a parametric study on mass density and natural frequency is conducted under the optimum kinematic condition of the rigid system identified from the literature and numerical simulations made for reduced frequency f* = 0.04-0.24 and pitch amplitude θ0 = 40°-90°. Four typical cases are discussed in detail by considering time histories of hydrodynamic loads and tail deformations under the optimal and non-optimal kinematic conditions. Results show that under the rigid-system optimal kinematic condition, a tail with appropriate mass density (μ = 0.60) and resonant frequency ( fr*=1.18 ) can improve the maximum efficiency by 7.24% accompanied by an increase of 6.63% in power compared to those of a rigid foil with a rigid tail. This is because the deflection of the tail reduces the low pressure region on the pressure surface (i.e., the lower surface during the upstroke or the upper surface during the downstroke) caused by the leading edge vortex after the stroke reversal, resulting in a higher efficiency. At high flapping frequencies, a spring-connected tail ( fr*=0.13 ) eliminates the large spike in the moment observed in high stiffness cases, reducing the power required for the pitch motion, resulting in 117% improvement in efficiency over that with a rigid tail at a reduced frequency of 0.24.

  14. Stresses in the foil of an electron accelerator extraction channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Makarenko, T.I.; Tokmakov, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Stresses in the foil of an electron accelerator extraction channel are assessed with account of contributions of thermal expansion and stress concentrations during switchings. Optimization of extraction grid parameters of the electron accelerator extraction channel and choice of foil material for high current electron beam is conducted. It is suggested that an extraction grid with circular cells and Al-Mg foil should be used. A simple formula applicable for design calculations is proposed for evaluation of stress concentration coefficient during phase switchings

  15. Activating teaching methods, studying responses and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Hans Peter; Vigild, Martin E.; Thomsen, Erik; Szabo, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Students’ study strategies when exposed to activating teaching methods are measured, analysed and compared to study strategies in more traditional lecture-based teaching. The resulting learning outcome is discussed. Peer Reviewed

  16. Characterization of U-Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Danny J.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Henager, Charles H.; Burkes, Douglas; Senor, David J.

    2012-11-07

    Twelve AFIP in-process foil samples, fabricated by either Y-12 or LANL, were shipped from LANL to PNNL for potential characterization using optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Of these twelve, nine different conditions were examined to one degree or another using both techniques. For this report a complete description of the results are provided for one archive foil from each source of material, and one unirradiated piece of a foil of each source that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Additional data from two other LANL conditions are summarized in very brief form in an appendix. The characterization revealed that all four characterized conditions contained a cold worked microstructure to different degrees. The Y-12 foils exhibited a higher degree of cold working compared to the LANL foils, as evidenced by the highly elongated and obscure U-Mo grain structure present in each foil. The longitudinal orientations for both of the Y-12 foils possesses a highly laminar appearance with such a distorted grain structure that it was very difficult to even offer a range of grain sizes. The U-Mo grain structure of the LANL foils, by comparison, consisted of a more easily discernible grain structure with a mix of equiaxed and elongated grains. Both materials have an inhomogenous grain structure in that all of the characterized foils possess abnormally coarse grains.

  17. Note: the influence of exploding foil shape on energy deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingxuan; Lv, Junjun; Li, Mingyu

    2013-06-01

    The main influence factors of exploding bridge foil were studied in order to improve energy utilization of the explosion foil initiator. "Square" and "curving" shaped bridge foils were fabricated using magnetron sputtering and chemical etching techniques, and the key dimension of the bridge foil was measured using surface profiler. Commercial software MATLAB was employed to calculate the burst current, burst voltage, and energy deposition. Simulation results were in good agreement with experiment data. In this study, the energy deposition ratio of "square" shaped bridge is between 45%-50%, while the value of "curving" shaped bridge is between 55%-75%.

  18. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Implementing graphene foils in existing neutral atom detector designs will increase their angular and energy resolution, and also improve their mass discrimination...

  19. Foil focusing of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    When an intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) passes through a grounded metal foil, the transverse electric field due to the beam space charge is locally shorted out, and the beam is focused by the magnetic field of its current. The effect can be treated as focusing by a thin lens with first order aberration. Expressions for the focal length and aberration coefficient of the equivalent thin lens are developed in this note. These are then applied to practical examples representative of IREB research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. Distributing foil from needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) to promote transitions from heroin injecting to chasing: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzey, Rachael; Hunt, Neil

    2008-07-21

    The report presents evaluation results from an intervention using specially produced foil packs to promote a transition from heroin injecting to inhalation (chasing) with injecting drug users (IDUs) attending four needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) in south west England. Service activity/uptake measures, brief structured interviews. Out of 320 attenders, 54% took the foil packs when they became available. Over the period of the evaluation, NSP transactions increased by 32.5% from 1,672 to 2,216. Additionally, 32 new clients (non-injecting heroin users) started attending the service to obtain the foil packs. This group would not otherwise have been in contact with the treatment service. More detailed data from one site are reported for 48 recent injectors who took foil within the NSP where the piloting first commenced. Prior to the introduction of the foil packs, 46% of this sub-group reported chasing heroin in the previous four weeks. At follow up, 85% reported using the foil to chase heroin on occasions when they would otherwise have injected. Among the people who took it, client satisfaction with the quality and size of the foil packs was good and respondents viewed its availability as a valuable extension to the NSP's services. These findings suggest that distributing foil packs can be a useful means of engaging NSP attenders in discussions about ways of reducing injecting risks and can reduce injecting in settings where there is a pre-existing culture of heroin chasing. Further research should see whether these findings can be reproduced in other cultural contexts and evaluate whether the observed behavioural changes are sustained and lead to reductions in harm including blood-borne infections and overdose.

  1. New method in obtaining correction factor of power confirming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yongjun; Li Rundong; Liu Yongkang; Zhou Wei

    2010-01-01

    Westcott theory is the most widely used method in reactor power calibration, which particularly suited to research reactor. But this method is very fussy because lots of correction parameters which rely on empirical formula to special reactor type are needed. The incidence coefficient between foil activity and reactor power was obtained by Monte-Carlo calculation, which was carried out with precise description of the reactor core and the foil arrangement position by MCNP input card. So the reactor power was determined by the core neutron fluence profile and the foil activity placed in the position for normalization use. The characteristic of this new method is simpler, more flexible and accurate than Westcott theory. In this paper, the results of SPRR-300 obtained by the new method in theory were compared with the experimental results, which verified the possibility of this new method. (authors)

  2. New membranes obtained by grafted irradiated PVDF foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzei, R. [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Garcia Bermudez, G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camporotondi, D.E., E-mail: camporotondi@cae.cnea.gov.ar [Unidad de Actividades Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Laboratorio de Polimeros, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arbeitman, C. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2012-09-15

    The present work describes a new method to produce membranes of poly(Acrylic-acid-Xmonomer) using the grafting procedure. PVDF foils irradiated with Ar{sup +} beam with energies between 30 and 150 keV were employed as substratum. Different combinations of monomers in water solutions were used: acrylic acid (AAc); acrylic acid-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-GMA); acrylic acid-styrene (AAc-S), acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide (AAc-NIPAAm) and acrylic acid-N-isopropyl acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate (AAc-NIPAAm-GMA). A large percentage of grafting results for specific values of: ion fluence and energy, AAc and sulfuric acid concentration, and different substrata PVDF polymorphous (alpha or beta). At a particular time of the grafting process, the poly(AAc-Xmonomer) membranes detach from the substratum and continue their grafting in the solution. This method is useful to produce increased replicated membranes of the irradiated original surface.

  3. Optimization methods for activities selection problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahad, Nor Faradilah; Alias, Suriana; Yaakop, Siti Zulaika; Arshad, Norul Amanina Mohd; Mazni, Elis Sofia

    2017-08-01

    Co-curriculum activities must be joined by every student in Malaysia and these activities bring a lot of benefits to the students. By joining these activities, the students can learn about the time management and they can developing many useful skills. This project focuses on the selection of co-curriculum activities in secondary school using the optimization methods which are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Zero-One Goal Programming (ZOGP). A secondary school in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia was chosen as a case study. A set of questionnaires were distributed randomly to calculate the weighted for each activity based on the 3 chosen criteria which are soft skills, interesting activities and performances. The weighted was calculated by using AHP and the results showed that the most important criteria is soft skills. Then, the ZOGP model will be analyzed by using LINGO Software version 15.0. There are two priorities to be considered. The first priority which is to minimize the budget for the activities is achieved since the total budget can be reduced by RM233.00. Therefore, the total budget to implement the selected activities is RM11,195.00. The second priority which is to select the co-curriculum activities is also achieved. The results showed that 9 out of 15 activities were selected. Thus, it can concluded that AHP and ZOGP approach can be used as the optimization methods for activities selection problem.

  4. Review of unfolding methods for neutron flux dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1975-01-01

    The primary method in reactor dosimetry is the foil activation technique. To translate the activation measurements into neutron fluxes, a special data processing technique called unfolding is needed. Some general observations about the problems and the reliability of this approach to reactor dosimetry are presented. Current unfolding methods are reviewed. 12 references. (auth)

  5. Charge states of ions traversing thin carbon foils inferred from 7 MeV C2+ Coulomb explosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1984-01-01

    The charge state of fast C + ions is assumed to reach some equilibrium value within a few atomic layers after entering a thin carbon stripping foil and then maintain that average charge state while passing through the rest of the foil. The final distribution of different charge states is then assumed to occur at or near the exit surface of the foil by various pickup and stripping processes. Experimentally, the final charge state distribution is easily measured; however, the average charge state inside the foil is difficult to measure in any direct way. This paper describes the experimental method and results of measuring this internal average charge state for 3.5 MeV carbon ions by utilizing the Coulomb explosion of 7 MeV C 2 + molecular ions. The interesting result is that the internal average charge state is 4.2+-x, and the final charge state distribution is not established at the exit surface of the foil, but beyond, approximately 100 A, a distance comparable to the foil thickness in this measurement

  6. Charge states of ions traversing thin carbon foils inferred from 7 MeV C2+ Coulomb explosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1986-01-01

    The charge state of fast C + ions is assumed to reach some equilibrium value within a few atomic layers after entering a thin carbon stripping foil and then maintain that average charge state while passing through the rest of the foil. The final distribution of different charge states is then assumed to occur at or near the exist surface of the foil by various pickup and stripping processes. Experimentally, the final charge state distribution is easily measured; however, the average charge state inside the foil is difficult to measure in any direct way. This paper describes the experimental method and results of measuring this internal average charge state for 3.5 MeV carbon ions by utilizing the Coulomb explosion of 7 MeV C 2 + molecular ions. The interesting result is that the internal average charge state is 4.2 +/- x, and the final charge state distribution is not established at the exit surface of the foil, but beyond, approximately 100 a, a distance comparable to the foil thickness in this measurement. 1 reference, 6 figures

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-02

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO 3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  9. Effect of heat on tensile properties of thin pure titanium foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of size effects in microforming process may result in nonhomogeneous material characteristics. Heat assisted microforming is an effective approach to reduce the influence of size effects. To improve the heating rate, resistance heating method is introduced to the microforming process. To investigate the size effect of heat on material deformation for thin foils in microforming, uniaxial tensile tests were performed for the foils with different grain sizes at different temperatures by tensile testing system incorporating with resistance heating method. The results show that the reduction of the stress at elevated temperatures compared to room temperature is higher for the foils with larger grain size than that for the foils with smaller grain size. The fracture strain decreases with increasing temperature when the temperature is below 300 °C, and then increases as the temperature increases when the temperature is above 300 °C. In addition, the work hardening behavior of the material is independent of the grain size. As temperature increases, the work hardening increases.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Stresses around Fasteners in Composite Metal Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammi, S. K.; Butt, J.; –L Mauricette, J.; Shirvani, H.

    2017-12-01

    The process of composite metal foil manufacturing (CMFM) has reduced a number of limitations associated with commercial additive manufacturing (AM) methods. The existing metal AM machines are restricted by their build envelope and there is a growing market for the manufacture of large parts using AM. These parts are subsequently manufactured in fragments and are fastened together. This paper analyses the thermal stresses around cylindrical fasteners for three layered metal composite parts consisting of aluminium foil, brazing paste and copper foil layers. The investigation aims to examine the mechanical integrity of the metallurgically bonded aluminium/copper foils of 100 micron thickness manufactured in a disc shape. A cylindrical fastener set at an elevated temperature of 100 °C is fitted in the middle of the disc which results in a steady-state thermal distribution. Radial and shear stresses are computed using finite element method which shows that non-zero shear stresses developed by the copper layer inhibit the axial slippage of the fastener and thereby establishing the suitability of rivet joints for CMFM parts.

  11. Visualization of terahertz surface waves propagation on metal foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Yan, Haitao; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of surface plasmonic devices (SPDs) in the terahertz (THz) band is always beneficial for broadening the application potential of THz technologies. To clarify features of SPDs, a practical characterization means is essential for accurately observing the complex field distribution of a THz surface wave (TSW). Here, a THz digital holographic imaging system is employed to coherently exhibit temporal variations and spectral properties of TSWs activated by a rectangular or semicircular slit structure on metal foils. Advantages of the imaging system are comprehensively elucidated, including the exclusive measurement of TSWs and fall-off of the time consumption. Numerical simulations of experimental procedures further verify the imaging measurement accuracy. It can be anticipated that this imaging system will provide a versatile tool for analyzing the performance and principle of SPDs. PMID:26729652

  12. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of gold nanoparticles supported on copper foil with graphene as a nanometer gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Quan; Zhu, Xupeng; Chen, Yiqin; Duan, Huigao

    2016-01-01

    Gaps with single-nanometer dimensions (<10 nm) between metallic nanostructures enable giant local field enhancements for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monolayer graphene is an ideal candidate to obtain a sub-nanometer gap between plasmonic nanostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to achieve a sub-nanometer gap by dewetting a gold film supported on monolayer graphene grown on copper foil. The Cu foil can serve as a low-loss plasmonically active metallic film that supports the imaginary charge oscillations, while the graphene can not only create a stable sub-nanometer gap for massive plasmonic field enhancements but also serve as a chemical enhancer. We obtained higher SERS enhancements in this graphene-gapped configuration compared to those in Au nanoparticles on Cu film or on graphene–SiO 2 –Si. Also, the Raman signals measured maintained their fine features and intensities over a long time period, indicating the stability of this Au–graphene–Cu hybrid configuration as an SERS substrate. (paper)

  13. Design and optimization of vertex detector foils by superplastic forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Q.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    The production of one of the parts in a particle detector, called the RF Foil, has been a very intensive process in the past. The design and production process, which had a trial and error character, led eventually to an RF Foil that met the most important requirement: a sufficient leak tightness

  14. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.

    1974-01-01

    Practical aspects of the application of low-energy accelerators to research in beam-foil spectroscopy are discussed, and the kinds of equipment and associated costs are described in some detail. Some typical beam-foil experiments, emphasizing the most recent studies, are treated so as to show how relatively simple facilities can be used to produce physics of great interest

  15. Lithographic patterning of metals on flexible plastic foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Furthner, F.; Deen, J.; Laat, W.J.M.de; Meinders, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the challenges of patterning electrodes with separations in the micron and sub-micron range onto thin polyethylene naphthalate foils for use in biochips are discussed. It was found that it was necessary to improve the adhesion of the metal electrodes to the foil by using plasma

  16. Activation monitoring accuracy in experiments on internal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.Z.; Buklej, A.E.; Gavrilov, V.B.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments showed that by using combined targets, comprising a monitor aluminium foil and the substance examined, in the internal beam of a proton synchrotron, one can determine the number of particles that had passed through the target by the induced activity of 24 Na in aluminium. A combined target consisting of three aluminium foils (2.3 m.g./sq.cm) and a foil of the test substance (30-170 mg/sq.cm) was used. Monitoring was performed by the activity of the middle aluminium foil. Subsequent to respective measurements, the foils were extracted from the accelerator chamber and aged for 12-16 hr to cause decay of short-lived activities. The foil γ-ray spectrum was then recorded by means of a coaxial Ge-Li detector (40 cc, 8 keV). Results of control measurements were cited. The method ensured relatively accurate measurements (ca. 2%) of the dependence of cross-sections of the atomic number of the target nucleus

  17. A Review of Human Activity Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis eVrigkas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing human activities from video sequences or still images is a challenging task due to problems such as background clutter, partial occlusion, changes in scale, viewpoint, lighting, and appearance. Many applications, including video surveillance systems, human-computer interaction, and robotics for human behavior characterization, require a multiple activity recognition system. In this work, we provide a detailed review of recent and state-of-the-art research advances in the field of human activity classification. We propose a categorization of human activity methodologies and discuss their advantages and limitations. In particular, we divide human activity classification methods into two large categories according to whether they use data from different modalities or not. Then, each of these categories is further analyzed into sub-categories, which reflect how they model human activities and what type of activities they are interested in. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the existing, publicly available human activity classification datasets and examine the requirements for an ideal human activity recognition dataset. Finally, we report the characteristics of future research directions and present some open issues on human activity recognition.

  18. Characterization of the water diffusion in GEM foil material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Raffone, G.; Caponero, M.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Russo, A.; Primavera, F.; Cerbelli, S.; Lalli, A.; Valente, M.; Ferrini, M.; Teissandier, B.; Taborelli, M.; Parvis, M.; Grassini, S.; Tirilló, J.; Sarasini, F.; Franchi, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    Systematic studies on the GEM foil material are performed to measure the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level. These studies are important because the presence of this compound inside the detector' s foil can possibly change its mechanical and electrical properties, and in such a way, the detector performance can be affected. To understand this phenomenon, a model is developed with COMSOL Multiphysics v. 4.3 [1], which described the adsorption and diffusion within the geometry of GEM foil, the concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the foil. The COMSOL model is verified by experimental observations on a GEM foil sample. This note will describe the model and its experimental verification results.

  19. Gas Foil Bearing Misalignment and Unbalance Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of misalignment and unbalance on gas foil bearings are presented. The future of U.S. space exploration includes plans to conduct science missions aboard space vehicles, return humans to the Moon, and place humans on Mars. All of these endeavors are of long duration, and require high amounts of electrical power for propulsion, life support, mission operations, etc. One potential source of electrical power of sufficient magnitude and duration is a nuclear-fission-based system. The system architecture would consist of a nuclear reactor heat source with the resulting thermal energy converted to electrical energy through a dynamic power conversion and heat rejection system. Various types of power conversion systems can be utilized, but the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turboalternator is one of the leading candidates. In the CBC, an inert gas heated by the reactor drives a turboalternator, rejects excess heat to space through a heat exchanger, and returns to the reactor in a closed loop configuration. The use of the CBC for space power and propulsion is described in more detail in the literature (Mason, 2003). In the CBC system just described, the process fluid is a high pressure inert gas such as argon, krypton, or a helium-xenon mixture. Due to the closed loop nature of the system and the associated potential for damage to components in the system, contamination of the working fluid is intolerable. Since a potential source of contamination is the lubricant used in conventional turbomachinery bearings, Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) have high potential for the rotor support system. GFBs are compliant, hydrodynamic journal and thrust bearings that use a gas, such as the CBC working fluid, as their lubricant. Thus, GFBs eliminate the possibility of contamination due to lubricant leaks into the closed loop system. Gas foil bearings are currently used in many commercial applications, both terrestrial and aerospace. Aircraft Air Cycle Machines (ACMs) and ground

  20. Thin foil expansion into a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma expansion into a vacuum is an old problem which has been renewed recently in various contexts: expansion of ultra-cold plasmas, cluster expansion, of dust grains, expansion of thin foils. In this presentation I will first discuss the physics of the expansion of a thin foil irradiated by an ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulse. The expansion results in the formation of high energy ions. For an infinitely steep plasma-vacuum interface the fastest ions are located in the outer part of the expansion and their velocity is given by ν m ax∼ 2 C s (In ω p it) where c s (Zk B T e /m i )''1/2 is the ion-acoustic velocity ω p i=(n e 0Ze''2/m i e 0 )''1/2 is the ion plasma frequency, n e 0 is the electron density in the unperturbed plasma, Z is the ion charge number. In the above expression, t is either the pulse duration or the effective acceleration time (in particular t∼L/2c s , where L is the width of the foil, when the electron cooling is taken into account). A salient characteristic of the expansion is the occurrence of a double layer structure and a peak of the accelerating electric field at the ion front. I will explain the origin of the peak and predict its temporal behavior. This peak has been diagnosed in recent experiments. I will also discuss the effect of a 2-temperatures electron distribution function on the expansion, showing the dominant role of the hot electron component. Finally I will discuss the occurrence of ion spikes in the expansion when the initial density profile is smooth. The ion spike is due to a wave breaking which cannot be handled in a satisfactory way by a fluid code and requires a kinetic description. A. simple collisionless particle code has been used to treat the evolution of the spike after the wave breaking and the results will be shown. (Author)

  1. Grain refinement of transient liquid phase bonding zone using ODS insert foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, Hiroyuki, E-mail: noto_hiroyuki@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ukai, Shigeharu [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Joint strengthening of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel has been attained by a transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding utilizing a newly developed ODS insert foil. The ODS insert foil (Fe–9Cr–2W–0.2Ti–0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}–0.5C–3B–2Si) was fabricated using mechanical alloying and a spark plasma sintering method. Compared to conventional TLP bonding with a non-ODS insert foil (Fe–0.5C–3B–2Si), the microstructure of the melted zone consists of finer grains in the joint with the newly developed ODS insert material, and the grain size is almost one third of that in the conventional insert material. This increases the hardness by ΔHv = 100 in the region of the joints. Oxide particles that are coherent to the ferritic matrix in the ODS insert foil could be responsible for the grain refinement, which is explained in terms of enhanced nucleation of consolidation matrix at the oxide particles.

  2. Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nansheng; Peng, Yan; Liang, Youwen; Lu, Xiyun

    2012-05-01

    Flow over a traveling wavy foil with a passively flapping flat plate has been investigated using a multiblock lattice Boltzmann equation and the immersed boundary method. The foil undergoes prescribed undulations in the lateral direction and the rigid flat plate has passive motion determined by the fluid structure interaction. This simplified model is used to study the effect of the fish caudal fin and its flexibility on the locomotion of swimming animals. The flexibility of the caudal fin is modeled by a torsion spring acting about the pivot at the conjuncture of the wavy foil and the flat plate. The study reveals that the passively oscillating flat plate contributes half of the propulsive force. The flexibility, represented by the nondimensional natural frequency F, plays a very important role in the movement and propulsive force generation of the whole body. When the plate is too flexible, the drag force is observed. As the flat plate becomes more rigid, the propulsive force that is generated when the undulation is confined to last part of the wavy foil becomes larger. The steady movement occurs at F=5. These results are consistent with the observations of some swimming animals in nature.

  3. An Fe(TCNQ)2nanowire array on Fe foil: an efficient non-noble-metal catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Maowen; Xiong, Xiaoli; Yang, Lin; Shi, Xifeng; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2018-02-27

    It is highly desirable to develop efficient and durable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts. Herein, we report the in situ development of an Fe-(tetracyanoquinodimethane) 2 nanowire array on Fe foil (Fe(TCNQ) 2 /Fe) via a solution immersion method. As a non-noble-metal OER electrocatalyst, such Fe(TCNQ) 2 /Fe needs an overpotential of only 340 mV to drive a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm -2 in 1.0 M KOH. Notably, it also shows strong long-term electrochemical durability capable of maintaining its catalytic activity for at least 110 h.

  4. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughey, B.J.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N 2 gas target for 15 O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  5. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  6. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, A; Hansen, S R; Daehn, Glenn S

    2014-07-01

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  7. {beta}-nmr of Palladium foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parolin, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Salman, Z. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chakhalian, J. [Max-Plank Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wang, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Keeler, T.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hossain, Md. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kiefl, R.F. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (Canada); Chow, K.H. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Morris, G.D. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Miller, R.I. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); MacFarlane, W.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wam@chem.ubc.ca

    2006-03-31

    Beta-detected NMR ({beta}-nmr) of low-energy implanted {sup 8}Li{sup +} was studied in metallic palladium. The resonance was found to have a large negative shift with respect to the reference signal in the cubic insulator MgO. This shift exhibited significant temperature dependence on cooling below room temperature, approximately proportionate to the temperature-dependent spin susceptibility of pure Pd. Thus it is tentatively attributed to a Knight shift (K) caused by a large negative hyperfine coupling; a phenomenon common in transition metal ions, but not in alkalis. However, the spin-lattice relaxation of {sup 8}Li is much slower than expected from the Korringa law for such a large K. We compare results from samples of very different thicknesses: 12.5{mu}m foil and a 100nm thin film.

  8. Large-area beryllium metal foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, J. O., Jr.

    1997-02-01

    To manufacture beryllium filters having diameters up to 82 mm and thicknesses in the range 0.1-1 μm, it was necessary to construct apparatus in which the metal could safely be evaporated, and then to find an acceptable substrate and evaporation procedure. The metal was evaporated resistively from a tantalum dimple boat mounted in a baffled enclosure that could be placed in a conventional vacuum bell jar, obviating the need for a dedicated complete vacuum system. Substrates were 102 mm × 127 mm × 0.05 mm cleaved mica sheets, coated with 0.1 μm of NaCl, then with approximately 50 μg/cm 2 of cellulose nitrate. These were mounted on poly(methyl methacrylate) sheets 3 mm thick that were in turn clamped to a massive aluminum block for thermal stability. Details of the processes for evaporation, float off, and mounting are given, and the resulting foils described.

