WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation expanded scope

  1. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bray

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing privileges from a specific list of drugs. The goals of the optometry reform were to increase access to care, decrease burden on medical and hospital resources and allow optometrists to practice to their full scope. The policy response was spurred by a recommendation from the Health Professions Regulatory Advisory Council and the prescribing precedence in other Canadian jurisdictions. Bill 171, The Health Systems Improvement Act, amended The Optometry Act, 1991, Section 4 to include the authorized act of prescribing designated drugs, while The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice, passed on 6 April 2011, listed the individual drugs optometrists are authorized to prescribe. The resulting response of a specific list of authorized drugs was seen as a limiting and inflexible system that will require changes as newer drugs are developed.

  2. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Arylation of Heterocycles via C-H Bond Activation: Expanded Scope Through Mechanistic Insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jared; Berman, Ashley; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2007-07-18

    A practical, functional group tolerant method for the Rh-catalyzed direct arylation of a variety of pharmaceutically important azoles with aryl bromides is described. Many of the successful azole and aryl bromide coupling partners are not compatible with methods for the direct arylation of heterocycles using Pd(0) or Cu(I) catalysts. The readily prepared, low molecular weight ligand, Z-1-tert-butyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrophosphepine, which coordinates to Rh in a bidentate P-olefin fashion to provide a highly active yet thermally stable arylation catalyst, is essential to the success of this method. By using the tetrafluoroborate salt of the corresponding phosphonium, the reactions can be assembled outside of a glove box without purification of reagents or solvent. The reactions are also conducted in THF or dioxane, which greatly simplifies product isolation relative to most other methods for direct arylation of azoles employing high-boiling amide solvents. The reactions are performed with heating in a microwave reactor to obtain excellent product yields in two hours.

  3. Expanding the scope of educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Laishley, J

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the way in which a psychologist has workded in day nurseries in an Inner London Borough. The work has involved the development of an assessment form to be used with the children, and the planning of support groups for the day nursery staff. A brief outline is given of the research design necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. It is to be hoped that the study indicates one way in which educational psychologists may extend their range of activities into the preschool area, and maximize the use of their skills in the field of childhood disadvantage.

  4. Expanding the Scope of Practice for Pharmacists in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Edward Randall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available On 15 December 2009 the Regulated Health Professions Statute Law Amendment Act, 2009 (Bill 179 received Royal Assent in Ontario. The resulting legislative amendments were intended to strengthen government oversight of the health regulatory colleges, promote interprofessional collaboration, and make better use of health professionals’ existing skills and training by enhancing the scope of practice for several health professions in order to improve health system efficiency. Among the most notable scope of practice enhancements were those given to pharmacists, who would be permitted to: modify and renew existing prescriptions, prescribe a limited range of drugs independent of a physician, and administer medications such as vaccinations via injection or inhalation. The reform was driven in large part by the government’s concerns related to the rising cost of health care, the public’s desire for greater access to services, and demonstrated successes of similar reforms in other jurisdictions. While the Ontario reform has had some clear success, such as expanding the public’s access to influenza vaccinations, to date, the evidence of achieving other goals remains weak. In particular, there is no clear evidence of improved health system efficiency and associated cost effectiveness. Moreover, it is possible that Ontario’s umbrella regulatory model may be making interprofessional collaboration more, rather than less, difficult to realize.

  5. Expanding the scope of leadership training in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Stewart

    2014-06-01

    All physicians take a leadership role at some point in their career-some exert influence in their practices and communities as informal leaders, and others hold formal leadership roles to which they are appointed or elected. These formal leadership roles convey power to those individuals who hold such positions. Formal leadership, however, is limited in its influence unless it is accompanied by a series of personal and interpersonal competencies that characterize both formal and informal leaders.Many physicians who do not hold formal leadership roles will be called on to provide (or will wish to provide) informal leadership at various times in their careers. Both formal and informal leaders should be trained in the personal and interpersonal competencies necessary for effective leadership to advance the principles-driven and values-oriented goals inherent in the health care enterprise.In this article, the author defines leadership and describes the characteristics of formal and informal leaders, then discusses the types of leadership and the power derived from different leadership roles. He concludes by arguing in favor of expanding the scope of leadership training to include informal as well as formal leaders.

  6. Perceptions of pharmacists' roles in the era of expanding scopes of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindel, Theresa J; Yuksel, Nese; Breault, Rene; Daniels, Jason; Varnhagen, Stanley; Hughes, Christine A

    Alberta was the first province in Canada to enact legislative changes to permit expansion of pharmacists' scope of practice, including allowing pharmacists to prescribe. However, such changes to the scope of practice can blur professional boundaries and obscure the roles of pharmacists. Understanding perceptions about the pharmacist's role may provide insight into recent and historical changes in pharmacy practice. This study clarifies perceptions held by pharmacists and other stakeholders concerning the role of the pharmacist in society. To understand the perceptions of pharmacists, pharmacy students, technicians, other health care professionals, and the public of the pharmacist's role in Alberta. A mixed methods approach was used: focus group sessions (n = 9) and individual interviews (n = 4) of pharmacists and other stakeholders were conducted and analyzed using qualitative-descriptive approach. A web-based survey of Alberta pharmacists (n = 416) explored pharmacists' perceptions of their own roles. Data analysis revealed the following: participants perceived that the pharmacist's role was transitioning to focus more on patient care; consistency in pharmacist uptake of this new role shaped the public's expectations; pharmacists with expanded scopes of practice were assuming greater responsibility; collaboration and relationships with other health care professionals were essential. The survey confirmed that changes in the roles of pharmacists were primarily related to patient care. Following legislative changes and implementation of a compensation framework for pharmacy services, pharmacists and other stakeholders perceived the pharmacist's role to be shifting toward patient care. Periodic revisiting of pharmacists' roles and professional activities is needed to evaluate changes over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Include Immunization in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth O'Reilly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 December 2010 An Act to Amend Chapter 36 of the Acts of 2001, the Pharmacy Act (Bill 7 received Royal Assent in Nova Scotia, including an amendment that enabled an expanded scope of pharmacy practice. Expanding pharmacists' scope of practice came about from recommendations by various federal and provincial government bodies as an attempt to improve accessibility to health care and decrease costs. In 2013, pharmacists in Nova Scotia began administering the influenza vaccine as part of the publicly funded program in attempts to improve vaccine coverage rates. Preliminary evaluation in Nova Scotia has shown an increase in influenza vaccination coverage. Although pharmacist administration of influenza vaccination may improve vaccination coverage and reduce demand on physician time, there may be tension created among the professions, which needs to be addressed and managed.

  8. Expanding practitioner scopes of practice during public health emergencies: experiences from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Brooke; Morhard, Ryan; Bouri, Nidhi; Cicero, Anita

    2010-09-01

    In a public health emergency involving significant surges in patients and shortages of medical staff, supplies, and space, temporarily expanding scopes of practice of certain healthcare practitioners may help to address heightened population health needs. Scopes of practice, which are defined by state practice acts, set forth the range of services that licensed practitioners are authorized to perform. The U.S. has had limited experience with temporarily expanding scopes of practice during emergencies. However, during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic response, many states took some form of action to expand the practice scopes of certain categories of practitioners in order to authorize them to administer the pandemic vaccine. No standard legal approach for expanding scopes of practice during emergencies exists across states, and scope of practice expansions during routine, nonemergency times have been the subject of professional society debate and legal action. These issues raise the question of how states could effectively implement expansions for health services beyond administering vaccine and ensure consistency in expansions across states during catastrophic events that require a shift to crisis standards of care. This article provides an overview of scopes of practice, a summary of the range of legal and regulatory approaches used in the U.S. to expand practice scopes for vaccination during the 2009 H1N1 response, and recommendations for future research.

  9. Concise syntheses of the cruciferous phytoalexins brassilexin, sinalexin, wasalexins, and analogues: expanding the scope of the vilsmeier formylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Jha, Mukund

    2005-03-04

    Efficient syntheses of the phytoalexins brassilexin, sinalexin, and analogues are demonstrated through the application of the Vilsmeier formylation to indoline-2-thiones followed by a new aqueous ammonia workup procedure. Similarly, a very concise two-pot synthesis of the phytoalexins wasalexins using sequential formylation-amination of indolin-2-ones is described. Remarkably, this novel aqueous ammonia workup allows the sequential one-pot formylation-amination, expanding substantially the scope of the Vilsmeier formylation of both indoline-2-thiones and indolin-2-ones. The examination of the formylation-amination reaction and optimization of conditions, as well as the syntheses and antifungal activities of several brassilexin analogues, are reported.

  10. Expanding the neutralization scope of the EchiTAb-plus-ICP antivenom to include venoms of elapids from Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Andrés; Segura, Álvaro; Vargas, Mariángela; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Estrada, Ricardo; Wu, Francisco; Litschka-Koen, Thea; Perry, Michael Alfred; Alape-Girón, Alberto; León, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    EchiTAb-plus-ICP is an antivenom prepared from plasma of horses hyperimmunized with the venoms of the carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), the puff adder (Bitis arietans) and the black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis). Therefore, the use of this antivenom has been limited to Western Africa. In order to expand the neutralization scope of EchiTAb-plus-ICP, we supplemented the immunogenic mixture with the venoms of B. arietans, the black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis), the Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica), the snouted cobra (N. annulifera), and the rinkhals (Hemachatus haemachatus) from Swaziland. The ability of the expanded-scope antivenom, hereby named EchiTAb + ICP, to neutralize the venoms of B. arietans, D. polylepis, N. mossambica and H. haemachatus was similar to those of FAV Afrique and the SVA African antivenoms. In comparison to the SAIMR antivenom, the expanded-scope EchiTAb + ICP had lower ability to neutralize the venom of B. arietans, but similar ability to neutralize the venoms of D. polylepis, N. mossambica and H. haemachatus. Owing to its low protein concentration, the expanded-scope EchiTAb + ICP had lower ability to neutralize the venom of N. annulifera than FAV Afrique and the SAIMR antivenoms. However, when formulated at a protein concentration as high as FAV Afrique and SAIMR antivenoms, the expanded-scope EchiTAb + ICP showed similar capacity to neutralize this poorly immunogenic venom. Our results encourage the transition to the new EchiTAb + ICP antivenom, with an expanded neutralization scope that includes venoms of some of the most medically important elapids from Southern Africa. Clinical trials are required to determine the minimum effective-safe dose of the new EchiTAb + ICP for each type of envenomation.

  11. Expanding the scope of practice for enrolled nurses working in an Australian rural health service - implications for job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodless, Mary; Bourke, Lisa

    2009-05-01

    Career opportunities have been limited for enrolled nurses (ENs) working in small, rural health services. Medication endorsement offers ENs expanded scope of practice which may lead to improved job satisfaction. This small study compared job satisfaction between a group of ENs with recent medication endorsement and a group who elected not to undertake the course in a small, isolated health service. A questionnaire was designed to measure job satisfaction containing the measure of job satisfaction (MJS) scale and other information regarding the course in medication administration. Interviews were also conducted with medication endorsed nurses to gain a greater understanding about the course and their expanded scope of practice. Medication endorsed nurses were newer to nursing and their current job, and reported higher job satisfaction on all five factors. Non-medication endorsed nurses cited lack of confidence and ability as key reasons for not undertaking the course while medication endorsed nurses reported professional and personal reasons for expanding their scope of practice. Most enjoyed the responsibility and reported satisfaction from distributing medications and responding to pain while one viewed it as added work. The findings from this small study suggest that providing local education will improve job satisfaction of ENs.

  12. Beyond trade: the expanding scope of the non-trade agenda in trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Milewicz, KM; Hollway, J; Peacock, C; Snidal, D

    2016-01-01

    Increased complexity and density of transnational problems creates unprecedented challenges and opportunities for contemporary international governance. ‘Issue linkage’ is one institutional arrangement through which states address these chang- ing circumstances. In this paper, we examine the widening scope of the non-trade agenda in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Non-trade issues (NTIs) such as human rights, democracy, environment, corruption and labor standards are increasingly l...

  13. Pricing and Welfare Effects of Expanding VAT Scope in China%增值税扩围改革的价格影响与福利效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程子建

    2011-01-01

    The proposal of 12al five-year plan has definitely regarded expanding VAT scope and correspondingly reducing such taxes as business tax as the important content of next tax reform. This paper analyzes the effects of expanding VAT scope on the reduction in repeated taxation and tax bur- dens of products by price model. And it also calculates the welfare effect of expanding VAT scope by the household survey, input-output method and real tax data. This paper finds that expanding VAT scope to productive services which is regressive can increase households' welfare, while the welfare improvement of expanding VAT scope to all industries which is progressive is smaller than the one of expanding VAT scope to productive services.%“十二五”规划建议明确将“扩大增值税征收范围,相应调减营业税等税收”作为下一步税制改革的重要内容。文章通过建立价格模型分析了不同的扩围方案对减少重复征税和降低产品税负的影响,并利用住户调查数据、投入产出方法和实际税收数据测算了增值税扩围改革的福利效应。研究发现,将增值税扩大到生产性服务业将改善居民福利,但具有累退性;全面扩围的福利改善作用小于生产性扩围,但具有累进性。

  14. Intraductal biliary and pancreatic endoscopy:An expanding scope of possibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joel R Judah; Peter V Draganov

    2008-01-01

    Intraductal endoscopy describes the use of an endoscope to directly visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts.For many years,technological challenges have made performing these procedures difficult.The "mother-baby" system and other various miniscopes have been developed,but routine use has been hampered due to complex setup,scope fragility and the time consuming,technically demanding nature of the procedure.Recently,the SpyGlass peroral cholangiopancreatoscopy system has shown early success at providing diagnostic information and therapeutic options.The clinical utility of intraductal endoscopy is broad.It allows better differentiation between benign and malignant processes by allowing direct visualization and targeted sampling of tissue.Therapeutic interventions,such as electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL),laser lithotripsy,photodynamic therapy,and argon plasma coagulation (APC),may also be performed as part of intraductal endoscopy.Intraductal endoscopy significantly increases the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP),and as technology progresses,it is likely that its utilization will only increase.In this review of intraductal endoscopy,we describe in detail the various endoscopic platforms and their diagnostic and clinical applications.

  15. Expanding the substrate scope of chitooligosaccharide oxidase from Fusarium graminearum by structure-inspired mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lee, Misun; Fraaije, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Chitooligosaccharide oxidase from Fusarium graminearum (ChitO) oxidizes N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and its oligomers with high efficiency at the C1-hydroxyl moiety while it shows poor or no activity with other carbohydrates. By sequence and structural comparison with other known carbohydrate ox

  16. Expanding the substrate scope of chitooligosaccharide oxidase from Fusarium graminearum by structure-inspired mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Alessandro; Lee, Misun; Fraaije, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Chitooligosaccharide oxidase from Fusarium graminearum (ChitO) oxidizes N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and its oligomers with high efficiency at the C1-hydroxyl moiety while it shows poor or no activity with other carbohydrates. By sequence and structural comparison with other known carbohydrate ox

  17. Places for active outdoor recreation – a scoping review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on places and facilities for physical activity in nature and reports on a scoping literature review. The study aims to bring together research from several research areas, and the perspective is both of conceptual and systematic character. The purpose is to provide an ov...

  18. Monstrous melodrama: Expanding the scope of melodramatic identification to interpret negative fan responses to "Supernatural"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Schmidt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines fan responses to an episode of the CW television series Supernatural; the episode features a metatext including a number of shout-outs and jokes about fandom. The most controversial of the shout-outs related to "Wincest," a form of slash featuring an incestuous sexual relationship between the two lead characters. Ien Ang's notion of melodramatic identification is revamped for use in relation to contemporary television reception and specifically to interpret negative fan responses to this episode. I argue that the theory of melodramatic identification can be employed not only to understand soap opera viewers but also viewers of many other kinds of television, particularly cult TV with its frequent reliance on serialized melodramatic narratives. I further argue that not only is Supernatural a melodramatic text, but also that text must be viewed as extending beyond the narrative world proper to the multiple narratives or texts comprised by the industrial and cultural context of the show. These together constitute a multilayered melodrama with which the fan identifies and to which she can also contribute through extratextual fan activities. That is, participation in slash and Wincest communities can be viewed as expression of melodramatic identification. This accounts for the strong negative responses of some fans who perceive that the show's producers are exposing and/or mocking them.

  19. Marketing activity in the community pharmacy sector - A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ardalan; Carter, Stephen R; Schneider, Carl R

    2017-03-30

    Community pharmacy ownership requires engaging with marketing strategies to influence consumer behaviour. There is a plethora of information from trade journals, expert opinion, and published discussion surrounding this issue. Despite this, evidence relating to the efficacy of marketing activity within the pharmacy sector is scant. To review how marketing activity has been conceptualised in the community pharmacy sector and to determine the evidence for the effect of marketing activity. Seven databases were systematically searched using a scoping review framework with the reporting protocol of PRISMA-P. The search yielded 33 studies that were analysed for year of publication, journal, country of focus, and framework of marketing. The majority of marketing research papers focused on the United States and were published in healthcare journals. These were various marketing strategy elements, including; segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning. Also evident was research regarding marketing mix, which predominately involved the "4Ps" model. Actual marketing activity comprised little of the research. Research into marketing activity in community pharmacy is limited, and little evidence is available to show the effects of such activities. Future research needs to demonstrate the causality for the effect of marketing activities on consumer behaviour and economic outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MicroScope in 2017: an expanding and evolving integrated resource for community expertise of microbial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallenet, David; Calteau, Alexandra; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Gachet, Mathieu; Lajus, Aurélie; Josso, Adrien; Mercier, Jonathan; Renaux, Alexandre; Rollin, Johan; Rouy, Zoe; Roche, David; Scarpelli, Claude; Médigue, Claudine

    2017-01-04

    The annotation of genomes from NGS platforms needs to be automated and fully integrated. However, maintaining consistency and accuracy in genome annotation is a challenging problem because millions of protein database entries are not assigned reliable functions. This shortcoming limits the knowledge that can be extracted from genomes and metabolic models. Launched in 2005, the MicroScope platform (http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/agc/microscope) is an integrative resource that supports systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotation, data management and comparative analysis. Effective comparative analysis requires a consistent and complete view of biological data, and therefore, support for reviewing the quality of functional annotation is critical. MicroScope allows users to analyze microbial (meta)genomes together with post-genomic experiment results if any (i.e. transcriptomics, re-sequencing of evolved strains, mutant collections, phenotype data). It combines tools and graphical interfaces to analyze genomes and to perform the expert curation of gene functions in a comparative context. Starting with a short overview of the MicroScope system, this paper focuses on some major improvements of the Web interface, mainly for the submission of genomic data and on original tools and pipelines that have been developed and integrated in the platform: computation of pan-genomes and prediction of biosynthetic gene clusters. Today the resource contains data for more than 6000 microbial genomes, and among the 2700 personal accounts (65% of which are now from foreign countries), 14% of the users are performing expert annotations, on at least a weekly basis, contributing to improve the quality of microbial genome annotations. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. MicroScope in 2017: an expanding and evolving integrated resource for community expertise of microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallenet, David; Calteau, Alexandra; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Gachet, Mathieu; Lajus, Aurélie; Josso, Adrien; Mercier, Jonathan; Renaux, Alexandre; Rollin, Johan; Rouy, Zoe; Roche, David; Scarpelli, Claude; Médigue, Claudine

    2017-01-01

    The annotation of genomes from NGS platforms needs to be automated and fully integrated. However, maintaining consistency and accuracy in genome annotation is a challenging problem because millions of protein database entries are not assigned reliable functions. This shortcoming limits the knowledge that can be extracted from genomes and metabolic models. Launched in 2005, the MicroScope platform (http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/agc/microscope) is an integrative resource that supports systematic and efficient revision of microbial genome annotation, data management and comparative analysis. Effective comparative analysis requires a consistent and complete view of biological data, and therefore, support for reviewing the quality of functional annotation is critical. MicroScope allows users to analyze microbial (meta)genomes together with post-genomic experiment results if any (i.e. transcriptomics, re-sequencing of evolved strains, mutant collections, phenotype data). It combines tools and graphical interfaces to analyze genomes and to perform the expert curation of gene functions in a comparative context. Starting with a short overview of the MicroScope system, this paper focuses on some major improvements of the Web interface, mainly for the submission of genomic data and on original tools and pipelines that have been developed and integrated in the platform: computation of pan-genomes and prediction of biosynthetic gene clusters. Today the resource contains data for more than 6000 microbial genomes, and among the 2700 personal accounts (65% of which are now from foreign countries), 14% of the users are performing expert annotations, on at least a weekly basis, contributing to improve the quality of microbial genome annotations. PMID:27899624

  2. The Potential for Health Monitoring in Expandable Space Modules: The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2017-01-01

    Expandable modules for use in space and on the Moon or Mars offer a great opportunity for volume and mass savings in future space exploration missions. This type of module can be compressed into a relatively small shape on the ground, allowing them to fit into space vehicles with a smaller cargo/fairing size than a traditional solid, metallic structure based module would allow. In April 2016, the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) was berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). BEAM is the first human-rated expandable habitat/module to be deployed and crewed in space. BEAM is a NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. BEAM is intended to stay attached to ISS for an operational period of 2 years to help advance the technology readiness for future expandable modules. BEAM has been instrumented with a suite of space flight certified sensors systems which will help characterize the module's performance for thermal, radiation shielding and impact monitoring against potential Micro Meteoroid/Orbital Debris (MM/OD) providing fundamental information on the BEAM environment for potential health monitoring requirements and capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of how the sensors/instrumentation systems were developed, tested, installed and an overview of the current sensor system operations. It will also discuss how the MM/OD impact detection system referred to as the Distributed Impact Detection System (DIDS) data is being processed and reviewed on the ground by the principle investigators.