  9. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  10. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  11. Monte Carlo method in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majerle, M.; Krasa, A.; Svoboda, O.; Wagner, V.; Adam, J.; Peetermans, S.; Slama, O.; Stegajlov, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation detectors are a useful technique for the neutron flux measurements in spallation experiments. The study of the usefulness and the accuracy of this method at similar experiments was performed with the help of Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and FLUKA

  12. Methods for using polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc D; Harris, Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  14. Real-time simulator for designing electron dual scattering foil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Robert L; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Price, Michael J; LeBlanc, Justin D; Pitcher, Garrett M

    2014-11-08

    parameters have on a relative dose profile. This work also demonstrates a method for using the simulator as a design tool for creating custom dual scattering foil systems in the clinical range of beam energies (6-20 MeV). 

  15. Surface treatment of glass substrates for the preparation of long-lived carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Takekoshi, Eiko

    1981-02-01

    Glass substrates having uniformly distributed microscopic grains on the surfaces are useful to make long-lived carbon stripper foils for heavy ions. A method of surface treatment of glass substrates to form the surface structure is described. This method consists of precipitation of glass components, such as soda, onto the surfaces in a hot and humid atmosphere and a fogging treatment of forming microscopic grains of the precipitated substances. Some results of studies on the treatment conditions are also presented. (author)

  16. Understanding undulatory locomotion in fishes using an inertia-compensated flapping foil robotic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Li; Lauder, George

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of flapping foil robots that swim at a constant swimming speed. However, the speed of even steadily swimming live fishes is not constant because the fish center of mass oscillates axially throughout a tail beat cycle. In this paper, we couple a linear motor that produces controlled oscillations in the axial direction to a robotic flapping foil apparatus to model both axial and side to side oscillatory motions used by freely-swimming fishes. This experimental arrangement allows us to compensate for the substantial inertia of the carriage and motors that drive the oscillating foils. We identify a ‘critically-oscillated’ amplitude of axial motion at which the cyclic oscillations in axial locomotor force are greatly reduced throughout the flapping cycle. We studied the midline kinematics, power consumption and wake flow patterns of non-rigid foils with different lengths and flexural stiffnesses at a variety of axial oscillation amplitudes. We found that ‘critically-oscillated’ peak-to-peak axial amplitudes on the order of 1.0 mm and at the correct phase are sufficient to mimic center of mass motion, and that such amplitudes are similar to center of mass oscillations recorded for freely-swimming live fishes. Flow visualization revealed differences in wake flows of flexible foils between the ‘non-oscillated’ and ‘critically-oscillated’ states. Inertia-compensating methods provide a novel experimental approach for studying aquatic animal swimming, and allow instrumented robotic swimmers to display center of mass oscillations similar to those exhibited by freely-swimming fishes. (paper)

  17. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, Craig

    2009-03-31

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  18. Solar activity explored with new wavelet methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lundstedt

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the forecasts of the impact of solar activity on the terrestrial environment on time scales longer than days, improved understanding and forecasts of the solar activity are needed. The first results of a new approach of modelling and forecasting solar activity are presented. Time series of solar activity indicators, such as sunspot number, group sunspot number, F10.7, E10.7, solar magnetic mean field, Mount Wilson plage and sunspot index, have been studied with new wavelet methods; ampligrams and time-scale spectra. Wavelet power spectra of the sunspot number for the period 1610 up to the present show not only that a dramatic increase in the solar activity took place after 1940 but also that an interesting change occurred in 1990. The main 11-year solar cycle was further studied with ampligrams for the period after 1850. time-scale spectra were used to examine the processes behind the variability of the solar activity. Several interesting deterministic and more stochastic features were detected in the time series of the solar activity indicators. The solar nature of these features will be further studied. Keywords. Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (Magnetic fields; Stellar interiors and dynamo theory – Space plasma physics (nonlinear phenomena

  19. Compliant Foil Journal Bearing Performance at Alternate Pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Puleo, Bernadette J.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental test program has been conducted to determine the highly loaded performance of current generation gas foil bearings at alternate pressures and temperatures. Typically foil bearing performance has been reported at temperatures relevant to turbomachinery applications but only at an ambient pressure of one atmosphere. This dearth of data at alternate pressures has motivated the current test program. Two facilities were used in the test program, the ambient pressure rig and the high pressure rig. The test program utilized a 35 mm diameter by 27 mm long foil journal bearing having an uncoated Inconel X-750 top foil running against a shaft with a PS304 coated journal. Load capacity tests were conducted at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 krpm at temperatures from 25 to 500 C and at pressures from 0.1 to 2.5 atmospheres. Results show an increase in load capacity with increased ambient pressure and a reduction in load capacity with increased ambient temperature. Below one-half atmosphere of ambient pressure a dramatic loss of load capacity is experienced. Additional lightly loaded foil bearing performance in nitrogen at 25 C and up to 48 atmospheres of ambient pressure has also been reported. In the lightly loaded region of operation the power loss increases for increasing pressure at a fixed load. Knowledge of foil bearing performance at operating conditions found within potential machine applications will reduce program development risk of future foil bearing supported turbomachines.

  20. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    1998-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients.

  1. Generic roll-to-roll compatible method for insolubilizing and stabilizing conjugated active layers based on low energy electron irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Helt-Hansen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of organic multilayer films is demonstrated as a powerful method to improve several properties of polymer thin films and devices derived from them. The chemical cross‐linking that is the direct result of the irradiation with ∼100 keV electrons is fast and has a penetration power...... compatible with thin plastic foils of one to two hundreds of microns typical of devices explored in organic electronics. We demonstrate here that active layers and complete devices can be subjected to electron irradiation‐induced cross‐linking thus facilitating multilayer solvent processing and morphological...... the technique. We also demonstrate that polymer solar cells are exceptionally stable towards ionizing radiation and find that doses as high as 100 kGy can be used before any significant decrease in performance is observed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40795....

  2. Rolling and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew D; Elles, Dane; Badlissi, George; Mivehchi, Amin; Dahl, Jason; Licht, Stephen

    2017-09-04

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of operating near a solid boundary on the forces produced by harmonically oscillating thrust generating foils. A rolling and pitching foil was towed in a freshwater tank in a series of experiments with varying kinematics. Hydrodynamic forces and torques were measured in the free stream and at varying distances from a solid boundary, and changes in mean lift and thrust were found when the foil approached the boundary. The magnitude of this ground effect exhibited a strong nonlinear dependence on the distance between the foil and the boundary. Significant effects were found within three chord lengths of the boundary, and ground effect can be induced at greater distances from the boundary by biasing the tip of the foil toward the boundary. Lift coefficients changed by as much as 0.2 at the closest approach to the ground, with changes ≥0.05 for all cases across Strouhal number ranging from 0.3 to 0.6, and nominal maximum angle of attack ranging from 20° to 40°. The ubiquity of the ground effect in high thrust kinematics suggests that the ground effect can provide a passive obstacle avoidance capability for foil propelled vehicles. By comparison to previous experimental work, we find that the ground effect experienced by a high-aspect ratio rolling and pitching foil is a fully three-dimensional phenomenon, as it is not accurately predicted when two-dimensional flow and/or two-dimensional kinematics are enforced. While two dimensional foil kinematics are more easily modeled for numerical studies, three-dimensional foil kinematics may be more practical for real world implementation in underwater vehicles. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. A novel carbon coating technique for foil bolometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, U A; Duval, B P; Labit, B; Nespoli, F

    2016-11-01

    Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma. Preliminary results showed 13%-15% more incident power was measured by the coated bolometers and this is expected to be much higher in future TCV detached divertor experiments.

  4. Elevated Temperature Tensile Tests on DU–10Mo Rolled Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tensile mechanical properties for uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (U–10Mo) foils are required to support modeling and qualification of new monolithic fuel plate designs. It is expected that depleted uranium-10 wt% Mo (DU–10Mo) mechanical behavior is representative of the low enriched U–10Mo to be used in the actual fuel plates, therefore DU-10Mo was studied to simplify material processing, handling, and testing requirements. In this report, tensile testing of DU-10Mo fuel foils prepared using four different thermomechanical processing treatments were conducted to assess the impact of foil fabrication history on resultant tensile properties.

  5. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  6. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  7. The influence of perforation of foil reactors on greenhouse gas emission rates during aerobic biostabilization of the undersize fraction of municipal wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegenta, Sylwia; Dębowski, Marcin; Bukowski, Przemysław; Randerson, Peter F; Białowiec, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    The opinion, that the use of foil reactors for the aerobic biostabilization of municipal wastes is not a valid method, due to vulnerability to perforation, and risk of uncontrolled release of exhaust gasses, was verified. This study aimed to determine the intensity of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere from the surface of foil reactors in relation to the extent of foil surface perforation. Three scenarios were tested: intact (airtight) foil reactor, perforated foil reactor, and torn foil reactor. Each experimental variant was triplicated, and the duration of each experiment cycle was 5 weeks. Temperature measurements demonstrated a significant decrease in temperature of the biostabilization in the torn reactor. The highest emissions of CO 2 , CO and SO 2 were observed at the beginning of the process, and mostly in the torn reactor. During the whole experiment, observed emissions of CO, H 2 S, NO, NO 2 , and SO 2 were at a very low level which in extreme cases did not exceed 0.25 mg t -1 .h -1 (emission of gasses mass unit per waste mass unit per unit time). The lowest average emissions of greenhouse gases were determined in the case of the intact reactor, which shows that maintaining the foil reactors in an airtight condition during the process is extremely important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2006-06-06

    A non-destructive testing method comprises providing a specimen having at least one positron emitter therein; determining a threshold energy for activating the positron emitter; and determining whether a half-life of the positron emitter is less than a selected half-life. If the half-life of the positron emitter is greater than or equal to the selected half-life, then activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater than the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons in the specimen. If the half-life of the positron emitter is less then the selected half-life, then alternately activating the positron emitter by bombarding the specimen with photons having energies greater then the threshold energy and detecting gamma rays produced by positron annihilation within the specimen.

  9. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  10. A nanometric Rh overlayer on a metal foil surface as a highly efficient three-way catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misumi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hinokuma, Satoshi; Sato, Tetsuya; Machida, Masato

    2016-07-08

    Pulsed arc-plasma (AP) deposition of an Rh overlayer on an Fe-Cr-Al stainless steel foil produced a composite material that exhibited high activity for automotive three-way catalysis (TWC). The AP pulses deposited metallic Rh nanoparticles 1-3 nm in size, whose density on the surface increased with the number of pulses. This led to coalescence and grain growth on the foil surface and the eventual formation of a uniform two-dimensional Rh overlayer. Full coverage of the 51 μm-thick flat foil by a 3.2 nm-thick Rh overlayer was achieved after 1,000 pulses. A simulated TWC reaction using a miniature honeycomb fabricated using flat and corrugated foils with the Rh overlayers exhibited successful light-off at a practical gaseous hourly space velocity of 1.2 × 10(5) h(-1). The turnover frequency for the NO-CO reaction over the metallic honeycomb catalyst was ca. 80-fold greater than that achieved with a reference Rh/ZrO2-coated cordierite honeycomb prepared using a conventional wet impregnation and slurry coating procedure. Despite the nonporosity and low surface area of the foil-supported Rh overlayer compared with conventional powder catalysts (Rh/ZrO2), it is a promising alternative design for more efficient automotive catalysts that use less Rh loading.

  11. Micro/Nano-Structured Flexible Foils for Anti-Counterfeiting Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulova, Nastasia

    2016-01-01

    has been demonstrated. The focus of this study lies on the reproduction of the previous results for nano- or micro-structures and implementation of this technology for mass production of such patterned foils for the use in packaging. An interesting application is production of holograms with build......Up to date there have been found many ways of producing samples with functional nano-pattering, however for mass production of such samples the method of fabrication of the surface structure must be fast and cheap. A recently developed method suggests using extrusion coating of polymer materials...... in a roll-to roll process, where the functional micro-/nano- surface structures are imprinted directly onto the surface of a polymer foil. This new technology can both answer the requirement for being fast and cheap. The aim of this project is implementation of the technology for mass production...

  12. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  13. 75 FR 1596 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Status, Reynolds Packaging LLC (Aluminum Foil Liner Stock), Louisville, Kentucky Pursuant to its...-purpose subzone at the aluminum foil liner stock manufacturing and distribution facilities of Reynolds... manufacturing and distribution of aluminum foil liner stock and aluminum foil at the facilities of Reynolds...

  14. Finite Element Modelling of Bends and Creases during Folding Ultra Thin Stainless Steel Foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Akagi, H.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    2003-01-01

    Finite Element Modelling of an ultra thin foil of SUS 304 stainless steel is carried out. These foils are 20 mm and below in thickness. The development of stresses and strains during folding of these foils is studied. The objective of this study is to induce qualities of paper in the foils of

  15. Method of preparing initial multilayer radioactive pellets in production of planar radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopek, K.; Satorie, Z.

    1982-01-01

    A compact radioactive foil is placed into a press mould on a thin surface layer of compacted or powder metal and is covered with powder metal. In order to achieve the required dimension and activity the radioactive foil is cut from a large sheet. The multilayer pellet is compacted and rolled using routine methods applied in powder metallurgy. This method excludes the possibility of destroying the active pellet during handling, improves its mechanical properties and is seven times less time demanding than methods used so far. (M.D.)

  16. Alternative radiochemical heavy ion activation methods for the production and separation of thallium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta.; Ramaswami, A.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion activation of natural gold foil with a 7 Li beam results in the formation of carrier-free 199-201 Pb radionuclides along with their corresponding decay products, 199-201 Tl, in the matrix. At 49 MeV projectile energy, the production of 199 Tl through its precursor 199 Pb is maximal, while that of other thallium radionuclides is minimal. Another way for the direct production of carrier-free thallium radionuclides is to irradiate natural platinum foil with a 7 Li beam; on this case, production of 199 Tl is maximal at 43 MeV projectile energy. The carrier-free thallium radionuclides have been separated from the bulk target matrix gold and platinum by liquid-liquid extraction using trioctylamine as a liquid anion exchanger

  17. Controlled electropolishing of copper foils at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Gi Duk; Kim, Young Woo; Moyen, Eric; Keum, Dong Hoon [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hee [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute of Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nano-technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baik, Seunghyun [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute of Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pribat, Didier, E-mail: didier53@skku.edu [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the electrochemical polishing of copper foils at elevated temperature, in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolytes of various concentrations. Atomic force microscopy, surface reflectance measurements as well as optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (including electron backscattering diffraction) have been used throughout this study to characterize the surface of the electropolished foils. We have found that copper foils electropolished at 65 °C in 2.17 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, exhibited a lower surface roughness and a higher percent specular reflection, comparing with values obtained after classical electropolishing in concentrated H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at room temperature or comparing with values obtained after chemical-mechanical polishing. This work could open up new prospects for the preparation of copper foils before the growth of high quality graphene layers.

  18. A study of molecular effects in beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1979-01-01

    Relative populations of ns + nd levels in hydrogen as functions of the principal quantum number n have been measured with beams of H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + impinging on thin carbon foils at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu. Enhancements of 20% and 45% for dimer and trimer clusters are observed uniformly for all levels. A possible explanation in terms of screening of the Coulomb repulsion between the protons inside the foil, thus reducing the effective thickness of the foil, is given. All relative populations closely follow an nsup(P) power law with p = -4.0 and -3.7 at 25 keV/amu and 100 keV/amu, respectively, in perfect analogy with atomic collision experiments. O + /O 2 + -foil excitations at 100 keV and 155 keV show a simular molecular effect, but in reverse with a larger mean charge produced by the dimer. (Auth.)

  19. Decontamination with pasty pickling agents forming a strippable foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselgartner, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-situ decontamination procedure by applying onto the contaminated surface (in an one-step or multi-step process) pasty, chemically aggressive agents causing dilution and adsorption of the contaminant and then hardening to form a strippable foil. The use of such a foil will result in following advantages, with respect to usual techniques: - sensibly shorter operation duration resulting in lower personnel doses; - reduction of the arising secondary waste volume because there is no need for washing; the volume of the spent strippable foil is much smaller than currently used water volumes; - optimal conditioning of the radioactive waste due to its fixation in a solid (foil); - an accidental contamination in a controlled area can easily be fixed and covered avoiding its propagation

  20. Coincidence method for determination of radionuclides activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrukhovich, S.K.; Berestov, A.V.; Rudak, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The radon and radium activity measurements using six-crystal gamma-gamma coincidence, 4 -spectrometer PRIPJAT and radioactivity measurements in different samples of meat and vegetation by 32-crystal spectrometer ARGUS, are described. Radiation detector with 4 -geometry provides higher efficiency, and therefore shorter counting time than a detector without such geometry. However, its application is limited by the fact that obtained spectrum contains summing peaks of all γ-quanta registered in coincidence. Multiparameter information on coincident photon emission can be obtained only by a detection system where the 4 -geometry is made by many detectors, such are both the PRIPJAT and the ARGUS - γ-coincidence spectrometer of the Crystal Ball type in the Institute of Physics, Minsk [1,2]. There are other characteristics, as background conditions, energy and time resolution, makes it ve suitable for investigation of rare decays and interactions, cascade transitions, k intensity radiations etc. We are developing a method of 2 26R a and 2 26 Rn measurement by a multidetector 4 -spectrometer. The method is based on coincidence counting of γ-rays from two step cascade transitions that follow - decay of 2 14 Bi. Its application to the PRIPL spectrometer, which has 6 Nal(Tl) detectors, is presented here, as well as the method of the determination of radionuclide activities based on the registration of the cascades intensity of γ-rays of different multiplicity using ARGUS

  1. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.

    1975-01-01

    The application of a heavy-ion accelerator to research in beam-foil spectroscopy requires certain capital equipment which is somewhat unorthodox when viewed from the standpoint of conventional, low-energy nuclear physics. It is necessary that people who wish to expand their accelerator work to include beam-foil studies understand the nature and cost of such major apparatus. We will survey the equipment needs, starting with the particle analyzer at the output of the accelerator and including the equipment used in a variety of beam-foil experiments. Electronic and computer devices will not be discussed since they are essentially identical with those employed in nuclear studies. Considerable attention will be given to optical spectrometers and spectographs including simple instruments which might be used by a laboratory just getting started in beam-foil research, or which has limited financial resources. Attention will be given to the production and use of the exciter foils. We will then discuss some typical beam-foil experiments having to do with the excitation, detection, and analysis of spectral lines from electronic levels in multiply-ionized atoms, and also with the measurement of the mean lives of such levels. Finally, we will review some of the special properties of the beam-foil light source as regards the population of the magnetic sub-states of a given level. Recent work on the character of the emitted light will be presented. That work will deal specifically with the origin of the polarization of the light. The relevant experiments involve varying the angle between the plane of the exciter foil and the particle velocity. (author)

  2. Alignment and orientation effects in beam-foil experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Y.B.

    1975-01-01

    A theory of the orientation and alignment of atoms observed upon emergence from tilted foils is presented. The interaction with the foil surface is taken into account in the production process of particular states. Once they are produced, the evolution of these states, under the influence of the residual field near the surface, is calculated in the fashion introduced by Eck. The most general effect of this evolution is presented

  3. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of gold nanoparticles supported on copper foil with graphene as a nanometer gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Quan; Zhu, Xupeng; Chen, Yiqin; Duan, Huigao

    2016-02-19

    Gaps with single-nanometer dimensions (foil. The Cu foil can serve as a low-loss plasmonically active metallic film that supports the imaginary charge oscillations, while the graphene can not only create a stable sub-nanometer gap for massive plasmonic field enhancements but also serve as a chemical enhancer. We obtained higher SERS enhancements in this graphene-gapped configuration compared to those in Au nanoparticles on Cu film or on graphene-SiO2-Si. Also, the Raman signals measured maintained their fine features and intensities over a long time period, indicating the stability of this Au-graphene-Cu hybrid configuration as an SERS substrate.

  4. Growth of high-crystalline, single-layer hexagonal boron nitride on recyclable platinum foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwangwoo; Jang, A-Rang; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Zonghoon; Kang, Dae Joon; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2013-04-10

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is gaining significant attention as a two-dimensional dielectric material, along with graphene and other such materials. Herein, we demonstrate the growth of highly crystalline, single-layer h-BN on Pt foil through a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method that allowed h-BN to be grown over a wide area (8 × 25 mm(2)). An electrochemical bubbling-based method was used to transfer the grown h-BN layer from the Pt foil onto an arbitrary substrate. This allowed the Pt foil, which was not consumed during the process, to be recycled repeatedly. The UV-visible absorption spectrum of the single-layer h-BN suggested an optical band gap of 6.06 eV, while a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image of the same showed the presence of distinct hexagonal arrays of B and N atoms, which were indicative of the highly crystalline nature and single-atom thickness of the h-BN layer. This method of growing single-layer h-BN over large areas was also compatible with use of a sapphire substrate.

  5. Numerical investigation of the transverse instability on the radiation-pressure-driven foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Q; Yin, Y; Yu, T P; Xu, H; Zou, D B; Shao, F Q

    2015-12-01

    The development of transverse instability in the radiation-pressure-acceleration dominant laser-foil interaction is numerically examined by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When a plane laser impinges on a foil with modulated surface, the transverse instability is incited, and periodic perturbations of the proton density develop. The growth rate of the transverse instability is numerically diagnosed. It is found that the linear growth of the transverse instability lasts only a few laser periods, then the instability gets saturated. In order to optimize the modulation wavelength of the target, a method of information entropy is put forward to describe the chaos degree of the transverse instability. With appropriate modulation, the transverse instability shows a low chaos degree, and a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam is produced.

  6. Effects study on the thermal stresses in a LEU metal foil annular target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Srisharan G; Solbrekken, Gary L

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fission gas pressure, uranium swelling and thermal contact conductance on the thermal-mechanical behavior of an annular target containing a low-enriched uranium foil (LEU) encapsulated in a nickel foil have been presented in this paper. The draw-plug assembly method is simulated to obtain the residual stresses, which are applied to the irradiation model as initial inputs, and the integrated assembly-irradiation process is simulated as an axisymmetric problem using the commercial finite element code Abaqus FEA. Parametric studies were performed on the LEU heat generation rate and the results indicate satisfactory irradiation performance of the annular target. The temperature and stress margins have been provided along with a discussion of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methods of marketing and advertising activity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Yakovlev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of the business entities’ activities is associated with the development of instruments of the economic processes efficiency determination, including marketing activities. It has determined the purpose of the article. The methodological principles in this area are developed. It is proved that the increase in sales of the profit margin is only partly dependent on the implementation of advertising measures. The methodical approaches for estimation of exhibition and advertising activity and promotion of its employees are specified. The results of work involve evaluation of the advertising effect value on the basis of share of the advertising impact on the increase of sales and revenue from the sale of products. The corresponding proportion of such impact is determined based on the consumer inquiry. The index of trade fair works, its calculation based on two components: how many times a specific company participated in such events; and how well the company was presented at relevant trade fairs. The indices of the cost on advertising and promotion of certain products manufacturer are provided. The scientific innovation of the research is as follows. It is proved that the sales increase effect should not be assigned to advertising only. The compositions that influence the consumer preferences and their share in the total value effect are determined. The new is the proposed index of influence of the trade fair work results depending on the selected factors. The practical importance of the research results involve more accurate calculation of the effect of the activities made and, consequently, increase efficiency of the business entities.

  8. X-ray mirror prototype based on cold shaping of thin glass foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Stefano; Civitani, Marta; Ghigo, Mauro; Hołyszko, Joanna; Pareschi, Giovanni; Salmaso, Bianca; Vecchi, Gabriele; Burwitz, Vadim; Pelliciari, Carlo; Hartner, Gisela D.; Breunig, Elias

    2017-08-01

    The Slumping Glass Optics technology for the fabrication of astronomical X-ray mirrors has been developed in recent years in USA and Europe. The process has been used for making the mirrors of the Nustar, mission. The process starts with very thin glass foils hot formed to copy the profile of replication moulds. At INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera a process based on cold shaping is being developed, based on an integration method involving the use of interconnecting ribs for making stacks. Each glass foil in the stack is shaped onto a very precise integration mould and the correct shape is frozen by means of glued ribs that act as spacers between one layer and the next one (the first layers being attached to a thick substrate). Therefore, the increasing availability of flexible glass foils with a thickness of a few tens of microns (driven by electronic market for ultra-thin displays) opens new possibilities for the fabrication of X-ray mirrors. This solution appears interesting especially for the fabrication of mirrors for hard X-rays (with energy > 10 keV) based on multilayer coatings, taking advantage from the intrinsic low roughness of the glass foils that should grant a low scattering level. The stress frozen on the glass due to the cold shaping is not negligible, but it is kept into account in the errors of the X-ray optics design. As an exercise, we have considered the requirements and specs of the FORCE hard Xray mission concept (being studied by JAXA) and we have designed the mirror modules assuming the cold slumping as a fabrication method. In the meantime, a prototype (representative of the FORCE mirror modules) is being design and integrated in order to demonstrate the feasibility and the capacity to reach good angular resolution.

  9. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  11. Interaction of relativistic H- ions with thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, A.H.

    1990-09-01

    The response of relativistic H - ions to thin carbon foils was investigated for beam energies ranging from 226 MeV to 800 MeV. For the foil thicknesses we have studied, ranging from 15 to 300 μg/cm 2 , an appreciable fraction of the H - beam survives intact, some H - ions are stripped down to protons, and the remainder is distributed over the states of H 0 . This experiment is different from the low energy studies in that the projectile velocity is comparable to the speed of light, leading to an interaction time of typically less than a femtosecond. The present results challenge the theoretical understanding of the interaction mechanisms. An electron spectrometer was used to selectively field-ionize the Rydberg states, 9 < n < 17, at beam energies of 581 MeV and 800 MeV. The yield of low-lying states were measured by Doppler tuning a Nd:YAG laser to excite transitions to a Rydberg state which was then field-ionized and detected. A simple model is developed to fit the yield of each state as a function of foil thickness. The simple model is successful in predicting the general features of the yield data. However, the data are suggestive of a more complex structure in the yield curves. The yield of a given state depends strongly on the foil thickness, demonstrating that the excited states are formed during the passage of the ions through a foil. The optimum thickness to produce a given state increases with the principal quantum number of the state suggesting an excitation process which is at least pratially stepwise. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation are compared with the experimental data to estimate the distribution of the excited states coming out of a foil. The distributions of the excited states and their dependence on foil thickness are discussed

  12. On the nonlinear steady state response of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings - Theory and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    , hence accurate prediction of their response is important. This paper gives theoretical and experimental contributions by implementing and validating a new method to simulate the nonlinear steady-state response of a rotor supported by three pads segmented AFBs. The fluid film pressures, foil deflections...

  13. D-Cluster Converter Foil for Laser-Accelerated Deuteron Beams: Towards Deuteron-Beam-Driven Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Fast Ignition (FI) uses Petawatt laser generated particle beam pulse to ignite a small volume called a pre-compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target, and is the favored method to achieve the high energy gain per target burn needed for an attractive ICF power plant. Ion beams such as protons, deuterons or heavier carbon ions are especially appealing for FI as they have relative straight trajectory, and easier to focus on the fuel capsule. But current experiments have encountered problems with the 'converter-foil' which is irradiated by the Petawatt laser to produce the ion beams. The problems include depletion of the available ions in the convertor foils, and poor energy efficiency (ion beam energy/ input laser energy). We proposed to develop a volumetrically-loaded ultra-high-density deuteron deuterium cluster material as the basis for converter-foil for deuteron beam generation. The deuterons will fuse with the ICF DT while they slow down, providing an extra 'bonus' energy gain in addition to heating the hot spot. Also, due to the volumetric loading, the foil will provide sufficient energetic deuteron beam flux for 'hot spot' ignition, while avoiding the depletion problem encountered by current proton-driven FI foils. After extensive comparative studies, in Phase I, high purity PdO/Pd/PdO foils were selected for the high packing fraction D-Cluster converter foils. An optimized loading process has been developed to increase the cluster packing fraction in this type of foil. As a result, the packing fraction has been increased from 0.1% to 10% - meeting the original Phase I goal and representing a significant progress towards the beam intensities needed for both FI and pulsed neutron applications. Fast Ignition provides a promising approach to achieve high energy gain target performance needed for commercial Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This is now a realistic goal for near term in view of the anticipated ICF target burn at the National Ignition

  14. Dosimetric response of united, commercially available CTA foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of two kinds of untinted CTA foils: Fuji CTR-125 dosimetric foil and technical CTA-T foil, produced by 'Zaklady Chemiczne, 'Gorzow Wielkopolski' as support for light-sensitive layers of amateur photo-films, for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma ray dosimetry was investigated. In spite of rather bad physical parameters of the technical foil (spread of foil thickness, high and different initial absorbance) the dosimetric response of both foils for sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays was similar. The CTA-T foil can be used for routine dosimetry providing that dosimetric signals have to be calculated exactly as recommended by the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard, i.e. as the difference of absorbance of irradiated and (the same) non-irradiated foil. Any other approach may lead to high errors of dose evaluation. The last is true also for other CTA foils, especially after long self-life.

  15. An Experimental Study on Micro Clinching of Metal Foils with Cutting by Laser Shock Forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Cong; Ma, Youjuan; Shen, Zongbao; Sun, Xianqing; Sha, Chaofei; Gao, Shuai; Li, Liyin; Liu, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils) and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils) were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.

  16. An Experimental Study on Micro Clinching of Metal Foils with Cutting by Laser Shock Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel technique for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils, namely micro clinching with cutting by laser shock forming. A series of experiments were conducted to study the deformation behavior of single layer material, during which many important process parameters were determined. The process window of the 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils produced by micro clinching with cutting was analyzed. Moreover, similar material combination (annealed copper foils and dissimilar material combination (1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils were successfully achieved. The effect of laser energy on the interlock and minimum thickness of upper foils was investigated. In addition, the mechanical strength of different material combinations joined by micro clinching with cutting was measured in single lap shearing tests. According to the achieved results, this novel technique is more suitable for material combinations where the upper foil is thicker than lower foil. With the increase of laser energy, the interlock increased while the minimum thickness of upper foil decreased gradually. The shear strength of 1060 pure aluminum foils and 304 stainless steel foils combination was three times as large as that of 1060 pure aluminum foils and annealed copper foils combination.

  17. Self-Assembled 3D Hierarchical Copper Hydroxyphosphate Modified by the Oxidation of Copper Foil as a Recyclable, Wide Wavelength Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wenling; Cheng, Yifeng; Zhang, Jie; Che, Renchao

    2017-11-28

    In this work, three-dimensional flower-like and petal-like copper hydroxyphosphate Cu 5 (OH) 4 (PO 4 ) 2 (CHP) based on the self-assembly of numerous nanosheets has been successfully fabricated on a copper foil by a mild one-pot wet-chemical method without ligand assistance. This research contributes to the development of the method to change the morphology of the CHP active material by varying the degree of substrate oxidation. The two different CHP architectures were used to photocatalytically degrade rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) under solar light, which can absorb wide-range light wavelength from the UV to the near-infrared region. They all exhibit high photocatalytic activity and good durability, which are potential candidates for high performance and recyclable wide wavelength photocatalysis.

  18. Allotropic effects on the energy loss of swift H+ and He+ ion beams through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a theoretical treatment and a simulation code to study the energy loss of swift H + and He + ion beams interacting with thin foils of different carbon allotropes. The former is based on the dielectric formalism, and the latter combines Monte Carlo with the numerical solution of the motion equation for each projectile to describe its trajectory and interactions through the target. The capabilities of both methods are assessed by the reasonably good agreement between their predictions and the experimental results, for a wide range of projectile energies and target characteristics. Firstly, we apply the theoretical procedure to calculate the stopping cross sections for H + and He + beams in foils of different allotropic forms of carbon (such as diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C 60 -fullerite), as a function of the projectile energy. We take into account the electronic structure of the projectile, as well as the different charge states it can acquire, the energy loss associated to the electronic capture and loss processes, the polarization of the projectile, and a realistic description of the target. On the other hand, the simulation code is used to evaluate the energy distributions of swift H + and He + ion beams when traversing several foils of the above mentioned allotropic forms of carbon, in order to analyze the influence of the chemical and physical state of the target in the projectile energy loss. These allotropic effects are found to become more important around the maximum of the stopping cross-section

  19. An investigative approach to explore optimum assembly process design for annular targets carrying LEU foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Annemarie

    Technetium-99m is the most widely used nuclear isotope in the medical field, with nearly 80 to 85% of all diagnostic imaging procedures. The daughter isotope of molybdenum-99 is currently produced using weapons-grade uranium. A suggested design for aluminum targets carrying low-enriched uranium (LEU) foil is presented for the fulfillment of eliminating highly enriched uranium (HEU) for medical isotope production. The assembly process that this research focuses on is the conventional draw-plug process which is currently used and lastly the sealing process. The research is unique in that it is a systematic approach to explore the optimal target assembly process to produce those targets with the required quality and integrity. Conducting 9 parametric experiments, aluminum tubes with a nickel foil fission-barrier and a surrogate stainless steel foil are assembled, welded and then examined to find defects, to determine residual stresses, and to find the best cost-effective target dimensions. The experimental design consists of 9 assembly combinations that were found through orthogonal arrays in order to explore the significance of each factor. Using probabilistic modeling, the parametric study is investigated using the Taguchi method of robust analysis. Depending on the situation, optimal conditions may be a nominal, a minimized or occasionally a maximized condition. The results will provide the best target design and will give optimal quality with little or no assembly defects.

  20. Transition radiation wakefields for a beam passing through a metallic foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl L. F. Bane

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the x-ray, free-electron laser project, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS, a proposal has been made to generate a shorter light pulse by placing a spoiler foil in the middle of a compressor chicane: The foil has a small slot, which selects out the small fraction of particles passing through it (“target particles” to lase. In this report, using the method of field matching, we obtain longitudinal and transverse impedances and wakefields for several models of the proposed LCLS spoiler foil. We consider the model of a pencil beam and of a cylindrically symmetric, bi-Gaussian beam that is wider than it is long. Third, we generate a Green function that allows us to consider asymmetric beams also. For target particles of the tilted, tri-Gaussian beam that is found at the LCLS spoiler location we obtain approximate analytical formulas and numerical results for wakefield kicks in the three directions. We find that the kicks, after correction using a simple dipole and quadrupole, are all within tolerances.

  1. Creep testing of foil-gage metals at elevated temperature using an automated data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    A method is being developed to obtain creep data on foil gage metals at elevated temperatures using an automated data acquisition system in conjunction with a mechanically counter balanced extensometer. The automated system components include the Hewlett-Packard (HP) 9845A desktop computer, the HP 3455A digital voltmeter and the HP 3495A scanner. Software for test monitoring and data collection was developed; data manipulation, including curve plotting was done with a HP regression analysis software package. Initial creep tests were conducted on .003 in. thick foil specimens of Ti-6A1-4V at temperatures of 800 F and 1000 F and at stress levels of 25 ksi and 45 ksi. For comparison, duplicate tests were run on .049 in. thick specimens sheet of the same alloy. During testing, the furnace and specimen temperature, bridge voltage, strain and load output were automatically monitored and recorded at predetermined intervals. Using the HP regression analysis program, recorded strain output was plotted as a function of time. These resultant creep curves indicate that, under similar conditions of temperature and stress, foil gage specimens exhibit a higher creep rate than sheet specimens.

  2. Smooth nylon foil (SupraFOIL) orbital implants in orbital fractures: a case series of 181 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D J John; Garibaldi, Daniel C; Iliff, Nicholas T; Grant, Michael P; Merbs, Shannath L

    2008-01-01

    The SupraFOIL smooth nylon foil implant is a polyamide sheet available in varying thicknesses that has been used in orbital reconstruction following trauma. The authors report their experience with smooth nylon foil implants in the repair of orbital fractures. A retrospective chart review of patients having undergone repair of orbital fractures between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2003 was conducted. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare cases with complications and those with no complications. Of 282 orbits that underwent fracture repair with alloplastic material, 87 were excluded because non-nylon foil implants were used alone or in combination with nylon foil to repair the orbital fracture. An additional 14 fractures were excluded because of insufficient clinical data or lack of follow-up, for a total of 181 orbits that underwent orbital fracture repair with only nylon foil. A transconjunctival approach was used in 98% cases, and all 181 implants were fixated with at least 1 titanium screw. Average follow-up was 362.8 days. The overall complication rate was 1.7%. One patient had an acute postoperative orbital hemorrhage (0.6% acute complication rate). Two patients had late orbital infections, 683 days and 984 days following repair (1.1% late complication rate). The authors found the smooth nylon foil implant to be safe and effective in orbital fracture repair. The lower rate of complications the authors observed compared with previously reported series may be related to implant fixation. A titanium screw secured just posterior to the orbital rim may decrease long-term complications by providing more stability than implants left without fixation.

  3. Gas Foil Bearings for Space Propulsion Nuclear Electric Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The choice of power conversion technology is critical in directing the design of a space vehicle for the future NASA mission to Mars. One candidate design consists of a foil bearing supported turbo alternator driven by a helium-xenon gas mixture heated by a nuclear reactor. The system is a closed-loop, meaning there is a constant volume of process fluid that is sealed from the environment. Therefore, foil bearings are proposed due to their ability to use the process gas as a lubricant. As such, the rotor dynamics of a foil bearing supported rotor is an important factor in the eventual design. The current work describes a rotor dynamic analysis to assess the viability of such a system. A brief technology background, assumptions, analyses, and conclusions are discussed in this report. The results indicate that a foil bearing supported turbo alternator is possible, although more work will be needed to gain knowledge about foil bearing behavior in helium-xenon gas.

  4. Dynamics and locomotion of flexible foils in a frictional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, oscillating flexible foils have been used to study the physics of organismal propulsion in different fluid environments. Here, we extend this work to a study of flexible foils in a frictional environment. When the foil is oscillated by heaving at one end but is not free to locomote, the dynamics change from periodic to non-periodic and chaotic as the heaving amplitude increases or the bending rigidity decreases. For friction coefficients lying in a certain range, the transition passes through a sequence of N-periodic and asymmetric states before reaching chaotic dynamics. Resonant peaks are damped and shifted by friction and large heaving amplitudes, leading to bistable states. When the foil is free to locomote, the horizontal motion smoothes the resonant behaviours. For moderate frictional coefficients, steady but slow locomotion is obtained. For large transverse friction and small tangential friction corresponding to wheeled snake robots, faster locomotion is obtained. Travelling wave motions arise spontaneously, and move with horizontal speeds that scale as transverse friction coefficient to the power 1/4 and input power that scales as the transverse friction coefficient to the power 5/12. These scalings are consistent with a boundary layer form of the solutions near the foil's leading edge.

  5. Concept Feasibility Report for Electroplating Zirconium onto Uranium Foil - Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Greg W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meinhardt, Kerry D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pederson, Larry R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Fuel Fabrication Capability within the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversion Program is funded through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) NA-26 (Office of Material Management and Minimization). An investigation was commissioned to determine the feasibility of using electroplating techniques to apply a coating of zirconium onto depleted uranium/molybdenum alloy (U-10Mo). Electroplating would provide an alternative method to the existing process of hot roll-bonding zirconium foil onto the U-10Mo fuel foil during the fabrication of fuel elements for high-performance research reactors. The objective of this research was to develop a reproducible and scalable plating process that will produce a uniform, 25 μm thick zirconium metal coating on U-10Mo foil. In previous work, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established a molten salt electroplating apparatus and protocol to plate zirconium metal onto molybdenum foil (Coffey 2015). During this second year of the research, PNNL furthered this work by moving to the U-10Mo alloy system (90 percent uranium:10 percent molybdenum). The original plating apparatus was disassembled and re-assembled in a laboratory capable of handling low-level radioactive materials. Initially, the work followed the previous year’s approach, and the salt bath composition was targeted at the eutectic composition (LiF:NaF:ZrF4 = 26:37:37 mol%). Early results indicated that the formation of uranium fluoride compounds would be problematic. Other salt bath compositions were investigated in order to eliminate the uranium fluoride production (LiF:NaF = 61:39 mol% and LiF:NaF:KF = 46.5:11.5:42 mol% ). Zirconium metal was used as the crucible for the molten salt. Three plating methods were used—isopotential, galvano static, and pulsed plating. The molten salt method for zirconium metal application provided high-quality plating on molybdenum in PNNL’s previous work. A key advantage of this approach is that

  6. Stability of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings: Comparison of two fundamental approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar; von Osmanski, Alexander Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    . This paper compares two fundamental methods for predicting the OSI. One is based on a nonlinear time domain simulation and another is based on a linearised frequency domain method and a perturbation of the Reynolds equation. Both methods are based on equivalent models and should predict similar results......High speed direct drive motors enable the use of Air Foil Bearings (AFB) in a wide range of applications due to the elimination of gear forces. Unfortunately, AFB supported rotors are lightly damped, and an accurate prediction of their Onset Speed of Instability (OSI) is therefore important...

  7. Foil Bearing Coating Behavior in CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming, Darryn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Sandia S-CO2 Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) utilizes a series of gas foil bearings in its turbine-alternator-compressors. At high shaft rotational speed these bearings allow the shaft to ride on a cushion of air. Conversely, during startup and shutdown, the shaft rides along the foil bearing surface. Low-friction coatings are used on bearing surfaces in order to facilitate rotation during these periods. An experimental program was initiated to elucidate the behavior of coated bearing foils in the harsh environments of this system. A test configuration was developed enabling long duration exposure tests, followed by a range of analyses relevant to their performance in a bearing. This report provides a detailed overview of this work. The results contained herein provide valuable information in selecting appropriate coatings for more advanced future bearing-rig tests at the newly established test facility in Sandia-NM.

  8. Model-Based Optimization for Flapping Foil Actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Flapping foil actuation in nature, such as wings and flippers, often consist of highly complex joint kinematics which present an impossibly large parameter space for designing bioinspired mechanisms. Designers therefore often build a simplified model to limit the parameter space so an optimum motion trajectory can be experimentally found, or attempt to replicate exactly the joint geometry and kinematics of a suitable organism whose behavior is assumed to be optimal. We present a compromise: using a simple local fluids model to guide the design of optimized trajectories through a succession of experimental trials, even when the parameter space is too large to effectively search. As an example, we illustrate an optimization routine capable of designing asymmetric flapping trajectories for a large aspect-ratio pitching and heaving foil, with the added degree of freedom of allowing the foil to move parallel to flow. We then present PIV flow visualizations of the optimized trajectories.

  9. Acceleration of polyethelene foils by laser driven ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.; Burginyon, G.A.; Haas, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    The production of thermonuclear energy, by laser driven implosion of spherical DT shells, with achievable laser technology, requires the development of an efficient and stable implosion. Certain aspects of the acceleration of the spherical shells can be studied experimentally by irradiating thin, 5 to 25 μm, polyethelene foils. The results of foil acceleration experiments performed using a Nd:YAG-Glass laser capable of producing 150 J, 1 nsec pulses will be discussed. The dynamics of the accelerated foil, the ion blow off, high energy electron spectrum (6 to 180 keV), x-ray spectrum (1 to 150 keV) the spatial distribution of the x-ray emission, the laser beam focal spot energy distribution, the laser temporal pulse shape and spectrum for reflected and transmitted radiation have all been measured simultaneously. The results of these measurements are compared with detailed numerical simulations. (U.S.)

  10. Correction of Thick Foil Errors in Prompt Neutron (CALIFORNIUM-252 Nu), Fission Cross Section (sigma(f)) and Other Ionization Chamber Fission Data Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohensedgh, Farhad

    This research resolves two problems that have long been of important concern in experimental fission physics: (1) determination of pulse height distribution response of ionization chambers in fission fragment detection measurements, and (2) correction of "thick-foil effect" systematic errors in standard values of the fundamental parameters of fission physics--the average number of prompt neutrons per fission (=nu), absolute fission activity and true fission rate of samples (TFR), and isotopic fission cross sections (sigma _{f}). Results are obtained by a comprehensive digital simulation of the electrostatics and pulse height distribution response of the parallel-plate, ungridded, electron-pulse ionization fission chamber together with prompt neutron -fragment multiplicity and angular distribution correlations, neutron-fragment coincidence detection and related variations in the 4pi^here around the chamber for a wide range of the relevant factors--foil thickness, alpha particle interference bias level, fission detector configuration characteristics, fissile isotopes (^{252}Cf, ^{235}U, etc.) and other experimental parameters. Isotope-specific double-energy (E_1,E_2) natural variations in fragment spectrum, in fragment-specific range-energy (dE/dx) relations and in prompt neutron-fragment multiplicity (nu) and nuclear temperature dependent angular distribution correlations are simulated in detail. Detailed results are obtained for double-energy, fragment-specific count loss fractions resulting from in -foil fragment absorption and from alpha -interference discrimination as well as for chamber detection efficiency, fragment spectrum distortion and prompt neutron -fragment coincidence detection distribution variations. Decay alpha pulse pileup statistics are discussed, and the behavior of and factors affecting the fragment pulse height distribution tail are analyzed in detail. Fragment pairs and prompt neutrons issued from them are tracked in the 4pi^ace around the

  11. Transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.J.; Gemmell, D.S.; Cooney, P.J.; Kanter, E.P.; Kurath, D.; Ratkowski, A.J.; Vager, Z.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    New results on the transmission of fast molecular ions through thin foils are presented and a mechanism for the transmission process is proposed. The main feature of the postulated mechanism is that a finite fraction of the incident molecular beam does not undergo a strong Coulomb explosion while traversing the foil. Because the emerging fragments are at large internuclear separations, there is an enhanced probability for the formation of bound, long-range, excited electronic states following electron capture at the rear surface of the target

  12. Electrochemically replicated smooth aluminum foils for anodic alumina nanochannel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biring, Sajal; Tsai, K-T; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Wang, Y-L

    2008-01-01

    A fast electrochemical replication technique has been developed to fabricate large-scale ultra-smooth aluminum foils by exploiting readily available large-scale smooth silicon wafers as the masters. Since the adhesion of aluminum on silicon depends on the time of surface pretreatment in water, it is possible to either detach the replicated aluminum from the silicon master without damaging the replicated aluminum and master or integrate the aluminum film to the silicon substrate. Replicated ultra-smooth aluminum foils are used for the growth of both self-organized and lithographically guided long-range ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels without any polishing pretreatment

  13. Chemical synthesis of hierarchical NiCo2S4nanosheets like nanostructure on flexible foil for a high performance supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D -Y; Ghodake, G S; Maile, N C; Kadam, A A; Sung Lee, Dae; Fulari, V J; Shinde, S K

    2017-08-29

    In this study, hierarchical interconnected nickel cobalt sulfide (NiCo 2 S 4 ) nanosheets were effectively deposited on a flexible stainless steel foil by the chemical bath deposition method (CBD) for high-performance supercapacitor applications. The resulting NiCo 2 S 4 sample was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and electrochemical measurements. XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the formation of the ternary NiCo 2 S 4 sample with a pure cubic phase. FE-SEM and HR-TEM revealed that the entire foil surface was fully covered with the interconnected nanosheets like surface morphology. The NiCo 2 S 4 nanosheets demonstrated impressive electrochemical characteristics with a specific capacitance of 1155 F g -1 at 10 mV s -1 and superior cycling stability (95% capacity after 2000 cycles). These electrochemical characteristics could be attributed to the higher active area and higher conductivity of the sample. The results demonstrated that the interconnected NiCo 2 S 4 nanosheets are promising as electrodes for supercapacitor and energy storage applications.

  14. Performance of the carbon stripping foils in the Argonne FN tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Munson, F.; Heath, C.; Thomas, G.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon stripping foils produced by the glow discharge cracking of ethylene were produced and the foils were tested in the Argonne FN tandem accelerator. The results are presented and the characteristics of stripping media are discussed

  15. Non-destructive Quantitative Phase Analysis and Microstructural Characterization of Zirconium Coated U-10Mo Fuel Foils via Neutron Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, Dustin Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollis, Kendall Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This report uses neutron diffraction to investigate the crystal phase composition of uranium-molybdenum alloy foils (U-10Mo) for the CONVERT MP-1 Reactor Conversion Project, and determines the effect on alpha-uranium contamination following the deposition of a Zr metal diffusion layer by various methods: plasma spray deposition of Zr powders at LANL and hot co-rolling with Zr foils at BWXT. In summary, there is minimal decomposition of the gamma phase U-10Mo foil to alpha phase contamination following both plasma spraying and hot co-rolling. The average unit cell volume, i.e. lattice spacing, of the Zr layer can be mathematically extracted from the diffraction data; co-rolled Zr matches well with literature values of bulk Zr, while plasma sprayed Zr shows a slight increase in the lattice spacing, indicative of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Neutron diffraction is a beneficial alternative to conventional methods of phase composition, i.e. x ray diffraction (XRD) and destructive metallography. XRD has minimal penetration depth in high atomic number materials, particularly uranium, and can only probe the first few microns of the fuel plate; neutrons pass completely through the foil, allowing for bulk analysis of the foil composition and no issues with addition of cladding layers, as in the final, aluminum-clad reactor fuel plates. Destructive metallography requires skilled technicians, cutting of the foil into small sections, hazardous etching conditions, long polishing and microscopy times, etc.; the neutron diffraction system has an automated sample loader and can fit larger foils, so there is minimal analysis preparation; the total spectrum acquisition time is ~ 1 hour per sample. The neutron diffraction results are limited by spectra refinement/calculation times and the availability of the neutron beam source. In the case of LANSCE at Los Alamos, the beam operates ~50% of the year. Following the lessons learned from these preliminary results, optimizations to

  16. Dose reader of dosimetric foil; Czytnik dawki folii dozymetrycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.; Strzalkowski, J.; Smolko, K.

    1997-12-31

    Read out the absorbance of a dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such a solution makes possible the compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.0004 A. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs.

  17. Tribalism as a Foiled Factor of Africa Nation-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogu, J. O.; Umudjere, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper tends to examine tribalism as a foiled factor on Africa nation-building and proffers useful tips to salvaging the Africa land from this deadly social problem. Africans in times past had suffered enormous attacks, injuries, losses, deaths, destruction of properties and human skills and ideas due to the presence of tribalistic views in…

  18. Secret in the Margins: Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi; Hanuscin, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a lesson that uses the 5E Learning Cycle to help students not only understand the atomic model but also how Ernest Rutherford helped develop it. The lesson uses Rutherford's gold foil experiment to focus on three aspects of the nature of science: the empirical nature of science, the tentativeness of scientific…

  19. Foil Bearing Starting Considerations and Requirements for Rotorcraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Foil gas bearings under development for rotorcraft-sized, hot core engine applications have been susceptible to damage from the slow acceleration and rates typically encountered during the pre-ignition stage in conventional engines. Recent laboratory failures have been assumed to be directly linked to operating foil bearings below their lift-off speed while following conventional startup procedures for the engines. In each instance, the continuous sliding contact between the foils and shaft was believed to thermally overload the bearing and cause the engines to fail. These failures highlight the need to characterize required acceleration rates and minimum operating speeds for these applications. In this report, startup experiments were conducted with a large, rotorcraft engine sized foil bearing under moderate load and acceleration rates to identify the proper start procedures needed to avoid bearing failure. The results showed that a bearing under a 39.4 kPa static load can withstand a modest acceleration rate of 500 rpm/s and excessive loitering below the bearing lift-off speed provided an adequate solid lubricant is present.