  3. Expanding the mirror : vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    We often empathically share the states of others. The discovery of 'mirror neurons' suggested a neural mechanism for monkeys to share the actions of others. Here we expand this view by showing that mirror neurons for actions not only exist in the premotor cortex or in monkeys and that vicarious acti

  4. Expanding the mirror : vicarious activity for actions, emotions, and sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    We often empathically share the states of others. The discovery of 'mirror neurons' suggested a neural mechanism for monkeys to share the actions of others. Here we expand this view by showing that mirror neurons for actions not only exist in the premotor cortex or in monkeys and that vicarious

  5. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) - ISS Inflatable Module Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Munday, Steve; Valle, Gerard D.

    2014-01-01

    INNOVATION: BEAM is a pathway project demonstrating the design, fabrication, test, certification, integration, operation, on-orbit performance, and disposal of the first ever man-rated space inflatable structure. The groundwork laid through the BEAM project will support developing and launching a larger inflatable space structure with even greater mass per volume (M/V) advantages need for longer space missions. OVERVIEW: Inflatable structures have been shown to have much lower mass per volume ratios (M/V) when compared with conventional space structures. BEAM is an expandable structure, launched in a packed state, and then expanded once on orbit. It is a temporary experimental module to be used for gathering structural, thermal, and radiation data while on orbit. BEAM will be launched on Space X-8, be extracted from the dragon trunk, and will attach to ISS at Node 3- Aft. BEAM performance will be monitored over a two-year period and then BEAM will be jettison using the SSRMS.

  6. Expanding the scope of cyclopropene reporters for the detection of metabolically engineered glycoproteins by Diels–Alder reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Späte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring glycoconjugates has been tremendously facilitated by the development of metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. Recently, the inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between methylcyclopropene tags and tetrazines has become a popular ligation reaction due to the small size and high reactivity of cyclopropene tags. Attaching the cyclopropene tag to mannosamine via a carbamate linkage has made the reaction even more efficient. Here, we expand the application of cyclopropene tags to N-acylgalactosamine and N-acylglucosamine derivatives enabling the visualization of mucin-type O-glycoproteins and O-GlcNAcylated proteins through Diels–Alder chemistry. Whereas the previously reported cyclopropene-labeled N-acylmannosamine derivative leads to significantly higher fluorescence staining of cell-surface glycoconjugates, the glucosamine derivative gave higher labeling efficiency with protein preparations containing also intracellular proteins.

  7. Teaching and learning activities to educate nursing students for interprofessional collaboration: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Natalie L; Epp, Sheila; Vinek, Jeanette

    2017-09-18

    To prepare new graduates with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to engage in effective interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in practice, healthcare professional programmes need to ensure their curriculum provides opportunities for interprofessional education (IPE) and IPC. To strengthen IPE within an undergraduate curriculum and meet the professional requirements set out by regulatory bodies to prepare new graduate nurses to achieve IPC competencies, a curriculum initiative was developed to expand IPE across the four years of the Baccalaureate of Science in Nursing (BSN) programme. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify published teaching-learning activities in undergraduate nursing programmes to inform the development and integration of IPE curricula. The literature included was identified by searching the following electronic databases: EMBASE and EBSCO (CINAHL, Medline, Education Research Complete, ERIC). The search was limited to articles with abstracts published between 2008 and 2016 in the English language. All ten studies that met inclusion criteria reported students' perceived interprofessional education as valuable in facilitating their achievement of IPC competencies. Interprofessional education is an approach for preparing nursing students with knowledge, skills, and attitudes to achieve IPC competencies and therefore, urgently needs to become more prevalent in nursing curricula. Educators can use a variety of IPE teaching-learning activities to support students' achievement of IPC competencies in order to prepare new practitioners to engage in effective IPC in a variety of healthcare milieus. Nurse educators are encouraged to intentionally integrate learning opportunities into current and future undergraduate nursing education to prepare collaborative ready graduate nurses.

  8. Expanding Internal Control Functionality Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola M. Vuitsiv

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the influence of «western» concepts of the information needs of management process provisions on forming and developing the up-to-date model of Internal Control. An attempt has been made to develop the approach to solve urgent management tasks by applying the ideas of controlling and management accounting via the traditional national approach to the content of control. The place of control in the enterprise management information system has also been reviewed.

  9. The FERM-domain protein Expanded regulates Hippo pathway activity via direct interactions with the transcriptional activator Yorkie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouel, Caroline; Gardano, Laura; Amin, Nancy; Garg, Ankush; Rosenfeld, Robyn; Le Bihan, Thierry; McNeill, Helen

    2009-03-01

    The Hippo kinase pathway plays a central role in growth regulation and tumor suppression from flies to man. The Hippo/Mst kinase phosphorylates and activates the NDR family kinase Warts/Lats, which phosphorylates and inhibits the transcriptional activator Yorkie/YAP. Current models place the FERM-domain protein Expanded upstream of Hippo kinase in growth control. To understand how Expanded regulates Hippo pathway activity, we used affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify Expanded-binding proteins. Surprisingly we find that Yorkie is the major Expanded-binding protein in Drosophila S2 cells. Expanded binds Yorkie at endogenous levels via WW-domain-PPxY interactions, independently of Yorkie phosphorylation at S168, which is critical for 14-3-3 binding. Expanded relocalizes Yorkie from the nucleus, abrogating its nuclear activity, and it can regulate growth downstream of warts in vivo. These data lead to a new model whereby Expanded functions downstream of Warts, in concert with 14-3-3 proteins to sequester Yorkie in the cytoplasm, inhibiting growth activity of the Hippo pathway.

  10. Expanded activity of schools in Serbia: Legal framework and practical experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenović Kosovka Đ.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Expanded activities of schools and activities of student cooperatives are important components of the educational process in schools, which are contributing to the improvement of the quality of education and better social inclusion of students. The main objective of this article is to focus on opportunities enabled by the legal framework that supports the realization of expanded activities and activities of student cooperatives in Serbian schools and to compare relevant experiences in Serbia with the practice in neighbouring countries and the old EU Member States. In particular, in this article it is examined to what extent the adoption of entrepreneurial competences through different entrepreneurship development programs contributes to the probability of implementation of additional activities in Serbian schools. For this purpose, the data of the Survey on practising, types and usefulness of expanded activities and activities of student cooperatives are used. This survey was conducted in 2010 at the samples of public primary and secondary schools that executed some sort of additional activities, as well as of schools that did not practice extended activities.

  11. 78 FR 5793 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of State Expanded Learning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of State Expanded Learning Time... Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. chapter 3501 et seq.), ED is proposing a new information collection. DATES... submitted after the comment period will not be accepted. Written requests for information or...

  12. Effect of petroleum coke expanding by perchloric acid on the performance of the resulted activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mei-Gen; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum coke (PC) was expanded by using KMnO4 as oxidant and HClO4 as intercalator so as to decrease the amount of KOH needed for the successive activation. Activated carbon (AC) was prepared by activation of the expanded PC (EPC) at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1 (denoted as EAC-3). As a comparison, AC was also made by activation of PC at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 (denoted as AC-3, AC-4 and AC-5). Influence of expanding modification on the structure and performance of PC and AC was investigated. The results revealed that the expanding treatment increased the interplanar distance of PC microcrystalline from 0.344 to 0.362 nm and decreased the microcrystalline thickness from 2.34 to 1.57 nm. The specific surface area of EAC-3 and AC-5 was 3461 and 3291 m2ṡg-1, respectively. The average pore size of EAC-3 was 2.19 nm, which is 0.11 nm larger than that of AC-5. At a scan rate of 0.5 mVṡs-1, EAC-3 and AC-5 achieved a specific gravimetric capacitance of 486 and 429 Fṡg-1, respectively. Supercapacitor based on EAC-3 possessed lower resistance and better power performance.

  13. Platelet-activating factor in liver injury: A relational scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos P Karidis; Gregory Kouraklis; Stamatios E Theocharis

    2006-01-01

    The hepatocyte, the main cellular component of the liver, exhibits variable susceptibility to different types of injury induced by endogenous or exogenous factors.Hepatocellular dysfunction or death and regeneration are dependent upon the complicated interactions between numerous biologically active molecules. Plateletactivating factor (PAF) seems to play a pivotal role as the key mediator of liver injury in the clinical and experimental setting, as implied by the beneficial effects of its receptor antagonists. A comprehensive up-todate overview of the specific functional and regulatory properties of PAF in conditions associated with liver injury is attempted in this review.

  14. Aerobic scope for activity in age 0 year Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S L; von Herbing, I Hunt

    2009-05-01

    Key components of swimming metabolism: standard metabolism (R(s)), active metabolism (R(a)) and absolute aerobic scope for activity (R(a)-R(s)) were determined for small age 0 year Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Gadus morhua juveniles grew from 0.50 to 2.89 g wet body mass (M(WB)) over the experimental period of 100 days, and growth rates (G) ranged from 1.4 to 2.9% day(-1), which decreased with increasing size. Metabolic rates were recorded by measuring changes in oxygen consumption over time at different activity levels using modified Brett-type respirometers designed to accommodate the small size and short swimming endurance of small fishes. Power performance relationships were established between oxygen consumption and swimming speed measurements were repeated for individual fish as each fish grew. Mass-specific standard metabolic rates (RsMWB-1) were calculated from the power performance relationships by extrapolating to zero swimming speed and decreased from 7.00 to 5.77 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1), mass-specific active metabolic rates (RaMWB-1) were calculated from extrapolation to maximum swimming speed (U(max)) and decreased from 26.18 to 14.35 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1) and mass-specific absolute scope for activity was calculated as the difference between active and standard metabolism (RaMWB-1-RsMWB-1) and decreased from 26.18 to 14.35 micromol O(2) g(-1) h(-1) as M(WB) increased. Small fish with low R(s) had bigger aerobic scopes but, as expected, R(s) was higher in smaller fish than larger fish. The measurements and results from this study are unique as R(s), R(a) and absolute aerobic scopes have not been previously determined for small age 0 year G. morhua.

  15. Physical activity-related injuries in older adults: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, Liza; Theou, Olga; Little, Robert M D; Vandervoort, A A; Raina, Parminder

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic scoping review to identify and document the breadth of literature related to physical activity-related injuries in older adults. The population of interest was adults (both males and females) over the age of 65 years, participating in exercise, leisure-time, or sport-type physical activities. The initial search yielded 16,828 articles, with 43 articles ultimately included. The final 43 articles utilized the following study designs: three experimental (two randomized control and one non-randomized control), 14 prospective studies, and 26 retrospective. The results of this scoping review would suggest that it may be premature to provide definitive incidence rates, causes, and correlates of physical activity-related injuries in older adults. However, the current literature does not suggest that older adults are at an increased risk of injury from participation in physical activities. Future research should utilize a consistent definition of 'injury' and consistent and comprehensive descriptors of injuries--including intensity level of engagement of activity and burden/severity of injury. In addition, injury rates in specific populations are needed, particularly for the oldest-old, for those in assisted-living situations, and for subgroups with clinical conditions. Finally, greater surveillance and documentation of older adult initiatives and interventions are needed in order to identify programs successful in reducing the injury rates of their target populations.

  16. Scope and extent of participation of female volunteers in tobacco control activities in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sreedharan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, NGOs play a key role in creating a supportive environment for the control of tobacco consumption. Aims : This study was conducted to assess the scope and the extent to which community-based women organizations are involved in tobacco control activities. To assess the scope and extent of participation in tobacco control activities according to the sociodemographic characteristics and also the extent to which they have participated in tobacco control activities. Settings and Design : The participants were Kudumbasree volunteers from the rural areas of Kannur district of Kerala state, India. This population-based study adopted a cross-sectional design. Materials and Methods : A self-administered, structured, close-ended, pre-tested questionnaire was prepared and used to collect data from 1000 female volunteers who participated in the study. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test was used to compare nonparametric variables, such as education, marital status, and age with attitude toward tobacco control activities. Results : Age of the participants ranged from 17 to 53 years. The association between education level and positive attitude to participate in tobacco control activities was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. A statistically significant association between participation in tobacco control activities and marital status (P < 0.001 was observed. With regard to education and readiness/willingness to participate in tobacco control activities, in all the education groups more than 90% were willing to participate in tobacco control activities. Among the ever married participants, 98% were willing to participate in antitobacco activities. Old age, husband working in a beedi factory, or not being able to make frequent visits were the reasons reported for their unwillingness of the remaining people. Conclusion : Based on the findings, a set of Kudumbasree volunteers were trained in tobacco and health to work in

  17. Expanding the scope of fiduciary duties to fill a gap in the law: the role of nonprofit hospital directors to ensure patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaput, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of the patient safety movement, there is a glaring disconnect between the increasing responsibilities placed on hospital board members and the limited accountability for those board members if they fail to meet their responsibilities. This Article discusses how the effectiveness of new patient safety laws is diminished by the lack of accountability of nonprofit board members. The Article suggests that an expanded notion of corporatefiduciary duties, enhanced by shifts in social norms, would contribute to patient safety reform.

  18. Expanded Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reselected for High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Demonstrate Islet Regenerative Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Ayesh K; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Hess, David A

    2016-04-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) purified for high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi) ) stimulate islet regeneration after transplantation into mice with streptozotocin-induced β cell deletion. However, ALDH(hi) cells represent a rare progenitor subset and widespread use of UCB ALDH(hi) cells to stimulate islet regeneration will require progenitor cell expansion without loss of islet regenerative functions. Here we demonstrate that prospectively purified UCB ALDH(hi) cells expand efficiently under serum-free, xeno-free conditions with minimal growth factor supplementation. Consistent with the concept that ALDH-activity is decreased as progenitor cells differentiate, kinetic analyses over 9 days revealed the frequency of ALDH(hi) cells diminished as culture time progressed such that total ALDH(hi) cell number was maximal (increased 3-fold) at day 6. Subsequently, day 6 expanded cells (bulk cells) were sorted after culture to reselect differentiated progeny with low ALDH-activity (ALDH(lo) subset) from less differentiated progeny with high ALDH-activity (ALDH(hi) subset). The ALDH(hi) subset retained primitive cell surface marker coexpression (32.0% ± 7.0% CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, 37.0% ± 6.9% CD34(+) /CD133(+) cells), and demonstrated increased hematopoietic colony forming cell function compared with the ALDH(lo) subset. Notably, bulk cells or ALDH(lo) cells did not possess the functional capacity to lower hyperglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin-treated NOD/SCID mice. However, transplantation of the repurified ALDH(hi) subset significantly reduced hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance, and increased islet-associated cell proliferation and capillary formation. Thus, expansion and delivery of reselected UCB cells that retain high ALDH-activity after short-term culture represents an improved strategy for the development of cellular therapies to enhance islet regeneration in situ.

  19. EarthScope Transportable Array Siting Outreach Activities in Alaska and Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, L.; Dorr, P. M.; Tape, C.; McQuillan, P.; Taber, J.; West, M. E.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScopeTransportable Array is working to locate over 260 stations in Alaska and western Canada. In this region, new tactics and partnerships are needed to increase outreach exposure. IRIS and EarthScope are partnering with the Alaska Earthquake Center, part of University of Alaska Geophysical Institute, to spread awareness of Alaska earthquakes and the benefits of the Transportable Array for Alaskans. Nearly all parts of Alaska are tectonically active. The tectonic and seismic variability of Alaska requires focused attention at the regional level, and the remoteness and inaccessibility of most Alaska villages and towns often makes frequent visits difficult. For this reason, Alaska outreach most often occurs at community events. When a community is accessible, every opportunity to engage the residents is made. Booths at state fairs and large cultural gatherings, such as the annual convention of the Alaska Federation of Natives, are excellent venues to distribute earthquake information and to demonstrate a wide variety of educational products and web-based applications related to seismology and the Transportable Array that residents can use in their own communities. Region-specific publications have been developed to tie in a sense of place for residents of Alaska. The Alaska content for IRIS's Active Earth Monitor will emphasize the widespread tectonic and seismic features and offer not just Alaska residents, but anyone interested in Alaska, a glimpse into what is going on beneath their feet. The concerted efforts of the outreach team will have lasting effects on Alaskan understanding of the seismic hazard and tectonics of the region. Efforts to publicize the presence of the Transportable Array in Alaska, western Canada, and the Lower 48 also continue. There have been recent articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world

  20. Evaluation of a Social Network Activity within the Scope of the Digital Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kuzu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on whether an activity process conducted via the social network of Twitter was consistent with the nine elements (etiquette, commerce, communication, literacy, access, responsibility, law, health and security of digital citizenship suggested by Ribble and Bailey (2004a. The related literature was reviewed, and within the scope of the activity carried out via Twitter, the process was evaluated in terms of students’ acquisition of the qualifications required by digital citizenship. The activity was carried out with 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade teacher students attending the Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology at the Education Faculty of Anadolu University. Within the scope of the activity, a competition was held via Twitter. The competition lasted five weeks in total, and the students were asked to send tweets regarding the theme determined for each week. The nine elements of digital citizenship suggested by Ribble and the four-phase structure the researcher developed was seen to comply substantially with the activity carried out in the present study. In this respect, the present study revealed that digital-based activities to be carried out at schools regarding the training of digital citizens will provide an important development process. For parents, teachers and instructors who have undertaken the role of guidance for the young generation up until now, a radical change is envisaged regarding technology. It could be stated that the digital divide likely to occur due to lack of any sample to be taken by the young to keep up with the renovations could be overcome by making everybody adopt digital citizenship norms.

  1. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions.

  2. Expanded activity of dimer nucleases by combining ZFN and TALEN for genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Smith, Cory; Cheng, Linzhao

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to precisely and efficiently edit mammalian and plant genomes has been significantly improved in recent years, partially due to increasing use of designer nucleases that recognize a pre-determined DNA sequence, make a specific DNA double-strand break, and stimulate gene targeting. A pair of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) or transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) that recognize two adjacent unique DNA sequences dimerize through the fused FokI nuclease domain and cut in the middle of target DNA sequences. We report here that increasing the length of recognition DNA sequences by TALENs or ZFNs does not necessarily translate to a higher efficiency or specificity. We also discover that one subunit of ZFNs and one subunit of TALENs can form a pair of hybrid nucleases with expanded specificity at two diverse targets, and stimulate gene targeting in multiple cell types including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with improved efficiency.

  3. Galectin-9 activates and expands human T-helper 1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marloes J M Gooden

    Full Text Available Galectin-9 (Gal-9 is known for induction of apoptosis in IFN-γ and IL-17 producing T-cells and amelioration of autoimmunity in murine models. On the other hand, Gal-9 induced IFN-γ positive T-cells in a sarcoma mouse model and in food allergy, suggesting that Gal-9 can have diametric effects on T-cell immunity. Here, we aimed to delineate the immunomodulatory effect of Gal-9 on human resting and ex vivo activated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment of resting lymphocytes with low concentrations of Gal-9 (5-30 nM induced apoptosis in ∼60% of T-cells after 1 day, but activated the surviving T-cells. These viable T-cells started to expand after 4 days with up to 6 cell divisions by day 7 and an associated shift from naïve towards central memory and IFN-γ producing phenotype. In the presence of T-cell activation signals (anti-CD3/IL-2 Gal-9 did not induce T-cell expansion, but shifted the CD4/CD8 balance towards a CD4-dominated T-cell response. Thus, Gal-9 activates resting T-cells in the absence of typical T-cell activating signals and promotes their transition to a TH1/C1 phenotype. In the presence of T-cell activating signals T-cell immunity is directed towards a CD4-driven response by Gal-9. Thus, Gal-9 may specifically enhance reactive immunological memory.

  4. Expanding current knowledge on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the genus Lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-12-10

    Despite the presence of toxic compounds in inedible mushrooms, the question whether the chemical nutrients and non-nutrients compositions in edible and inedible Lactarius species are similar remains unanswered. To answer this question, Lactarius citriolens Pouzar and Lactarius turpis (Weinm.) Fr., two inedible species, were studied in order to obtain information about their chemical composition and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L. citriolens and L. turpis methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition). The composition of macronutrients varied among the two species, but the profiles were similar between them and among other Lactarius species; L. citriolens gave the highest energy contribution, saturated fatty acids and organic acids, while the L. turpis sample was richer in free sugars, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. L. turpis methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. The absence of hepatoxicity of the methanolic extracts was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells (in vitro conditions). The present study provided new information about wild L. citriolens and L. turpis, comparing their chemical composition and antioxidant properties with other Lactarius species, and expanding the knowledge about this genus.

  5. Evaluation methods for physical activity-promoting mobile technologies: an interdisciplinary scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McCallum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many thousands of mobile apps, wearables and other technologies available to support and promote physical activity. However, the rapidly evolving nature of these technologies means that the methodologies traditionally used to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions (such as the randomised controlled trial may not be appropriate to evaluate their effectiveness. A scoping review was conducted to identify the methods currently being used to evaluate physical activity-promoting mobile technologies across health and computing science disciplines. In addition to the range of methods used, the review explored their strengths and weaknesses. The results improve understandings of when and why to use existing methods from health and computing science. Opportunities for combining and hybridising methods across the two disciplines are also identified. The review will be used to inform the development and piloting of novel, ‘fit-for-purpose’ research designs that will allow rigorous evaluation of the effectiveness of rapidly-evolving physical activity-promoting mobile technologies and their ‘active ingredients’ to build an evidence base of what works, why and for whom.