  20. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  1. Evaluation of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Foil for Advanced Recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Matthews, Wendy [Capstone Turbines

    2011-01-01

    A corrosion- and creep-resistant austenitic stainless steel has been developed for advanced recuperator applications. By optimizing the Al and Cr contents, the alloy is fully austenitic for creep strength while allowing the formation of a chemically stable external alumina scale at temperatures up to 900 C. An alumina scale eliminates long-term problems with the formation of volatile Cr oxy-hydroxides in the presence of water vapor in exhaust gas. As a first step in producing foil for primary surface recuperators, three commercially cast heats have been rolled to 100 m thick foil in the laboratory to evaluate performance in creep and oxidation testing. Results from initial creep testing are presented at 675 C and 750 C, showing excellent creep strength compared with other candidate foil materials. Laboratory exposures in humid air at 650 800 C have shown acceptable oxidation resistance. A similar oxidation behavior was observed for sheet specimens of these alloys exposed in a modified 65 kW microturbine for 2871 h. One composition that showed superior creep and oxidation resistance has been selected for the preparation of a commercial batch of foil. DOI: 10.1115/1.4002827

  2. Factors affecting use of fission foils as dosimetry sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Vehar, D.W.; Kelly, J.G.; Holm, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Fission foils are commonly used as dosimetry sensors. They play a very important role in neutron spectrum determinations. This paper provides a combination of experimental measurements and calculations to quantify the importance and synergy of several factors that affect the fission response of a dosimeter. Only when these effects are properly treated can fission dosimeters be used with sufficient fidelity

  3. Validation of calculated self-shielding factors for Rh foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, R.; Trkov, A.; Žerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-10-01

    Rhodium foils of about 5 mm diameter were obtained from IRMM. One foil had thickness of 0.006 mm and three were 0.112 mm thick. They were irradiated in the pneumatic transfer system and in the carousel facility of the TRIGA reactor at the Jožef Stefan Institute. The foils were irradiated bare and enclosed in small cadmium boxes (about 2 g weight) of 1 mm thickness to minimise the perturbation of the local neutron flux. They were co-irradiated with 5 mm diameter and 0.2 mm thick Al-Au (0.1%) alloy monitor foils. The resonance self-shielding corrections for the 0.006 and 0.112 mm thick samples were calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation and amount to about 10% and 60%, respectively. The consistency of measurements confirmed the validity of self-shielding factors. Trial estimates of Q0 and k0 factors for the 555.8 keV gamma line of 104Rh were made and amount to 6.65±0.18 and (6.61±0.12)×10 -2, respectively.

  4. Dynamic environmental control mechanisms for pneumatic foil constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Jan-Frederik; Wu, Yupeng; Beccarelli, Paolo; Chilton, John

    2017-11-01

    Membrane and foil structures have become over the last decades an attractive alternative to conventional materials and building systems with increasing implementation in different typologies and scale. The development of transparent, light, flexible and resistant materials like Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) has triggered a rethinking of the building envelope in the building industry towards lightweight systems. ETFE foil cushions have proven to fulfil the design requirements in terms of structural efficiency and aesthetic values. But the strategies to satisfy increasing demands of energy efficiency and comfort conditions are still under development. The prediction and manipulation of the thermo-optical behaviour of ETFE foil cushion structures currently remain as one of the main challenges for designers and manufacturers. This paper reviews ongoing research regarding the control of the thermo-optical performance of ETFE cushion structures and highlights challenges and possible improvements. An overview of different dynamic and responsive environmental control mechanisms for multilayer foil constructions is provided and the state of the art in building application outlined by the discussion of case studies.

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  6. Low-energy electron beams through ultra-thin foils, applications for electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aken, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis has discussed two electron microscopy applications that make use of ultra-thin foils: the tunnel junction emitter and the low-energy foil corrector. Both applications have in common that the electron beam is sent through the thin foil at low energy. Part of the electrons will scatter in

  7. Wake visualization of a heaving and pitching foil in a soap film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Lentink, D.

    2007-01-01

    Many fish depend primarily on their tail beat for propulsion. Such a tail is commonly modeled as a two-dimensional flapping foil. Here we demonstrate a novel experimental setup of such a foil that heaves and pitches in a soap film. The vortical flow field generated by the foil correlates with

  8. A gradient activation method for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guicheng; Yang, Zhaoyi; Halim, Martin; Li, Xinyang; Wang, Manxiang; Kim, Ji Young; Mei, Qiwen; Wang, Xindong; Lee, Joong Kee

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A gradient activation method was reported firstly for direct methanol fuel cells. • The activity recovery of Pt-based catalyst was introduced into the novel activation process. • The new activation method led to prominent enhancement of DMFC performance. • DMFC performance was improved with the novel activation step by step within 7.5 h. - Abstract: To realize gradient activation effect and recover catalytic activity of catalyst in a short time, a gradient activation method has firstly been proposed for enhancing discharge performance and perfecting activation mechanism of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). This method includes four steps, i.e. proton activation, activity recovery activation, H 2 -O 2 mode activation and forced discharging activation. The results prove that the proposed method has gradually realized replenishment of water and protons, recovery of catalytic activity of catalyst, establishment of transfer channels for electrons, protons, and oxygen, and optimization of anode catalyst layer for methanol transfer in turn. Along with the novel activation process going on, the DMFC discharge performance has been improved, step by step, to more than 1.9 times higher than that of the original one within 7.5 h. This method provides a practicable activation way for the real application of single DMFCs and stacks.

  9. [The taphonomic aspects of cadaverous changes in corpses, buried in the plastic foils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuller, F; Straka, L; Macko, V; Krivos, D; Krajcovic, J; Novomeský, F

    2008-10-01

    The forensic expertise of the 6 human bodies, being murdered in organised crime activities, had been realised by the authors. All the cadavers were packed in plastic bags or plastic foils, then buried to the illegal graves, being prepared in advance. The detail overlook and autopsy of the bodies had disclosed, that due of almost airtight sealing of the cadavers in plastic materials, the postmortal cadaverous changes went on much slower and were manifested under a different picture, as seen in the human cadavers being buried in the standard wooden coffins. The authors point out the peculiarities of such a postmortal changes, with particular focusing on the estimation of postmortal period.

  10. Variational calculation of the angular width of the multiple scattering distribution in foil transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakas, M.M.; Biersack, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A simple formula is derived for calculating the angular width of multiple scattering distributions for atomic particles traversing thin foils. The universal result is obtained by applying the variational method on standard multiple scattering theory. This procedure can be carried through in a straight-forward way, thus saving lengthy series expansions and Fourier transforms. In the case of power cross sections exact analytical expressions can be obtained. A remarkably good agreement is found between our calculation and previous theories, as well as with results from our computer simulations. (orig.)

  11. Inactivation of possible microorganism food contaminants on packaging foils using nonthermal plasma and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, V., E-mail: Vladimir.Scholtz@vscht.cz; Khun, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Physics and Measurements, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Czech Republic); Soušková, H. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Computing and Control Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering (Czech Republic); Čeřovský, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Department of Food Preservation, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation effect of nonthermal plasma generated in electric discharge burning in air atmosphere with water or hydrogen peroxide aerosol for the application to the microbial decontamination of packaging foils is studied. The microbial inactivation is studied on two bacterial, two yeasts, and two filamentous micromycete species. The inactivation of all contaminating microorganisms becomes on the area of full 8.5 cm in diameter circular sample after short times of several tens of seconds. Described apparatus may present a possible alternative method of microbial decontamination of food packaging material or other thermolabile materials.

  12. Activity coefficients from molecular simulations using the OPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohns, Maximilian; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2017-10-01

    A method for determining activity coefficients by molecular dynamics simulations is presented. It is an extension of the OPAS (osmotic pressure for the activity of the solvent) method in previous work for studying the solvent activity in electrolyte solutions. That method is extended here to study activities of all components in mixtures of molecular species. As an example, activity coefficients in liquid mixtures of water and methanol are calculated for 298.15 K and 323.15 K at 1 bar using molecular models from the literature. These dense and strongly interacting mixtures pose a significant challenge to existing methods for determining activity coefficients by molecular simulation. It is shown that the new method yields accurate results for the activity coefficients which are in agreement with results obtained with a thermodynamic integration technique. As the partial molar volumes are needed in the proposed method, the molar excess volume of the system water + methanol is also investigated.

  13. A STUDY ON THE PROPERTIES OF SURFACE – ACTIVE FLUIDS USED IN BURNISHING AND SHOT PEENING PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierz Zaleski

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented for the study of surface-active properties of a fluids, in burnishing and shot peening processes used, which consists in comparing mean plastic strains of thin metal foil subjected to tensile tests in the examined fluid and in air. As a surface-active additive to the fluid (mineral oil), methyl polymethacrylate solution was used. It was found that the surfactant activity coefficient depended on the type of examined fluid as well as on the thickness of the foil being stre...

  14. A STUDY ON THE PROPERTIES OF SURFACE – ACTIVE FLUIDS USED IN BURNISHING AND SHOT PEENING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierz Zaleski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for the study of surface-active properties of a fluids, in burnishing and shot peening processes used, which consists in comparing mean plastic strains of thin metal foil subjected to tensile tests in the examined fluid and in air. As a surface-active additive to the fluid (mineral oil, methyl polymethacrylate solution was used. It was found that the surfactant activity coefficient depended on the type of examined fluid as well as on the thickness of the foil being stretched. Results of analyses of the surface-active properties of a fluid can be compared only when metal foils of equal thickness made from one specific material are used. It can be supposed that the introduction of methyl polymethacrylate solution as an additive to the metalworking fluid will have a beneficial effect on the course and the results of burnishing and shot peening of metals.

  15. Numerical studies on the interaction between two parallel D-cylinder and oscillated foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Dong; Cao, Yong-Hui; Pan, Guang

    2018-02-01

    To understand the interaction between the oscillated body and oncoming vortex, some numerical studies have been conducted on a system including two parallel D-cylinder and one oscillated foil in this paper. It is found that the distance between parallel D-cylinder and oscillated foil would play a key role in affecting the change regulation of thrust generation of oscillated foil, and the kinematics of oscillated foil would determine the value of propulsive thrust, the gap between two parallel D-cylinder would only affect the hydrodynamic performance of oscillated foil at intermediate conditions.

  16. Measurements of laser generated soft X-ray emission from irradiated gold foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. S.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.; Fraenkel, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    2016-11-15

    Soft x-ray emission from laser irradiated gold foils was measured at the Omega-60 laser system using the Dante photodiode array. The foils were heated with 2 kJ, 6 ns laser pulses and foil thicknesses were varied between 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm. Initial Dante analysis indicates peak emission temperatures of roughly 100 eV and 80 eV for the 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm thick foils, respectively, with little measurable emission from the 2.0 μm foils.

  17. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2017-12-26

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacyl-ethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surface with good friction-reducing performance on Al foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peipei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen, Xinhua, E-mail: xuc0374@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure was successfully created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. As-obtained etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface contains interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets that endow the surface with excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA: 164.2°; WSA: below 5°). Besides, the as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA superhydrophobic surface on Al foil exhibits good friction-reducing ability and stable superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • A stable superhydrophobic surface was created on aluminum foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. • A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets has been constructed on the aluminum surface. • The superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum substrate showing effective friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability. - Abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure with superhydrophobicity was created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method involving etching in hydrochloric acid solution and immersing in hot water as well as surface-modification by stearic acid (denoted as STA). As-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the water contact angles and water sliding angles of as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface were measured, and the friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability of the as-prepared surface were also evaluated. Results indicate that the etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets. Besides, it exhibits stable superhydrophobicity and good friction-reducing ability. Namely, it has a contact angle of water as high as 164.2° and a water sliding

  19. Reduction Method for Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboni, Pietro; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    On-line security assessment is traditionally performed by Transmission System Operators at the transmission level, ignoring the effective response of distributed generators and small loads. On the other hand the required computation time and amount of real time data for including Distribution...... Networks also would be too large. In this paper an adaptive aggregation method for subsystems with power electronic interfaced generators and voltage dependant loads is proposed. With this tool may be relatively easier including distribution networks into security assessment. The method is validated...... by comparing the results obtained in PSCAD® with the detailed network model and with the reduced one. Moreover the control schemes of a wind turbine and a photovoltaic plant included in the detailed network model are described....

  20. Active and passive cooling methods for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    they might be applied, and what their energy needs are. Secondly, what scientific analysis has been carried out and what the major findings are. Thirdly, what their economic and technical feasibility of use at the stage of implementation and operation within a dwelling are. Then, either with the reviewed...... studies or with a simulation modelling, an assessment of temperature drop of each cooling method within a standard-size dwelling is carried out. Also, a comparison of initial investment, energy consumption, maintenance, retrofitting and required space is done. Thereafter, with this information, a decision......-making program is developed in order to find out the most suitable cooling method of this dwelling in each case study according to the climate, status (new or existing), and the affordability. With that, and taking the Mexican housing sector as case study, it is found that building color, shading system, night...

  1. The orientation effect in the activities of neutronic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigon, M. A.

    1956-01-01

    The formulae relating activity and position of a neutron irradiated Indium foil, have been verified experimentally. Measurements with both thin and thick foils for epithermal neutrons and with thick foils for thermal neutrons have been carried out. The experimental results agree qualitatively with the theoretical predictions. (Author)

  2. Investigation of the clinical potential of scattering foil free electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldib, Ahmed; Jin, Lihui; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, C-M Charlie

    2014-02-21

    Electron beam therapy has been an important radiation therapy modality for many decades. Studies have been conducted recently for more efficient and advanced delivery of electron beam radiation therapy. X-ray contamination is a common problem that exists with all of the advanced electron beam therapy techniques such as Bolus Electron conformal therapy, segmented electron conformal therapy, and modulated electron arc therapy. X-ray contamination could add some limitations to the advancement and clinical utility of those electron modalities. It was previously shown in the literature that the scattering foil is one of the major accelerator parts contributing to the generation of bremsstrahlung photons. Thus, in this work we investigate the dosimetric characteristics of scattering foil free (SFF) electron beams and the feasibility of using those beams for breast cancer boosts. The SFF electron beams were modeled and simulated using the Monte Carlo method. CT scans of six previously treated breast patients were used for the treatment plan generation utilizing our in-house Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system. Electron boost plans with conventional beams and the SFF beams were generated, respectively, for all patients. A significant reduction of the photon component was observed with the removal of the primary scattering foil for beam energies higher than 12 MeV. Flatness was greatly affected but the difference in flatness between conventional and SFF beams was much reduced for small cone sizes, which were often used clinically for breast boosts. It was found that the SFF electron beams could deliver high-quality dose distributions as conventional electron beams for boost treatments of the breast with an added advantage of a further reduced dose to the lung and the heart.

  3. Attenuated total internal reflection infrared microscopy of multilayer plastic packaging foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Gerard; Heussen, Patricia C M; den Adel, Ruud; Hoeve, Robert B J

    2007-06-01

    Multilayer plastic foils are important packaging materials that are used to extend the shelf life of food products and drinks. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging using attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) can be used for the identification and localization of different layers in multilayer foils. A new type of ATR crystal was used in combination with a linear array detector through which large sample areas (400 x 400 microm(2)) could be imaged with a pixel size of 1.6 microm. The method was tested on laminated plastic packing materials containing 5 to 12 layers. The results of the identification of the different materials using ATR-FT-IR were compared with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the layer thickness of the individual layers measured by ATR-FT-IR was compared with polarized light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been demonstrated that individual layers with a thickness of about 3 microm could be identified in multilayer foils with a total thickness ranging from 100 to 150 microm. The results show a spatial resolution of about 4 microm (measured at wavenumbers ranging from 1000 to 1730 cm(-1)), which is about a factor of two better than can be obtained using transmission FT-IR imaging. An additional advantage of ATR is the ease of sample preparation. A good correspondence was found between visible and FT-IR images. The results of ATR-FT-IR imaging were in agreement with those obtained by LM, SEM, and DSC. ATR-FT-IR is superior to the combination of these techniques because it delivers both spatial and chemical information.

  4. The surface condition effect of Cu2O flower/grass-like nanoarchitectures grown on Cu foil and Cu film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Cu2O flower/grass-like nanoarchitectures (FGLNAs) were fabricated directly on two category specimens of Cu foils and Cu film using thermal oxidation method. The FGLNAs are approximately 3.5 to 12 μm in size, and their petals are approximately 50 to 950 nm in width. The high compressive stress caused by a large oxide volume in the Cu2O layer on the specimen surface played an important role in the growth of FGLNAs. The effects of surface conditions, such as the surface stresses, grain size, and surface roughness of Cu foil and Cu film specimens, on the FGLNA growth were discussed in detail. PACS 81. Materials science; 81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization; 81.16.Hc Catalytic methods PMID:24164860

  5. 〈情報学科〉均衡型(C_9, C_14)-Foil デザイン

    OpenAIRE

    潮, 和彦

    2012-01-01

    In graph theory, the decomposition problem of graphs is a very important topic. Various type of decompositions of many graphs can be seen in the literature of graph theory. This paper gives balanced (C_9, C_14)-foil designs, balanced C_23-foil designs, balanced C_46-foil designs, balanced C_69-foil designs, balanced C_92-foil designs, balanced C_115-foil designs, balanced C_138-foil designs, balanced C_161-foil designs,balanced C_184-foil designs,balanced C207-foil designs, balanced C_230-fo...

  6. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Cunha, Tatiana F.; Higa, Olga Z.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  7. Convergent beam thickness determination of thin foil zirconium specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cann, C.D.

    1978-07-01

    The use of convergent beam patterns to determine the thickness of zirconium foils observed in the electron microscope has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. On the basis of many-beam dynamical theory calculations, the [1012], [1013], and [1120] reflections at an accelerating voltage of 100 kV and the [1013], [1120], and [1122] reflections at 200 kV were found most suitable for convergent beam thickness determinations. Experimental convergent beam patterns were obtained in the JEOL-200B electron microscope under two different sets of conditions based on the size of the pattern desired. Computer assisted analysis of the patterns obtained gave foil thicknesses in good agreement with those determined from thickness extinction contours. (author)

  8. Thrombogenicity tests on ar-irradiated polycarbonate foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Gustavo F.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Silva, Tiago F.; Moro, Marcos V.; Added, Nemitala; Tabacniks, Manfredo H., E-mail: g.ferraz@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Delgado, Adriana O. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Cunha, Tatiana F. [Biosintesis P and D do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Understanding polymer surface properties is extremely important for the most wide range of their applications, from basic coating to the most complex composites and biomaterials. Low energy ion beam irradiation of polymer can improve such surface properties. By modifying its surface biocompatibility, polymers are excellent candidates for biomaterials, due to its malleability and low weight, when compared to metals. In this work, we irradiated 30-μm Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate foils with 23-keV Argon ion beam at six different doses. Aluminium foils were simultaneously irradiated in order to measure the doses by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The surface modifications after the argon ion beam irradiation were analyzed by water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. Platelet adhesion tests were used in order to investigate thrombogenicity, showing a growing tendency with the irradiated Argon dose. (author)

  9. Calibration of the nuclear power channels of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor obtained from the measurements of the spatial thermal neutron flux distribution in the reactor core through the irradiation of infinitely diluted gold foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Lucas Batista

    2008-01-01

    Several nuclear parameters are obtained through the gamma spectrometry of targets irradiated in a research reactor core and this is the case of the activation foils which make possible, through the measurements of the activity induced, to determine the neutron flux in the place where they had been irradiated. The power level operation of the reactor is a parameter directly proportional to the average neutron flux in the core. This work aims to get the power operation of the reactor through of spatial neutron flux distribution in the core of IPEN/MB-01 reactor by the irradiation of infinitely diluted gold foils and prudently located in its interior. These foils were made in the form of metallic alloy in concentration levels such that the phenomena of flux disturbance, as the self-shielding factors to neutrons become worthless. These activation foils has only 1% of dispersed gold atoms in an aluminium matrix content of 99% of this element. The irradiations of foils have been carried through with and without cadmium plate. The total correlation between the average thermal neutron flux obtained by irradiation of infinitely diluted activation foils and the average digital value of current of the nuclear power channels 5 and 6 (non-compensated ionization chambers - CINC), allow the calibration of the nuclear channels of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. (author)

  10. Part 1, Angular distribution measurement of beam-foil muonium, Part 2, Muon injection simulation for a new muon g-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H.E.

    1992-10-01

    The angular and energy distributions of positive muons μ + and muonium M produced by the beam-foil method have been measured for the first time. A 7 MeV/c subsurface μ + beam was delivered to our apparatus from the Stopped Muon Channel at the Los Alamos Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The μ + formed M by electron capture in a thin Al target foil. A low pressure multi-wire proportional chamber upstream of the target foil was used both as a moderator and as a muon counter. To observe muonium, muons sere swept away by a bending magnet which was placed downstream of the target foil. This magnet was turned off while measuring the μ + distribution. Beyond the magnetic field, particles were collimated and then stopped by a microchannel plate detector located at various angles to the incident muon beam axis. Two pairs of scintillators mounted above (St) and below (Sb) the MC-P were used to detect the decay positrons to verify from the lifetime spectrum that the particles detected by the MCP are muons. The intensities of μ + and M emerging from the Al foil at different angles were obtained from both a time-of-flight spectrum and a lifetime spectrum

  11. Study of Electric Explosion of Flat Micron-Thick Foils at Current Densities of (5-50)×108 A/cm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Tilikin, I. N.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Atoyan, L.; Hammer, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    Electric explosions of flat Al, Ti, Ni, Cu, and Ta foils with thicknesses of 1-16 μm, widths of 1-8 mm, and lengths of 5-11 mm were studied experimentally on the BIN, XP, and COBRA high-current generators at currents of 40-1000 kA and current densities of (5-50) × 108 A/cm2. The images of the exploded foils were taken at different angles to the foil surface by using point projection radiography with an X-pinch hot spot as the radiation source, the spatial resolution and exposure time being 3 μm and 50 ps, respectively, as well by the laser probing method with a spatial resolution of 20 μm and an exposure time of 180 ps. In the course of foil explosion, rapidly expanding objects resembling the core and corona of an exploded wire were observed. It is shown that the core of the exploded foil has a complicated time-varying structure.

  12. Note: Manganin foil sensor for small uniaxial stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, M. K.; McLaughlin, N.; Jin, Hu; Zieve, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    We describe a simple manganin foil resistance manometer for uniaxial stress measurements. The manometer functions at low pressures and over a range of temperatures. In this design, no temperature seasoning is necessary although the manometer must be prestressed to the upper end of the desired pressure range. The prestress pressure cannot be increased arbitrarily; irreversibility arising from shear stress limits its range. Attempting larger pressures yields irreproducible resistance measurements.

  13. Dynamic nuclear polarization in thin polymer foils and tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.; Mango, S.

    1995-02-01

    First results of DNP at 2.5 T and below 0.3 K in thin polymer foils and tubes with the chemical composition (CX 2) n, [ X = 1H, 2D, 19F ], doped with TEMPO, are presented. Appreciable polarization of protons, deuterons, and 19F-nuclei were obtained. The samples can be handled at room temperature for several hours, and therefore they are suitable for new applications.

  14. Dynamic nuclear polarization in thin polymer foils and tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B. van den [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bunyatova, E.I. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Hautle, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Konter, J.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mango, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-03-01

    First results of DNP at 2.5 T and below 0.3 K in thin polymer foils and tubes with the chemical composition (CX{sub 2}){sub n}, [X={sup 1}H, {sup 2}D, {sup 19}F], doped with TEMPO, are presented. Appreciable polarizations of protons, deuterons, and {sup 19}F-nuclei were obtained. The samples can be handled at room temperature for several hours, and therefore they are suitable for new applications. ((orig.))

  15. Interaction of positron beams with thin silver foils and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rysholt Poulsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental investigations of positron interactions with solid silver and the necessary platform to analyse the data have been presented. The main objective was to study Ps formation at a Ag(100) surface. The different ingredients of the scenario, including thermalization and diffusion of positrons and emission of Ps, were analysed and quantified in whatever way appropriate. The scattering and possible thermalization were described. The parametrization of Monte-Carlo simulated implantation profiles for semi-infinite materials were presented and the applicability of such profiles to thin foils assessed. The latter was done in conjunction with an analysis of experimental data on thermalization and diffusion in 1900 Aa Ag(100) foils. The necessity for MC simulated rather than parametrized implantation profiles was argued. The velocity of thermally desorbed Ps from a Ag(100) surface at ∼800 K appeared to obey and one-dimensional Maxwell Boltzmann distribution multiplied by a velocity dependent factor. More experimental investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be made on the nature of the emission process. The velocity distribution, though, was found to be near-thermal and indicative of the sample temperature. It has been shown that positrons can be converted into Ps atoms in the transmission geometry of a thin 1900 Aa Ag(100) foil with a high efficiency. Furthermore, 61% of the emitted Ps will have a mean velocity of v z =1.2x10 5 m/sec and 39% will have a maximum kinetic energy of 1.5 eV (v z =5.1x10 5 m/sec) at a foil temperature of 800 K, all velocities that are suitable for producing a 'dense' Ps gas target. (EG) 12 refs

  16. A Manganin Foil Sensor for Small Uniaxial Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, M. K.; McLaughlin, N.; Jin, Hu; Zieve, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a simple manganin foil resistance manometer for uniaxial stress measurements. The manometer functions at low pressures and over a range of temperatures. In this design no temperature seasoning is necessary, although the manometer must be prestressed to the upper end of the desired pressure range. The prestress pressure cannot be increased arbitrarily; irreversibility arising from shear stress limits its range. Attempting larger pressures yields irreproducible resistance measurements.

  17. Ablative acceleration of thin foil targets by intense proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Ozaki, T.; Imasaki, K.; Higaki, S.; Nakai, S.

    1981-01-01

    A focused proton beam of up to 2 x 10 10 w/cm 2 was obtained using pinch-reflex ion diode connected to Reiden IV generator. Experiments of beam target interaction have been done using thin foil targets. In this power range the interaction was explained classically. The experimental dependence of ablation pressure on proton beam intensity was obtained as P sub(a) = 3 x 10 -3 I sup(0.7) bar (I in w/cm 2 ). (author)

  18. Measurements of electric properties using an open-ended probe blocked by a non-conducting foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wolny

    Full Text Available An open-ended coaxial probe separated from the investigated medium by a thin non-conducting layer (foil is proposed for making dielectric permittivity measurements within the RF range. The method was originally applied by the authors for intraoperative tissue assessment, but it could also be suitable for food control (requirement of purity or measurements in aggressive media (protection from corrosion. Keywords: Electric permittivity, Conducting media, Electrode polarisation

  19. Flapping propulsion with side-by-side pitching foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Fish schools are one of the most common types of collective behaviour observed in nature. One of the reasons why fish swim in groups, is to reduce the cost of transport of the school. In this work we explore the propulsive performance of two foils flapping in a symmetric configuration, i.e. with an out-of-phase flapping motion. Direct thrust measurements and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) allowed a detailed examination of the forces and the wake generated by the system, for different kinematics (swept angles and frequencies) and shaft separations. For certain specific cases, volumetric PIV shows major differences on how the different structures in the wake of the system evolve, depending on the imposed kinematics and the side-by-side separation between the foils. Results obtained will be compared against data produced with isolated flapping foils with similar imposed kinematics, with the aim to better understand the interactions between both and the performance of the system as a whole. The author would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y competitividad (MINECO) through Grant DPI2015-71645-P.

  20. Design of organic complementary circuits and systems on foil

    CERN Document Server

    Abdinia, Sahel; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    This book describes new approaches to fabricate complementary organic electronics, and focuses on the design of circuits and practical systems created using these manufacturing approaches. The authors describe two state-of-the-art, complementary organic technologies, characteristics and modeling of their transistors and their capability to implement circuits and systems on foil. Readers will benefit from the valuable overview of the challenges and opportunities that these extremely innovative technologies provide. ·         Demonstrates first circuits implemented using specific complementary organic technologies, including first printed analog to digital converter, first dynamic logic on foil and largest complementary organic circuit ·         Includes step-by-step design from single transistor level to complete systems on foil ·         Provides a platform for comparing state-of-the-art complementary organic technologies and for comparing these with other similar technologies, spec...

  1. Element segregation on the surfaces of pure aluminum foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinming; Liu Jiancai; Tang Jianguo; Li Li; Chen Mingan; Liu Shengdan; Zhu Bing

    2010-01-01

    The surface segregation trend of trace elements in pure aluminum foils was investigated by density functional theory. The model of nine-layer Al(1 0 0) slab substituted partially by trace element atoms was proposed for calculating surface segregation energy. The calculating results show that (i) B, Mg, Si, Ga, Ge, Y, In, Sn, Sb, Pb and Bi exhibit negative segregation energy and possibly move to the surface, while Be, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zr exhibit positive segregation energies and migrated into the bulk; (ii) the segregation energy was found to be related with the covalent radius, the relaxed position at the surface of the substituting atom and the surface energy; (iii) the segregation behavior of trace element generates lots of defects and dislocation, which can increase the initial pitting nucleation sites in the surface of aluminum foils; (iv) the impurity atom concentration was tested with Pb-doped surfaces, the calculated negative segregation energies in all coverage increases rapidly with the Pb coverage. These conclusions are helpful for designing of the chemical composition and to advance the tunnel etching of aluminum foils.

  2. Small incision removal of nylon foil orbital implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Catherine Y; Vemuri, Swapna; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2015-01-01

    To describe a small incision technique for the removal of a nylon foil orbital wall implant. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 9 patients who underwent a minimally invasive anterior orbitotomy for nylon foil explantation. Indications for removal and surgical technique, including size of orbitotomy incision and extent of orbital dissection, were recorded. Motility, globe position, strabismus pre- and post procedure, and complications were also assessed. Photographs, videos, and postoperative imaging were included, when available. The indications for removal were adjacent sinusitis (4 cases), undesirable implant position (3), orbital abscess (1), and adjacent orbital emphysema (1). The removal technique was associated with no changes in motility, globe position, or strabismus postprocedure. The average incision size was 1.1 cm, and the procedure was rapid, usually seconds once the anterior aspect of the implant was exposed and grasped with a hemostat. The dissection in all cases was to the anterior aspect of the implant without a need for deep orbital manipulation. The authors demonstrate through video that the implant folds to exit through a small incision. No adverse events were noted. Nasal endoscopy and radiography demonstrated a fibrous capsule that maintained orbital structure and support. Thin nylon foil implant can be explanted safely and efficiently through a very small incision. The orbit maintains structure and configuration postexplantation in this series.

  3. Propulsive performance of pitching foils with variable chordwise flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith; Lehigh University Team

    2017-11-01

    Many swimming and flying animals propel themselves efficiently through water by oscillating flexible fins. These fins are not homogeneously flexible, but instead their flexural stiffness varies along their chord and span. Here we seek to evaluate the effect stiffness profile on the propulsive performance of pitching foils. Stiffness profile characterizes the variation in the local fin stiffness along the chord. To this aim, we developed a low order model of a functionally-graded material where the chordwise flexibility is modeled by two torsional springs along the chordline and the stiffness and location of the springs can be varied arbitrarily. The torsional spring structural model is then strongly coupled to a boundary element fluid model to simulate the fluid-structure interactions. Keeping the leading edge kinematics unchanged, we alter the stiffness profile of the foil and allow it to swim freely in response to the resulting hydrodynamic forces. We then detail the dependency of the hydrodynamic performance and the wake structure to the variations in the local structural properties of the foil.

  4. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  5. Stability of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings: Comparison of two fundamental approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jon S.; Santos, Ilmar F.; von Osmanski, Sebastian

    2016-10-01

    High speed direct drive motors enable the use of Air Foil Bearings (AFB) in a wide range of applications due to the elimination of gear forces. Unfortunately, AFB supported rotors are lightly damped, and an accurate prediction of their Onset Speed of Instability (OSI) is therefore important. This paper compares two fundamental methods for predicting the OSI. One is based on a nonlinear time domain simulation and another is based on a linearised frequency domain method and a perturbation of the Reynolds equation. Both methods are based on equivalent models and should predict similar results. Significant discrepancies are observed leading to the question, is the classical frequency domain method sufficiently accurate? The discrepancies and possible explanations are discussed in detail.

  6. Development of thin foil Faraday collector as a lost alpha particle diagnostic for high yield D-T tokamak fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Belle, P.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Cecil, F.E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Alpha particle confinement is necessary for ignition of a D-T tokamak fusion plasma and for first wall protection. Due to high radiation backgrounds and temperatures, scintillators and semiconductor detectors may not be used to study alpha particles which are lost to the first wall during the D-T programs on JET and ITER. An alternative method of charged particle spectrometry capable of operation in these harsh environments, is proposed: it consists of thin foils of electrically isolated conductors with the flux of alpha particles determined by the positive current flowing from the foils. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  7. The effects of passive foil flexibility on the energy extraction performance of an oscillating foil operating at low reduced frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totpal, Alexander D.; Siala, Firas F.; Liburdy, James A.

    2016-11-01

    With a goal to improve energy extraction efficiency from an oscillating foil, direct aerodynamic force measurements are used to study the effect of surface flexibility of an oscillating foil operating in the energy harvesting regime. The experiments are conducted in a closed-loop wind tunnel at a low reduced frequencies range of 0.04-0.06. The pitching amplitude was varied from 45 to 90 degrees and the phase shift between pitching and heaving motions was varied from 30 to 120 degrees. Three different airfoil configurations were tested: fully rigid, flexible leading edge and flexible trailing edge. In addition, phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were taken at the higher efficiency cases, and are used to help interpret trends seen in the force measurement data. The timing and position of the leading edge vortex along the foil, which has been shown to be crucial to energy extraction, is investigated in order to help explain why certain operating conditions yield larger efficiencies.

  8. CdTe polycrystalline films on Ni foil substrates by screen printing and their photoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Huizhen; Ma, Jinwen; Mu, Yannan; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Liying; Li, Xue; Liu, Li; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The sintered CdTe polycrystalline films by a simple screen printing. • The flexible Ni foil was chose as substrates to reduce the weight of the electrode. • The compact CdTe film was obtained at 550 °C sintering temperature. • The photoelectric activity of the CdTe polycrystalline films was excellent. - Abstract: CdTe polycrystalline films were prepared on flexible Ni foil substrates by sequential screen printing and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere for the first time. The effect of temperature on the quality of the screen-printed film was investigated in our work. The high-quality CdTe films were obtained after sintering at 550 °C for 2 h. The properties of the sintered CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV–visible spectroscopy. The high-quality CdTe films have the photocurrent was 2.04 mA/cm 2 , which is higher than that of samples prepared at other temperatures. Furthermore, CdCl 2 treatment reduced the band gap of the CdTe film due to the larger grain size. The photocurrent of photoelectrode based on high crystalline CdTe polycrystalline films after CdCl 2 treatment improved to 2.97 mA/cm 2 , indicating a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  9. SMA Foils for MEMS: From Material Properties to the Engineering of Microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Manfred; Ossmer, Hinnerk; Gueltig, Marcel; Megnin, Christof

    2017-12-01

    In the early nineties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has been still in its infancy. As silicon (Si) is not a transducer material, it was clear at the very beginning that mechanically active materials had to be introduced to MEMS in order to enable functional microdevices with actuation capability beyond electrostatics. At that time, shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been available in bulk form, mainly as SMA wires and SMA plates. On the macro scale, these materials show highest work densities compared to other actuation principles in the order of 107 J/m3, which stimulated research on the integration of SMA to MEMS. Subsequently, two approaches for producing planar materials have been initiated (1) magnetron sputtering of SMA thin films and (2) the integration of rolled SMA foils, which both turned out to be very successful creating a paradigm change in microactuation technology. The following review covers important milestones of the research and development of SMA foil-based microactuators including materials characterization, design engineering, technology, and demonstrator development as well as first commercial products.

  10. Principle of coincidence method and application in activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mou; Dai Yihua; Ni Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of coincidence method was discussed. The basic principle was generalized by analysing the actual example, and the condition in theory of coincidence method was brought forward. The cause of variation of efficiency curve and the effect of dead-time in activity measurement were explained using the above principle and condition. This principle of coincidence method provides the foundation in theory for activity measurement. (authors)

  11. Vacuum deposition onto webs, films and foils

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition is the technology that applies an even coating to a flexible material that can be held on a roll and provides a much faster and cheaper method of bulk coating than deposition onto single pieces or non-flexible surfaces, such as glass. This technology has been used in industrial-scale applications for some time, including a wide range of metalized packaging (e.g. snack packets). Its potential as a high-speed, scalable process has seen an increasing range of new products emerging that employ this cost-effective technology: solar energy products are moving from rigid panels onto flexible substrates, which are cheaper and more versatile; in a similar way, electronic circuit 'boards' can be produced on a flexible polymer, creating a new range of 'flexible electronics' products; and, flexible displays are another area of new technology in vacuum coating, with flexible display panels and light sources emerging. Charles Bishop has written this book to meet the need he identified, as a t...

  12. A process for embedding fiber Bragg gratings in flexible skin foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. F.; Goncalves, F.; Ferreira, L. A.; Araujo, F. M.; Mendes, P. M.; Correia, J. H.

    2010-09-01

    Optical fiber sensors are increasingly used for monitoring purposes, but flexible smart structures based in this type of technology have many industrial applications. This paper explores a new approach for integrating optical fiber sensors in flexible substrates that can be mounted in host structures to monitor. This approach combines two well establish components, Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and flexible skin-foils. A three-layer foil construction based on the spread-coating process was defined, in which the fiber was embedded in the middle layer. Such disposition ensured protection to the optical fiber element without reducing the sensitivity to external stimulus. The functional prototypes were subject to thermal and mechanical tests, in which its performance was evaluated. The smart structure behaves linearly to temperature cycles by 0.01 nm/°C and is able to withstand high strain cycles without affecting the measurement characteristics. The obtained results validated this approach. In addition, the flexibility of the explored method allows custom fiber layouts, finishing patterns and colors, enabling this way a range of possible application fields.

  13. Development of Gating Foils To Inhibit Ion Feedback Using FPC Production Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, D.; Ikematsu, K.; Sugiyama, A.; Iwamura, M.; Koto, A.; Katsuki, K.; Fujii, K.; Matsuda, T.

    2018-02-01

    Positive ion feedback from a gas amplification device to the drift region of the Time Projection Chamber for the ILC can deteriorate the position resolution. In order to inhibit the feedback ions, MPGD-based gating foils having good electron transmission have been developed to be used instead of the conventional wire gate. The gating foil needs to control the electric field locally in opening or closing the gate. The gating foil with a GEM (gas electron multiplier)-like structure has larger holes and smaller thickness than standard GEMs for gas amplification. It is known that the foil transmits over 80 % of electrons and blocks ions almost completely. We have developed the gating foils using flexible printed circuit (FPC) production techniques including an improved single-mask process. In this paper, we report on the production technique of 335 μm pitch, 12.5 μm thick gating foil with 80 % transmittance of electrons in ILC conditions.

  14. Control of Oscillating Foil for Propulsion of Biorobotic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the question of control of a laterally and rotationally oscillating hydrofoil for the propulsion of biologically inspired robotic (biorobotic autonomous underwater vehicles (BAUVs. Sinusoidal oscillations of foils produce maneuvering and propulsive forces. The design is based on the internal model principle. Two springs are used to transmit forces from the actuators to the foil. Oscillating fins produce periodic forces, which can be used for fish-like propulsion and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs. The equations of motion of the foil include hydrodynamic lift and moment based on linear, unsteady, aerodynamic theory. A control law is derived for the lateral and rotational sinusoidal oscillation of the foil. In the closed-loop system, the lateral displacement and the rotational angle of the foil asymptotically follow sinusoidal trajectories of distinct frequencies and amplitudes independently. Simulation results are presented to show the trajectory tracking performance of the foil for different freestream velocities and sinusoidal command trajectories.

  15. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; van Trappen, P

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H− beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H− charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H− into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters.

  16. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, W.; Bracco, C.; Noulibos, R.; Sillanoli, Y.; Trappen van, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H - beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H - charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H - into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters. (author)

  17. A code to determine the energy distribution, the incident energy and the flux of a beam of light ions into a stack of foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.; Romo, A.S.M.A.; Frosch, W.R.; Nassiff, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The stacked-foil technique is one of the most used methods to obtain excitation functions of nuclear reactions using light ions as projectiles. The purpose of this program is the calculation of the energy of the beam in the stack, as well as to obtain the incident energy and the flux of the beam by using monitor excitation functions. (orig.)

  18. Estimation of Organ Activity using Four Different Methods of Background Correction in Conjugate View Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanei, Ahmad; Afshin, Maryam; Moslehi, Masoud; Rastaghi, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    To make an accurate estimation of the uptake of radioactivity in an organ using the conjugate view method, corrections of physical factors, such as background activity, scatter, and attenuation are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of four different methods for background correction in activity quantification of the heart in myocardial perfusion scans. The organ activity was calculated using the conjugate view method. A number of 22 healthy volunteers were injected with 17-19 mCi of (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) at rest or during exercise. Images were obtained by a dual-headed gamma camera. Four methods for background correction were applied: (1) Conventional correction (referred to as the Gates' method), (2) Buijs method, (3) BgdA subtraction, (4) BgdB subtraction. To evaluate the accuracy of these methods, the results of the calculations using the above-mentioned methods were compared with the reference results. The calculated uptake in the heart using conventional method, Buijs method, BgdA subtraction, and BgdB subtraction methods was 1.4 ± 0.7% (P 0.05), 3.1 ± 0.8% (P > 0.05), 1.9 ± 0.8% (P method used. Comparison among the four different methods of background activity correction applied in this study showed that the Buijs method was the most suitable method for background correction in myocardial perfusion scan.

  19. Transmission of Fast Highly Charged Ions through a Single Glass Macrocapillary and Polycarbonate Nanocapillary Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyad, A. M.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Keerthisinghe, D.; DeSilva, G. G.; Elkafrawy, T.; Kayani, N.; Tanis, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    Transmission of 3 MeV protons and 16 MeV O5+ ions through a single glass macrocapillary and a polycarbonate nanocapillary foil has been investigated. Results show that 3 MeV protons transmit through the capillary and the foils with little or no energy loss, while 16 MeV O5+ ions show transmission through the capillary and the foil with energy losses that vary with the tilt angle, and there are also changes in the charge state.

  20. X-Ray Measurements Of Total Reflectivity And Scattering From Au-Coated Foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Allan; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    We present X-ray measurements of total reflectivity and scattering from gold coated foils. The foils are two sorts of 0.3 mm thick dip-lacquered aluminum, 0.125 mm thick plastic (Upilex) and 0.5 mm thick dip-lacquered nickel. The analysis of the data show a high reflectivity for all but the plastic...... foil, and only small microroughness (-10A at lengthscales below -0.1 micron), evidenced by low resolution scat-tering measurements....

  1. Beam-foil-gas spectroscopy - A technique for studying steady-state non-equilibrium processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, W. S.; Veje, E.; Carriveau, G.; Anderson, N.

    1971-01-01

    When a thin foil is inserted in the beam of a beam-gas experiment, the beam particle state populations are driven far from their beam-gas equilibrium values. Downstream from the foil, the 'new beam' and gas species interact to produce a new equilibrium, usually different from the beam-gas equilibrium. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate this effect and to show how relative cross-section measurements can be used to study the beam-foil interaction.

  2. Stripping Foil Issues for H- Injection into the CERN PSB at 160 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Bracco, C; Carli, C; Meddahi, M; Weterings, W J M

    2010-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the 160 MeV PSB H- injection systems are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The different beam loss mechanisms are quantified in the context of the aperture limits, operational considerations and collimation requirements.

  3. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a rigid rotor supported by air foil bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Hansen, Asger J. T.; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of compressors utilizing foil bearings is increasing. Their mechanical design is challenging, and an accurate prediction of the bearing coefficients is important. A mathematical model taking into account the foil structure, and the detailed geometry of a three pad foil bearing are ...... for the first order equation. Calculated bearing coefficients are compared to experimental results obtained from a dedicated test rig. Generally, good agreement is observed and minor discrepancies for the damping coefficients are discussed....

  4. Electrocatalytic preparation of silicon foils for solar cells; Elektrokatalytische Herstellung von Silizium-Folien fuer Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrler, M.; Grueniger, H.R.; Rys, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Lab. fuer Technische Chemie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1993-07-15

    The electrical-catalytic manufactured silicon foils are a micro-crystalline porous material with a crystal size of 15-20 nm and an average pore size of 60 nm. The density is 65% of that of crystalline silicon. The silicon manufactured in this manner is of the p type. n type material was manufactured by means of neutron activation. Electrical and optical measurements show that the mobility of the charge carriers is significantly reduced by the crystalline borders. The crystalline borders, furthermore, cause a strong recombination of the charge carriers. The first solar cells, which were manufactured exclusively of electrical-catalytic manufactured silicon, and whose pn transfer was manufactured by means of neutron activation, showed an open-circuit voltage of 120-200 mV. (author) figs., tabs., 25 refs.

  5. Large-area monolayer hexagonal boron nitride on Pt foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jin Cheol; Yun, Seok Joon; Kim, Hyun; Luong, Dinh Hoa; Kim, Soo Min; Choi, Soo Ho; Yang, Woochul; Kong, Jing; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-08-26

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has recently been in the spotlight due to its numerous applications including its being an ideal substrate for two-dimensional electronics, a tunneling material for vertical tunneling devices, and a growth template for heterostructures. However, to obtain a large area of h-BN film while maintaining uniform thickness is still challenging and has not been realized. Here, we report the systematical study of h-BN growth on Pt foil by using low pressure chemical vapor deposition with a borazine source. The monolayer h-BN film was obtained over the whole Pt foil (2 × 5 cm(2)) under foil size. A borazine source was catalytically decomposed on the Pt surface, leading to the self-limiting growth of the monolayer without the associating precipitation, which is very similar to the growth of graphene on Cu. The orientation of the h-BN domains was largely confined by the Pt domain, which is confirmed by polarizing optical microscopy (POM) assisted by the nematic liquid crystal (LC) film. The total pressure and orientation of the Pt lattice plane are crucial parameters for thickness control. At high pressure (∼0.5 Torr), thick film was grown on Pt (111), and in contrast, thin film was grown on Pt (001). Our advances in monolayer h-BN growth will play an important role to further develop a high quality h-BN film that can be used for vertical tunneling, optoelectronic devices and growth templates for a variety of heterostructures.

  6. Effect of thermocycling on the shear bond strength of different resins bonded to thermoplastic foil applied in occlusal splint therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Boening, Klaus W; Richter, Gert; Wieckiewicz, Wlodzimierz

    2015-04-01

    Temporomandibular disorders are a group of symptoms related to the impaired function of the temporomandibular joints and associated muscles. Occlusal splint therapy is a common treatment in the aforementioned syndrome. One of the methods of manufacturing occlusal splints is to place a polymer on thermoplastic foil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of light- and self-cured resins bonded to thermoplastic foil dependent on artificial aging. Thirty cylinders composed of light-cured resin and 30 cylinders made of self-cured resin were attached to 60 rectangular thermoplastic plates. All specimens were divided into six groups. A control study was conducted for groups 1 and 2. The other preparation groups were subjected to thermocycling by setting appropriately 1000 cycles for groups 3 and 4 and 3000 cycles for groups 5 and 6 in distilled water. Bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney U test (p ≤ 0.05). The statistics revealed that the values of the shear bond strength for specimens composed of self-cured resin after 1000 and 3000 thermocycles were significantly higher than on those made of light-cured resin (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002). The shear bond strength between the self-cured resin and the thermoplastic foil was higher and more resistant to aging than the shear bond strength between the light-cured resin and the thermoplastic foil. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Foil system fatigue load environments for commercial hydrofoil operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrofoil fatigue loads environment in the open sea is examined. The random nature of wave orbital velocities, periods and heights plus boat heading, speed and control system design are considered in the assessment of structural fatigue requirements. Major nonlinear load events such as hull slamming and foil unwetting are included in the fatigue environment. Full scale rough water load tests, field experience plus analytical loads work on the model 929 Jetfoil commercial hydrofoil are discussed. The problem of developing an overall sea environment for design is defined. State of the art analytical approaches are examined.

  8. Critical mass experiment using U-235 foils and lucite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Butterfield, K.; Kimpland, R.; Jaegers, P.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to show how the multiplication of the system increases as moderated material is placed between highly enriched uranium foils. In addition, this experiment served to demonstrate the hand-stacking techniques, and approach to criticality by remote operation. This experiment was designed by Tom McLaughlin in the mid seventies as part of the criticality safety course that is taught at Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF). The W-U-235 ratio for this experiment was 215 which is where the minimum critical mass for this configuration occurs

  9. Optical observations of molecular dissociation in thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Gay, T.J.; Brooks, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have measured the intensity and polarizations of light emitted from atomic excited states of dissociated molecular ions. Using HeH + projectiles, we have observed factors of 1-5 enhancements of the light from n=3, sup(1,3)P,D states of He I and some He II and H I emissions. Observations of Lyman alpha emission after dissociation of H 2 + and H 3 + show rapid variations in light yield for small internuclear separations at the foil surface. (author)

  10. Prediction of Gas Lubricated Foil Journal Bearing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Marc; Talmage, Gita

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress in the first eight months of the project. The objectives of this research project are to theoretically predict the steady operating conditions and the rotor dynamic coefficients of gas foil journal bearings. The project is currently on or ahead of schedule with the development of a finite element code that predicts steady bearing performance characteristics such as film thickness, pressure, load, and drag. Graphical results for a typical bearing are presented in the report. Project plans for the next year are discussed.

  11. Aluminium foil as a single-use substrate for MALDI-MS fingerprinting of different melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, A; Zhu, Y; Qiao, L; Cortés Salazar, F; Pick, H; Girault, H H

    2016-05-23

    Herein, we present the intact cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the fingerprinting of human melanoma cancer cell lines grown on aluminium foil. To perform the MALDI-MS assay, melanoma cells were cultured on a flat and thin foil, which was directly transferred to the target plate of MALDI-MS for analysis. The influence of a wide range of cell fixation protocols (i.e. formalin-based and alcohol-based methods) and MALDI matrices on the obtained characteristic spectra was investigated. For the optimization of the MALDI-MS protocol, the MS fingerprints of the melanoma WM-239 cell line with and without an overexpressed enhanced green fluorescent protein were employed. The fingerprints obtained from WM-239 cells grown on aluminium foil were compared with the intact cell MALDI-MS of the cell pellet and presented higher sensitivity in a high m/z range. The optimized protocol was subsequently applied to characterise melanoma cell lines derived from different cancer stages and allowed identification of unique MS signals that could be used for differentiation between the studied cell lines (i.e. molecular weight equal to 10.0 kDa and 26.1 kDa).