  6. Obesity prevention for children with physical disabilities: a scoping review of physical activity and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Keith, Rebekah; Swift, Judy A

    2014-01-01

    Children with disabilities are at higher risk of obesity, engage in less physical activity and report poorer quality dietary habits than their non-disabled peers. This study reviewed current evidence on interventions designed to facilitate weight management and/or weight-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity and/or healthy eating habits) in children with physical disabilities. A scoping review was performed using established methodology. Data from studies meeting specific inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed using summary statistics, and common characteristics thematically identified. Thirty-four articles were included in the synthesis. No long-term obesity prevention interventions were identified. The majority of research focused upon children with cerebral palsy, and had case study, quasi- or non-experimental designs. All interventions reporting positive outcomes (n = 18) addressed physical activity, with common themes including using motivational strategies for the child and child self-direction. Incremental increases in workload and engaging in strength training for longer than 15 minutes were also effective. Interventions targeting body weight/composition did not report success in the long term. A robust evidence base is lacking for long-lasting obesity interventions for children with physical disabilities. Current research provides some insights into the specific components that should be considered when planning such interventions in the future.

  7. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health. OBJECTIVE: To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research. RESULTS: We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of

  8. The 11S Proteasomal Activator REGγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation and Motor Neuron Viability through Distinct Mechanisms

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    Jill M. Yersak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR. The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR aggregation and contributed to polyQ-expanded AR toxicity in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. These effects of REGγ were independent of its association with the proteasome and may be due, in part, to the decreased binding of polyQ-expanded AR by the E3 ubiquitin-ligase MDM2. Unlike its effects in PC12 cells, REGγ overexpression rescued transgenic SBMA motor neurons from DHT-induced toxicity in a proteasome binding-dependent manner, suggesting that the degradation of a specific 11S proteasome substrate or substrates promotes motor neuron viability. One potential substrate that we found to play a role in mutant AR toxicity is the splicing factor SC35. These studies reveal that, depending on the cellular context, two biological roles for REGγ impact cell viability in the face of polyQ-expanded AR; a proteasome binding-independent mechanism directly promotes mutant AR aggregation while a proteasome binding-dependent mechanism promotes cell viability. The balance between these functions likely determines REGγ effects on polyQ-expanded AR-expressing cells.

  9. Time spent on health related activities associated with chronic illness: a scoping literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Yen, Laurann; W, Paul Mathews

    2012-12-03

    The management of health care, particularly for people with chronic conditions, combines the activities of health professionals, patients, informal carers and social networks that support them. Understanding the non-professional roles in health management requires information about the health related activities (HRA) that are undertaken by patients and informal carers. This understanding allows management planning that incorporates the capacity of patients and informal carers, as well as identifying the particular skills, knowledge and technical support that are necessary. This review was undertaken to identify how much time people with chronic illness and their informal carers spend on HRA. Literature searches of three electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed) and two journals (Time and Society, Sociology of Health and Illness) were carried out in 2011 using the following search terms (and derivatives): chronic illness AND time AND consumer OR carer. The search was aimed at finding studies of time spent on HRA. A scoping literature review method was utilised. Twenty-two peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2010 were included for review. The review identified limited but specific studies about time use by people with a chronic illness and/or their carers. While illness work was seen as demanding, few studies combined inquiry about both defined tasks and defined time use. It also identified methodological issues such as consistency of definition and data collection methods, which remain unresolved. While HRA are seen as demanding by people doing them, few studies have measured actual time taken to carry out a comprehensive range of HRA. The results of this review suggest that both patients with chronic illness and informal carers may be spending 2 hours a day or more on HRA. Illnesses such as diabetes may be associated with higher time use. More empirical research is needed to understand the time demands of self-management, particularly for

  10. Expanding the Scope of Advanced Placement Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Paul Dosal of the University of South Florida is not impressed with the way most high school students learn about Latin American history. Dosal believes an advanced placement course in the subject will change that. He's the executive director of ENLACE Florida, a statewide network funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, designed to increase the…

  11. Airborne and Terrestrial Laser Scanning Activities at UNAVCO: From GeoEarthScope to INTERFACE and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Meertens, C. M.; Miller, M. M.

    2009-05-01

    UNAVCO leads and supports airborne and terrestrial laser scanning (ALS and TLS) activities in support of a wide range of earth science applications. UNAVCO acquired nearly 6,000 km2 of high resolution ALS data as part of GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the National Science Foundation. GeoEarthScope ALS targets in most cases were 1- to 2-km wide corridors centered along active faults including the San Andreas, Hayward, Calaveras, Maacama, Green Valley, Little Salmon, Elsinore, San Cayetano, Garlock, Calico, Lenwood, Blackwater, Helendale, Panamint Valley, Ash Hill, Owens Valley, Death Valley-Fish Lake Valley, Wasatch, Teton, Denali and Totschunda faults. Acquisitions were planned and conducted based on community recommendations with respect to target identification and data collection practices. Particular care was taken to ensure the highest data quality possible within scope and budget, with special considerations given to effective ground point density and geodetic control. Data products are freely available from http://opentopography.org. TLS projects include numerous investigations in polar regions, such as the first TLS survey of the lava lake at Mount Erebus, Antarctica, in January 2009, and activities related to INTERFACE (INTERdisciplinary alliance for digital Field data ACquisition and Exploration), a Collaborative project currently funded by NSF and managed at UNAVCO which includes specialized TLS data processing and visualization software tools developed specifically for geoscience applications. We will present an overview of ALS and TLS project highlights; resources for data collection, accessibility and analysis; and potential use of these data for scientific research and as a framework for future endeavors.

  12. GMP-compliant, large-scale expanded allogeneic natural killer cells have potent cytolytic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

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    Okjae Lim

    Full Text Available Ex vivo-expanded, allogeneic natural killer (NK cells can be used for the treatment of various types of cancer. In allogeneic NK cell therapy, NK cells from healthy donors must be expanded in order to obtain a sufficient number of highly purified, activated NK cells. In the present study, we established a simplified and efficient method for the large-scale expansion and activation of NK cells from healthy donors under good manufacturing practice (GMP conditions. After a single step of magnetic depletion of CD3(+ T cells, the depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were stimulated and expanded with irradiated autologous PBMCs in the presence of OKT3 and IL-2 for 14 days, resulting in a highly pure population of CD3(-CD16(+CD56(+ NK cells which is desired for allogeneic purpose. Compared with freshly isolated NK cells, these expanded NK cells showed robust cytokine production and potent cytolytic activity against various cancer cell lines. Of note, expanded NK cells selectively killed cancer cells without demonstrating cytotoxicity against allogeneic non-tumor cells in coculture assays. The anti-tumor activity of expanded human NK cells was examined in SCID mice injected with human lymphoma cells. In this model, expanded NK cells efficiently controlled lymphoma progression. In conclusion, allogeneic NK cells were efficiently expanded in a GMP-compliant facility and demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions.

  14. How media campaigns influence children's physical activity: expanding the normative mechanisms of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Hove, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study explicates mechanisms of media campaign effectiveness in the context of children's physical activity. The authors' model expands the theory of planned behavior by integrating injunctive and descriptive norms into its normative mechanism. Analysis of a 3-wave nationally representative evaluation survey among 1,623 tweens indicates that campaign exposure is significantly related, but only indirectly, to both physical activity intention and physical activity behavior. Instead, campaign exposure seems more strongly related to perceived behavioral control and attitudes toward physical activity. By contrast, perceived behavioral control and descriptive norms are strongly related to behavioral intention. The findings suggest that integrating normative mechanisms with the theory of planned behavior can improve efforts to predict and explain a health behavior.

  15. Expanding earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arguments in favor of an expanding earth are presented. The author believes that the theory of plate tectonics is a classic error in the history of geology. The case for the expanding earth is organized in the following way: introductory review - face of the earth, development of expanding earth concept, necessity for expansion, the subduction myth, and definitions; some principles - scale of tectonic phenomena, non-uniformitarianism, tectonic profile, paleomagnetism, asymmetry of the earth, rotation of the earth, and modes of crustal extension; regional studies - western North America, Central America, South-East Asia, and the rift oceans; tests and cause of expansion. 824 references, 197 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  16. Challenges encountered when expanding activated sludge models: a case study based on N2O production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, Laura; Boiocchi, Riccardo; Flores Alsina, Xavier;

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice in wastewater engineering to extend standard activated sludge models (ASMs) with extra process equations derived from batch experiments. However, such experiments have often been performed under conditions different from the ones normally found in wastewater treatment plants......-scale activated sludge plant. Finally, the simulation results show large differences in oxygen uptake rates, nitritation rates and consequently the quantity of N2O emission (G(N2O)) using the different models......It is common practice in wastewater engineering to extend standard activated sludge models (ASMs) with extra process equations derived from batch experiments. However, such experiments have often been performed under conditions different from the ones normally found in wastewater treatment plants...

  17. Forum: Communication Activism Pedagogy. Expanding CAP's Interventionist Model and Developing Proper Learning Rubrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gandio, Jason

    2017-01-01

    For Frey and Palmer (2014), communication activism pedagogy (CAP) "teaches students how to use their communication knowledge and resources (e.g., theories, research methods, pedagogies, and other practices) to work with community members to intervene into and reconstruct unjust discourses in more just ways." The author of this response…

  18. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  19. Expanding the Therapeutic Spectrum of Artemisinin: Activity Against Infectious Diseases Beyond Malaria and Novel Pharmaceutical Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interest of Western medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as a source of drug leads/new drugs to treat diseases without available efficient therapies has been dramatically augmented in the last decades by the extensive work and the outstanding findings achieved within this kind of medicine. The practice of TCM over thousands of years has equipped scientists with substantial experience with hundreds of plants that led to the discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu, which is extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (qinghao. The unexpected success of artemisinin in combating malaria has drawn strong attention from the scientific community towards TCM. Artemisinin was discovered by Youyou Tu in 1972. Since then, several novel pharmacological activities based on the well-known properties of the sesquiterpene lactone structure with the oxepane ring and an endoperoxide bridge have been unravelled. Beyond malaria, artemisinin and its derivatives (artemisinins exert profound activities towards other protozoans (Leishmania, Trypanosoma, amoebas, Neospora caninum, and Eimeria tenella, trematodes (Schistosoma, liver flukes, and viruses (human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C viruses. Less clear is the effect against bacteria and fungi. Based on the promising results of artemisinin and the first generation derivatives (artesunate, artemether, arteether, novel drug development strategies have been pursued. These included the synthesis of acetal- and non-acetal-type artemisinin dimeric molecules as well as developing nanotechnological approaches, e.g. artemisinin-based liposomes, niosomes, micelles, solid lipid nanocarriers, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoparticles, fullerenes and nanotubes. The current review presents an overview on different aspects of artemisinins, including sources, chemistry, biological/pharmacological properties, types of infectious pathogens that are susceptible to artemisinins in vitro and in vivo, in

  20. Expanded insecticide catabolic activity gained by a single nucleotide substitution in a bacterial carbamate hydrolase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Başak; Ghequire, Maarten; Nguyen, Thi Phi Oanh; De Mot, René; Wattiez, Ruddy; Springael, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Carbofuran-mineralizing strain Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2 produces the CfdJ enzyme that converts the N-methylcarbamate insecticide to carbofuran phenol. Purified CfdJ shows a remarkably low KM towards carbofuran. Together with the carbaryl hydrolase CehA of Rhizobium sp. strain AC100, CfdJ represents a new protein family with several uncharacterized bacterial members outside the proteobacteria. Although both enzymes differ by only four amino acids, CehA does not recognize carbofuran as a substrate whereas CfdJ also hydrolyzes carbaryl. None of the CfdJ amino acids that differ from CehA were shown to be silent regarding carbofuran hydrolytic activity but one particular amino acid substitution, i.e., L152 to F152, proved crucial. CfdJ is more efficient in degrading methylcarbamate pesticides with an aromatic side chain whereas CehA is more efficient in degrading the oxime carbamate nematicide oxamyl. The presence of common flanking sequences suggest that the cfdJ gene is located on a remnant of the mobile genetic element Tnceh carrying cehA. Our results suggest that these enzymes can be acquired through horizontal gene transfer and can evolve to degrade new carbamate substrates by limited amino acid substitutions. We demonstrate that a carbaryl hydrolase can gain the additional capacity to degrade carbofuran by a single nucleotide transversion. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV, which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this

  2. Dental therapists' expanded scope of practice in Australia: a 12-month follow-up of an educational bridging program to facilitate the provision of oral health care to patients 26+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, Matthew; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M; Calache, Hanny

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2009, dental therapists' scope of clinical practice in Victoria was limited to patients 25 years or younger. However, increases in dental demand by adults 26+ years required an alternative approach to service delivery. This paper outlines the self-reported confidence and knowledge level of dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion of an educational program aimed at providing them with the skills to treat adults aged 26+ years. The study also surveyed dentists in the practice about the dental therapists' knowledge and the impact of their extended scope of practice on the clinics' operation. After completion of their educational program, the dental therapists who participated were surveyed at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion to assess their self-reported confidence levels and knowledge. Senior dentists at the clinic were surveyed to understand the impact of the subsequent change in practice of the dental therapists who undertook this training, as well as any concerns of perceived educational gaps. Surveys showed increased self-reported confidence levels by the dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of the program. Dental therapists and mentoring dentists identified that further education was needed in areas such as oral medicine, pathology, medically compromised patients, medications, prosthodontics, and referrals. Dental therapists felt confident and knowledgeable postprogram to treat patients 26+ years, within their scope of practice. Dentists generally felt that dental therapists, after completing the educational program, were confident and knowledgeable. Educational areas to focus on in future programs were identified. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Non-Dive Activities for Operation Deep Scope 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about non-dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager...

  4. High performance asymmetric supercapacitor based on molybdenum disulphide/graphene foam and activated carbon from expanded graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masikhwa, Tshifhiwa M; Madito, Moshawe J; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien K; Manyala, Ncholu

    2017-02-15

    Molybdenum disulphide which has a graphene-like single layer structure has excellent mechanical and electrical properties and unique morphology, which might be used with graphene foam as composite in supercapacitor applications. In this work, Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)/graphene foam (GF) composites with different graphene foam loading were synthesized by the hydrothermal process to improve on specific capacitance of the composites. Asymmetric supercapacitor device was fabricated using the best performing MoS2/GF composite and activated carbon derived from expanded graphite (AEG) as positive and negative electrodes, respectively, in 6M KOH electrolyte. The asymmetric MoS2/GF//AEG device exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 59Fg(-1) at a current density of 1Ag(-1) with maximum energy and power densities of 16Whkg(-1) and 758Wkg(-1), respectively. The supercapacitor also exhibited a good cyclic stability with 95% capacitance retention over 2000 constant charge-discharge cycles. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of MoS2/GF//AEG as a promising material for electrochemical energy storage application.

  5. Investigation of E. coli bacteria inactivation by photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coated expanded polystyrene foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnagiris, S.; Sakalauskaite, S.; Tuckute, S.; Lelis, M.; Daugelavicius, R.; Milcius, D.

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalytic properties of anatase and other TiO2 polymorphs are widely researched and applied in practical application. In current study TiO2 films on the plasma pre-treated expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam were deposited using magnetron sputtering technique. Main properties of the films were characterised using combination of XRD, XPS and SEM techniques. Photocatalytic properties of the observed crystalline anatase phase were tested by investigating bleaching of the methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution and by testing Escherichia coli (E. coli) viability after incubation under UV-B irradiation. E. coli viability experiments indicated that there are two mechanisms of E. coli bacteria inactivation. UV irradiation alone causes rapid damage to the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria. The second mechanism of E. coli inactivation is invoked only with synergistic combination of TiO2 and UV. Acting as photocatalyst TiO2 generates active radicals who initiate the chain peroxidation of organic molecules and within 45 min reduce E. coli bacteria viability by nearly 90%.

  6. Expanded polyglutamine domain possesses nuclear export activity which modulates subcellular localization and toxicity of polyQ disease protein via exportin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Man; Tsoi, Ho; Wu, Chi Chung; Wong, Chi Hang; Cheng, Tat Cheung; Li, Hoi Yeung; Lau, Kwok Fai; Shaw, Pang Chui; Perrimon, Norbert; Chan, Ho Yin Edwin

    2011-05-01

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of late-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the coding region of disease genes. The cell nucleus is an important site of pathology in polyQ diseases, and transcriptional dysregulation is one of the pathologic hallmarks observed. In this study, we showed that exportin-1 (Xpo1) regulates the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of expanded polyQ protein. We found that expanded polyQ protein, but not its unexpanded form, possesses nuclear export activity and interacts with Xpo1. Genetic manipulation of Xpo1 expression levels in transgenic Drosophila models of polyQ disease confirmed the specific nuclear export role of Xpo1 on expanded polyQ protein. Upon Xpo1 knockdown, the expanded polyQ protein was retained in the nucleus. The nuclear disease protein enhanced polyQ toxicity by binding to heat shock protein (hsp) gene promoter and abolished hsp gene induction. Further, we uncovered a developmental decline of Xpo1 protein levels in vivo that contributes to the accumulation of expanded polyQ protein in the nucleus of symptomatic polyQ transgenic mice. Taken together, we first showed that Xpo1 is a nuclear export receptor for expanded polyQ domain, and our findings establish a direct link between protein nuclear export and the progressive nature of polyQ neurodegeneration.

  7. Active transport and obesity prevention - A transportation sector obesity impact scoping review and assessment for Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V; Moodie, M; Mantilla Herrera, A M; Veerman, J L; Carter, R

    2017-03-01

    Given the alarming prevalence of obesity worldwide and the need for interventions to halt the growing epidemic, more evidence on the role and impact of transport interventions for obesity prevention is required. This study conducts a scoping review of the current evidence of association between modes of transport (motor vehicle, walking, cycling and public transport) and obesity-related outcomes. Eleven reviews and thirty-three primary studies exploring associations between transport behaviours and obesity were identified. Cohort simulation Markov modelling was used to estimate the effects of body mass index (BMI) change on health outcomes and health care costs of diseases causally related to obesity in the Melbourne, Australia population. Results suggest that evidence for an obesity effect of transport behaviours is inconclusive (29% of published studies reported expected associations, 33% mixed associations), and any potential BMI effect is likely to be relatively small. Hypothetical scenario analyses suggest that active transport interventions may contribute small but significant obesity-related health benefits across populations (approximately 65 health adjusted life years gained per year). Therefore active transport interventions that are low cost and targeted to those most amenable to modal switch are the most likely to be effective and cost-effective from an obesity prevention perspective. The uncertain but potentially significant opportunity for health benefits warrants the collection of more and better quality evidence to fully understand the potential relationships between transport behaviours and obesity. Such evidence would contribute to the obesity prevention dialogue and inform policy across the transportation, health and environmental sectors.

  8. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way.

  9. Economies of scale and scope as an explanation of merger and output diversification activities in the health maintenance organization industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, R S

    1996-12-01

    This paper tests for the existence and magnitude of economies of scale and scope as possible explanations for the recent observed trends in increasing health maintenance organization (HMO) scale (through merger and acquisition) and scope (through greater participation in public enrollee markets) using firm level data from a sample of California HMOs for the time period 1986-1992. The results suggest that economies of scale provide a strong justification for mergers only in the case of relatively small HMOs (i.e. those with fewer than 115,000 enrollees), and economies of scope do not explain the increasing HMO enrollment of public enrollees.

  10. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  11. Can we expand active surveillance criteria to include biopsy Gleason 3+4 prostate cancer? A multi-institutional study of 2,323 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Briganti, A.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Salomon, L.; Freschi, M.; Mirvald, C.; Poel, H.G. van der; Jenkins, A.; Ost, P.; Oort, I.M. van; Yossepowitch, O.; Giannarini, G.; Bergh, R.C. van den

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the expandability of active surveillance (AS) to Gleason score 3+4 cancers by assessing the unfavorable disease risk in a large multi-institutional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis including 2,323 patients with localized Gleason score 3+4 prosta

  12. New avenues for ligand-mediated processes: expanding metal reactivity by the use of redox-active catechol, o-aminophenol and o-phenylenediamine ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L.J. Broere; R. Plessius; J.I. van der Vlugt

    2015-01-01

    Redox-active ligands have evolved from being considered spectroscopic curiosities - creating ambiguity about formal oxidation states in metal complexes - to versatile and useful tools to expand on the reactivity of (transition) metals or to even go beyond what is generally perceived possible. This r

  13. Devices for Self-Monitoring Sedentary Time or Physical Activity: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Adam; Pearson, Natalie; Edwardson, Charlotte; Yates, Thomas; Biddle, Stuart JH; Esliger, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well documented that meeting the guideline levels (150 minutes per week) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is protective against chronic disease. Conversely, emerging evidence indicates the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting. Therefore, there is a need to change both behaviors. Self-monitoring of behavior is one of the most robust behavior-change techniques available. The growing number of technologies in the consumer electronics sector provides a unique opportunity for individuals to self-monitor their behavior. Objective The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and measurement properties of currently available self-monitoring devices for sedentary time and/or PA. Methods To identify technologies, four scientific databases were systematically searched using key terms related to behavior, measurement, and population. Articles published through October 2015 were identified. To identify technologies from the consumer electronic sector, systematic searches of three Internet search engines were also performed through to October 1, 2015. Results The initial database searches identified 46 devices and the Internet search engines identified 100 devices yielding a total of 146 technologies. Of these, 64 were further removed because they were currently unavailable for purchase or there was no evidence that they were designed for, had been used in, or could readily be modified for self-monitoring purposes. The remaining 82 technologies were included in this review (73 devices self-monitored PA, 9 devices self-monitored sedentary time). Of the 82 devices included, this review identified no published articles in which these devices were used for the purpose of self-monitoring PA and/or sedentary behavior; however, a number of technologies were found via Internet searches that matched the criteria for self-monitoring and provided immediate feedback on PA (ActiGraph Link, Microsoft Band, and Garmin Vivofit) and sedentary time

  14. Scope: The Environmental Voice of World Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, R. E.; Cain, Melinda

    1977-01-01

    SCOPE is an international group that studies the effects of human activities on the environment and serves as a source of advice on environmental problems. Presently, SCOPE is involved with seven major projects that include biogeochemical cycles, ecotoxicology, and environmental monitoring. The structure and components of SCOPE are also discussed.…

  15. 36 CFR 251.50 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 251.50 Section 251.50... § 251.50 Scope. (a) All uses of National Forest System lands, improvements, and resources, except those... routine operation or maintenance activity within the scope of a statutory right-of-way for a...