  12. A novel monolithic LEU foil target based on a PVD manufacturing process for 99Mo production via fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmer, Tobias; Petry, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    99 Mo is the most widely used radioactive isotope in nuclear medicine. Its main production route is the fission of uranium. A major challenge for a reliable supply is the conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A promising candidate to realize this conversion is the cylindrical LEU irradiation target. The target consists of a uranium foil encapsulated between two coaxial aluminum cladding cylinders. This target allows a separate processing of the irradiated uranium foil and the cladding when recovering the 99 Mo. Thereby, both the costs and the volume of highly radioactive liquid waste are significantly reduced compared to conventional targets. The presented manufacturing process is based on the direct coating of the uranium on the inside of the outer cladding cylinder. This process was realized by a cylindrical magnetron enhanced physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The method features a highly automated process, a good quality of the resulting uranium foils and a high material utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methods and Software Architecture for Activity Recognition from Position Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Torben

    rates -- both in an offline setup as well as in real-time with continuously streamed data. In real-time, I am able to classify the five activities with success rates of: 97.8%, 85.2%, 84%, 93.7% and 72.2%, respectively, with a weighted average of 90.6%. Moreover, when doing the classification offline, I......This thesis describes my studies on the subject of recognizing cow activities from satellite based position data. The studies comprise methods and software architecture for activity recognition from position data, applied to cow activity recognition. The development of methods and software...... architecture is the first step towards a decision support system for dairy farmers. The system is to include a component for recognition of cow activities. The decision support system will -- in its final version -- convert the result of the activity recognition to knowledge about the cows' individual behavior...

  14. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  15. Forms and Methods of Agricultural Sector Innovative Activity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha S. Ablyaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on basic forms and methods to improve the efficiency of innovative activity in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. It was determined that the development of agriculture in Ukraine is affected by a number of factors that must be considered to design innovative models of entrepreneurship development and ways to improve the efficiency of innovative entrepreneurship activity.

  16. Social Activity Method (SAM): A Fractal Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I shall present and develop my organisational language, "social activity method" (SAM), and illustrate some of its applications. I shall introduce a new scheme for "modes of recontextualisation" that enables the analysis of the ways in which one activity--which might be school mathematics or social research or any…

  17. An active vibration control method of bridge structures by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An active vibration control method of bridge structures by the linearization of feedback gain matrix. ... methods, the efficiency of the proposed linearization is more compatible to the control of civil structures and has many advantages according to simulation results obtained through sinusoidal and earthquake excitations.

  18. Viscometric method for assaying of total endodepolymerase activity of pectinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, A V; Markov, A V; Grishutin, S G; Semenova, M V; Kondratyeva, E G; Sinitsyn, A P

    2002-06-01

    An improved method for assaying of the total endodepolymerase activity of pectinases has been developed. The method is based on the determination of the viscosity of a citrus pectin solution in the presence of the enzyme using an Ostwald viscometer. The depolymerizing activity of different pectinases can be detected including polygalacturonase, polymethylgalacturonase, pectin lyase, and pectate lyase. One unit of the endodepolymerase activity corresponds to the activity resulting in 50% decrease in the relative viscosity of 0.5% citrus pectin solution for 5 min at 40 degrees C and the appropriate pH. Depending on the pH-optima of the enzymes, two modifications of the method are described: 1) for acid pectinases at pH 5.0, and 2) for neutral (mildly alkaline) pectinases at pH 8.0. The modifications differed in the control and in the calculation of the activity. Six enzyme preparations were used to demonstrate the applicability of the method. The parameter used for the calculation of the enzymatic activity was directly proportional to the enzyme concentration (the dependence was linear in the range of at least 10-fold change in the enzyme concentration). The relative error of the method did not exceed 10%.

  19. Kinetics of the oxidation of Zn foils in air atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, R; Martinez, J [Centro de Investigacion de Dispositivos Semiconductores, BUAP, Puebla. C.P. 72570 (Mexico); Kryshtab, T [Departamento de Ciencias de Materiales, ESFM - IPN, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Juarez, G; Solache, H; Andraca, J; Garcia, O; Pena-Sierra, R, E-mail: rbaca02006@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-02-15

    The formation kinetics of ZnO thin films grown by oxidation of polycrystalline Zn foils in air atmosphere at temperatures below the melting point is reported. Previous to the oxidation process the Zn foils were polished to produce mirror-like finished surfaces. The growth rate of the ZnO films was monitored by ellipsometric measurements. The growth rate of the ZnO films under 100 nm follows a linear and parabolic behavior in accordance with previously reported studies. The thicknesses of the films strongly influence the appearance of the final produced ZnO surface. The ZnO films surfaces with thicknesses less than 100 nm resulted uniform with low rms roughness. However as the films become thicker the rms roughness increased and a uniform distribution of whiskers was observed. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) studies were done on the ZnO films to find out their structural and optical characteristics. PL spectra on the films are composed by two main bands; a weak near-band gap in the ultraviolet region and a strong but well defined green band. A discussion is included on the origins of the observed PL spectra.

  20. Modelling Accumulator Stripper Foil Heating for ESSNUSB Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Michel

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to use the 2.0 GeV, 5 MW proton linac, 2.86 ms long pulses at 14 Hz of the European Spallation Source [1], [2] being built in Lund, Sweden to deliver, alternately with the spallation neutron production a very intense neutrino beam to enable the discovery of leptonic CP violation. To this end the linac would be upgraded to supply, in addition to the 2.86 ms long proton pulses at 14 Hz, four 0.72 ms H short pulses at 70 Hz for neutrino production. Because of the high current required in the pulsed neutrino horn, the length of the pulses used for neutrino production will need to be compressed to a few s with the aid of an accumulator ring. Charge exchange injection of an H- beam from the linac will be used, the linac delivering 1.1E15 H- per pulse. This paper is about stripping foil heating considerations, emphasizing the detailed evaluation of the foil temperature over the multiple ring re-fills

  1. Effect of defence response time during lunge in foil fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cruz, Carmen; Rojas, F Javier; Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of stimulus change timing on reaction response time parameters, horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (CM) and precision during offensive actions in fencing. Twelve fencers from the Spanish National Foil Team were included in the study. Two 500 Hz force plates were used to register the horizontal component of the reaction force while a 3D video camera set at 250 Hz recorded the spatial position of 11 body markers and a projector connected to a programmed stopwatch projected a moving target (stimulus) on a screen. When the circle (target) appeared in the centre of the plastron, fencers had to execute a step-forward-lunge as fast as possible, trying to touch the circle with the tip of the foil. During the lunge, the position of the target could randomly shift or not to three different positions. The stimulus change was performed randomly at four different times with a progressive delay. The results show that target changes did not have any effect when they occurred at the beginning of the movement sequence. However, when the target change was delayed, reaction and movement times increased and the technical execution of the lunge changed, leading to more errors.

  2. Pengaruh Posisi Foil Terhadap Gaya Angkat Dan Hambatan Kapal Katamaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizki Darmawan Adi Kusuma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi dalam dunia perkapalan terjadi sangat pesat, mulanya kapal memiliki satu lambung (monohull, kemudian berkembang dengan munculnya kapal katamaran atau memiliki dua lambung, kapal katamaran memiliki banyak kelebihan dibanding dengan monohull mulai dari segi hambatan, olah gerak, dan lain-lain. Kapal katamaran akhirnya dikembangkan lagi dengan menjadikannya kapal hydrofoil yang bertujuan untuk mengurangi hambatan. Hydrofoil adalah sebuah kapal dengan bagian seperti sayap yang dipasang pada penyangga di bawah lambung kapal yang digunakan untuk mengangkat lambung kapal, pada saat kapal mencapai kecepatan tinggi yang menyebabkan pengurangan hambatan. Pada penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konfigurasi posisi foil yang menghasilkan gaya angkat paling besar serta hambatan yang paling kecil. Dalam melaksanakan penelitian ini penulis menggunakan program komputer berbasis Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD untuk penyelesaian masalah dari tujuan penelitian, Computational fluid dynamic(CFD merupakan ilmu sains dalam penentuan penyelesaian numerik dinamika fluida.Penelitian dilakukan dengan cara menganalisa dan menghitung hambatan total kapal menggunakan model.Berdasarkan hasil analisa menggunakan software Tdyn 12.2.3.0 didapatkan nilai hambatan untuk berbagai variasi konfigurasi foil. Nilai hambatan total dapat diperkecil  hingga 37,56%, nilai ini terjadi pada Froude Number 1,737 pada variasi konfigurasi Canard dengan konfigurasi 65%(aft dan 35%(fore.

  3. System requirements for the Los Alamos foil-implosion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.; Lindemuth, I.; Nickel, G.; Oliphant, T.; Weiss, D.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of the Los Alamos imploding foil project is the development of an intense source of soft x rays and hot plasma produced from the thermalization of 1 to 10 MJ of plasma kinetic energy. The source will be used for material studies and fusion experiments. Specifically, thin, current-carrying cylindrical metallic plasmas are imploded via their self-magnetic forces. Features of this project are the use of high-explosive-driven flux-compression generators as the prime power source to achieve very high energies and fast opening switches to shorten the electrical pulses. To reach a load kinetic energy of 10 MJ, it is expected that the foil-plasma must carry about 50 MA of current and must implode in less than 1/2 μsec. This imposes the requirements that switch opening times must be less than 1/2 μsec and the transmission line must withstand voltages of about 1 MV. The system being pursued at Los Alamos is described, and model calculations are presented

  4. Kinetics of the oxidation of Zn foils in air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, R.; Juárez, G.; Solache, H.; Andraca, J.; Martinez, J.; Garcia, O.; Kryshtab, T.; Peña-Sierra, R.

    2010-02-01

    The formation kinetics of ZnO thin films grown by oxidation of polycrystalline Zn foils in air atmosphere at temperatures below the melting point is reported. Previous to the oxidation process the Zn foils were polished to produce mirror-like finished surfaces. The growth rate of the ZnO films was monitored by ellipsometric measurements. The growth rate of the ZnO films under 100 nm follows a linear and parabolic behavior in accordance with previously reported studies. The thicknesses of the films strongly influence the appearance of the final produced ZnO surface. The ZnO films surfaces with thicknesses less than 100 nm resulted uniform with low rms roughness. However as the films become thicker the rms roughness increased and a uniform distribution of whiskers was observed. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) studies were done on the ZnO films to find out their structural and optical characteristics. PL spectra on the films are composed by two main bands; a weak near-band gap in the ultraviolet region and a strong but well defined green band. A discussion is included on the origins of the observed PL spectra.

  5. Monte Carlo transport of electrons and positrons through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Idoeta, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the different measurements made with electrons traversing matter it becomes useful the knowledge of its transmission through that medium, their paths and their angular distribution through matter so as to process and get information about the traversed medium and to improve and innovate the techniques that employ electrons, as medical applications or materials irradiation. This work presents a simulation of the transport of beams of electrons and positrons through thin foils using an analog Monte Carlo code that simulates in a detailed way every electron movement or interaction in matter. As those particles penetrate thin absorbers it has been assumed that they interact with matter only through elastic scattering, with negligible energy loss. This type of interaction has been described quite precisely because its angular form influences very much the angular distribution of electrons and positrons in matter. With this code it has been calculated the number of particles, with energies between 100 and 3000 keV, that are transmitted through different media of various thicknesses as well as its angular distribution, showing a good agreement with experimental data. The discrepancies are less than 5% for thicknesses lower than about 30% of the corresponding range in the tested material. As elastic scattering is very anisotropic, angular distributions resemble a collimated incident beam for very thin foils becoming slowly more isotropic when absorber thickness is increased. (author)

  6. Application of thin layer activation method to industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masago; Hatakeyama, Noriko

    1996-01-01

    A thin layer activation method was reviewed for non-destructive, rapid, precise and real-time measurement of wear and corrosion. The review included wear measurement, the principle of the method, actual measurement, application, and laws and regulations. The method is to activate the material surface alone by accelerated ions like p, d and He ions produced by cyclotron, Van de Graaf apparatus or other accelerators and to utilize the yielded radioisotopes as a tracer, is widely used in the tribology field, and is more useful than the previous method with the reactor since it activated the whole material. Application of the method was reportedly resulted in saving the 80% cost and 90% time in the wear measurement of automobile parts such as engine and transmission. Actually, the activated material was combined into the part to be run and the radioactivity was to be measured externally or in the worn particles suitably collected. The activation thickness was generally in the range of 10-200 μm and the resultant radioactivity, 0.2-2 MBq. In most cases in Japan, the method would be under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc. (K.H.)

  7. Foil-hole and data image quality assessment in 3DEM: Towards high-throughput image acquisition in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, J; Franken, E; Sorzano, C O S; Gomez-Blanco, J; Schoenmakers, R; Koster, A J; Carazo, J M

    2016-12-01

    Automatic or semiautomatic data collection approaches on a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for Single Particle Analysis, capable of acquiring large datasets composed of only high quality images, are of great importance to obtain 3D density maps with the highest resolution possible. Typically, this task is performed by an experienced microscopist, who manually decides to keep or discard images according to subjective criteria. Therefore, this methodology is slow, intensive in human work and subjective. In this work, we propose a method to automatically or semiautomatically perform this image selection task. The approach is based on some simple, fast and effective image quality descriptors, which can be computed during acquisition, to characterize foil-hole and data images. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate the quality of different datasets consisting of foil-hole and data images obtained with a FEI Titan Krios electron microscope. The results show that the proposed method is very effective evaluating the quality of foil-hole and data images, as well as predicting the quality of the data images from the foil-hole images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of isomers by the cyclic activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaita, G.N.; Eapen, P.K.

    1974-01-01

    The isomeric states formation cross sections for 14.8 MeV neutron reactions in Mg, Al, As, Y, In, Hf, Tl, Pb, and Bi were measured using the cyclic activation technique and a high resolution Ge(Li) detector. Isomeric activities originating from the various isotopes of lead and thallium were separated by proper choice of cyclic timing parameters and energy discrimination. Long lived isomeric and ground state activities were investigated through conventional activation method. The isomeric cross section ratios, sigma/sub m//sigma/sub g/ for six elements, were measured and compared to the theoretical predictions of the Huizenga-Vandenbosch method. The half-lives of short-lived activities were determined using a wide range time-to-pulse height converter and a multi-channel analyzer

  9. How Thin Is Foil? Applying Density to Find the Thickness of Aluminum Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, I show how high school students apply their knowledge of density to solve an unknown variable, such as thickness. Students leave this activity with a better understanding of density, the knowledge that density is a characteristic property of a given substance, and the ways density can be measured. (Contains 4 figures and 1 table.)

  10. Different Activation Techniques for the Study of Epithermal Spectra, Applied to Heavy Water Lattices of Varying Fuel-To-Moderator Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, E.K.

    1966-06-15

    Spectral indices at the cell boundary have been studied as functions of lattice pitch in the reference core of the Swedish R0 reactor. Epithermal indices were determined by activation of In{sup 115}, employing three different techniques: the two-foil, the cadmium ratio and the sandwich foil methods. The latter of these has the advantage of being independent of assumptions about foil cross sections or spectral functions, and it gives a spectrum index that lends itself readily to comparisons with theoretical multigroup calculations. Alternatively the results can be expressed in terms of the Westcott parameters r and T{sub n} when this is justified by the spectral conditions. The agreement between the three methods investigated is generally good. Good agreement is also found with multigroup collision.

  11. Polymer-ZnO nanocomposites foils and thin films for UV protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanshool, Haider Mohammed; Yahaya, Muhammad; Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat

    2014-01-01

    The damage of UV radiation on human eye and skin is extensively studied. In the present work, the nanocomposites foils and thin films have been prepared by using casting method and spin coating, respectively. Nanocomposites were prepared by mixing ZnO nanoparticles with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as polymer matrix. Different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were used as filler in the nanocomposites. UV-Vis spectra showed very low transmittance in UV region that decreases with increase content of ZnO. PVDF/ZnO samples showed the lowest transmittance. The rough surface of PVDF was observed from SEM image. While a homogeneous dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in PMMA were indicated by FESEM images

  12. Polymer-ZnO nanocomposites foils and thin films for UV protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, Haider Mohammed; Yahaya, Muhammad; Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The damage of UV radiation on human eye and skin is extensively studied. In the present work, the nanocomposites foils and thin films have been prepared by using casting method and spin coating, respectively. Nanocomposites were prepared by mixing ZnO nanoparticles with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as polymer matrix. Different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were used as filler in the nanocomposites. UV-Vis spectra showed very low transmittance in UV region that decreases with increase content of ZnO. PVDF/ZnO samples showed the lowest transmittance. The rough surface of PVDF was observed from SEM image. While a homogeneous dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in PMMA were indicated by FESEM images.

  13. Polymer-ZnO nanocomposites foils and thin films for UV protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanshool, Haider Mohammed; Yahaya, Muhammad; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya

    2014-09-01

    The damage of UV radiation on human eye and skin is extensively studied. In the present work, the nanocomposites foils and thin films have been prepared by using casting method and spin coating, respectively. Nanocomposites were prepared by mixing ZnO nanoparticles with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as polymer matrix. Different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were used as filler in the nanocomposites. UV-Vis spectra showed very low transmittance in UV region that decreases with increase content of ZnO. PVDF/ZnO samples showed the lowest transmittance. The rough surface of PVDF was observed from SEM image. While a homogeneous dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in PMMA were indicated by FESEM images.

  14. Suppressing propylene carbonate decomposition by coating graphite electrode foil with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.P.; Fu, L.J.; Zhang, T.; Wu, Y.P.; Takamura, T.; Wu, H.Q.; Holze, R.

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to suppress the decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) by coating graphite electrode foil with a layer of silver. Results from electrochemical impedance measurements show that the Ag-coated graphite electrode presents lower charge transfer resistance and faster diffusion of lithium ions in comparison with the virginal one. Cyclic voltammograms and discharge-charge measurements suggest that the decomposition of propylene carbonate and co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions are prevented, and lithium ions can reversibly intercalate into and deintercalate from the Ag-coated graphite electrode. These results indicate that Ag-coating is a good way to improve the electrochemical performance of graphitic carbon in PC-based electrolyte solutions

  15. Ion track symmetric and asymmetric nanopores in polyethylene terephthalate foils for versatile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, P.Yu., E-mail: apel@nrmail.jinr.ru [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); The International University “Dubna”, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Blonskaya, I.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Orelovich, O.L. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Sartowska, B.A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna Str. 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-12-15

    In this report we present several fabrication methods which allow production of ion track nanopore membranes with different pore configurations. Polymer foils, typically polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 5–23 μm, are irradiated with accelerated heavy ions (energy of 1–10 MeV/u) and then subjected to different physico-chemical treatments. Depending on the procedure, symmetric or asymmetric pores with nanoscale-sized narrowing are obtained. The asymmetric configurations include conical, funnel-like and bullet-like shapes. In electrolyte solutions the asymmetric nanopores exhibit diode-like properties which strongly depend on the pore shape. The peculiar features of such pores provide a basis for various applications.

  16. Magnetic moment of $^{17}$Ne using beta -NMR and tilted foil polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Baby, L T; Hass, M; Haas, H; Weissman, L; Brown, B A

    2004-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the magnetic moment of the ground state of /sup 17/Ne. Radioactive /sup 17/Ne nuclei were delivered from the high resolution mass separator at ISOLDE onto a high voltage platform at -200 kV and were polarized using the tilted foil polarization method. The polarized nuclei were implanted into a Pt stopper situated in a liquid-helium cooled beta -NMR apparatus and the asymmetry destruction of the ensuing beta rays was monitored as a function of the rf frequency applied to the polarized nuclei. The measured value of mu = 0.74 +or- 0.03 affirms the nu p/sub 1/2//sup - / nature of the ground state of /sup 17/Ne and is compared to shell model calculations. (10 refs).

  17. Optimizing dc-resistance of a foil wounded toroidal inductor combining matlab and comsol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    An optimization routine is presented to optimize the shape of a foil winding of a toroid inductor in terms of the DC resistance. MATLAB was used to define the geometry of the foil winding and COMSOL was used to import the geometry and create a 3D finite element model. The initial parameters...

  18. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  19. Large area flexible lighting foils using distributed bare LED dies on polyester substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and for backlights for flexible displays. Such a large area lighting device can be made by integrating a matrix of closely spaced LEDs on a flexible foil substrate. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated

  20. Vortex-wake interactions of a flapping foil that models animal swimming and flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Muijres, F.T.; Donker-Duyvis, F.J.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The fluid dynamics of many swimming and flying animals involves the generation and shedding of vortices into the wake. Here we studied the dynamics of similar vortices shed by a simple two-dimensional flapping foil in a soap-film tunnel. The flapping foil models an animal wing, fin or tail in

  1. Long-Term Memory for Pictures under Conditions of Difficult Foil Discriminability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Donald; Viera, Cynthia

    Research has demonstrated that subjects are sensitive to both thematic and non-thematic information in pictorial stimuli. Three experiments were conducted to investigate memory for pictures under conditions of difficult foil discriminability and lengthy retention intervals. The foils differed from the studied persons in the number and quality of…

  2. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: Thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an

  3. Identification of stiffness and damping characteristics of axial air-foil bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, Vikas; Arora, Vikas; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; de Boer, Andries

    2011-01-01

    Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost “top foil” layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. AFBs are currently used in

  4. Activation method for measuring the neutron spectra parameters. Computer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, B.V.; Ionov, V.S.; Konyaev, S.I.; Marin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The description of mathematical statement of a task for definition the spectral characteristics of neutron fields with use developed in RRC KI unified activation detectors (UKD) is resulted. The method of processing of results offered by authors activation measurements and calculation of the parameters used for an estimation of the neutron spectra characteristics is discussed. Features of processing of the experimental data received at measurements of activation with using UKD are considered. Activation detectors UKD contain a little bit specially the picked up isotopes giving at irradiation peaks scale of activity in the common spectrum scale of activity. Computing processing of results of the measurements is applied on definition of spectrum parameters for nuclear reactor installations with thermal and close to such power spectrum of neutrons. The example of the data processing, the measurements received at carrying out at RRC KI research reactor F-1 is resulted [ru

  5. Irradiation tests of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Suripto, A.; Nasution, H.; Lufti-Amin, D.; Gogo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most of the world's supply of 99 mTc for medical purposes is currently produced from the decay of 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) metal foils for the HEU UO 2 used in current target designs will allow equivalent 99 Mo yields with little change in target geometries. Substitution of uranium metal for uranium alloy and aluminide in other target designs will also allow the conversion of HEU to LEU. Several uranium-metal-foil targets have been fabricated at ANL and irradiated to prototypic burnup in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor. Postirradiation examination of the initial test indicated that design modifications were required to allow the irradiated foil to be removed for chemical processing. The latest test has shown good irradiation behavior, satisfactory dismantling and foil removal when the U-foil is separated from its containment by metallic, fission-recoil absorbing barriers. (author)

  6. Lead foil in dental X-ray film: Backscattering rejection or image intensifier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hönnicke, M.G., E-mail: marcelo.honnicke@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil); Delben, G.J. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Tupy, Curitiba (Brazil); Godoi, W.C. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil); Swinka-Filho, V. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento – LACTEC, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    Dental X-ray films are still largely used due to sterilization issues, simplicity and, mainly, economic reasons. These films almost always are double coated (double emulsion) and have a lead foil in contact with the film for X-ray backscattering rejection. Herein we explore the use of the lead foil as an image intensifier. In these studies, spatial resolution was investigated when images were acquired on the dental X-ray films with and without the lead foil. Also, the lead foil was subjected to atomic analysis (fluorescent measurements) and structure analysis (X-ray diffraction). We determined that the use of the lead foil reduces the exposure time, however, does not affect the spatial resolution on the acquired images. This suggests that the fluorescent radiation spread is smaller than the grain sizes of the dental X-ray films.

  7. Design, fabrication, and performance of foil journal bearing for the brayton rotating unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, L.; Branger, M.

    1973-01-01

    Foil bearings were designed and manufactured to replace pivoted-shoe journal bearings in an existing Brayton Cycle turbo-alternator-compressor. The design of this unconventional rotor support was accomplished within the constraints and space limitations imposed by the present machine, and the substitution of foil bearings was effected without changes or modification other machine components. A housing and a test rig were constructed to incorporate the new foil-bearing support into a unified assemble with an air-driven rotor and the gimbal-mounted thrust bearing, seals, and shrouds of an actual Brayton Rotating Unit. The foil bearing required no external pressure source, and stable self-acting rotation was achieved at all speeds up to 43,200 rpm. Excellent wipe-wear characteristics of the foil bearing permitted well over 1000 start-stop cycles with no deterioriation of performance in the entire speed range.

  8. Irradiation tests of 99Mo isotope production targets employing uranium metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Wiencek, T.C.; Wood, E.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Suripto, A.; Nasution, H.; Lufti-Amin, D.; Gogo, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most of the world's supply of 99m Tc for medical purposes is currently produced form the decay of 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high-enriched uranium (HEU). Substitution of low-enriched uranium (LEU) metal foils for the HEU UO 2 used in current target designs will allow equivalent 99 Mo yields with little change in target geometries. Substitution of uranium metal for uranium alloy and aluminide in other target designs will also allow the conversion of HEU to LEU. Several uranium-metal-foil targets have been fabricated at ANL and irradiated to prototypic burnup in the Indonesian RSG-GAS reactor. Postirradiation examination of the initial test indicated that design modifications were required to allow the irradiated foil to be removed for chemical processing. The latest test has shown good irradiation behavior, satisfactory dismantling and foil removal when the U-foil is separated from its containment by metallic, fission-recoil absorbing barriers

  9. The orientation effect in the activities of neutronic probes; Efecto de orientacion en las actividades de sondas neutronicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, M. A.