  16. Classroom teachers’ professional development activities within the scope of life long learning in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Erdem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among all the factors affecting education, teachers have more important role in ensuring the effectiveness of the teaching process. Teachers’ professional development is a subject that directly affect the teaching process. Researches on the development of teaching profession indicate that professional training is a necessity for better education and better schools. Because if the teacher learns during performing the teaching profession, the quality of the education offered by the teacher will be higher. Teachers who develop themselves in terms of profession provide both a better education and a positive learning environment for the students. In this context, the aim of this research is to investigate the activities of the classroom teachers participate in Turkey in order to ensure their professional development. The study is prepared depending on the views of the classroom teachers. The data were obtained from the classroom teachers who teach 1, 2, 3, and 4. classes in public and private elementary schools in Ankara, in the 2014-2015 academic year. Questionnaire developed by the researchers was used for collecting the data.

  17. Isomerization of Internal Alkynes to Iridium(III Allene Complexes via C–H Bond Activation: Expanded Substrate Scope, and Progress towards a Catalytic Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Phadke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a series of allene complexes (POCOPIr(η2-RC=.=CR’ 1b–4b (POCOP = 2,6-bis(di-tert-butylphosphonitobenzene via isomerization of internal alkynes is reported. We have demonstrated that the application of this methodology is viable for the isomerization of a wide variety of alkyne substrates. Deuterium labeling experiments support our proposed mechanism. The structures of the allene complexes 1b–4b were determined using spectroscopic data analysis. Additionally, the solid-state molecular structure of complex 2b was determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and it confirmed the assignment of an iridium-bound allene isomerization product. The rates of isomerization were measured using NMR techniques over a range of temperatures to allow determination of thermodynamic parameters. Finally, we report a preliminary step towards developing a catalytic methodology; the allene may be liberated from the metal center by exposure of the complex to an atmosphere of carbon monoxide.

  18. Anti-leukemia activity of in vitro-expanded human gamma delta T cells in a xenogeneic Ph+ leukemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle M Siegers

    Full Text Available Gamma delta T cells (GDTc lyse a variety of hematological and solid tumour cells in vitro and in vivo, and are thus promising candidates for cellular immunotherapy. We have developed a protocol to expand human GDTc in vitro, yielding highly cytotoxic Vgamma9/Vdelta2 CD27/CD45RA double negative effector memory cells. These cells express CD16, CD45RO, CD56, CD95 and NKG2D. Flow cytometric, clonogenic, and chromium release assays confirmed their specific cytotoxicity against Ph(+ cell lines in vitro. We have generated a fluorescent and bioluminescent Ph(+ cell line, EM-2eGFPluc, and established a novel xenogeneic leukemia model. Intravenous injection of EM-2eGFPluc into NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG mice resulted in significant dose-dependent bone marrow engraftment; lower levels engrafted in blood, lung, liver and spleen. In vitro-expanded human GDTc injected intraperitoneally were found at higher levels in blood and organs compared to those injected intravenously; GDTc survived at least 33 days post-injection. In therapy experiments, we documented decreased bone marrow leukemia burden in mice treated with GDTc. Live GDTc were found in spleen and bone marrow at endpoint, suggesting the potential usefulness of this therapy.

  19. Engaging the Geodetic and Geoscience Communities in EarthScope Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Berg, M.; Morris, A. R.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    UNAVCO is NSF's geodetic facility and operates as a university-governed consortium dedicated to facilitating geoscience research and education, including the support of EarthScope. The Education and Community Engagement program at UNAVCO provides support for broader impacts both externally to the broader University and EarthScope community as well as internally to the UNAVCO. During the first 10 years of EarthScope UNAVCO has engaged in outreach and education activities across the EarthScope footprint ranging from outreach to formal and informal educators and interpreters, to technical training for university faculty and researchers. UNAVCO works jointly with the EarthScope National Office and IRIS while simultaneously maintaining and developing an independent engagement and education program. UNAVCO provides training in the form of technical short courses to researchers including graduate students and early-career professionals, and conducts educational workshops for K-12 educators. A suite of educational materials focused on the integration of EarthScope data into curriculum materials is available from UNAVCO and will soon expand the undergraduate offerings to include a broader suite of geodesy applications activities for undergraduate students. UNAVCO provides outreach materials and in support of EarthScope including summaries of research project and campaign highlights, science snapshots featuring summaries of scientific advancements made possible by UNAVCO services and non-technical communications via social media. UNAVCO also provides undergraduate students exposure to EarthScope science research participation in a year-long research internship managed by UNAVCO (Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students - RESESS).

  20. Scope ambiguities and conditionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Over, David; Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Scope ambiguities in natural language have been much discussed by linguists and philosophers. There has been some psychological work on the scope ambiguities of negation, but we present the first experiments on modal scope ambiguities in conditionals, with special attention paid to the scope ambigui

  1. Rh-Catalyzed Decarbonylation of Conjugated Ynones via Carbon–Alkyne Bond Activation: Reaction Scope and Mechanistic Exploration via DFT Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermenci, Alpay; Whittaker, Rachel E.; Gao, Yang; Cruz, Faben A.; Yu, Zhi-Xiang; Dong, Guangbin

    2015-01-01

    In this full article, detailed development of a catalytic decarbonylation of conjugated monoynones to synthesize disubstituted alkynes is described. The reaction scope and limitation has been thoroughly investigated, and a broad range of functional groups including heterocycles were compatible under the catalytic conditions. Mechanistic exploration via DFT calculations has also been executed. Through the computational study, a proposed catalytic mechanism has been carefully evaluated. These efforts are expected to serve as an important exploratory study for developing catalytic alkyne-transfer reactions via carbon−alkyne bond activation. PMID:26229587

  2. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Difficult Waste Team

    2016-11-14

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory – Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to: • Perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams. • Conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing. • Conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for: 1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, 2) determining waste that will require treatment, and 3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  3. 12 CFR 7.5000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 7.5000 Section 7.5000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Electronic Activities § 7.5000 Scope. This subpart applies to a national bank's use of technology to deliver services and...

  4. In vitro expanded human invariant natural killer T-cells promote functional activity of natural killer cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, M.; Molling, J.W.; Mensdorff-Pouilly, S von; Verheijen, R.H.; Blomberg, B.M.E. von; Eertwegh, A.J. van den; Scheper, R.J.; Bontkes, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play a pivotal role in cancer immunity through trans-activation of effector cells via swift cytokine secretion. In mice, iNKT cell activation by alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GC) induces potent NK cell-mediated anti-tumour effects. Here we investigated

  5. The effect of temperature and body size on metabolic scope of activity in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tirsgaard, Bjørn; Behrens, Jane; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature affect the physiology and metabolism and thus the distribution of fish. In this study we used intermittent flow respirometry to determine the effect of temperature (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C) and wet body mass (BM) (~30–460 g) on standard metabolic rate (SMR, mg O2 h−1......), maximum metabolic rate (MMR, mg O2 h−1) and metabolic scope (MS, mg O2 h−1) of juvenile Atlantic cod. SMR increased with BM irrespectively of temperature, resulting in an average scaling exponent of 0.87 (0.82–0.92). Q10 values were 1.8–2.1 at temperatures between 5 and 15 °C but higher (2.6–4.3) between...

  6. Brazilian Soybean Production: Emergy Analysis with an Expanded Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Enrique; Cavalett, Otavio; Bonifacio, Robert; Watanabe, Marcos

    2005-01-01

    This article offers the results of emergy analysis used to evaluate four different soybean production systems in Brazil that were divided into two main categories: biological models (organic and ecological farms) and industrial models (green-revolution chemical farms and herbicide with no-tillage farms). The biological models show better…

  7. Expanding the neuron's calcium signaling repertoire: intracellular calcium release via voltage-induced PLC and IP3R activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ryglewski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.

  8. Expanding the Boundaries of Museum Studies: Popular Education through Engagement with Hidden Histories of Organising and Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Emese R.; Guttman, Sandy; Kimura, Andie; Quinn, Therese

    2016-01-01

    This article shares a descriptive case study of a popular education project entitled Alternative Tours UIC (ALTourUIC) that took place during a graduate course in the Museum and Exhibition Studies Programme at University of Illinois at Chicago. The educational activities created by the students included a map locating historically rich areas of…

  9. Working with Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Critical Realism to Investigate and Expand Farmer Learning in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukute, Mutizwa; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the theoretical and methodological tools of cultural historical activity theory and critical realism to examine three case studies of the introduction and expansion of sustainable agricultural practices in southern Africa. The article addresses relevant issues in the field of agricultural extension, which lacks a theoretical…

  10. On the role of SMA modeling in simulating NiTinol self-expanding stenting surgeries to assess the performance characteristics of mechanical and thermal activation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, A F; Dhakal, B; Owusu-Danquah, J S

    2015-09-01

    The work is focused on a detailed simulation of the key stages involved in the NiTinol self-expanding stenting surgical procedure; i.e., crimping, deployment, SMA activation, as well as post-surgery steady-state cyclic behavior mimicking the systolic-to-diastolic pressure oscillations. To this end, a general multi-mechanism SMA model was utilized, whose calibration was completed using the test data from simple isothermal uniaxial tension experiments. The emphasis in the study was placed on the comparison of two alternative SMA activation protocols, in terms of both the immediate and long-term (post-surgery) performance characteristics. The first is 'hard' mechanical activation utilizing superelasticity, and the second is 'soft' thermal activation relying upon the combined one-way shape memory effect and constrained-recovery characteristics of the NiTinol material. The important findings are (1) the thermal activation protocol is far superior compared to the mechanical counterpart, from the point of view of lower magnitudes of the induced outward chronic forces, lesser developed stresses in the host tissue, as well as higher compression ratio with lesser crimping force for the same geometry of initial stent memory configuration, (2) the thermal activation protocol completely bypassed the complications of maintaining the high restraining force during deployment of the stent, and (3) there is no indication of any detrimental functional fatigue/degradation in the cured stenotic artery during cyclic pressure oscillations.

  11. Diffuse traumatic brain injury initially attenuates and later expands activation of the rat somatosensory whisker circuit concomitant with neuroplastic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelley D; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2010-04-06

    Traumatic brain injury can initiate an array of chronic neurological deficits, effecting executive function, language and sensorimotor integration. Mechanical forces produce the diffuse pathology that disrupts neural circuit activation across vulnerable brain regions. The present manuscript explores the hypothesis that the extent of functional activation of brain-injured circuits is a consequence of initial disruption and consequent reorganization. In the rat, enduring sensory sensitivity to whisker stimulation directs regional analysis to the whisker barrel circuit. Adult, male rats were subjected to midline fluid percussion brain or sham injury and evaluated between 1day and 42days post-injury. Whisker somatosensory regions of the cortex and thalamus maintained cellular composition as visualized by Nissl stain. Within the first week post-injury, quantitatively less cFos activation was elicited by whisker stimulation, potentially due to axotomy within and surrounding the whisker circuit as visualized by amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. Over six weeks post-injury, cFos activation after whisker stimulation showed a significant linear correlation with time in the cortex (r(2)=0.545; p=0.015), non-significant correlation in the thalamus (r(2)=0.326) and U-shaped correlation in the dentate gyrus (r(2)=0.831), all eventually exceeding sham levels. Ongoing neuroplastic responses in the cortex are evidenced by accumulating growth associated protein and synaptophysin gene expression. In the thalamus, the delayed restoration of plasticity markers may explain the broad distribution of neuronal activation extending into the striatum and hippocampus with whisker stimulation. The sprouting of diffuse-injured circuits into diffuse-injured tissue likely establishes maladaptive circuits responsible for behavioral morbidity. Therapeutic interventions to promote adaptive circuit restructuring may mitigate post-traumatic morbidity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Implicit Mood Induction and Scope of Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Fuji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of implicit mood manipulation on the scope of visual processing. Previous studies have shown that the scope expands when participants explicitly receive positive mood manipulation. Thus it is unclear whether the same principle applies to the case in which participants' mood is induced implicitly. We adopted an implicit mood manipulation in which participants held a pen in their teeth so that the muscles associated with smiling are activated without explicitly requiring to pose in a smiling face (Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988. Under the control condition, participants held the pen with lips to inhibit those muscles. Before and after the pen-holding, participants viewed bi-stable figures (eg, Rubin Vase and reported the timings which their percept (narrow or broad perspective flipped. The result indicated successful mood induction: the teeth group rated comic-stimuli funnier than the control group. None of the participants were unaware of the purpose of the manipulation. Most importantly, the dominance of the broad percepts of the bi-stable figures was greater under the teeth condition. No such effect was found under the lip condition. These results suggest that the positive mood with implicit peripheral facial-muscle control broadens the scope of visual processing.

  13. The Sirt1 activator SRT3025 expands hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and improves hematopoiesis in Fanconi anemia mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Shuo Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia is a genetic bone marrow failure syndrome. The current treatment options are suboptimal and do not prevent the eventual onset of aplastic anemia requiring bone marrow transplantation. We previously showed that resveratrol, an antioxidant and an activator of the protein deacetylase Sirt1, enhanced hematopoiesis in Fancd2 mutant mice and improved the impaired stem cell quiescence observed in this disease. Given that Sirt1 is important for the function of hematopoietic stem cells, we hypothesized that Sirt1 activation may improve hematopoiesis. Indeed, Fancd2−/− mice and wild-type mice treated with the selective Sirt1 activator SRT3025 had increased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, platelets and white blood cells. SRT3025 was also protective against acetaldehyde-induced hematopoietic damage. Unlike resveratrol, however, SRT3025 did not affect stem cell quiescence, suggesting distinct mechanisms of action. Conditional deletion of Sirt1 in hematopoietic cells did not abrogate the beneficial effects of SRT3025, indicating that the drug did not act by directly stimulating Sirt1 in stem cells, but must be acting indirectly via extra-hematopoietic effects. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis revealed the down-regulation of Egr1–p21 expression, providing a potential mechanism for improved hematopoiesis. Overall, our data indicate that SRT3025 or related compounds may be beneficial in Fanconi anemia and other bone marrow failure syndromes.

  14. The Sirt1 activator SRT3025 expands hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and improves hematopoiesis in Fanconi anemia mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Shuo; Deater, Matthew; Schubert, Kathryn; Marquez-Loza, Laura; Pelz, Carl; Sinclair, David A; Grompe, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Fanconi anemia is a genetic bone marrow failure syndrome. The current treatment options are suboptimal and do not prevent the eventual onset of aplastic anemia requiring bone marrow transplantation. We previously showed that resveratrol, an antioxidant and an activator of the protein deacetylase Sirt1, enhanced hematopoiesis in Fancd2 mutant mice and improved the impaired stem cell quiescence observed in this disease. Given that Sirt1 is important for the function of hematopoietic stem cells, we hypothesized that Sirt1 activation may improve hematopoiesis. Indeed, Fancd2(-/-) mice and wild-type mice treated with the selective Sirt1 activator SRT3025 had increased numbers of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, platelets and white blood cells. SRT3025 was also protective against acetaldehyde-induced hematopoietic damage. Unlike resveratrol, however, SRT3025 did not affect stem cell quiescence, suggesting distinct mechanisms of action. Conditional deletion of Sirt1 in hematopoietic cells did not abrogate the beneficial effects of SRT3025, indicating that the drug did not act by directly stimulating Sirt1 in stem cells, but must be acting indirectly via extra-hematopoietic effects. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis revealed the down-regulation of Egr1-p21 expression, providing a potential mechanism for improved hematopoiesis. Overall, our data indicate that SRT3025 or related compounds may be beneficial in Fanconi anemia and other bone marrow failure syndromes.

  15. 32 CFR 756.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 756.1 Section 756.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PROCEDURES FOR PROCESSING CLAIMS INVOLVING NON-APPROPRIATED FUND ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES § 756.1 Scope. This part explains how to...

  16. 30 CFR 828.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 828.1 Section 828.1 Mineral Resources... PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-IN SITU PROCESSING § 828.1 Scope. This... situ processing activities....

  17. New avenues for ligand-mediated processes--expanding metal reactivity by the use of redox-active catechol, o-aminophenol and o-phenylenediamine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broere, Daniël L J; Plessius, Raoul; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar

    2015-10-01

    Redox-active ligands have evolved from being considered spectroscopic curiosities - creating ambiguity about formal oxidation states in metal complexes - to versatile and useful tools to expand on the reactivity of (transition) metals or to even go beyond what is generally perceived possible. This review focusses on metal complexes containing either catechol, o-aminophenol or o-phenylenediamine type ligands. These ligands have opened up a new area of chemistry for metals across the periodic table. The portfolio of ligand-based reactivity invoked by these redox-active entities will be discussed. This ranges from facilitating oxidative additions upon d(0) metals or cross coupling reactions with cobalt(iii) without metal oxidation state changes - by functioning as an electron reservoir - to intramolecular ligand-to-substrate single-electron transfer to create a reactive substrate-centered radical on a Pd(ii) platform. Although the current state-of-art research primarily consists of stoichiometric and exploratory reactions, several notable reports of catalysis facilitated by the redox-activity of the ligand will also be discussed. In conclusion, redox-active ligands containing catechol, o-aminophenol or o-phenylenediamine moieties show great potential to be exploited as reversible electron reservoirs, donating or accepting electrons to activate substrates and metal centers and to enable new reactivity with both early and late transition as well as main group metals.

  18. Expanded therapeutic potential in activity space of next-generation 5-nitroimidazole antimicrobials with broad structural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yukiko; Kalisiak, Jaroslaw; Korthals, Keith; Lauwaet, Tineke; Cheung, Dae Young; Lozano, Ricardo; Cobo, Eduardo R; Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A; Berg, Douglas E; Gillin, Frances D; Fokin, Valery V; Sharpless, K Barry; Eckmann, Lars

    2013-10-22

    Metronidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are among the most effective antimicrobials available against many important anaerobic pathogens, but evolving resistance is threatening their long-term clinical utility. The common 5-NIs were developed decades ago, yet little 5-NI drug development has since taken place, leaving the true potential of this important drug class unexplored. Here we report on a unique approach to the modular synthesis of diversified 5-NIs for broad exploration of their antimicrobial potential. Many of the more than 650 synthesized compounds, carrying structurally diverse functional groups, have vastly improved activity against a range of microbes, including the pathogenic protozoa Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, and the bacterial pathogens Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, and Bacteroides fragilis. Furthermore, they can overcome different forms of drug resistance, and are active and nontoxic in animal infection models. These findings provide impetus to the development of structurally diverse, next-generation 5-NI drugs as agents in the antimicrobial armamentarium, thus ensuring their future viability as primary therapeutic agents against many clinically important infections.

  19. Adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide reduces phosphorylation and toxicity of the polyglutamine-expanded androgen receptor in spinobulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Maria Josè; Parodi, Sara; Piol, Diana; Stack, Conor; Chivet, Mathilde; Contestabile, Andrea; Miranda, Helen C; Lievens, Patricia M-J; Espinoza, Stefano; Jochum, Tobias; Rocchi, Anna; Grunseich, Christopher; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Cato, Andrew C B; Lieberman, Andrew P; La Spada, Albert R; Sambataro, Fabio; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Gozes, Illana; Pennuto, Maria

    2016-12-21

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA belongs to the family of polyQ diseases, which are fatal neurodegenerative disorders mainly caused by protein-mediated toxic gain-of-function mechanisms and characterized by deposition of misfolded proteins in the form of aggregates. The neurotoxicity of the polyQ proteins can be modified by phosphorylation at specific sites, thereby providing the rationale for the development of disease-specific treatments. We sought to identify signaling pathways that modulate polyQ-AR phosphorylation for therapy development. We report that cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) phosphorylates polyQ-AR specifically at Ser(96) Phosphorylation of polyQ-AR by CDK2 increased protein stabilization and toxicity and is negatively regulated by the adenylyl cyclase (AC)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. To translate these findings into therapy, we developed an analog of pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), a potent activator of the AC/PKA pathway. Chronic intranasal administration of the PACAP analog to knock-in SBMA mice reduced Ser(96) phosphorylation, promoted polyQ-AR degradation, and ameliorated disease outcome. These results provide proof of principle that noninvasive therapy based on the use of PACAP analogs is a therapeutic option for SBMA.

  20. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Book

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  1. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Adam J; Lewin, Gina R; McDonald, Bradon R; Takasuka, Taichi E; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  2. Expanding the Therapeutic Spectrum of Artemisinin:Activity Against Infectious Diseases Beyond Malaria and Novel Pharmaceutical Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Efferth; Jose J.G. Marin; Marta R. Romero; Anna Rita Bilia; Ahmed Galal Osman; Mahmoud ElSohly; Michael Wink; Rudolf Bauer; Ikhlas Khan; Maria Camilla Bergonzi

    2016-01-01

    The interest of Western medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as a source of drug leads/new drugs to treat diseases without available efficient therapies has been dramatical y augmented in the last decades by the extensive work and the outstanding findings achieved within this kind of medicine. The practice of TCM over thousands of years has equipped scientists with substantial experience with hundreds of plants that led to the discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu), which is extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. (qinghao). The unexpected success of artemisinin in combating malaria has drawn strong attention from the scientific community towards TCM. Artemisinin was discovered by Youyou Tu in 1972. Since then, several novel pharmacological activities based on the well-known properties of the sesquiterpene lactone structure with the oxepane ring and an endoperoxide bridge have been unravelled. Beyond malaria, artemisinin and its derivatives (artemisinins) exert profound activities towards other protozoans (Leishmania, Trypanosoma, amoebas, Neospora caninum, and Eimeria tenella), trematodes (Schistosoma, liver flukes), and viruses (human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C viruses). Less clear is the effect against bacteria and fungi. Based on the promising results of artemisinin and the first generation derivatives (artesunate, artemether, arteether), novel drug development strategies have been pursued. These included the synthesis of acetal-and non-acetal-type artemisinin dimeric molecules as wel as developing nanotechnological approaches, e.g. artemisinin-based liposomes, niosomes, micel es, solid lipid nanocarriers, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoparticles, fullerenes and nanotubes. The current review presents an overview on different aspects of artemisinins, including sources, chemistry, biological/pharmacological properties, types of infectious pathogens that are susceptible to artemisinins in vitro and in vivo, in addition to the

  3. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient–mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (Treg) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID. PMID:24666246

  4. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R

    2014-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient-mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID.

  5. Scope of strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Frank

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is a philosophy that leads to the process by which organizations, groups and individuals obtain what they need and want by identifying value, providing it, communicating it and delivering it to others. The core concepts of marketing are customers needs, wants and values; products, exchange, communications and relationships. Marketing is strategically concerned with the direction and scope of the long-term activities performed by the organization to obtain a competitive advantage. The organization applies its resources within a changing environment to satisfy customer needs while meeting stakeholder expectations. Implied in this view of strategic marketing is the requirement to develop a strategy to cope with competitors, identify market opportunities, develop and commercialize new products and services, allocate resources among marketing activities and design an appropriate organizational structure to ensure the perform once desired is achieved.

  6. Creative activities: an important agent of change in the process of rebuilding identity - a scoping literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    included. Results/Discussion: This review showed that use of creative activities as a medium for healing/alleviating suffering have the power to rebuild or replace an identity during illness or major life crisis.The value of creative activities is individual and culture-based and as most have the need...... is important, when adapting a new activity identity. The value and meaning of the creative activity for the individual or group should be examined before and during therapy. Contribution to occupational therapy practice: Focusing on implementing creative activities is important as they have potential...... to replace former crucial activities to a person’s activity identity. Creative activities are relevant in societies with stress, search for identity as a tool to understand individual reactions and feelings....

  7. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  8. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  9. Unleashing their potential: a critical realist scoping review of the influence of dogs on physical activity for dog-owners and non-owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Melanie J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dog-owners tend to be more physically active than non-owners; however, dogs have also been shown to inhibit physical activity for non-owners, under some circumstances. Methods We conducted a scoping review to identify studies pertaining to the influence of dogs on physical activity for both dog-owners and non-owners, and adopted a critical realist orientation to draw inferences about the positive and negative impact of dogs via their affect on physical and social environments. Results We identified 35 studies from disparate literatures for review. These studies confirm that dog and owner behaviors affect shared physical and social environments in ways that may influence physical activity patterns, not only among dog-owners but also among non-owners. The direction of influence appears to be most positive in neighborhoods exhibiting high levels of social cohesion, socioeconomic status, perceived safety, dominant culture, or all of these. In disadvantaged neighborhoods, the health of women as well as older adults may be disproportionately affected by dog and owner behavior. Conclusions While dogs have the potential to increase physical activity for both dog-owners and non-owners, the presence or absence of dogs will not have a standard effect across the physical and social environments of all neighborhoods. Dogs' contributions to shared environments in ways that support physical activity for all must be leveraged. Thus, specific contextual factors must be considered in relation to dogs when planning neighborhood-level interventions designed to support physical activity. We suggest this population health topic merits further investigation.

  10. Federal government expands compliance initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, J K

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the Federal government initiated Operation Restore Trust to increase enforcement of fraud and abuse regulations in Medicare and Medicaid programs. With the success of the original initiative, the government is expanding the project to additional states and program areas. The initial scrutiny of home health agencies, nursing homes, hospice care, and durable medical equipment is being expanded to managed care plans and acute care hospitals with an eye toward DRG creep. To manage this increased enforcement activity, healthcare organizations should institute comprehensive corporate compliance programs. Such programs should provide a framework that delineates responsibilities and provides a systematic means to resolve issues in a timely manner.

  11. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BEAM project advances inflatable habitat technology further and conducts flight demonstration of a commercially-designed inflatable system to achieve Technology...

  12. Floating photocatalyst of B–N–TiO2/expanded perlite: a sol–gel synthesis with optimized mesoporous and high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongbo; Jiang, Ya; Yuan, Kechun; Yang, Tingting; Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Feng, Ke; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2016-07-01

    Optimized mesoporous photocatalyst endowed with high specific surface area and large pore size was synthesized by sol–gel method. These large pore mesoporous materials (33.39 nm) were conducive to the movement of larger molecules or groups in pore path and for effective use of active sites. The high specific surface area (SBET, 99.23 m2 g‑1) was beneficial to catalytic oxidation on the surface. Moreover, B and N co-doped anatase TiO2 in the presence of Ti–O–B–N and O–Ti–B–N contributed to the pore structure optimization and enhanced photoresponse capacity with a narrow band gap and red shift of absorption. The obtained materials with floating characteristics based on expanded perlite (EP) showed favorable features for photocatalytic activity. The best RhB photodegration rate of B–N–TiO2/EP (6 mg/g, 24 wt% TiO2) reached 99.1% after 5 h in the visible region and 99.8% after 1 h in the UV region. The findings can provide insights to obtain floatable photocatalysts with simple preparation method, optimized mesoporous, co-doping agents, as well as good photocatalytic performance, coverable and reusability. B–N–TiO2/EP has potential applications for practical environmental purification.

  13. Floating photocatalyst of B–N–TiO2/expanded perlite: a sol–gel synthesis with optimized mesoporous and high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hongbo; Jiang, Ya; Yuan, Kechun; Yang, Tingting; Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Feng, Ke; Wang, Xiaozhi

    2016-01-01

    Optimized mesoporous photocatalyst endowed with high specific surface area and large pore size was synthesized by sol–gel method. These large pore mesoporous materials (33.39 nm) were conducive to the movement of larger molecules or groups in pore path and for effective use of active sites. The high specific surface area (SBET, 99.23 m2 g−1) was beneficial to catalytic oxidation on the surface. Moreover, B and N co-doped anatase TiO2 in the presence of Ti–O–B–N and O–Ti–B–N contributed to the pore structure optimization and enhanced photoresponse capacity with a narrow band gap and red shift of absorption. The obtained materials with floating characteristics based on expanded perlite (EP) showed favorable features for photocatalytic activity. The best RhB photodegration rate of B–N–TiO2/EP (6 mg/g, 24 wt% TiO2) reached 99.1% after 5 h in the visible region and 99.8% after 1 h in the UV region. The findings can provide insights to obtain floatable photocatalysts with simple preparation method, optimized mesoporous, co-doping agents, as well as good photocatalytic performance, coverable and reusability. B–N–TiO2/EP has potential applications for practical environmental purification. PMID:27432460

  14. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Operation Deep Scope 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  15. Interpreting and Expanding Confucius' Golden Mean through Neutrosophic Tetrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. There are many similarities between The Golden Mean and Neutrosophy. Chinese and international scholars need to toil towards expanding and developing The Golden Mean, towards its "modernization" and "globalization".

  16. Genetically re-engineered K562 cells significantly expand and functionally activate cord blood natural killer cells: Potential for adoptive cellular immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayello, Janet; Hochberg, Jessica; Flower, Allyson; Chu, Yaya; Baxi, Laxmi V; Quish, William; van de Ven, Carmella; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2017-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in reducing relapse in patients with hematological malignancies after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but NK cell number and naturally occurring inhibitory signals limit their capability. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) and 4-1BBL are important modulators of NK expansion and functional activation. To overcome these limitations, cord blood mononuclear cells (CB MNCs) were ex vivo expanded for 7 days with genetically modified K562-mbIL15-41BBL (MODK562) or wild-type K562 (WTK562). NK cell expansion; expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), granzyme B, and perforin; and in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity against B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) were evaluated. In vivo tumor growth in B-NHL-xenografted nonobese diabetic severe combined immune deficient (NOD-scid) gamma (NSG) mice was monitored by tumor volume, cell number, and survival. CB MNCs cultured with MODK562 compared with WTK562 demonstrated significantly increased NK expansion (thirty-fivefold, p cell numbers (p cells to enhance B-NHL targeting in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scope Processing in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Gao, Liqun

    2009-01-01

    The standard view maintains that quantifier scope interpretation results from an interaction between different modules: the syntax, the semantics as well as the pragmatics. Thus, by examining the mechanism of quantifier scope interpretation, we will certainly gain some insight into how these different modules interact with one another. To observe…

  18. Forehead tissue expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, W H

    1991-02-01

    The use of the forehead flap for nasal reconstruction has long been used by reconstructive surgeons. A case is presented in which comprised forehead skin is utilized following expansion by a tissue expander.

  19. Environmental Assessment Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-03-02

    The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. DOE completed an environmental assessment of the original proposed project in August 1997. Since then, the geographic scope and the design of the project changed, necessitating additional review of the project under the National Environmental Policy Act. The project now calls for the possible construction of up to 48 wind turbines on State and private lands. PSCo and its partners have initiated construction of the project on private land in Weld County, Colorado. A substation, access road and some wind turbines have been installed. However, to date, DOE has not provided any funding for these activities. DOE, through its Commercialization Ventures Program, has solicited applications for financial assistance from state energy offices, in a teaming arrangement with private-sector organizations, for projects that will accelerate the commercialization of emerging renewable energy technologies. The Commercialization Ventures Program was established by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989 (P.L. 101-218) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486). The Program seeks to assist entry into the marketplace of newly emerging renewable energy technologies, or of innovative applications of existing technologies. In short, an emerging renewable energy technology is one which has already proven viable but which has had little or no operational experience. The Program is managed by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The

  20. U.S.-CHINA RADIOLOGICAL SOURCE SECURITY PROJECT: CONTINUING AND EXPANDING BILATERAL COOPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhixuan; Zhou, Qifu; Yang, Yaoyun; Huang, Chaoyun; Lloyd, James; Williams, Adam; Feldman, Alexander; Streeper, Charles; Pope, Noah G.; Hawk, Mark; Rawl, Rick; Howell, Randy A.; Kennedy, Catherine

    2009-10-07

    The successful radiological security cooperation between the U.S. and China to secure at-risk sites near venues of the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics has led to an expanded bilateral nonproliferation cooperation scope. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration, the Chinese Atomic Energy Authority and the China Ministry of Environmental Protection are continuing joint efforts to secure radiological sources throughout China under the U.S.-China Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology (PUNT) Agreement. Joint cooperation activities include physical security upgrades of sites with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1 radiological sources, packaging, recovery, and storage of high activity transuranic and beta gamma sources, and secure transportation practices for the movement of recovered sources. Expansion of cooperation into numerous provinces within China includes the use of integrated training workshops that will demonstrate methodologies and best practices between U.S. and Chinese radiological source security and recovery experts. The fiscal year 2009 expanded scope of cooperation will be conducted similar to the 2008 Olympic cooperation with the Global Threat Reduction Initiative taking the lead for the U.S., PUNT being the umbrella agreement, and Los Alamos, Sandia, and Oak Ridge National Laboratories operating as technical working groups. This paper outlines the accomplishments of the joint implementation and training efforts to date and discusses the possible impact on future U.S./China cooperation.

  1. Self-reported preparation of Polish midwives for independent performance of prophylactic activities within the scope of women’s diseases and obstetric pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna J. Iwanowicz-Palus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The objective of the study is an attempt to recognize self-reported preparation of midwives for an independent performance of prophylactic activities within the scope of women’s diseases and obstetric pathologies. material and methods. The study was conducted in a representative all-Polish population sample of 3,569 midwives, by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire technique. The research instrument was a questionnaire form designed by the author containing items concerning the characteristics of respondents and the object of the study, constructed based on the 5-point Liker scale. The relationships between the variables were verified using chi-square test (χ [sup]2[/sup] of independence. The p values p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. results. Analysis of results allows the presumption that in the opinions of midwives the majority of them are prepared for the independent performance of prophylactic activities in the area of women’s diseases (84.28% and obstetric pathologies (77.95%. However, nearly every tenth midwife, irrespective of the region of Poland where she lives, age, and participation in post-graduate training, is not prepared for an independent performance of the prevention of women’s diseases. In turn, the lack of preparation for carrying out prevention of women’s diseases was admitted mainly by midwives from the northern and central regions of Poland, aged 31–40, possessing post-secondary school education, who did not participate in any form of post-graduate training. conclusions. The results of studies and analysis of the relevant literature indicate that it is necessary for midwives to improve their qualifications in the area of prophylaxis of women’s diseases and obstetric pathologies through participation in various forms of post-graduate education

  2. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  3. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  4. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  5. Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses scope and sequence plans for curriculum coordination in elementary and secondary education related to school libraries. Highlights include library skills; levels of learning objectives; technology skills; media literacy skills; and information inquiry skills across disciplines by grade level. (LRW)

  6. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  7. Expanding the role of internal facility assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Levenson, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) is an effective and comprehensive system to evaluate environmental compliance at individual USAF installations. The ECAMP assessment is typically performed by a team of experts from the installation`s Major Command (MAJCOM) Headquarters, and is often augmented with technical contractor support. As directed by Air Force policy, an external ECAMP assessment is required at a minimum of every three years for each installation. In the intervening years, each installation is required to perform an internal ECAMP assessment, with its own personnel and resources. Even though team composition differs, the internal and external ECAMP assessments are likely to be very similar in scope, objectives, and deliverables. For over nine years, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has supported several Air Force MAJCOMs in performing their external ECAMP assessments. More recently, ANL has also had the opportunity to provide technical support and training at individual installations during their preparation and conduct of internal ECAMP assessments. From that experience, the authors have learned that the quality and value of the internal assessment is enhanced by making it a vehicle for training, planning, and interaction among organizations. Various strategies and techniques have been successfully employed to derive maximum benefit and insight from the internal assessment process. Experiences that involve expanding the scope and objectives of internal assessments to meet specific goals are presented. The expansion of scope and objectives include preassessment training, planning, and evaluator interactions as part of the overall internal assessment process.

  8. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  9. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  10. 77 FR 552 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Renewal of Suspicious Activity Reporting by the Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... matters, or in the conduct of intelligence or counter-intelligence activities, to protect against international terrorism, and to implement counter-money laundering programs and compliance procedures.\\4... expanding the scope of the Bank Secrecy Act to intelligence or counter-intelligence activities to protect...

  11. Expanding mediation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2012-01-01

    In his article In Between Us, Yoni van den Eede expands existing theories of mediation into the realm of the social and the political, focusing on the notions of opacity and transparency. His approach is rich and promising, but two pitfalls should be avoided. First, his concept of ‘in-between’ runs

  12. Expanding Student Assessment Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartscher, Beth; Carter, Andrea; Lawlor, Anna; McKelvey, Barbara

    This paper describes an approach for expanding assessment opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding of content. The targeted population consisted of elementary and junior high school students in two schools in a growing middle-class community in north central Illinois. The elementary school enrolled 467 students and the junior…

  13. Expression of the activation antigen CD69 predicts functionality of in vitro expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Afzelius, P; Ersbøll, A K

    1998-01-01

    Gene therapy for AIDS necessitates harvest and expansion of PBMC from HIV-infected patients. We expanded PBMC from healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients for up to 14 days using four expansion protocols: 3 days of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, continuous PHA stimulation, 3 days...... preserved functionality than PBMC stimulated continuously (P PHA stimulation for 3 days...... correlated with CD69 expression on CD4 cells (r = 0.68, P PHA stimulation for 3 days were...

  14. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  15. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  16. Cosmetology: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a cosmetology vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  17. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  18. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  19. Radiological Scoping Survey of the Scotia Depot Scotia, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. N. Bailey

    2005-02-05

    At the request of the Defense Logistics Agency, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education conducted radiological scoping surveys of the Scotia Depot during the period of September 24 through 27, 2007. The scoping survey included visual inspections and limited radiological surveys performed in accordance with area classification that included surface scans, total and removable activity measurements, and soil sampling.

  20. The Effects of Learning Activities Corresponding with Students’ Learning Styles on Academic Success and Attitude within the Scope of Constructivist Learning Approach: The Case of the Concepts of Function and Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Özgen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effects of learning activities according to students’ learning styles on students’ academic success and attitude towards mathematics within a scope of constructivist learning approach. The study had a semi-experimental research design based on the pre test-post test model with a control group. The participants of the study were students studying at a state high school in the 2010-2011 academic year. As part of the study, activities which were suitable to the students’ learning styles were developed within the scope of constructivist learning approach in line with McCarthy’s 4MAT system with 8 steps of learning and used for the learning of the concepts of function and derivative. Data were collected using data collection tools such as a personal information form, non-routine problems, and a mathematics attitude scale. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used for the analysis of quantitative data. Data analysis indicated that, the learning process in which activities appropriate for students’ learning styles were used to contribute to an increase in the students’ academic success and problem solving skills. Yet, there was no statistically significant difference in students’ attitudes towards mathematics.Key Words:    Constructivist learning approach, learning style, learning activity, success, attitude

  1. Frozen Scope and Grammatical Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The literature on quantifier scope has repeatedly observed that some otherwise expected permutations of scope taking elements are unavailable. Various methods have been proffered explaining these facts. This thesis aims to unify three disparate areas where the scope of operators seems to be frozen: the interaction of universal quantifiers with…

  2. 32 CFR 552.212 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.212 Scope. (a) The provisions of this subpart apply to all elements of U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground (USAGAPG), and the supported organizations and activities on the Aberdeen and Edgewood Areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground. (b) The provisions...

  3. 47 CFR 90.31 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.31 Scope. The Industrial/Business Radio Pool covers the licensing of the radio communications of entities engaged in commercial activities, engaged in...

  4. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  5. When Virtual Worlds Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.

  6. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  7. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  8. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kelly K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoping studies are an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley published the first methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. While this framework provides an excellent foundation for scoping study methodology, further clarifying and enhancing this framework will help support the consistency with which authors undertake and report scoping studies and may encourage researchers and clinicians to engage in this process. Discussion We build upon our experiences conducting three scoping studies using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology to propose recommendations that clarify and enhance each stage of the framework. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question (stage one; balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process (stage two; using an iterative team approach to selecting studies (stage three and extracting data (stage four; incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis, reporting results, and considering the implications of study findings to policy, practice, or research (stage five; and incorporating consultation with stakeholders as a required knowledge translation component of scoping study methodology (stage six. Lastly, we propose additional considerations for scoping study methodology in order to support the advancement, application and relevance of scoping studies in health research. Summary Specific recommendations to clarify and enhance this methodology are outlined for each stage of the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Continued debate and development about scoping study methodology will help to maximize the usefulness and rigor of scoping study findings within healthcare research and practice.

  9. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  10. Shear Acceleration in Expanding Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, F M

    2016-01-01

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi-Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge ...

  11. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B A [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-29

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  12. AuScope VLBI Project and Hobart 26-m Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jim; Dickey, John; Reid, Brett; McCallum, Jamie; Shabala, Stas; Watson, Christopher; Ellingsen, Simon; Memin, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the activities carried out at the three AuScope VLBI observatories and the Hobart 26-m antenna. In 2012 the three AuScope 12-m antennas at Hobart (Hb), Katherine (Ke), and Yarragadee (Yg) completed their first full year of operations as an array. The Hobart 26-m antenna (Ho) continued to make a contribution to IVS, providing overlap with the Hb time series. In total the AuScope antennas and the Hobart 26 m observed for 146 antenna days in 2012. In this report we also briefly highlight our research activities during 2012 and our plans for 2013.

  13. 16 CFR 1031.16 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Public Participation and Comment § 1031.16 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's criteria...

  14. 16 CFR 1031.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.1 Purpose and scope. (a) This part 1031 sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's guidelines and requirements...

  15. 16 CFR 1031.9 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN VOLUNTARY STANDARDS ACTIVITIES Employee Involvement § 1031.9 Purpose and scope. (a) This subpart sets forth the Consumer Product Safety Commission's criteria and requirements...

  16. Expanding contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The goals of Family Health International (FHI) have been to introduce a variety of birth control options to people in developing countries, and to provide information to the user on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. FHI has worked with many developing countries in clinical trials of established as well as new contraceptive methods. These trials played an important part in making 2 sterilization procedures, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy popular for women. Further research improved the methods and have made them the most popular in the world, chosen by 130 million users. FHI is doing clinical trials on a new IUD, that is a copper bearing T-shaped device called the TCu380A. they have collected data on over 10,000 women using IUD's and early analysis indicates TCu380A is more effective than others. FHI is also evaluating devices such as Norplant that will prevent pregnancy up to 5 years by implanting the capsules in the arm. More than 8,000 women are being tested to determine the acceptability of implants in different geographical locations. Other research groups are doing work in 10 additional countries: Bangladesh will expand its program to 24,000 women and Nepal to 8,000 women. Trials are also being conducted on progestogen pills, since they do not lesson the volume of milk in breast feeding. FHI has also worked to introduce creative community-based distribution channels. In one case, specially trained health workers delivered contraceptives door-to-door in over 150,000 households. They found that 2 of 3 women accepted the pills and in a follow up survey 90% were still using them. FHI is now focusing on ways to improve moving new contraceptives from clinical testing on everyday use. They will coordinate training programs, educational material, media campaigns, and efforts with other international organizations, government agencies, and family planning groups.