    1956-07-01

    The formulae relating activity and position of a neutron irradiated Indium foil, have been verified experimentally. Measurements with both thin and thick foils for epithermal neutrons and with thick foils for thermal neutrons have been carried out. The experimental results agree qualitatively with the theoretical predictions. (Author)

  10. Ultrafast growth of large-area monolayer MoS2 film via gold foil assistant CVD for a highly sensitive photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Changbin; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Xingzhan; Shen, Jun; Lu, Wenqiang; Chen, Weimin; Feng, Shuanglong; Shi, Haofei

    2017-07-07

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) is a promising material for ultrasensitive photodetectors owing to its tunable band gap and high absorption coefficient. However, controlled synthesis of high-quality, large-area monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) is still a challenge in practical application. In this work, we report a gold foil assistant chemical vapor deposition method for the synthesis of large-size (>400 μm) single-crystal MoS 2 film on a silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) substrate. The influence of Au foil in enlarging the size of single-crystal MoS 2  is investigated systemically using thermal simulation in Ansys workbench 16.0, including thermal conductivity, temperature difference and thermal relaxation time of the interface of SiO 2 substrate and Au foil, which indicate that Au foil can increase the temperature of the SiO 2 substrate rapidly and decrease the temperature difference between the oven and substrate. Finally, the properties of the monolayer MoS 2 film are further confirmed using back-gated field-effect transistors: a high photoresponse of 15.6 A W -1 and a fast photoresponse time of 100 ms. The growth techniques described in this study could be beneficial for the development of other atomically thin two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide materials.

  11. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  12. The thin layer activation method and its applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The thin layer activation (TLA) method is one of the most effective and precise methods for the measurement and monitoring of corrosion (erosion) and wear in industry and is used for on-line remote measurement of wear and corrosion rate of central parts in machines or processing vessels under real operating conditions. This document is a comprehensive manual on TLA method in its applications for monitoring wear and corrosion in industry. It describes the theory and presents case studies on TLA method applications in industry. In addition, in annexes are given tables of nuclear data relating to TLA (decay characteristics, depth distribution of reaction products, activation data for charged-particle nuclear reactions), references from INIS database on TLA and a detailed production of the application of TLA for wear measurement of superhard turning tools

  13. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    OpenAIRE

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  14. APPLIANCE OF SCENARIO PLANNING METHOD FOR RUSSIAN AIRLINES ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Kreneva

    2015-01-01

    The article examines scenario planning as a tool for long-term forecasting of airlines activity in an uncertainty. This method is compared to linear programming (linear scheduling method) with their advantages and disadvantages being discussed. Scenario analysis is shown as a main tool in scenario-based forecasting. The scheme of scenario development is performed. Scenario planning experience in European airlines is considered. Uncertainty factors faced by Russian airlines are analysed. In th...

  15. Facile one-step synthesis of highly branched ZnO nanostructures on titanium foil for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juntao; He, Meng; Fu, Nianqing; Li, Jianye; Yin, Xiong

    2014-04-21

    Highly branched ZnO (HBZ) nanostructures were prepared on titanium (Ti) foil using a facile, one-step vapor confined chemical vapor deposition technique. The as-prepared ZnO layer showed a good connection with the Ti foil even after 50 bending cycles, and the resultant HBZ/Ti electrode possessed high bendability. The HBZ/Ti electrode was composed of four different layers, including a highly branched ZnO layer, a ZnO compact layer, a Ti-Zn alloy layer and Ti foil. The good adhesion of the as-prepared ZnO layer to Ti foil was ascribed to the formation of a Ti-Zn alloy layer and a ZnO compact layer during the growth process. A flexible dye-sensitized solar cell was assembled using the D149-sensitized HBZ/Ti as a photoanode, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.3% was achieved with an open-circuit photovoltage of 0.664 V, a short-circuit current density of 7.53 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.66 measured under rear-side illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)). The power conversion efficiency of the device remained at 92% of the initial value even after 50 bending cycles. These results indicate that the vapor confined chemical vapor deposition method which does not necessarily use any catalyst or seed is a facile, one-step approach to obtain highly branched ZnO nanostructures with high bendability on Ti foil. The tight bonding between the highly branched ZnO layer and Ti substrate by a Ti-Zn alloy layer and a ZnO compact layer makes the vapor confined CVD method very attractive for the preparation of high-performance flexible photoanodes.

  16. Effects of preparation method and active metal content on of Ni/kieselguhr catalyst activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuh Widiyarti; Wuryaningsih Sri Rahayu

    2010-01-01

    The preparation and the active metal content influence the activity of catalyst. Study has been conducted to see the activity of Ni/kieselguhr based on preparation method and Nickel (Ni) contents in the catalyst in the laboratory scale. The Ni/kieselguhr catalyst were prepared by impregnation and precipitation methods, with Ni active contents of 10, 20, and 30 % by weight. The catalysts characterization was analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Catalysts activities were analyzed based on decreasing of iodine number from hydrogenation of crude palm oil for 2 hours. The activity tests results show that precipitation catalysts are more active than impregnation catalysts. The decreasing in iodine number of fatty acid after 2 hours of hydrogenation process using precipitation catalysts and impregnation catalysts are 51.53 and 21.85 %, respectively. In addition, the catalysts are more active with increasing Ni contents. (author)

  17. Gas permeability through thin-foil x-ray filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveekrem, June L.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Webb, Andrew T.

    1997-10-01

    We have measured the permeation rates of helium and water through thin-foil UV-blocking filters used in the ASTRO-E/x- ray spectrometer (XRS) instrument. In the XRS program, there is a concern that outgassed contaminants such as water could permeate through the outermost filter which will be at room temperature and freeze on the inner filters which will be at cryogenic temperatures. The filters tested consisted of approximately 1000 angstroms Al on approximately 1000 angstroms of either Lexan or polyimide. Measurements were made using a vacuum apparatus consisting essentially of two small chambers separated by the filter under test. A helium leak detector was used to measure helium permeation rates, and a residual gas analyzer (RGA) was used to detect water. Results discussed include permeation rate as a function of pressure difference across a filter, the ratio of helium permeation rate over water permeation rate, and the effect of the aluminum layer thickness on permeation.

  18. Beam-foil spectroscopy of chlorine and sulfur ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, D.; Barchewitz, R.; Cukier, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the measurement of spectra of highly stripped chlorine and sulfur ions in the energy ranges of, respectively, 2900 - 3500 eV and 2300 - 2600 eV. The spectra have been obtained after excitation of ions travelling through a thin carbon foil. X-rays emitted by the emerging beam are analysed with a Johann-type bent crystal spectrometer. The observation angle with respect to the beam axis is 54 0 . The interpretation of the spectra is performed by comparing experimental results with Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculated energies and intensities. All the lines are interpreted by 2p - ls transitions (K α spectrum) in excited ions with, respectively, H-, He-, Li-, Be- and B-like electron structures

  19. Synthesis of Homogenous Bilayer Graphene on Industrial Cu Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Gang; Wang, Hua-Feng; Cai, Kai-Ming; Han, Wen-Peng; Tan, Ping-Heng; Hu, Ping-An; Wang, Kai-You

    2014-06-01

    We synthesize the homogenous graphene films on cheap industrial Cu foils using low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The quality and the number of layers of graphene are characterized by Raman spectra. Through carefully tuning the growth parameters, we find that the growth temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the growth time can substantially affect the growth of high-quality graphene. Both single and bilayer large size homogenous graphenes have been synthesized in optimized growth conditions. The growth of graphene on Cu surface is found to be self ceasing in the bilayer graphene process with the low solubility of carbon in Cu. Furthermore, we have optimized the transfer process, and clear graphene films almost free from impurity are successfully transferred onto Si/SiO2 substrates. The field effect transistors of bilayer graphene are fabricated, which demonstrates a maximum hole (electron) mobility of 4300 cm2 V-1s-1 (1920 cm2V-1s-1) at room temperature.

  20. Deposition of selenium coatings on beryllium foils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films on 50.8 micrometers thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. A water-cooled enclosure was used to minimize contamination of the vacuum system and to reduce the exposure of personnel to toxic and obnoxious materials. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicated selenium thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 micrometers. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable deposition controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV

  1. Collision Welding of Dissimilar Materials by Vaporizing Foil Actuator: A Breakthrough Technology for Dissimilar Metal Joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehn, Glenn S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Vivek, Anupam [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Liu, Bert C. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-09-30

    This work demonstrated and further developed Vaporizing Foil Actuator Welding (VFAW) as a viable technique for dissimilar-metal joining for automotive lightweighting applications. VFAW is a novel impact welding technology, which uses the pressure developed from electrically-assisted rapid vaporization of a thin aluminum foil (the consumable) to launch and ultimately collide two of more pieces of metal to create a solid-state bond between them. 18 dissimilar combinations of automotive alloys from the steel, aluminum and magnesium alloy classes were screened for weldability and characterized by metallography of weld cross sections, corrosion testing, and mechanical testing. Most combinations, especially a good number of Al/Fe pairs, were welded successfully. VFAW was even able to weld combinations of very high strength materials such as 5000 and 6000 series aluminum alloys to boron and dual phase steels, which is difficult to impossible by other joining techniques such as resistance spot welding, friction stir welding, or riveting. When mechanically tested, the samples routinely failed in a base metal rather than along the weld interface, showing that the weld was stronger than either of the base metals. As for corrosion performance, a polymer-based protective coating was used to successfully combat galvanic corrosion of 5 Al/Fe pairs through a month-long exposure to warm salt fog. In addition to the technical capabilities, VFAW also consumes little energy compared to conventional welding techniques and requires relatively light, flexible tooling. Given the technical and economic advantages, VFAW can be a very competitive joining technology for automotive lightweighting. The success of this project and related activities has resulted in substantial interest not only within the research community but also various levels of automotive supply chain, which are collaborating to bring this technology to commercial use.

  2. Measurement of the beam energy of a cyclotron using a copper-foils technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, A. H.; Price, Roger I.; Fleming, Adam; Burrage, John W.; Cryer, David; Chan, Sun; Deans, Tom; Saddiqui, Salim A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The 1 8 M eV cyclotron at SCGH (Perth) daily produces PET radioisotopes. An external beam line, incorporating an in-house designed target-holder, has been utilised to explore (p,x) solid targetry in the proton energy-range 7 -18 M eY. Some solid targetry techniques require a degrader for reducing beam energy. We investigated a technique to measure the proton-beam energy, with or without a degrader. Stacks of natural-copper (Cu) foils (31 % Cu-65, 69% Cu-63), purity >99.98% and thicknesses (l00, 75, 50 or 25/lm) were proton-bombarded in separate runs. In separate determinations for each run, activities of Zn-63, Zn-65 and (depending on beam energy) Zn-62 in each foil were then measured by HPGe -spectroscopy, and together with stopping-power and reaction-specific cross section data were used to calculate incident beam energy. Materials for a degrader were aluminium and graphite with calculated thicknesses of 0.920 and 1.128 m m, respectively, designed to reduce the energy from 1 8 M eV to I I A MeV, specifically to optimise the reaction Ni-64(p,n)Cu-64, currently under study in our laboratory. Beam energies thus derived from Zn-63 or Zn-65 had (eg; for thickness= I OO / lm) precision (+ 95%CI) of 7 -18 M eV, embracing production of a range of biomedically relevant isotopes such as 1-124, Zr-89 and Cu-64.

  3. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  4. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  5. Active Subspace Methods for Data-Intensive Inverse Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiqi [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-04-27

    The project has developed theory and computational tools to exploit active subspaces to reduce the dimension in statistical calibration problems. This dimension reduction enables MCMC methods to calibrate otherwise intractable models. The same theoretical and computational tools can also reduce the measurement dimension for calibration problems that use large stores of data.

  6. Simple and efficient methods for isolation and activity measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple purification approach of the recombinant hirudin variant 3 from the Bacillus subtilis was established, by which the hirudin could be purified to the purity of 95% through one-step chromatography with the total recovery rate of 83.9%. A modified Markwardt thrombin titration method for measuring hirudin activity was ...

  7. An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2013-01-01

    Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve.We present a didacticmethod aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an…

  8. Scaffolding Assignments and Activities for Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah; Justwan, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This article details assignments and lessons created for and tested in research methods courses at two different universities, a large state school and a small liberal arts college. Each assignment or activity utilized scaffolding. Students were asked to push beyond their comfort zone while utilizing concrete and/or creative examples,…

  9. A method to determine validity and reliability of activity sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, Simone Theresa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2013-01-01

    METHOD Four sensors were securely fastened to a mechanical oscillator (Vibration Exciter, type 4809, Brüel & Kjær) and moved at various frequencies (6.67Hz; 13.45Hz; 19.88Hz) within the range of human physical activity. For each of the three sensor axes, the sensors were simultaneously moved for

  10. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the control of plasma vertical position with active feedback system. Calculation of feed- back control parameters is formulated as an optimization problem and an approximate method to solve the problem is suggested. Numerical simulations are performed with parameters of the T-15M tokamak in order to justify the ...

  11. Low-Threshold Active Teaching Methods for Mathematic Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Sebastian M.; Hargis, Jace

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present a large list of low-threshold active teaching methods categorized so the instructor can efficiently access and target the deployment of conceptually based lessons. The categories include teaching strategies for lecture on large and small class sizes; student action individually, in pairs, and groups; games; interaction…

  12. Antioxidant activity of wine assessed by different in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have suggested that a diet rich in antioxidant compounds could help in counteracting the effects of reactive oxygen species, reducing the risk factors for chronic diseases. The moderate consumption of wine, especially red wine, has been associated with the reduction in mortalities from cardiovascular diseases. One of the possible reasons for the protective effect of wine can be identified in the high content of polyphenols (mainly flavonoids, which have significant antioxidant activity. Even though several in vitro tests have been developed for the measure of the antioxidant property, no method has showed a satisfactory correlation with the in vivo situation. On these bases, the aim of this study was the application and comparison of different in vitro methods to assess the antioxidant activity of red, rosé and white wines. The methods were: 1 Folin-Cocalteau's assay for the quantification of total polyphenol content; 2 the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC spectrophotometric assay for measuring the antioxidant activity of samples; 3 High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography for separation of phenolic substances and assessment of the associated antioxidant activity; 4 electrochemical detection by using a biosensor. Although all the approaches show some limitations, this battery of tests offers a more reliable body of data on the antioxidant activity of vine derivatives.

  13. Effects of crystalline structure in the transmission of ions through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of ion transmission through thin foils are analyzed in this thesis.1) Energy loss.2) Angular distribution.The subject is studied in three different approaches: Theoretically, experimentally and by numerical simulations.In the theoretical approach, the models for the calculation of the energy loss and angular distribution are discussed.They are showed to be unsatisfactory to explain the effects of crystalline structure at low energies.A model is developed to estimate the angular dispersion due to the elastic scattering between the projectile and the target electrons. Simultaneously, angular distribution and energy loss measurements have been performed bombarding polycrystalline and monocrystalline gold and polycrystalline aluminum targets with protons and helium ions with energies in the range of 4-10 keV, together with a detailed study of the foils by electron transmission microscopy techniques.The experimental results are compared with the results of a numerical simulation code, modified and extended in the scope of this thesis.The results show an important influence of crystalline structure and the different targets defects in the angular distribution.This influence is much lower in the case of the angular behaviour of the energy loss (being almost negligible in the case of protons).The most relevant characteristic of the angular behaviour of the energy loss in the case of helium ions is that it is necessary to assume in the simulation method an impact parameter dependence of the stopping coefficient to obtain an agreement between simulation and experimental results [es

  14. Adaptive Current Control Method for Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Minh Thuyen

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive current control method for Hybrid Active Power Filter (HAPF). It consists of a fuzzy-neural controller, identification and prediction model and cost function. The fuzzy-neural controller parameters are adjusted according to the cost function minimum criteria. For this reason, the proposed control method has a capability on-line control clings to variation of the load harmonic currents. Compared to the single fuzzy logic control method, the proposed control method shows the advantages of better dynamic response, compensation error in steady-state is smaller, able to online control is better and harmonics cancelling is more effective. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  15. Evaluation of harmonic detection methods for active power filter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    In the attempt to minimize the harmonic disturbances created by the non-linear loads the choice of the active power filters comes out to improve the filtering efficiency and to solve many issues existing with classical passive filters. One of the key points for a proper implementation of an active...... filter is to use a good method for current/voltage reference generation. There exist many implementations supported by different theories (either in time- or frequency-domain), which continuously debate their performances proposing ever better solutions. This paper gives a survey of the common used...... theories. Then, the work here proposes a simulation setup that decouples the harmonic reference generator from the active filter model and its controller. In this way the selected methods can be equally analyzed and compared with respect to their performance, which helps anticipating possible...

  16. Estimating wildlife activity curves: comparison of methods and sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Marcus A; Cove, Michael V; Chitwood, M Colter; Penido, Gabriel; Gardner, Beth; DePerno, Chris S; Moorman, Chris E

    2018-03-08

    Camera traps and radiotags commonly are used to estimate animal activity curves. However, little empirical evidence has been provided to validate whether they produce similar results. We compared activity curves from two common camera trapping techniques to those from radiotags with four species that varied substantially in size (~1 kg-~50 kg), diet (herbivore, omnivore, carnivore), and mode of activity (diurnal and crepuscular). Also, we sub-sampled photographs of each species with each camera trapping technique to determine the minimum sample size needed to maintain accuracy and precision of estimates. Camera trapping estimated greater activity during feeding times than radiotags in all but the carnivore, likely reflective of the close proximity of foods readily consumed by all species except the carnivore (i.e., corn bait or acorns). However, additional analyses still indicated both camera trapping methods produced relatively high overlap and correlation to radiotags. Regardless of species or camera trapping method, mean overlap increased and overlap error decreased rapidly as sample sizes increased until an asymptote near 100 detections which we therefore recommend as a minimum sample size. Researchers should acknowledge that camera traps and radiotags may estimate the same mode of activity but differ in their estimation of magnitude in activity peaks.

  17. Soybean phospholipase D activity determination. A comparison of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ré, E.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to a discrepancy between previously published results, two methods to determine the soybean phospholipase D activity were evaluated. One method is based on the extraction of the enzyme from whole soybean flour, quantifying the enzyme activity on the extract. The other method quantifies the enzymatic activity on whole soybean flour without enzyme extraction. In the extraction-based-method, both the extraction time and the number of extractions were optimized. The highest phospholipase D activity values were obtained from the method without enzyme extraction. This method is less complex, requires less running-time and the conditions of the medium in which phospholipase D acts resemble the conditions found in the oil industrySe evaluaron dos métodos para determinar la actividad de la fosfolipasa D en soja debido a que existe discrepancia entre los resultados publicados. Un método se basa en la extracción de la enzima de la harina resultante de la molienda del grano de soja entero, cuantificando la actividad sobre el extracto. En el otro método, la cuantificación se realiza sobre la harina del grano entero molido, sin extraer la enzima. En el método de extracción se optimizaron tanto el tiempo como el número de extracciones. Los mayores valores de actividad de la fosfolipasa D se obtuvieron por el método sin extracción de la enzima. Este método es más simple, exige menos tiempo de ejecución y las condiciones del medio en que actúa la fosfolipasa D se asemejan a las condiciones encontradas en la industria aceitera.

  18. Toxin activity assays, devices, methods and systems therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory Jon

    2016-04-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, system and method for conducting toxin activity assay using sedimentation. The toxin activity assay may include generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample. The complexes may include a target toxin and a labeling agent, or may be generated due to presence of active target toxin and/or labeling agent designed to be incorporated into complexes responsive to the presence of target active toxin. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a lower density than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  19. Transient oxidation of Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The oxide phases formed on an Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and an Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil of the same levels of Al and (La+Ce) contents, and their oxidation kinetics have been studied in air at 1173 and 1373 K using TGA, XRD and SEM. Al deposition promotes the growth of metastable aluminas (θ-Al 2 O 3 , γ-Al 2 O 3 ). Scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and a small amount of α-Al 2 O 3 develop on the Al-deposited foil at 1173 K and exhibit the whisker-type morphology. In the early stage of oxidation at 1373 K, thick scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 grow rapidly on the Al-deposited foil. The transformation from θ-Al 2 O 3 to α-Al 2 O 3 is very fast, and the scales result in only α-Al 2 O 3 . In contrast, α-Al 2 O 3 scales containing a minor amount of FeAl 2 O 4 develop on the alloy foil. The growth rate of α-Al 2 O 3 scales on the Al-deposited foil is smaller than that on the alloy foil and very close to that on NiAl at 1373 K. (orig.)

  20. An Assessment of Gas Foil Bearing Scalability and the Potential Benefits to Civilian Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years the term oil-free turbomachinery has been used to describe a rotor support system for high speed turbomachinery that does not require oil for lubrication, damping, or cooling. The foundation technology for oil-free turbomachinery is the compliant foil bearing. This technology can replace the conventional rolling element bearings found in current engines. Two major benefits are realized with this technology. The primary benefit is the elimination of the oil lubrication system, accessory gearbox, tower shaft, and one turbine frame. These components account for 8 to 13 percent of the turbofan engine weight. The second benefit that compliant foil bearings offer to turbofan engines is the capability to operate at higher rotational speeds and shaft diameters. While traditional rolling element bearings have diminished life, reliability, and load capacity with increasing speeds, the foil bearing has a load capacity proportional to speed. The traditional applications for foil bearings have been in small, lightweight machines. However, recent advancements in the design and manufacturing of foil bearings have increased their potential size. An analysis, grounded in experimentally proven operation, is performed to assess the scalability of the modern foil bearing. This analysis was coupled to the requirements of civilian turbofan engines. The application of the foil bearing to larger, high bypass ratio engines nominally at the 120 kN (approx.25000 lb) thrust class has been examined. The application of this advanced technology to this system was found to reduce mission fuel burn by 3.05 percent.

  1. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes.

  2. The Methodical Approaches to Activation of Innovative Potential of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berveno Oksana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing theoretical provisions and practical recommendations on methods of management and activation of innovative potential of enterprises. Assessment of innovative potential of enterprise should be carried out from different positions, taking into consideration all external and internal possibilities of enterprise as to carrying out an innovation activity. The system of management of innovation activity and implementation of innovative potential at enterprise should be closely woven in the general management of the enterprise. Activation of innovative potential of enterprise foresees adoption of the whole system of strategic decisions, which are aimed at creation of the most favorable conditions for implementation of innovative potential with obtaining of planned results. The system of activization of innovative potential should develop a number of organizational decisions on interaction of elements of the most innovative potential in the process of innovation activity and cooperation of innovative potential with other subsystems of the enterprise. Results of these organizational decisions in many respects determine efficiency of innovation activity of the enterprise.

  3. Poster - Thur Eve - 27: Scattering foil redesign for modulated electron radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, T; Seuntjens, J

    2012-07-01

    This work serves to build on existing work that discussed the advantages of removing the scattering foil from the beamline for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) much like flattening filter-free beams in photon IMRT. Due to concerns about the ability of the accelerators transmission ionization chamber to function normally with narrow, minimally-scattered beams as well as a limited maximum field size, this study focused on the design of a new custom scattering foil that was optimized for MERT applications. Different foil parameters such as material, thickness and shape were investigated to produce a minimally scattered beam, as opposed to a flat beam in the case of the clinical foil, while preserving the dosimetric benefits of a reduced thickness foil such as dramatically higher dose rate and reduced photon contamination in the bremsstrahlung tail. Using a Monte Carlo model that was verified against measured data, fluence profiles at the level of the transmission ionization chamber were produced and analyzed for all foil configurations, as well as PDDs and profiles in a water phantom. It was found that a simple foil of slab geometry made of low to medium Z material with the thickness determined by the maximum desirable field size and chosen electron energy produced a sufficiently scattered beam that maintained the dosimetric advantages of a scattering-foil-free beamline. These new foils, when applied to MERT, have the advantage of reducing treatment time due to higher dose rates and reducing dose to healthy tissue due to reduced dose in the bremsstrahlung tail. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Reconstruction of the nasal septum using perforated and unperforated polydioxanone foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedie, Daniel J; Lo, Stephen; Rowe-Jones, Julian M

    2010-01-01

    To present our experience of reconstruction of the nasal septum using perforated and unperforated foils, particularly with respect to functional and aesthetic sequelae. A retrospective medical record review of a prospectively conducted case series was undertaken of all consecutive patients who underwent septal reconstruction using polydioxanone foil in a 4-year period. Procedures included septorhinoplasty and isolated septoplasty via external and endonasal approaches using corporeal and extracorporeal techniques. The polydioxanone foils were in battens or sheets. Fifty patients underwent septal reconstruction using unperforated (first 26 patients) or perforated (next 24 patients) polydioxanone foil. Median total postoperative follow-up was 51.5 months (range, 34-60 months) for unperforated foil and 20.5 months (range, 12-31 months) for perforated foil. All the patients were reviewed for assessment of appearance and function. Forty-three patients had satisfactory results, needing no further treatment. Three patients required minor septal or tip revision surgery. Four patients experienced moderate saddling of the dorsum (all involved unperforated polydioxanone foil) and underwent successful revision surgery using auricular cartilage grafts. Synthetic materials are a useful alternative to autologous tissues during reconstruction of the nasal septum. To our knowledge, we present the largest single-center series of septal reconstructions using unperforated and perforated polydioxanone foils-shown to be useful in the correction of complex septal deformity. However, the unperforated form seems to be associated with a significant risk of postoperative saddling, and we warn against its use in this context. No such complications were observed with the use of thin, 0.15-mm perforated polydioxanone foil, which we exclusively recommend for this application. The use of this implant warrants further evaluation.