  17. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  18. Improving Accident Statistics and Expanding the Role of Traffic Psychologists in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus A J M de Wit

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the mandatory assessment of psychological fitness to drive of prospective drivers, Brazil has a relatively large amount of traffic psychologists. Since, in general, assessment only happens upon first licensing, the task of these psychologists is fairly limited (as is the scope of the assessment itself. Intention and method: this study aims to perform a critical analysis of possibilities to expand the role of psychologists working in the traffic system in Brazil. A systematic review study of databases and international documents was conducted and a scope of activity of psychologists in this area was built. First result statistical data is scattered over many agencies. First conclusion in order to better identify specific tendencies and risk groups in Brazil, statistical data related to accident involvement needs to be better, perhaps centrally, coordinated and consolidated. Second result international research related to three subgroups of drivers that constitute a significantly increased safety risk can inform future directions for traffic psychology in Brazil. Psychological processes that may underlie these risk increases are discussed. Second conclusion two subgroups (young drivers and aggressive drivers could benefit from more than assessment, they could benefit from specific psychological interventions. The third subgroup (elderly drivers is expected to increase significantly in the future, which asks for clearer policies, with a significant input form psychologists and psychological research.

  19. Over-the-scope clip closure of two chronic fistulas after gastric band penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federico; Iacopini; Nicola; Di; Lorenzo; Fabrizio; Altorio; Marc-Oliver; Schurr; Agostino; Scozzarro

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal perforations are conservatively managed at endoscopy by through-the-scope endoclips and covered self expandable stents, according to the size and tissue features of the perforation. This is believed to be the first report of successful closure of two gastrocutaneous fistulas with over-the-scope clips (OTSCs). After laparoscopic gastric banding, a 45-year old woman presented with band erosion and penetration. Despite surgical band removal and gastric wall suturing, external drainage of enter...

  20. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  1. Leishmania-specific T cells expressing interferon-¿(IFN-¿) and IL-10 upon activation are expanded in individuals cured of visceral leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Kemp, M; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis often respond to Leishmania antigens in vitro by production of both IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-10. In order to establish the cellular sources of these cytokines, we activated cells from individuals...... with a history of visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania antigen for 6 days in culture, and identified cytokine production at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. The cytokines were only found in CD3+ cells and among these mainly within the CD4+ subset. The percentage of cytokine-producing cells was compared...... in Leishmania-activated PBMC cultures from the previous patients and from individuals living in a village where leishmaniasis does not occur. The percentage of IL-10- and IFN-gamma-containing cells was significantly higher in the previous patients than in the controls, indicating that Leishmania-specific T...

  2. 77 FR 38269 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Biotechnology and Healthcare Products); Juncos, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority... Company, grantee of FTZ 7, has requested an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority on behalf...

  3. The recent progress in proteochemometric modelling: focusing on target descriptors, cross-term descriptors and application scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tianyi; Qiu, Jingxuan; Feng, Jun; Wu, Dingfeng; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhu, Ruixin

    2017-01-01

    As an extension of the conventional quantitative structure activity relationship models, proteochemometric (PCM) modelling is a computational method that can predict the bioactivity relations between multiple ligands and multiple targets. Traditional PCM modelling includes three essential elements: descriptors (including target descriptors, ligand descriptors and cross-term descriptors), bioactivity data and appropriate learning functions that link the descriptors to the bioactivity data. Since its appearance, PCM modelling has developed rapidly over the past decade by taking advantage of the progress of different descriptors and machine learning techniques, along with the increasing amounts of available bioactivity data. Specifically, the new emerging target descriptors and cross-term descriptors not only significantly increased the performance of PCM modelling but also expanded its application scope from traditional protein-ligand interaction to more abundant interactions, including protein-peptide, protein-DNA and even protein-protein interactions. In this review, target descriptors and cross-term descriptors, as well as the corresponding application scope, are intensively summarized. Additionally, we look forward to seeing PCM modelling extend into new application scopes, such as Target-Catalyst-Ligand systems, with the further development of descriptors, machine learning techniques and increasing amounts of available bioactivity data. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives.

  5. An expanded framework for the advanced computational testing and simulation toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Osni A.; Drummond, Leroy A.

    2003-11-09

    The Advanced Computational Testing and Simulation (ACTS) Toolkit is a set of computational tools developed primarily at DOE laboratories and is aimed at simplifying the solution of common and important computational problems. The use of the tools reduces the development time for new codes and the tools provide functionality that might not otherwise be available. This document outlines an agenda for expanding the scope of the ACTS Project based on lessons learned from current activities. Highlights of this agenda include peer-reviewed certification of new tools; finding tools to solve problems that are not currently addressed by the Toolkit; working in collaboration with other software initiatives and DOE computer facilities; expanding outreach efforts; promoting interoperability, further development of the tools; and improving functionality of the ACTS Information Center, among other tasks. The ultimate goal is to make the ACTS tools more widely used and more effective in solving DOE's and the nation's scientific problems through the creation of a reliable software infrastructure for scientific computing.

  6. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs A Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The theory of expander graphs is a rapidly developing topic in mathematics and computer science, with applications to communication networks, error-correcting codes, cryptography, complexity theory, and much more. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs: A Beginner's Guide is a comprehensive introduction to expander graphs, designed to act as a bridge between classroom study and active research in the field of expanders. It equips those with little or no prior knowledge with the skills necessary to both comprehend current research articles and begin their own research. Central to this book are fou

  7. Trivalent expanders and hyperbolic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ivrissimtzis, Ioannis; Vdovina, Alina

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a family of trivalent expanders which tessellate compact hyperbolic surfaces with large isometry groups. We compare this family with Platonic graphs and modifications of them and prove topological and spectral properties of these families.

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Zinc Enolates of Esters: Reaction Conditions and Substrate Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The intermolecular α-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. α-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from α-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching lithium enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, α-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2. PMID:23931445

  9. Palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of zinc enolates of esters: reaction conditions and substrate scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F

    2013-09-06

    The intermolecular α-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. α-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from α-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching alkali metal enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl, or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, α-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2.

  10. Expanding Taylor bubble under constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voirand, Antoine; Benselama, Adel M.; Ayel, Vincent; Bertin, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Modelization of non-isothermal bubbles expanding in a capillary, as a contribution to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place in Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs), is the scope of this paper. The liquid film problem is simplified and solved, while the thermal problem takes into account a constant heat flux density applied at the capillary tube wall, exchanging with the liquid film surrounding the bubble and also with the capillary tube outside medium. The liquid slug dynamics is solved using the Lucas-Washburn equation. Mass and energy balance on the vapor phase allow governing equations of bubble expansion to be written. The liquid and vapor phases are coupled only through the saturation temperature associated with the vapor pressure, assumed to be uniform throughout the bubble. Results show an over-heating of the vapor phase, although the particular thermal boundary condition used here always ensures an evaporative mass flux at the liquid-vapor interface. Global heat exchange is also investigated, showing a strong decreasing of the PHP performance to convey heat by phase change means for large meniscus velocities.

  11. Sustained metabolic scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C C; Nagy, K A; Diamond, J

    1990-03-01

    Sustained metabolic rates (SusMR) are time-averaged metabolic rates that are measured in free-ranging animals maintaining constant body mass over periods long enough that metabolism is fueled by food intake rather than by transient depletion of energy reserves. Many authors have suggested that SusMR of various wild animal species are only a few times resting (basal or standard) metabolic rates (RMR). We test this conclusion by analyzing all 37 species (humans, 31 other endothermic vertebrates, and 5 ectothermic vertebrates) for which SusMR and RMR had both been measured. For all species, the ratio of SusMR to RMR, which we term sustained metabolic scope, is less than 7; most values fall between 1.5 and 5. Some of these values, such as those for Tour de France cyclists and breeding birds, are surely close to sustainable metabolic ceilings for the species studied. That is, metabolic rates higher than 7 times RMR apparently cannot be sustained indefinitely. These observations pose several questions: whether the proximate physiological causes of metabolic ceilings reside in the digestive tract's ability to process food or in each tissue's metabolic capacity; whether ceiling values are independent of the mode of energy expenditure; whether ceilings are set by single limiting physiological capacities or by coadjusted clusters of capacities (symmorphosis); what the ultimate evolutionary causes of metabolic ceilings are; and how metabolic ceilings may limit animals' reproductive effort, foraging behavior, and geographic distribution.

  12. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  13. DNA repair and redox activities and inhibitors of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1): a comparative analysis and their scope and limitations toward anticancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Cholia, Ravi P; Mantha, Anil K; Kumar, Raj

    2014-12-26

    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in DNA repair and activation of transcription factors through its redox function. The evolutionarily conserved C- and N-termini are involved in these functions independently. It is also reported that the activity of APE1/Ref-1 abruptly increases several-fold in various human cancers. The control over the outcomes of these two functions is emerging as a new strategy to combine enhanced DNA damage and chemotherapy in order to tackle the major hurdle of increased cancer cell growth and proliferation. Studies have targeted these two domains individually for the design and development of inhibitors for APE1/Ref-1. Here, we have made, for the first time, an attempt at a comparative analysis of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors that target both DNA repair and redox activities simultaneously. We further discuss their scope and limitations with respect to the development of potential anticancer agents.

  14. The Scope of Design Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yin; Ren Wenying

    2007-01-01

    This article trys to discuss the scope of design studying in two fields.Firstly, design has three meanings: wide design, art design and industrial design.Secondly, design studying has five contents: cultural, philosophical, methodological, produced and marketable trends.

  15. Economies of scope in Danish primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Rose Olsen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We analyze total operating costs and activities in Danish General Practice units to assess whether there are unexploited economies of scope in the production of primary care services. Methods: We apply stochastic frontier analysis to derive cost functions and associated cost complementarities...... between GP services and overall economies of scope. Data: Cross-section data for a sample of 331 primary care practices with 1-8 GPs from the year 2006. This is a unique combined dataset consisting of survey and register data. Results: We find a trend towards cost complementarities between the production...... economies of scope in the production of GP services. Conclusions: Our preliminary results show that there were overall economies of scope associated with the joint production of a) standard consultations, b) email/phone consultations and c) home visits. Cost complementarities between standard consultations...

  16. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  17. Biomechanics of fencing sport: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tony Lin-Wei; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Wang, Yan; Ren, Sicong; Yan, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of our scoping review was to identify and summarize current evidence on the biomechanics of fencing to inform athlete development and injury prevention. Design Scoping review. Method Peer-reviewed research was identified from electronic databases using a structured keyword search. Details regarding experimental design, study group characteristics and measured outcomes were extracted from retrieved studies, summarized and information regrouped under themes for analysis. The methodological quality of the evidence was evaluated. Results Thirty-seven peer-reviewed studies were retrieved, the majority being observational studies conducted with experienced and elite athletes. The methodological quality of the evidence was “fair” due to the limited scope of research. Male fencers were the prevalent group studied, with the lunge and use of a foil weapon being the principal movement evaluated. Motion capture and pedabarography were the most frequently used data collection techniques. Conclusions Elite fencers exhibited sequential coordination of upper and lower limb movements with coherent patterns of muscle activation, compared to novice fencers. These elite features of neuromuscular coordination resulted in higher magnitudes of forward linear velocity of the body center of mass and weapon. Training should focus on explosive power. Sex- and equipment-specific effects could not be evaluated based on available research. PMID:28187164

  18. Modeling Method for Increased Precision and Scope of Directly Measurable Fluxes at a Genome-Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Young, Jamey D.; Xu, Sibei

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is considered to be the gold standard for determining the intracellular flux distribution of biological systems. The majority of work using MFA has been limited to core models of metabolism due to challenges in implementing genome-scale MFA and the undesirable trade...... distributions (MIDs),(1) it was found that a total of 232 net fluxes of central and peripheral metabolism could be resolved in the E. coli network. The increase in scope was shown to cover the full biosynthetic route to an expanded set of bioproduction pathways, which should facilitate applications......-off between increased scope and decreased precision in flux estimations. This work presents a tunable workflow for expanding the scope of MFA to the genome-scale without trade-offs in flux precision. The genome-scale MFA model presented here, iDM2014, accounts for 537 net reactions, which includes the core...

  19. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k......Da and HES 450 kDa) and dextran (DEX 500 kDa). Particle size and molecular weight distribution were determined by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The biodistribution was investigated non-invasively in nude mice using multispectral optical imaging. The most promising polymer conjugate...

  20. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  1. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  2. Knowledge Syntheses in Medical Education: Demystifying Scoping Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Lubarsky, Stuart; Durning, Steven J; Young, Meredith E

    2017-02-01

    An unprecedented rise in health professions education (HPE) research has led to increasing attention and interest in knowledge syntheses. There are many different types of knowledge syntheses in common use, including systematic reviews, meta-ethnography, rapid reviews, narrative reviews, and realist reviews. In this Perspective, the authors examine the nature, purpose, value, and appropriate use of one particular method: scoping reviews. Scoping reviews are iterative and flexible and can serve multiple main purposes: to examine the extent, range, and nature of research activity in a given field; to determine the value and appropriateness of undertaking a full systematic review; to summarize and disseminate research findings; and to identify research gaps in the existing literature. Despite the advantages of this methodology, there are concerns that it is a less rigorous and defensible means to synthesize HPE literature. Drawing from published research and from their collective experience with this methodology, the authors present a brief description of scoping reviews, explore the advantages and disadvantages of scoping reviews in the context of HPE, and offer lessons learned and suggestions for colleagues who are considering conducting scoping reviews. Examples of published scoping reviews are provided to illustrate the steps involved in the methodology.

  3. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  4. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  5. ERBU, Expanding Rubber Band Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Domingos

    2015-01-01

    I put forward a simple unidimensional mechanical analogue of the three-dimensional universe models of modern relativistic cosmology. The main goal of the proposal is the appropriate appreciation of the intrinsic relationship between Hubble's law and the homogeneity of expanding relativistic models.

  6. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  7. Expandable Shelter/Container Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    without removing whatever payload might be in the contai ner. Equ i pment located in the expanded porti on of the ES/C durin g norma l operat i ons is...and Supply BattalIon , Div isi on Support Coianand. In addition , divisional avIation battalions have an A Irc raft Maintenance Company. The TOE

  8. Sentido e experiência no âmbito da atividade cognitiva Meaning and experience in the scope of cognitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André do Eirado Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva pensar a posição do problema do sentido em sua relação com a atividade cognitiva no que concerne à questão do significado das metodologias de primeira, segunda e terceira pessoas. Essa relação do sentido com a atividade cognitiva é analisada com a ajuda do pensamento bergsoniano, através do exemplo da percepção da fala. O sentido aparece como um movimento de pensamento que é pressuposto pela atividade cognitiva e não se esgota nela, mas corresponde à multiplicidade mais vasta da experiência e que ultrapassa tanto o eu quanto a experiência que se torna consciente para ele. Propõe-se, então, ligar o problema do sentido àquele das espécies de relação que se entretecem na experiência.The article proposes an examination of the problem of sense in its relation to cognitive activity as it concerns the question of the meaning of methodologies in first, second and third person. This relationship of sense with cognitive activity is analyzed within the perspective of Bergson's thought, through the example of speech perception. The sense appears as a movement of thought that is presupposed by cognitive activity and is not limited to it. In fact, it concerns the largest multiplicity of experience and surpasses both the self and the experience that becomes conscious to him. It is then proposed to connect the problem of sense to that referred to the sorts of relation that are interwoven in experience.

  9. 47 CFR 64.1401 - Expanded interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expanded interconnection. 64.1401 Section 64...) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Expanded Interconnection § 64.1401 Expanded interconnection. (a... 69, subpart G of this chapter, shall offer expanded interconnection for interstate special...

  10. USArray Siting Outreach: Telling the EarthScope Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, P. M.; Taber, J. J.; McQuillan, P.; Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.

    2013-12-01

    USArray has engaged in a variety of activities that involve students in and inform the general public about EarthScope. Examples include the highly successful Transportable Array Student Siting Program that employed students and faculty from colleges and universities in the identification of sites for future Transportable Array stations in their region, and a range of informal education and media opportunities where information about EarthScope and its discoveries are shared with educators and the public. During the course of eight summers, more than 135 students from about 55 institutions conducted site reconnaissance for nearly 1375 sites from the West Coast to the East Coast, and from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes and southern Canada. While telling the EarthScope story, students who participated in the program increased their professional skills and deepened their personal growth. Other students had opportunities to engage in EarthScope-related research as part of the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. Several EarthScope-focused outreach products for the public and educational audiences have been developed including Ground Motion Visualizations, EarthScope-centric and regional content sets for the IRIS Active Earth Monitor (AEM), and animations of earth processes. A kiosk loan program has helped to broadly disseminate the AEM displays. There have also been articles published in university, local and regional newspapers; stories appearing in national and international print and broadcast media; and documentaries produced by some of the world's most respected scientific and educational production companies that have included a segment about EarthScope and the Transportable Array. Over the next five years, USArray will be deploying and operating Transportable Array stations in Alaska and western Canada. This challenging environment will offer new opportunities to connect with communities throughout the region including native populations.

  11. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space......, providing a clear game design assignment that involves the formulation of intended player experience and a description of game mechanics. The second layer focuses on game design thinking from six different aspects of game design chosen in relation to the framing of the game design assignment. The third....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  12. Revolutionary Intelligence: The Expanding Intelligence Role of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Banerjea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC is a military and paramilitary organization that is meant to defend the ideals of the Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979. Since its formation, the IRGC has grown in influence and its intelligence role has expanded. This paper examines the role of the IRGC in Iran’s intelligence system through a comprehensive analysis of the organization of the IRGC’s intelligence arm, along with its operations and capabilities. In doing so, the scope, objectives, resources, customers, and sponsors of the IRGC’s intelligence activities are also analyzed. Additionally, this paper explores how the IRGC interacts with the government of Iran, the Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS, other key internal stakeholders, and foreign client organizations. A key focus of this analysis is the evolution of the relationship between the IRGC and the MOIS and the growing influence of the IRGC in Iran’s intelligence community over the last decade. The paper concludes that the IRGC has now eclipsed the MOIS within Iran’s intelligence community and is one of the most powerful institutions in Iranian politics today, using its intelligence activities as its key means of maintaining power and influence within the country.

  13. Interaction Design Beyond the Product : Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptelinin, Victor; Bannon, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of interaction design to date has been predominantly concerned with designing products, that is, devices, systems, and more recently services. A growing body of theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that the scope of interaction design needs to be expanded: An explicit concern...... of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some...... between intrinsic and extrinsic technology-enabled practice transformation, and foreground the need for interaction design research and practice to more directly deal with analysis and construction of technology-enhanced activity spaces. The implications of these notions for the research agenda...

  14. The adult murine heart has a sparse, phagocytically active macrophage population that expands through monocyte recruitment and adopts an ‘M2’ phenotype in response to Th2 immunologic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Katie J.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Castellan, Raphael F.P.; Ruckerl, Dominik; McGregor, Kieran; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T.; Hewitson, James P.; Campbell, Sharon M.; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Allen, Judith E.; Gray, Gillian A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue resident macrophages have vital homeostatic roles in many tissues but their roles are less well defined in the heart. The present study aimed to identify the density, polarisation status and distribution of macrophages in the healthy murine heart and to investigate their ability to respond to immune challenge. Histological analysis of hearts from CSF-1 receptor (csf1-GFP; MacGreen) and CX3CR1 (Cx3cr1GFP/+) reporter mice revealed a sparse population of GFP positive macrophages that were evenly distributed throughout the left and right ventricular free walls and septum. F4/80+CD11b+ cardiac macrophages, sorted from myocardial homogenates, were able to phagocytose fluorescent beads in vitro and expressed markers typical of both ‘M1’ (IL-1β, TNF and CCR2) and ‘M2’ activation (Ym1, Arg 1, RELMα and IL-10), suggesting no specific polarisation in healthy myocardium. Exposure to Th2 challenge by infection of mice with helminth parasites Schistosoma mansoni, or Heligmosomoides polygyrus, resulted in an increase in cardiac macrophage density, adoption of a stellate morphology and increased expression of Ym1, RELMα and CD206 (mannose receptor), indicative of ‘M2’ polarisation. This was dependent on recruitment of Ly6ChighCCR2+ monocytes and was accompanied by an increase in collagen content. In conclusion, in the healthy heart resident macrophages are relatively sparse and have a phagocytic role. Following Th2 challenge this population expands due to monocyte recruitment and adopts an ‘M2’ phenotype associated with increased tissue fibrosis. PMID:25700973

  15. The adult murine heart has a sparse, phagocytically active macrophage population that expands through monocyte recruitment and adopts an 'M2' phenotype in response to Th2 immunologic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Katie J; Jenkins, Stephen J; Castellan, Raphael F P; Ruckerl, Dominik; McGregor, Kieran; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T; Hewitson, James P; Campbell, Sharon M; MacDonald, Andrew S; Allen, Judith E; Gray, Gillian A

    2015-07-01

    Tissue resident macrophages have vital homeostatic roles in many tissues but their roles are less well defined in the heart. The present study aimed to identify the density, polarisation status and distribution of macrophages in the healthy murine heart and to investigate their ability to respond to immune challenge. Histological analysis of hearts from CSF-1 receptor (csf1-GFP; MacGreen) and CX3CR1 (Cx3cr1(GFP/+)) reporter mice revealed a sparse population of GFP positive macrophages that were evenly distributed throughout the left and right ventricular free walls and septum. F4/80+CD11b+ cardiac macrophages, sorted from myocardial homogenates, were able to phagocytose fluorescent beads in vitro and expressed markers typical of both 'M1' (IL-1β, TNF and CCR2) and 'M2' activation (Ym1, Arg 1, RELMα and IL-10), suggesting no specific polarisation in healthy myocardium. Exposure to Th2 challenge by infection of mice with helminth parasites Schistosoma mansoni, or Heligmosomoides polygyrus, resulted in an increase in cardiac macrophage density, adoption of a stellate morphology and increased expression of Ym1, RELMα and CD206 (mannose receptor), indicative of 'M2' polarisation. This was dependent on recruitment of Ly6ChighCCR2+ monocytes and was accompanied by an increase in collagen content. In conclusion, in the healthy heart resident macrophages are relatively sparse and have a phagocytic role. Following Th2 challenge this population expands due to monocyte recruitment and adopts an 'M2' phenotype associated with increased tissue fibrosis.

  16. Expanding the scope of practice--should dental nurses be permitted to administer local analgesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rowan

    2014-01-01

    Dumbing down the profession or meeting the need of more patients by the optimum management of resources? Unequivocally, patient safety and non-maleficence are central to this issue. Restrictions must be imposed to ensure this. Without doubt, continuing competence would have to be demonstrated by the registrant and they would only administer local analgesia after a written prescription by a dentist. Restrictions to infiltration analgesia would also seem prudent. if all involved, including patient representatives, consider this of merit, several issues would have to be resolved such as who wouldnd be responsible for training, the content of the programme a funding for training. This is fundamental for the conception and implementation of such a qualification. Recently, the issue of direct access has been opened. The profession has changed in recent years with more focus being placed on dentists to meet the need of patients burdened by dental disease, particularly the disenfranchised, by utilising the whole dental team. Notwithstanding this and it may seem counter intuitive, but if this role was extended to dental nurses, it may be most adopted in services where time is not so important such as the salaried and other secondary services.

  17. Structure-guided inhibitor design expands the scope of analog-sensitive kinase technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Lopez, Michael S; Dar, Arvin C; Ladow, Eva; Finkbeiner, Steven; Yun, Cai-Hong; Eck, Michael J; Shokat, Kevan M

    2013-09-20

    Engineered analog-sensitive (AS) protein kinases have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting phospho-signaling pathways, for elucidating the cellular function of individual kinases, and for deciphering unanticipated effects of clinical therapeutics. A crucial and necessary feature of this technology is a bioorthogonal small molecule that is innocuous toward native cellular systems but potently inhibits the engineered kinase. In order to generalize this method, we sought a molecule capable of targeting divergent AS-kinases. Here we employ X-ray crystallography and medicinal chemistry to unravel the mechanism of current inhibitors and use these insights to design the most potent, selective, and general AS-kinase inhibitors reported to date. We use large-scale kinase inhibitor profiling to characterize the selectivity of these molecules as well as examine the consequences of potential off-target effects in chemical genetic experiments. The molecules reported here will serve as powerful tools in efforts to extend AS-kinase technology to the entire kinome and the principles discovered may help in the design of other engineered enzyme/ligand pairs.

  18. Sport-Related Concussion and Occupational Therapy: Expanding the Scope of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation is a common occupation for many children and youth and can lead to improved physical and psychosocial health. Despite these benefits, it exposes children and youth to the increased risk of injury. Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is one of the most common sports injuries reported in the…

  19. Sport-Related Concussion and Occupational Therapy: Expanding the Scope of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation is a common occupation for many children and youth and can lead to improved physical and psychosocial health. Despite these benefits, it exposes children and youth to the increased risk of injury. Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is one of the most common sports injuries reported in the…

  20. Midwifing the End of Life: Expanding the Scope of Modern Midwifery Practice to Reclaim Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoover, Cheri; Holt, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    Historically, midwives held an important role in society as cradle-to-grave practitioners who eased individuals, families, and communities through difficult transitions across the life span. In the United States, during the first half of the 20th century, physicians assumed care for people during birth and death, moving these elements of the human experience from homes into the hospital setting. These changes in practice resulted in a dehumanization of birth and death experiences and led to detachment from what it means to be human among members of society. There is a current movement across the United States to incorporate palliative care and hospice care into both the home setting and the inpatient setting. Through their education and training, certified nurse-midwives/certified midwives (CNMs/CMs) are well equipped to serve as hospice and palliative care clinicians. Current midwives, skilled in assisting women and families through the transition of pregnancy to motherhood, can use their education and skills to help individuals and their families through the transition from life to death. The similarities between these states of the human experience (pregnancy to birth and terminal illness to death) allow for a fluidity between these experiences from the midwife perspective. The many parallels between these 2 elements of the human condition include stress, anxiety, and pain. Training in holistic approaches to symptom management and supporting individuals through difficult experiences (eg, birth) gives midwives a unique perspective that is readily translatable to assist individuals and families through the passage between life and death.

  1. Expanding the Scope of Density Derived Electrostatic and Chemical Charge Partitioning to Thousands of Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Louis P; Limas, Nidia Gabaldon; Cole, Daniel J; Payne, Mike C; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Manz, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    The density derived electrostatic and chemical (DDEC/c3) method is implemented into the onetep program to compute net atomic charges (NACs), as well as higher-order atomic multipole moments, of molecules, dense solids, nanoclusters, liquids, and biomolecules using linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) in a distributed memory parallel computing environment. For a >1000 atom model of the oxygenated myoglobin protein, the DDEC/c3 net charge of the adsorbed oxygen molecule is approximately -1e (in agreement with the Weiss model) using a dynamical mean field theory treatment of the iron atom, but much smaller in magnitude when using the generalized gradient approximation. For GaAs semiconducting nanorods, the system dipole moment using the DDEC/c3 NACs is about 5% higher in magnitude than the dipole computed directly from the quantum mechanical electron density distribution, and the DDEC/c3 NACs reproduce the electrostatic potential to within approximately 0.1 V on the nanorod's solvent-accessible surface. As examples of conducting materials, we study (i) a 55-atom Pt cluster with an adsorbed CO molecule and (ii) the dense solids Mo2C and Pd3V. Our results for solid Mo2C and Pd3V confirm the necessity of a constraint enforcing exponentially decaying electron density in the tails of buried atoms.

  2. From Race to Age: The Expanding Scope of Employment Discrimination Law.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) goes beyond the model of racial discrimination in prohibiting discrimination on a ground not recognized in the Constitution. As a consequence, the individuals protected by the ADEA differ sharply from those protected by earlier statutes such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. An examination of empirical data reveals that claims under the ADEA are brought predominantly by white males who hold relatively high-status and high-paying jobs...

  3. Pierre Bourdieu: Expanding the scope of nursing research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Stuart; Pinnock, David

    2017-01-30

    Bourdieu is an important thinker within the sociological tradition and has a philosophically sophisticated approach to theoretical knowledge and research practice. In this paper, we examine the implication of his work for nursing and the health sciences more broadly. We argue that his work is best described as a reflexive realist who provides a space for a nonpositivist approach to knowledge that does not fall into the trap of idealism or relativism. We emphasize that Bourdieu was not an abstract theorist, but only utilized theories to understand and explain the social world in all its empirical complexity. Theory is emphasized over method without denying the importance of method. We then provide a brief overview of some of his key concepts: habitus, field and capital. His work is a scientifically astute practice that has an emancipatory purpose, with particular resonance to the problems of nursing as a social practice. Some have criticized Bourdieu for undermining agency and we briefly address this issue, but argue that his conceptual framework helps us to understand what endures in social practice and why change is often problematic. In short, this paper argues that Bourdieu's work is a fruitful resource for critiquing existing nursing approaches that are preoccupied with agency over structure.

  4. Expanded mode lasers for telecommunications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lealman, Ian F.

    This thesis describes the development of a long wavelength (1.55 μm) expanded mode semiconductor laser. The increased spot size of the laser improves both the coupling efficiency to cleaved fibre and fibre alignment tolerances and reduces packaging cost. In this type of device the strength of the waveguide is gradually reduced towards the front facet allowing the mode to adiabatically expand so that the laser mode is better matched in size to that of a cleaved fibre. This can be achieved by either reducing the refractive index of the guide or reducing the amount of material in the core. The structure chosen was a buried heterostructure laser that utilised a twin guide consisting of an upper higher refractive index guide (the active region of the laser) above a weak passive guide. The width of the active region was reduced along part of the device allowing the mode to expand into the weak underlying guide. The guide structure was optimised using a variable grid finite difference mode solver, and the taper length calculated by an approximation to Love's method. Detailed results are presented for the measured light-current characteristic, farfield and coupling loss to cleaved fibre. These coupling losses were compared to the calculated data thus allowing the waveguide design to be optimised. Several iterations in the design of the device were undertaken, with the aim of reducing the coupling loss to cleaved single mode fibre without significantly compromising the laser performance. The final device design had extremely low coupling losses as low as 1.2 dB to cleaved fibre. Finally, the positive impact this device had on passive alignment using a silicon motherboard is examined, and the application this technology to a range of other optoelectronic components is discussed.

  5. Developing Authentic Research Experiences Using EarthScope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Wallace, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    EarthScope, a decade-long experiment to understand the formation, structure, and evolution of the North American continent, will carry-out active investigations in nearly every county in the US. The excitement of a huge science experiment in one's own backyard piques interest, but teachers need resources and professional development experiences to capitalize upon this excitement and create opportunities for their students' learning. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network will provide the interface to make EarthScope science, and the advanced technology and modern approaches used to understand Earth, relevant and beneficial to K-16 educators vested in advancing Earth science education. Three obstacles must be overcome for success in carrying out authentic EarthScope research in the classroom. First, scientists and teachers must work together to identify relevant and developmentally appropriate research questions for the target audience. Second, teachers will need professional development experiences that engage them in authentic research and that provide support for introducing a similar research experience in their own classroom. Third, the outcome of the research experience must have value to the scientist, teacher and student to motivate sustained participation by all. The dense array of seismometers being deployed in the USArray component of EarthScope will permit students and the public to see first-hand Earth's dynamic response to both human and natural events in their hometown and around the country. Targeted local experiments will make EarthScope's scientific investigations and discoveries relevant for educational efforts on a region-by-region basis. Combining the real-time seismic data streams from USArray with data and instrumentation from the growing US Educational Seismic Network (USESN) opens up endless possibilities for student-centered research. In this paper, I will discuss the lessons learned from eight years of leading a high school

  6. 7 CFR 1794.52 - Scoping meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scoping meetings. 1794.52 Section 1794.52 Agriculture....52 Scoping meetings. (a) Both RUS and the applicant shall have a notice published which announces a public scoping meeting is to be conducted, either in conjunction with the notice of intent or as...

  7. 36 CFR 223.130 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 223.130 Section 223... NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Suspension and Debarment of Timber Purchasers § 223.130 Scope. (a) This... causes and procedures for debarment and suspension and for determining the scope, duration, and...

  8. 25 CFR 501.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 501.2 Section 501.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER § 501.2 Scope. (a) Tribes and other operators of class II and class III gaming operations on Indian lands shall...

  9. 40 CFR 1508.25 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 1508.25 Section 1508.25 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.25 Scope. Scope... same impact statement. It should do so when the best way to assess adequately the combined impacts of...

  10. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  11. Unconventional microfluidics: expanding the discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Mao, Xiaole; Stratton, Zackary S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-04-21

    Since its inception, the discipline of microfluidics has been harnessed for innovations in the biomedicine/chemistry fields-and to great effect. This success has had the natural side-effect of stereotyping microfluidics as a platform for medical diagnostics and miniaturized lab processes. But microfluidics has more to offer. And very recently, some researchers have successfully applied microfluidics to fields outside its traditional domains. In this Focus article, we highlight notable examples of such "unconventional" microfluidics applications (e.g., robotics, electronics). It is our hope that these early successes in unconventional microfluidics prompt further creativity, and inspire readers to expand the microfluidics discipline.

  12. Using EarthScope Construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory to Provide Locally Based Experiential Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Eriksson, S.; Barbour, K.; Venator, S.; Mencin, D.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    region to study the area between the San Andreas Fault and the San Jacinto Fault. The event provided an opportunity for the Pathfinder Ranch to unveil the instruments and describe the important science behind the project to the school's students, staff, and board members. The two strainmeters will be used as a teaching tool for several years as hundreds of students filter through Pathfinder school. UNAVCO sponsors a summer PBO Student Field Assistant Program designed to give students from a variety of educational backgrounds the opportunity get involved in the construction of the EarthScope PBO project. The goal of the program is to excite students about the geodetic sciences through direct work experience. Over the summers of 2005 and 2006, PBO sponsored a total of 11 student assistants who helped to install GPS and strainmeter stations and to perform operations and maintenance tasks. PBO plans to expand this program in 2007 by including student assistants in our data management and strainmeter data processing activities. In August, 2006, UNAVCO led a group of scientists, teachers, and curriculum developers to identify key scientific concepts of EarthScope research and how they can be translated into the Earth Science classroom at the middle and high school levels. The focus was on the Cascadia region. A feature of the workshop was to use PBO and USArray data in the classroom.

  13. A Definition of the Scope of Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Daniel A.

    This report is a condensation of an unpublished paper by Daniel Dreyfus, a member of the professional staff of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Dreyfus develops a classification system of environmental management activities which has as its purpose to partially remove the present disagreement upon the scope of environmental…

  14. 12 CFR 25.11 - Authority, purposes, and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank's record of helping to meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate...), and banks that engage only in one or more of the following activities: providing cash management... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purposes, and scope. 25.11...

  15. 28 CFR 524.70 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Central Inmate Monitoring (CIM) System § 524.70 Purpose and scope. The... monitoring (CIM) cases, require a higher level of review which may include Central Office and/or Regional... preclude a CIM case from such activities, when the inmate is otherwise eligible, but rather is to...

  16. 28 CFR 544.100 - Purpose and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION Inmate Library Services § 544.100 Purpose and scope. The Bureau of Prisons provides inmates within each of its institutions with library services necessary for educational, cultural, and leisure activity. The Warden shall ensure that the inmate library has a wide variety of reading materials....

  17. The role of Facilities in Engaging and Informing the Public of EarthScope Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Taber, J. J.; Berg, M.; Dorr, P. M.; McQuillan, P.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The IRIS and UNAVCO facilities play an important role in support of EarthScope through joint and independent education and outreach activities. These activities are focused on providing data and data products to a wide range of audiences, disseminating EarthScope science results through formal and informal venues, and informing the public of the broader impacts of EarthScope. The facilities are particularly well-suited for sustained engagement of multiple audiences over the decade-long course of EarthScope. One such example of a long-term effort was the Transportable Array student siting program, where over an 8 year period, students from about 55 institutions across the US and Canada conducted site reconnaissance and talked to landowners about EarthScope. Another activity focused on students was the development of a student intern program to support field engineering efforts during the construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory. Other ongoing activities include developing and maintaining relationships with media representatives and annual training of National Parks staff throughout the western U.S. The UNAVCO-IRIS partnership has been particularly valuable for EarthScope-related activities, where UNAVCO and IRIS work closely with the EarthScope National Office (ESNO) to bring EarthScope science to national, regional and local audiences within the EarthScope footprint. Collaborations have ranged across each group's products and services, including: EarthScope-focused teacher workshops, participation in EarthScope interpretive workshops for informal educators (led by ESNO), development of content for the IRIS Active Earth Monitor, preparing PBO-, USArray- and EarthScope-focused materials on topics such as Episodic Tremor and Slip for wider distribution through print, web, and mobile information technologies, and organizing research experiences for undergraduates on EarthScope-related topics. Other collaborations have focused on social media, and the development

  18. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  19. The Influence of Affective States Varying in Motivational Intensity on Cognitive Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie eHarmon-Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review a program of research that has suggested that affective states high in motivationally intensity (e.g., enthusiasm, disgust narrow cognitive scope, whereas affective states low in motivationally intensity (e.g., joy, sadness broaden cognitive scope. Further supporting this interpretation, indices of brain activations, derived from human electroencephalography, suggest that the motivational intensity of the affective state predicts the narrowing of cognitive scope. Finally, research suggests that the relationship between emotive intensity and cognitive scope is bi-directional, such that manipulated changes in cognitive scope influence early brain activations associated with emotive intensity. In the end, the review highlights how emotion can impair and improve certain cognitive processes.

  20. Collapsible truss structure is automatically expandable

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Coil springs wound with maximum initial tension in a three-truss, closed loop structure form a collapsible truss structure. The truss automatically expands and provides excellent rigidity and close dimensional tolerance when expanded.

  1. Black holes in an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2010-04-02

    An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 black hole temperature.

  2. Unintended Consequences of Expanding the Genetic Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollum, Marvin; Ashwood, Brennan; Jockusch, Steffen; Lam, Minh; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2016-09-14

    The base pair d5SICS·dNaM was recently reported to incorporate and replicate in the DNA of a modified strain of Escherichia coli, thus making the world's first stable semisynthetic organism. This newly expanded genetic alphabet may allow organisms to store considerably more information in order to translate proteins with unprecedented enzymatic activities. Importantly, however, there is currently no knowledge of the photochemical properties of d5SICS or dNaM-properties that are central to the chemical integrity of cellular DNA. In this contribution, it is shown that excitation of d5SICS or dNaM with near-visible light leads to efficient trapping of population in the nucleoside's excited triplet state in high yield. Photoactivation of these long-lived, reactive states is shown to photosensitize cells, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and to a marked decrease in cell proliferation, thus warning scientists of the potential phototoxic side effects of expanding the genetic alphabet.

  3. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  4. Expanding the role for psychology in addressing environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia; Steg, Linda; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Environmental challenges, though daunting, present an important area for psychologists to apply their knowledge. Psychological theories, research methods, and interventions are essential for examining the questions about human impacts, tendencies, and capacities that are integral to constructing effective responses to these challenges. Although a great deal of relevant research has been done, there is scope for psychologists to be more extensively involved. Following a brief review of existing research, we outline some important new directions. We also highlight 2 key divergences, arguing that psychological research needs to expand beyond a traditional, theory-based and decontextualized approach to environmental issues to incorporate a contextualized or "place-based" approach and a willingness to collaborate in interdisciplinary research teams that focus on specific environmental problems. Suggestions for promoting such interdisciplinary collaborations are reviewed. We encourage psychologists to expand their engagement with important environmental issues through multiple research approaches in order to further their understanding of human behavior, contributions to human well-being, and relevance to other disciplines and to society.

  5. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Somerset County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Somerset County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Somerset County, Maine is 18.1 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980

  6. South African programme for the SCOPE project on the ecology of biological invasions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1983-07-01

    Full Text Available A description of the aims of the international SCOPE programme on biological invasions is provided, together with a proposed four year time table of international activities. This is followed by a brief account of the history, organization...

  7. Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo (tm) Sandcontrol Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff A. Spray

    2007-09-30

    Development of Self-Expanding Idealflo{trademark} Sandscreen Technology was a successfully executed design-by-analysis through field demonstration project. This final report is presented as a two-part progression of concept development and manufacturing activities. The first part, conceptual development activities, discusses novel specifications creation and non-linear analytical design generation. The second part, manufacturing, contains achievement related information for detailed-design, fabrication, mechanical testing, and field demonstration activities.

  8. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 Project Scope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M.

    2015-02-01

    This report provides a brief description of the scope of the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. It describes the goals and objectives of reengineering, the system definition, and the technical scope of the system. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by 1.0 9/25/2014 SNL IDC Reengineering Team Unlimited Release for I2 M. Harris 1.1 28/01/2015 IDC Reengineering Team Align with previous IDC scope document E. Tomuta

  9. Expanding mTOR signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Kun-Liang Guan

    2007-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has drawn much attention recently because of its essential role in cell growth control and its involvement in human tumorigenesis. Great endeavors have been made to elucidate the functions and regulation of mTOR in the past decade. The current prevailing view is that mTOR regulates many fundamental biological processes, such as cell growth and survival, by integrating both intracellular and extracellular signals, including growth factors, nutrients, energy levels, and cellular stress. The significance of mTOR has been highlighted most recently by the identification of mTOR-associated proteins. Amazingly, when bound to different proteins, mTOR forms distinctive complexes with very different physiological functions. These findings not only expand the roles that mTOR plays in cells but also further complicate the regulation network. Thus, it is now even more critical that we precisely understand the underlying molecular mechanisms in order to directly guide the development and usage of anti-cancer drugs targeting the mTOR signaling pathway. In this review, we will discuss different mTOR-associated proteins, the regulation of mTOR complexes, and the consequences of mTOR dysregulation under pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Cat Scratch Disease: Expanded Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan A.; Plesec, Thomas P.; Sabella, Camille; Udayasankar, Unni K.; Singh, Arun D.

    2016-01-01

    Background To expand the spectrum of ophthalmic manifestations in cat scratch disease. Methods Case report. Results A 7-year-old male was referred for evaluation of his left optic disc after failing vision screening test at school. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and light perception OS. Fundus examination showed a left optic disc lesion associated with an exudative retinal detachment and vitreous seeding. Ultrasonography revealed a 7 × 7.5 × 3.8 mm lesion with a possible 6.3 mm of retrolaminar extension into the substance of the optic nerve. Brain MRI did not show evidence of optic nerve involvement but revealed a 6-mm nodule of the pineal gland suggestive of a pineoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and histopathology revealed a suppurative granulomatous inflammation suggestive of Bartonella infection. Upon further questioning, the patient had recent exposure to kittens with areas of cat scratches along both of his arms. He was subsequently referred to and treated with a 2-week course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and rifampin by the pediatric infectious disease specialist. Repeat brain MRI showed interval total resolution of enlarged pineal gland. Conclusion: Optic nerve granulomas are a rare presentation of cat scratch disease and could potentially masquerade as retinoblastoma. PMID:27843905

  11. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  12. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  13. 77 FR 63309 - Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Constitution Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting and Extension of Scoping Period for the Planned Constitution Pipeline Project On October 24, 2012, the Federal... Constitution Pipeline Company's (Constitution) Constitution Pipeline Project. This notice also extends...

  14. Focusing the EarthScope for a broader audience: Advancing geoscience education with interactive kiosks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Solis, T.