  5. Performance variation due to stiffness in a tuna-inspired flexible foil model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Mariel-Luisa N; Thornycroft, Patrick J M; Feilich, Kara L; Lucas, Kelsey N; Lauder, George V

    2017-01-17

    Tuna are fast, economical swimmers in part due to their stiff, high aspect ratio caudal fins and streamlined bodies. Previous studies using passive caudal fin models have suggested that while high aspect ratio tail shapes such as a tuna's generally perform well, tail performance cannot be determined from shape alone. In this study, we analyzed the swimming performance of tuna-tail-shaped hydrofoils of a wide range of stiffnesses, heave amplitudes, and frequencies to determine how stiffness and kinematics affect multiple swimming performance parameters for a single foil shape. We then compared the foil models' kinematics with published data from a live swimming tuna to determine how well the hydrofoil models could mimic fish kinematics. Foil kinematics over a wide range of motion programs generally showed a minimum lateral displacement at the narrowest part of the foil, and, immediately anterior to that, a local area of large lateral body displacement. These two kinematic patterns may enhance thrust in foils of intermediate stiffness. Stiffness and kinematics exhibited subtle interacting effects on hydrodynamic efficiency, with no one stiffness maximizing both thrust and efficiency. Foils of intermediate stiffnesses typically had the greatest coefficients of thrust at the highest heave amplitudes and frequencies. The comparison of foil kinematics with tuna kinematics showed that tuna motion is better approximated by a zero angle of attack foil motion program than by programs that do not incorporate pitch. These results indicate that open questions in biomechanics may be well served by foil models, given appropriate choice of model characteristics and control programs. Accurate replication of biological movements will require refinement of motion control programs and physical models, including the creation of models of variable stiffness.

  6. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Robert R., E-mail: robert.greenberg@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8395 (United States); Bode, Peter, E-mail: p.bode@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A., E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere - Metrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance - Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  7. Cadmium filtered neutron flux determination. Comparison of activation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollui-Mboulou, Magloire.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron fluxes under cadmium filters are determined by the cadmium ratio and sandwich activation methods. The thermal neutron flux levels obtained with 7 detectors of different kinds: In, Au, Ag, W, Co, Mn, Zn are compared. The cadmium ratio method was used in locations for which the epithermal and thermal neutron flux ratio are quite different. By irradiating materials under different thicknesses of cadmium it was possible to establish experimental curves from which the flux depression factors for intermediate neutrons may be determined whatever the thickness of the filter used. Whereas the cadmium ratio method can only measure the mean flux above the cadmium cut-off energy the sandwich method enables the flux value to be determined in a narrow band around the resonance energy of each detector used [fr

  8. Comparison of Accelerometry Methods for Estimating Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marinac, Catherine R.; Ellis, Katherine; Godbole, Suneeta; Hipp, Aaron; Glanz, Karen; Mitchell, Jonathan; Laden, Francine; James, Peter; Berrigan, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare physical activity estimates across different accelerometer wear locations, wear time protocols, and data processing techniques. Methods A convenience sample of middle aged to older women wore a GT3X+ accelerometer at the wrist and hip for 7 days. Physical activity estimates were calculated using three data processing techniques: single axis cut points, raw vector magnitude thresholds, and machine learning algorithms applied to the raw data from the three axes. Daily estimates were compared for the 321 women using generalized estimating equations. Results A total of 1,420 days were analyzed. Compliance rates for the hip vs wrist location only varied by 2.7%. All differences between techniques, wear locations and wear time protocols were statistically different (p<.05). Mean minutes per day in physical activity varied from 22–67 depending on location and method. On the hip, the 1952 count cut point found at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity in 22% of participants, raw vector magnitude found 32%, and the machine learned algorithm found 74% of participants with 150 minutes of walking/running per week. The wrist algorithms found 59% and 60% of participants with 150 minutes of physical activity per week using the raw vector magnitude and machine learned techniques respectively. When the wrist device was worn overnight, up to 4% more participants met guidelines. Conclusion Estimates varied by 52% across techniques, and by as much as 41% across wear locations. Findings suggest that researchers should be cautious when comparing physical activity estimates from different studies. Efforts to standardize accelerometry-based estimates of physical activity are needed. A first step might be to report on multiple procedures until a consensus is achieved. PMID:27755355

  9. X-ray measurements of total reflectivity and scattering from Au-coated foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Allan; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jespersen, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    We present x-ray measurements of total reflectivity and scattering from gold-coated foils. The foils are two sorts of 0.3 mm thick dip-lacquered aluminum, 0.125 mm thick plastic (Upilex) and 0.5 mm thick dip-lacquered nickel. The analysis of the data shows a high reflectivity for all...... but the plastic foil, and only small microroughness (∼15 Å at length scales below ∼0.1 μm), evidenced by low resolution scattering measurements....

  10. Elevated-Temperature Tensile-Testing of Foil-Gage Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Ellingsworth, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Automated system for measuring strain in metal foils at temperatures above 500 degrees F (260 degrees C) uses mechanical extensometer and displacement transducer. System includes counterbalance feature, which eliminates weight contribution of extensometer and reduces grip pressure required for attachment to specimen. Counterbalancing feature overcomes two major difficulties in using extensometers with foil-gage specimens: (1) Weight of extensometer and transducer represents significant fraction of total load applied to specimen and may actually damage it; and (2) grip pressure required for attachment of extensometer to specimens may induce bending stresses in foil-gage materials.

  11. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter. (author)

  12. Electroplating fission-recoil barriers onto LEU-metal foils for 99Mo-production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, J.A.; Sedlet, J.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M.W.; Walker, D.E.; Wygmans, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    Electroplating experiments on uranium foil have been conducted in order to develop low-enriched uranium composite targets suitable for the production of 99 Mo. Preparation of the foil surface prior to plating was found to play a key role in the quality of the resultant coating. A surface preparation procedure was developed that produces both zinc and nickel coatings with the desired level of coating adherence and coverage. Modifications of the existing plating processes now need investigation to improve to uniformity of the plating thickness, especially at the foil perimeter

  13. Measurement of the thickness and homogeneity of thin foils by slowing down alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della Negra, S.; Deprun, C.; Gardes, D.; Rivet, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    The energy loss of 8.785 MeV α particles passing through a thin foil is used to measure the foil thickness. The measurement is performed in various points of the target, the abscissa and ordinate of which are set with precision from the outside of the chamber. This gives a thickness map of the target. The working up of the data, and the use of energy loss tables are made in a standard way. The absolute uncertainty is of some percent for 100 μg/cm 2 foils. The technique has been refined to reach the same precision for 10 μg/cm 2 targets [fr

  14. An electrometric method for the determination of tyrosinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Muñoz, F; Peñafiel, R; Galindo, J D

    1985-01-01

    The pathway of dopachrome formation from L-dopa involves the net release of one proton for each molecule of dopachrome formed. The protons produced as a consequence of the enzymic step catalysed by tyrosinase can be measured by an electrometric device able to monitor changes in H+ concentration below 1 microM. This electrometric recording can be used as a simple, sensitive and continuous method for determining tyrosinase activity. The electrometric method can also be used in the presence of ascorbate by the spontaneous coupling of ascorbate oxidation to dopaquinone reduction, but measuring proton uptake instead of proton release. PMID:2996485

  15. Efficient solution of the non-linear Reynolds equation for compressible fluid using the finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    An efficient finite element scheme for solving the non-linear Reynolds equation for compressible fluid coupled to compliant structures is presented. The method is general and fast and can be used in the analysis of airfoil bearings with simplified or complex foil structure models. To illustrate...... the computational performance, it is applied to the analysis of a compliant foil bearing modelled using the simple elastic foundation model. The model is derived and perturbed using complex notation. Top foil sagging effect is added to the bump foil compliance in terms of a close-form periodic function. For a foil...

  16. Statistical methods for active pharmacovigilance, with applications to diabetes drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lan; Farrell, Patrick J; McNair, Doug; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify adverse drug reactions using postmarket surveillance data under real-world conditions of use. Unlike passive pharmacovigilance, which is based on largely voluntary (and hence incomplete) spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions with limited information on patient characteristics, active pharmacovigilance is based on electronic health records containing detailed information about patient populations, thereby allowing consideration of modifying factors such as polypharmacy and comorbidity, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. With the present shift toward active pharmacovigilance, statistical methods capable of addressing the complexities of such data are needed. We describe four such methods here, and demonstrate their application in the analysis of a large retrospective cohort of diabetics taking anti-hyperglycemic medications that may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events.

  17. A study of environmental polluting factors by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)

  18. Anti-microbial activities of sulfonamides using disc diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saba; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar

    2012-10-01

    Sulfonamides, being the member of the oldest anti-microbial group of compounds possess wide anti-microbial activities and are effective against pathogenic strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. They are widely used in the treatment of various infectious diseases e.g. malaria, urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections etc. Based on their effectiveness against most of the bacteria, two novel sulfonamides (N-(2-methoxy phenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide and N-ethyl-4-methyl-N-(3-methyl phenyl)benzenesulfonamide) were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by FT-IR and elemental analyzer. Their anti-microbial activity was assessed and observed against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. They showed good anti-microbial activities.

  19. Fabricating 40 µm-thin silicon solar cells with different orientations by using SLiM-cut method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng-Yu; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Shiao, Jui-Chung; Chen, Sung-Yu; Du, Chen-Hsun

    2017-10-01

    Thin silicon foils with different crystal orientations were fabricated using the stress induced lift-off (SLiM-cut) method. The thickness of the silicon foils was approximately 40 µm. The ≤ft foil had a smoother surface than the ≤ft foil. With surface passivation, the minority carrier lifetimes of the ≤ft and ≤ft silicon foil were 1.0 µs and 1.6 µs, respectively. In this study, 4 cm2-thin silicon solar cells with heterojunction structures were fabricated. The energy conversion efficiencies were determined to be 10.74% and 14.74% for the ≤ft and ≤ft solar cells, respectively. The surface quality of the silicon foils was determined to affect the solar cell character. This study demonstrated that fabricating the solar cell by using silicon foil obtained from the SLiM-cut method is feasible.

  20. Development of new methods for determining the heparanase enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Tersariol, Ivarne Luis Santos; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Lima, Marcelo Andrade

    2015-08-14

    Heparanase is a mammalian endo-β-glucuronidase. Notwithstanding its importance in various pathological and non-pathological events few straightforward methods for heparanase enzymatic activity has been stated. The aim of this study was to develop two heparanase activity assays to cover a whole range of applications. First, a fast and easy method based on commercial homogenous substrate, fondaparinux, was described. The other method is a quantitative assay based on biotinylated heparan sulfate that uses an easier technique to immobilize the substrate in a 96-well plate. 1): The heparanase recombinant enzyme and fondaparinux were incubated overnight. After incubation, a fluorescent redox marker, resazurin, was added. The reduction of resazurin depends on the amount of glucuronic acid released by heparanase digestion. Fluorescence measurements were done using excitation and emission wavelengths of 560 nm and 590 nm, respectively. 2): The 96-well plate was incubated with protamine sulfate. Subsequently, biotinylated heparan sulfate was immobilized. The enzymatic assay was performed using chimeric recombinant heparanase at different concentrations. In sequence, the immobilized biotinylated heparan sulfate that was not digested by recombinant heparanase was bound to streptavidin conjugated with europium. Fluorescence was measured using a time-resolved fluorometer. Both methods have high sensitivity and can be used to detect heparanase activity. Fondaparinux assay is a quick and easy method for screening of heparanase inhibitors using recombinant enzyme or bacterial crude extract. Biotinylated heparan sulfate assay can be used for quantitative analysis in biological samples and protamine sulfate showed been capable to immobilized heparan sulfate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Indenting Method for Calculation of Activation Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Seog; Kim, Tae-Ryong

    2006-01-01

    For the calculation of activation energy of cable materials, we used to apply the break-elongation test in accordance with ASTM D412(Stand Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension). For the cable jacket and insulation which have regular thickness, break-elongation test had been preferred since it showed linear character in the activation energy curve. But, for the cable which has irregular thickness or rugged surface of cable inside, break-elongation test show scattered data which can not be used for the calculation of activation energy. It is not easy to prepare break-elongation specimen for the cable smaller than 13mm diameter in accordance with ASTM D412. In the cases of above, we sometime use TGA method which heat the specimen from 50 .deg. C to 700 .deg. C at heating rates of 10, 15, 20 .deg. C/min. But, TGA is suspected for the representative of natural aging in the plant since it measure the weight decreasing rate during burning which may have different aging mechanism with that of natural aging. To solve above problems, we investigated alternatives such as indenter test. Indenter test is very convenient since it does not ask for a special test specimen as the break-elongation test does. Regular surface of cable outside is the only requirement of indenter test. Experience of activation energy calculation by using the indenter test is described herein

  2. Surface-activated joining method for surveillance coupon reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Shoichiro; Nakamura, Terumi

    1993-01-01

    As nuclear power plants approach the end of their license periods and license renewal is contemplated, there is an increasing need to expand the data base of mechanical properties obtainable from archival surveillance specimens. A new joining method for reconstituting broken Charpy specimens is being developed, the objective being to retain the original properties of the material in the process. The new method is called surface-activated joining (SAJ). It is designed to obtain a good junction without applying extra heating and deformation. In particular, the purpose of SAJ is to minimize the width of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and to decrease the maximum temperature experienced by the specimen during reconsolidation of the two pieces. Generally, machined metal surfaces are contaminated with films of oxide, adsorbed gas, oil, or other vapors that impede bonding of surfaces during joining. However, if surface contamination is removed and the two surfaces are mated as closely as possible, joining can be achieved at low temperatures and modest stress levels. In order to apply the SAJ method, the following requirements must be met: (1) inert atmosphere to protect the surfaces from atmospheric gases and oxidation; (2) removal of the existing contamination layers to activate the surfaces; and (3) method for bringing the two surfaces into very intimate contact prior to joining

  3. Developing an Assessment Method of Active Aging: University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Taina; Portegijs, Erja; Kokko, Katja; Rantakokko, Merja; Törmäkangas, Timo; Saajanaho, Milla

    2018-01-01

    To develop an assessment method of active aging for research on older people. A multiphase process that included drafting by an expert panel, a pilot study for item analysis and scale validity, a feedback study with focus groups and questionnaire respondents, and a test-retest study. Altogether 235 people aged 60 to 94 years provided responses and/or feedback. We developed a 17-item University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale with four aspects in each item (goals, ability, opportunity, and activity; range 0-272). The psychometric and item properties are good and the scale assesses a unidimensional latent construct of active aging. Our scale assesses older people's striving for well-being through activities pertaining to their goals, abilities, and opportunities. The University of Jyvaskyla Active Aging Scale provides a quantifiable measure of active aging that may be used in postal questionnaires or interviews in research and practice.

  4. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounyr Balouiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents from various sources to combat microbial resistance. Therefore, a greater attention has been paid to antimicrobial activity screening and evaluating methods. Several bioassays such as disk-diffusion, well diffusion and broth or agar dilution are well known and commonly used, but others such as flow cytofluorometric and bioluminescent methods are not widely used because they require specified equipment and further evaluation for reproducibility and standardization, even if they can provide rapid results of the antimicrobial agent's effects and a better understanding of their impact on the viability and cell damage inflicted to the tested microorganism. In this review article, an exhaustive list of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and detailed information on their advantages and limitations are reported.

  5. Reevaluation of nonvolcanic tremor activity based on the hybrid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Maeda, T.

    2009-12-01

    The nonvolcanic tremor in southwest Japan occurs with a regular recurrence interval accompanying the short-term slow slip event and very-low-frequency earthquake. The source location of tremors has been determined by the envelope correlation method (ECM) based on the measurement of time differences of coherent envelope seismogram observed at neighbor stations (Obara, 2002). However, ECM has a problem in the spatial resolution of the tremor location and evaluation of radiation energy. During very active tremor stage, the ECM sometimes fails to detect tremor due to complicated envelopes caused by multiple sources. In order to solve the problem, Maeda and Obara (2009) developed a new method based on the ECM by adding the spatial distribution of envelope amplitude. The hybrid method enables to detect not only weak amplitude tremors but also complicated large amplitude tremors and to evaluate the tremor radiation energy quantitatively. The depth of the tremor is assumed to be on the plate interface derived from the receiver function analysis (Shiomi et al., 2008). The automatic process of the hybrid method is carried out every one minute. Then, in order to remove the source of the regular earthquake, we calculate the centroid position for closely located tremors and summed the radiation energy for every one hour. We relocated the source of tremors from 2001 to present. The tremor is distributed in some clusters in the belt-like zone along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. The hybrid method revealed the minor tremor activity outside the belt-like zone. In the northeastern Shikoku area, isolated tremor activity is located 30 km away from the belt-like zone and occur frequently at every one or two months. The most distinctive feature is the double peak alignments of tremor activity at the shallow and deep part of the tremor zone in western Shikoku, northern Kii and Tokai regions. These alignments may define the width of tremor active zone. In these regions

  6. Separation of carrier-free ytterbium and thulium produced in 80 MeV 12C6+ irradiated gadolinium foil target by liquid-liquid extraction with HDEHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Susanta; Nayak, Dalia; Ramaswami, A.; Manohor, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Heavy ion activation of natural gadolinium foil with 80 MeV 12 C 6+ results in the formation of carrier-free ytterbium isotopes, 165,166,167 Yb and their corresponding decay products, 165,166,167 Tm, in the matrix. Carrier-free ytterbium and thulium isotopes have been separated quantitatively from the bulk target matrix gadolinium by employing di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as a liquid cation exchanger

  7. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  8. Electronic state alignment, orientation, and coherence produced by beam-foil collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The cylindrically symmetric beam-foil collision produces excitation and alignment of atom and ion levels similar, but not identical, to that resulting at comparable energies from ion-atom or ion-molecule collisions. When the foil is tilted, the macroscopic change acts on the microscopic scale to produce coherent alignment and orientation of the excited levels. The maximum beam energy range bounding this interaction has not yet been defined. The dynamic interaction which produces these effects is currently not predicted by any theory, although the dynamics of the ions subsequent to the collision are well understood. Refinement of current experimental technique can be expected to better define the final foil surface. The beam-tilted-foil collision promises to be useful in the study of ionic structure via quantum beat, radio-frequency and level-crossing spectroscopy techniques, and may provide a useful probe for certain surface interactions. 4 figs, 48 refs

  9. Modeling the mechanical deformation of nickel foils for nanoimprint lithography on double-curved surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Cech, Jiri; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    on an aluminium substrate with three different radii; 500 μm, 1000 μm and 2000 μm, respectively. The nano imprint is performed using a 50 μm thick nickel foil, manufactured using electroforming. During the imprinting process, the nickel foil is stretched due to the curved surface of the aluminium substrate....... Experimentally, it is possible to address this stretch by counting the periods of the cross-gratings via SEM characterization. A model for the deformation of the nickel foil during nanoimprint is developed, utilizing non-linear material and geometrical behaviour. Good agreement between measured and numerically...... calculated stretch ratios on the surface of the deformed nickel foil is found, and it is shown, that from the model it is also possible to predict the geometrical extend of the nano-structured area on the curved surfaces....

  10. Self-propelled swimming of a flexible plunging foil near a solid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longzhen; He, Guowei; Zhang, Xing

    2016-07-05

    Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influences of a solid wall on the self-propelled swimming of a flexible plunging foil. It is found that the presence of a solid wall enhances the cruising speed, with the cost of increasing input power. Rigid foil can achieve high percentage increase in cruising speed when swimming near a solid wall, but the propulsive efficiency may be reduced. Foils with some flexibility can enjoy the enhancements in both cruising speed and propulsive efficiency. Another advantage of the flexible foils in near-wall swimming is that smaller averaged lateral forces are produced. The effects of wall confinement on the wake structure and the vortex dynamics are also studied in this paper. The results obtained in this study shed some light on the unsteady wall effect experienced by aquatic animals and also inform the design of bio-mimetic underwater vehicles which are capable of exploiting the wall effect.

  11. Foil Gas Bearing Supported Quiet Fan for Spacecraft Ventilation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developing a quiet fan for Environmental Control and Life Support systems to enhance the livable environment within the spacecraft has been a challenge. A Foil Gas...

  12. Laser ultrasonic inspection of the microstructural state of thin metal foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, O; Huber, R; Chinn, D; Spicer, J B

    2009-03-01

    A laser-based ultrasonic technique suitable for characterization of the microstructural state of metal foils is presented. The technique relies on the measurement of the intrinsic attenuation of laser-generated longitudinal waves at frequencies reaching 1 GHz resulting from ultrasonic interaction with the sample microstructure. In order to facilitate accurate measurement of the attenuation, a theoretical model-based signal analysis approach is used. The signal analysis approach isolates aspects of the measured attenuation that depend strictly on the microstructure from geometrical effects. Experimental results obtained in commercially cold worked tungsten foils show excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the longitudinal wave attenuation at gigahertz frequencies is strongly influenced by the dislocation content of the foils and may find potential application in the characterization of the microstructure of micron thick metal foils.

  13. Effect of liquid uranium on tungsten foils up to 1350/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznietz, M.; Livne, Z.; Cotler, C.; Erez, G.

    1988-11-01

    Immersion experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of liquid uranium on 0.3-mm-thick foils of tungsten metal in the temperature range of 1160 to 1350/sup 0/C, for immersion times up to 20 h, in zirconia crucibles. The original and uranium-reacted foils have been studied microscopically (SEM-EDAX) and the internal morphology has been determined. The latter is affected by the heat-treatment and penetration of liquid uranium. The penetration is partial up to 1210/sup 0/C, accompanied by a partial uranium-assisted recrystallization, forming two metallurgically-different regions, which on cooling result in the observed cracks due to inhomogeneous strain. The penetration of liquid uranium is complete at 1255/sup 0/C and above, inducing recrystallization of tungsten grains throughout the foil, with larger, uranium-lined, grains in inner regions, and smaller, progressively-separated, tungsten grains in outer regions (with reduction in foil thickness).

  14. Progressive dissolution of molybdenum foils in liquid uranium at 1160/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznietz, M.; Cotler, C.

    1988-12-01

    Immersion experiments have been performed to investigate the progressive dissolution of 0.3-mm-thick foils of molybdenum metal in liquid uranium at 1160/sup 0/C, for immersion times of 3, 6, 10, and 60 min, and 20 h, in a zirconia crucible. The original foils, as-received and heat-treated at 1160/sup 0/C, and the uranium-reacted foils have been studied microscopically (SEM-EDAX) and the internal morphology has been determined. The flow lines in as-received molybdenum disappear under heat-treatment, while the undistinguishable grains recrystallize upon heating into grains with average size of 20 m, persisting in samples immersed in liquid uranium. The recrystallization is not uranium-assisted, as uranium does not penetrate into intergranular regions. After incubation time of 3-4 min, outer molybdenum grains dissolve in liquid uranium, thereby reducing the foil thickness progressively. Full dissolution occurs for about 15-min immersion.

  15. An Experimental Investigation into the Temperature Profile of a Compliant Foil Air Bearing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radil, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump-type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions...

  16. Note: Radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing for microturbomachinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Choi, Sang Kyu; Hong, Doo Euy; Yoon, Tae Gwang; Lee, Sung Hwi

    2013-10-01

    This Note proposes a novel radial-thrust combo metal mesh foil bearing (MMFB). Although MMFBs have advantages such as higher stiffness and damping over conventional air foil bearings, studies related to MMFBs have been limited to radial MMFBs. The novel combo MMFB is composed of a radial top foil, thrust top foils, and a ring-shaped metal mesh damper--fabricated by compressing a copper wire mesh--with metal mesh thrust pads for the thrust bearing at both side faces. In this study, the combo MMFB was fabricated in half-split type to support the rotor for a micro gas turbine generator. The manufacture and assembly process for the half-split-type combo MMFB is presented. In addition, to verify the proposed combo MMFB, motoring test results up to 250,000 rpm and axial displacements as a function of rotational speed are presented.

  17. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  18. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhaupt, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readilycorrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature

  19. LANL Experience Rolling Zr-Clad LEU-10Mo Foils for AFIP-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammon, Duncan L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kennedy, Patrick K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, Randall L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duffield, Andrew N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The cleaning, canning, rolling and final trimming of Low Enriched Uranium-10 wt. pct. Molybdenum (LEU-10Mo) foils for ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) fuel plates to be used in the AFIP-7 (ATR Full Size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position) experiments are summarized. Six Zr-clad foils were produced from two LEU-10Mo castings supplied to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Y-12 National Security Complex. Details of cleaning and canning procedures are provided. Hot- and cold-rolling results are presented, including rolling schedules, images of foils in-process, metallography and local compositions of regions of interest, and details of final foil dimensions and process yield. This report was compiled from the slides for the presentation of the same name given by Duncan Hammon on May 12, 2011 at the AFIP-7 Lessons Learned meeting in Salt Lake City, UT, with Los Alamos National Laboratory document number LA-UR 11-02898.

  20. Intense heavy ion beam-induced temperature effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, K.; Tomut, M.; Simon, P.; Hubert, C.; Romanenko, A.; Lommel, B.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    At the future FAIR facility, reliably working solid carbon stripper foils are desired for providing intermediate charge states to SIS18. With the expected high beam intensities, the foils experience enhanced degradation and limited lifetime due to severe radiation damage, stress waves, and thermal effects. This work presents systematic measurements of the temperature of different carbon-based stripper foils (amorphous, diamond-like, and carbon-nanotube based) exposed to 4.8 MeV/u U, Bi, and Au beams of different pulse intensities. Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed by means of infrared thermography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting temperature depends on the foil thickness and strongly increases with increasing pulse intensity and repetition rate. (author)