    2012-12-01

    A primary objective of the EarthScope Education and Outreach program is to transform technical science into teachable products for a technologically thriving generation. One of the most challenging milestones of scientific research, however, is often the translation of a technical result into a clear teachable moment that is accessible to a broader audience. As 4D multimedia now dominate most aspects of our social environment, science "teaching" now also requires intervention of visualization technology and animation to portray research results in an inviting and stimulating manner. Following the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)'s lead in developing interactive Earth science kiosk multimedia (bundled in a free product called Active Earth), we have made a major effort to construct and install customized EarthScope-themed touch screen kiosks in local communities. These kiosks are helping to educate a broader audience about EarthScope's unique instrumentation and observations using interactive animations, games, and virtual field trips. We are also developing new kiosk content that reflect career stories showcasing the personal journeys of EarthScope scientists. To truly bring the interactive aspect of our EarthScope kiosk media into the classroom, we have collaborated with local teachers to develop a one-page EarthScope TerraMap activity worksheet that guides students through kiosk content. These activities are shaping a new pathway for how teachers teach and students learn about planet Earth and its fantastic EarthScope - one click (and touch) at a time.

  15. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, poor health, and limited physical activity are major health concerns. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) improves the health and well-being of limited resource families and youth. Additionally, EFNEP leads to public savings. Research shows that better health is associated with reduced health care costs, less…

  16. Enrichment in Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven, Meghan; Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth; Luck, Rachel; Wu, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This brief highlights key information about enrichment activities, which represent one of the main components of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative. Over time, the ELT initiative has supported over two dozen schools across the Commonwealth. A comprehensive evaluation of the ELT initiative found that implementation of the…

  17. Focusing the EarthScope for a Broader Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenging milestones of scientific research is often the translation of a technical result into a clear "teachable moment" that is accessible (and interesting!) to a broader audience. The success of this milestone can largely be measured by its effectiveness to inspire interest and enthusiasm in the non-scientist. Moreover, as 4D multimedia now dominates most aspects of our social environment, science "teaching" now also requires intervention of visualization technology and animation to portray research results in an inviting and stimulating manner. In response to these needs, a primary objective of the EarthScope Education and Outreach program is to transform technical science into teachable products for a technologically thriving generation. Following the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)'s lead in developing interactive Earth science kiosk multimedia (bundled in a free product called Active Earth), a major focus of this EarthScope CAREER project is aimed at the construction and installation of customized EarthScope-themed touch screen kiosks in local communities. These kiosks are helping to educate a broader audience about EarthScope's unique instrumentation and observations using interactive animations, games, and virtual field trips. An additional focus of this CAREER project is aimed at the development of several Earthquakes in Action teaching modules for grades 6-12, which have been successfully tested and implemented in both teacher-prep courses and an annual high school summer geosciences camp at the University of Texas at El Paso. These activities are beginning to shape a new pathway for how teachers teach and students learn about planet Earth and its fantastic EarthScope - one click (and touch) at a time.

  18. A Scoping Review of Scoping Reviews: Advancing the Approach and Enhancing the Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai T.; Rajic, Andrijana; Greig, Judy D.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew; McEwen, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The scoping review has become an increasingly popular approach for synthesizing research evidence. It is a relatively new approach for which a universal study definition or definitive procedure has not been established. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide an overview of scoping reviews in the literature. Methods: A…

  19. Education and Outreach for EarthScope's USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G.; Taber, J.

    2005-12-01

    Maintaining public interest throughout the 10-year EarthScope project is a challenge and will require an ongoing community-based effort within a national support structure. The initial education and outreach effort of the USArray portion of the EarthScope project involves siting outreach that assists in finding potential sites and promoting the value of hosting a seismograph. This aspect of the program will continue as the Transportable Array (TA) moves across the US. As more of the TA is installed, the primary focus will shift to using the educational hook that there will be an EarthScope seismograph in almost every county of the US at some point in the next 10 years. The program will be closely linked to the efforts of EarthScope Education and Outreach, and other EarthScope partners such as UNAVCO. In the long term, the program will provide a way for local communities to stay engaged after the TA moves to the next region. IRIS, as a national consortium of universities, is well placed to engage groups via local connections in multiple regions. An example of university involvement is a small group of students from Oregon State University who spent the summer finding sites for USArray. Not only did they promote the project within the community, but by working with professional permitters and scientists, the students got a rare opportunity to get practical experience doing real science. At Arizona State University (ASU) two students are currently working on finding sites across Arizona. ASU also works closely with Native American communities to promote EarthScope siting and educational activities within an appropriate cultural context. Universities are helping to develop college and secondary school GIS-related exercises associated with the process of siting. Ongoing siting outreach activities have both a community and broad focus. When schools are engaged as a TA station host, students have access to "their" TA station data via the online IRIS Data Management System

  20. Scope of Nursing Practice in a Tertiary Pediatric Setting: Associations With Nurse and Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Johanne; Clarke, Sean P; D'Amour, Danielle; Blais, Régis

    2017-09-29

    While professional nursing, like other health professions, has a recognized educational base and a legal scope of practice that is remarkably consistent across societies, there are important variations even within the same institution or organization in the extent to which professional nurses engage in the full range of activities for which they are qualified. There has been limited study of enacted (actual) scope of nursing practice (ESOP) or of its impacts on nurse job outcomes, such as job satisfaction. The aim of this study is to measure ESOP, as well as its predictors and impact on job satisfaction, in a specialty university-affiliated tertiary referral center in one of the few remaining jurisdictions outside the United States that continue to educate registered nurses at multiple educational levels. This was a correlational cross-sectional design using structural equation modeling. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 301 registered nurses holding permanent positions in specific clinical areas for 6 months or longer in a pediatric hospital in the province of Quebec, Canada. ESOP or actual scope of practice was low-on average, nurses applied the range of skills within their theoretical scopes of practice only occasionally or "less than frequently" in their daily work (3.21 out of a possible 6 points). ESOP was strongly related to decision latitude (β = 0.319; p  = .012), role ambiguity (β = 0.297; p  = .011), and role overload (β  =  0.201; p  = .012). The personal characteristics that exerted the greatest direct influence on ESOP were education level (β  =  0.128; p  = .015) and growth need strength (β  =  0.151; p  = .008). Results also showed that ESOP exerts a direct positive influence on nurses' job satisfaction (β  =  0.118; p  = .006). Structural equation modeling analyses revealed a good fit of the data to the hypothesized conceptual model (χ²/df ratio index =  1.68, root mean square error of approximation  =  0

  1. Catalytic DNA: Scope, Applications, and Biochemistry of Deoxyribozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of natural RNA enzymes (ribozymes) prompted the pursuit of artificial DNA enzymes (deoxyribozymes) by in vitro selection methods. A key motivation is the conceptual and practical advantages of DNA relative to proteins and RNA. Early studies focused on RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes, and more recent experiments have expanded the breadth of catalytic DNA to many other reactions. Including modified nucleotides has the potential to widen the scope of DNA enzymes even further. Practical applications of deoxyribozymes include their use as sensors for metal ions and small molecules. Structural studies of deoxyribozymes are only now beginning; mechanistic experiments will surely follow. Following the first report 21 years ago, the field of deoxyribozymes has promise for both fundamental and applied advances in chemistry, biology, and other disciplines.

  2. Forests vanish as population expands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Madagascar's forests have been reduced to a narrowing strip along the eastern escarpment. Of the original forest cover of 11.2 million hectares, only 7.6 million remained in 1950. Today this has been halved to 3.8 million hectares--which means the habitat for the island's unique wildlife has been halved, in just 40 years. Every year some 3% of the remaining forest is cleared, almost all of that to provide land for populations expanding at 3.2% a year. The story of 1 village, Ambodiaviavy, near Ranomafana, shows the process at work. 50 years ago the whole area was dense forest. 8 families, 32 people in all, came here in 1947, after French colonials burned down their old village. At first the new settlers farmed only the valley bottoms, easily irrigated by the stream running down from the hilltops. There was no shortage of land. Each family took as much as they were capable of working. Over the next 43 years, the village population swelled 10 times over, to 320, and the number of families grew to 36. Natural growth was supplemented by immigration from the overcrowded plateau, where all cultivable land was occupied. The valley bottom lands had filled up completely by the 1950s. New couples started to clear forest on the sloping valley sides. They moved gradually uphill until today, they are 2/3 of the way to the hilltops. There was a parallel decline in the size of each family's paddy holding--also fueled by population growth. When children marry, parents have to subdivide their own land and give them a plot. So holding in the irrigated valley bottoms have dwindled. Today only a few are big enough to feed a family. The more children in a family, the smaller their share as adults will be. The village chief lives in a small mud hut, looking out over a valley he once owned entirely. Since then he has had 10 children, and given parcels away to each. Though he is the wealthiest man in the village in cattle, his son are among the poorest. They 1/2 a hectare of paddy each

  3. 12 CFR 19.241 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 19.241 Section 19.241 Banks and Banking..., and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.241 Scope. This subpart, which... their accounting firms from performing independent audit and attestation services required by section...

  4. 24 CFR 58.56 - Scoping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process: Procedures for Draft, Final and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statements § 58.56 Scoping... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scoping process. 58.56 Section 58.56 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  5. 41 CFR 60-3.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope. 60-3.2 Section 60-3.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF... GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.2 Scope. A. Application...

  6. 12 CFR 700.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 700.1 Section 700.1 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS DEFINITIONS § 700.1 Scope. The definitions in § 700.2 apply to terms used in this chapter. Many additional definitions appear in the...

  7. 12 CFR 725.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 725.1 Section 725.1 Banks and Banking... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.1 Scope. This part contains the regulations implementing the National Credit Union Central Liquidity Facility Act, subchapter III of the Federal Credit Union Act....

  8. 45 CFR 12.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 12.2 Section 12.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.2 Scope. This part is applicable to surplus real property located within any State which is appropriate...

  9. Special Education in Indonesia (Scope and Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiawan, Conny

    The paper covers characteristics of Indonesia's special education program. Considered are the scope of special education, some viewpoints on the impact of culture on the perspective of special education in Indonesia (including programs, services, teacher training, and financial resources). The scope of special education is considered; and some…

  10. 21 CFR 1010.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1010.1 Section 1010.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL General Provisions § 1010.1 Scope. The standards...

  11. 44 CFR 351.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 351.2 Section 351.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS General § 351.2 Scope. The emergency planning...

  12. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  13. 20 CFR 902.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 902.1 Section 902.1 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES RULES REGARDING AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 902.1 Scope. This part is issued by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries (the “Joint...

  14. 49 CFR 536.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.1 Scope. This part establishes... manufacturers wishing to transfer fuel economy credits between their fleets and for manufacturers and other... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 536.1 Section 536.1 Transportation...

  15. 21 CFR 860.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 860.1 Section 860.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General § 860.1 Scope. (a) This part implements sections 513, 514(b), 515(b), and 520(l) of the act with respect to the classification and reclassification of devices intended for human...

  16. 31 CFR 103.80 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 103.80 Section 103.80 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.80 Scope. This subpart...

  17. Anger perceptually and conceptually narrows cognitive scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Poole, Bryan D; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-07-01

    For the last 50 years, research investigating the effect of emotions on scope of cognitive processing was based on models proposing that affective valence determined cognitive scope. More recently, our motivational intensity model suggests that this past work had confounded valence with motivational intensity. Research derived from this model supports the idea that motivational intensity, rather than affective valence, explains much of the variance emotions have on cognitive scope. However, the motivational intensity model is limited in that the empirical work has examined only positive affects high in approach and negative affects high in avoidance motivation. Thus, perhaps only approach-positive and avoidance-negative states narrow cognitive scope. The present research was designed to clarify these conceptual issues by examining the effect of anger, a negatively valenced approach-motivated state, on cognitive scope. Results revealed that anger narrowed attentional scope relative to a neutral state and that attentional narrowing to anger was similar to the attentional narrowing caused by high approach-motivated positive affects (Study 1). This narrowing of attention was related to trait approach motivation (Studies 2 and Study 3). Anger also narrowed conceptual cognitive categorization (Study 4). Narrowing of categorization related to participants' approach motivation toward anger stimuli. Together, these results suggest that anger, an approach-motivated negative affect, narrows perceptual and conceptual cognitive scope. More broadly, these results support the conceptual model that motivational intensity per se, rather than approach-positive and avoidance-negative states, causes a narrowing of cognitive scope.

  18. 10 CFR 76.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 76.2 Section 76.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.2 Scope. The regulations in this part apply only to those portions of the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

  19. 47 CFR 90.460 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Transmitter Control § 90.460 Scope. This subpart sets forth the provisions relating to permissible methods of transmitter control and interconnection (see the definition in § 90.7) of radio systems... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 90.460 Section 90.460 Telecommunication...

  20. 14 CFR 1203b.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1203b.101 Section 1203b.101 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.101 Scope. This part applies to only those...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 831.1101 Section 831.1101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Prohibition on Payments of Annuities § 831.1101 Scope. This subpart prescribes the procedures to be followed in determining whether...

  2. 16 CFR 1101.2. - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1101.2. Section 1101.2. Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Background § 1101.2. Scope. Section 6(b) and these rules apply to information...

  3. 19 CFR 134.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 134.0 Section 134.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING § 134.0 Scope. This part sets forth regulations implementing the country of origin...

  4. 49 CFR 192.501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.501 Section 192.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Test Requirements § 192.501 Scope. This...

  5. 40 CFR 142.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 142.3 Section 142.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION General Provisions § 142.3 Scope. (a) Except...

  6. 42 CFR 423.150 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.150 Section 423.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... § 423.150 Scope. This subpart sets forth the requirements relating to the following: (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 90.60 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 90.60 Section 90.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence Cases § 90.60 Scope. This subpart sets forth the statutory framework of the Violence Against Women...

  8. 40 CFR 81.11 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 81.11 Section 81.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.11 Scope....

  9. 32 CFR 726.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 726.2 Section 726.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL PAYMENTS OF AMOUNTS DUE MENTALLY INCOMPETENT MEMBERS OF THE NAVAL SERVICE § 726.2 Scope. (a) The Secretary of the Navy has authority...

  10. 28 CFR 92.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 92.1 Section 92.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Corps Eligibility and Selection Criteria § 92.1 Scope. This subpart sets forth guidance on...

  11. 49 CFR 191.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., operation, and maintenance under 49 CFR 190.9. (3) Pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf upstream of the... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 191.1 Section 191.1 Transportation Other...; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT REPORTS, AND SAFETY-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.1 Scope. (a) This...

  12. 40 CFR 79.30 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 79.30 Section 79.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Designation of Fuels and Additives § 79.30 Scope. Fuels and...

  13. 49 CFR 190.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 190.301 Section 190.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PROCEDURES Procedures for Adoption of Rules § 190.301 Scope. This subpart prescribes general...

  14. 42 CFR 424.60 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.60 Section 424.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT To Whom Payment is Made in Special Situations § 424.60 Scope. (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 939.7000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 939.7000 Section 939.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Implementing DOE Policies and Procedures 939.7000 Scope. This part...

  16. 32 CFR 761.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 761.1 Section 761.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION NAVAL DEFENSIVE SEA... PACIFIC ISLANDS Introduction § 761.1 Scope. (a) This part provides regulations governing the entry...

  17. 42 CFR 423.1968 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.1968 Section 423.1968 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Review § 423.1968 Scope. This subpart sets forth the requirements relating to the following: (a) Part...

  18. 36 CFR 261.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 261.1 Section 261.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.1 Scope. (a) The prohibitions in this part apply, except as otherwise provided, when: (1)...

  19. 42 CFR 424.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.100 Section 424.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Nonparticipating Hospital § 424.100 Scope. This subpart sets forth procedures and criteria that are followed...

  20. 49 CFR 192.51 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.51 Section 192.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum...

  1. 49 CFR 193.2051 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2051 Section 193.2051 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2051 Scope. Each LNG facility designed,...

  2. 49 CFR 192.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.101 Section 192.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.101 Scope. This subpart...

  3. 49 CFR 195.48 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.48 Section 195.48 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.48 Scope. This subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 80.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 80.1 Section 80.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.1 Scope. (a) This part prescribes regulations for the control...

  5. 42 CFR 415.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 415.100 Section 415.100 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... § 415.100 Scope. This subpart implements section 1887(a)(1)(A) of the Act by providing...

  6. 42 CFR 424.120 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.120 Section 424.120 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE....120 Scope. This subpart sets forth the conditions for payment for services furnished in a...

  7. 49 CFR 195.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.100 Section 195.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.100 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum design requirements for...

  8. 42 CFR 415.150 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 415.150 Section 415.150 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... RESIDENTS IN CERTAIN SETTINGS Physician Services in Teaching Settings § 415.150 Scope. This subpart...

  9. 49 CFR 195.300 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.300 Section 195.300 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Pressure Testing § 195.300 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.271 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.271 Section 192.271 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Scope. (a) This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for joining materials in pipelines, other...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2701 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2701 Section 193.2701 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2701 Scope. This subpart...

  12. 49 CFR 195.200 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.200 Section 195.200 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.200 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for constructing...

  13. 42 CFR 423.251 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.251 Section 423.251 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...; Plan Approval § 423.251 Scope. This section sets forth the requirements and limitations on...

  14. 42 CFR 423.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.301 Section 423.301 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Prescription Drug Coverage § 423.301 Scope. This subpart sets forth rules for the calculation and payment...

  15. 36 CFR 228.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 228.2 Section 228.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Locatable Minerals § 228.2 Scope. These regulations apply to operations hereafter conducted under the United...

  16. 42 CFR 424.500 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.500 Section 424.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Privileges § 424.500 Scope. The provisions of this subpart contain the requirements for enrollment,...

  17. 32 CFR 734.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 734.2 Section 734.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL GARNISHMENT OF PAY OF NAVAL MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PERSONNEL FOR COLLECTION OF CHILD SUPPORT AND ALIMONY § 734.2 Scope. The provisions of this...

  18. 40 CFR 172.20 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 172.20 Section 172.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXPERIMENTAL USE PERMITS State Issuance of Experimental Use Permits § 172.20 Scope. This subpart sets forth...

  19. 32 CFR 755.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 755.2 Section 755.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS CLAIMS FOR INJURIES TO PROPERTY UNDER ARTICLE 139 OF THE UNIFORM CODE OF MILITARY JUSTICE § 755.2 Scope. This chapter provides for...

  20. 32 CFR 752.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 752.1 Section 752.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS ADMIRALTY CLAIMS § 752.1 Scope. This part applies to admiralty-tort claims. These include claims against the United States for damage caused by...

  1. 40 CFR 152.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 152.1 Section 152.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.1 Scope. (a) Part 152 sets forth...

  2. 49 CFR 199.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 199.1 Section 199.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING General § 199.1 Scope....

  3. 49 CFR 193.2901 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2901 Section 193.2901 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2901 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for security...

  4. 49 CFR 192.551 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.551 Section 192.551 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Uprating § 192.551 Scope. This subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 165.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 165.1 Section 165.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL General § 165.1 Scope. The part 165 regulations establish standards and requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 152.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 152.100 Section 152.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.100 Scope. (a) The Agency...

  7. 40 CFR 88.201-94 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 88.201-94 Section 88.201-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.201-94 Scope. Applicability. The requirements of this...

  8. 40 CFR 180.2000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 180.2000 Section 180.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND... Exemption From a Tolerance § 180.2000 Scope. This subpart sets forth the pesticide chemicals for use...

  9. 31 CFR 1.8 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 1.8 Section 1.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Other Disclosure Provisions § 1.8 Scope. The regulations in this subpart concern access to information and records other...

  10. 49 CFR 1151.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1151.1 Section 1151.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE FEEDER RAILROAD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 1151.1 Scope. This part governs...

  11. 42 CFR 424.50 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.50 Section 424.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT To Whom Payment Is Ordinarily Made § 424.50 Scope. (a) This subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 152.160 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 152.160 Section 152.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.160 Scope. (a) Types...

  13. 42 CFR 423.500 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.500 Section 423.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... sponsors § 423.500 Scope. This subpart sets forth application procedures and contracts with Part D...

  14. 49 CFR 377.201 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 377.201 Section 377.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Forwarders § 377.201 Scope. (a) General. These regulations apply to the extension of credit in...

  15. 49 CFR 195.501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.501 Section 195.501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Qualification of Pipeline Personnel § 195.501 Scope. (a) This subpart prescribes the...

  16. 49 CFR 192.351 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.351 Section 192.351 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.351 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for installing customer meters,...

  17. 31 CFR 8.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 8.1 Section 8.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS General Requirements § 8.1 Scope. This part contains rules governing the recognition...

  18. 49 CFR 192.221 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.221 Section 192.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Welding of Steel in Pipelines § 192.221 Scope. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 1118.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1118.1 Section 1118.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES IN INFORMAL PROCEEDINGS BEFORE EMPLOYEE BOARDS § 1118.1 Scope. The rules...

  20. 49 CFR 198.31 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 198.31 Section 198.31 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROGRAMS Adoption of One-Call Damage Prevention Program § 198.31 Scope. This subpart implements parts...

  1. 40 CFR 81.400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 81.400 Section 81.400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.400 Scope. Subpart D, §§ 81.401 through 81.437, lists those...

  2. 49 CFR 195.400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.400 Section 195.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.400 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements...

  3. 49 CFR 192.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.301 Section 192.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Lines and Mains § 192.301 Scope. This subpart prescribes minimum requirements for...

  4. 49 CFR 192.451 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.451 Section 192.451 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.451 Scope....

  5. 42 CFR 423.851 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.851 Section 423.851 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Prescription Drug Plans) § 423.851 Scope. This subpart sets forth—the rights of beneficiaries to a choice of...

  6. 49 CFR 198.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 198.1 Section 198.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... PROGRAMS General § 198.1 Scope. This part prescribes regulations governing grants-in-aid for State...

  7. 49 CFR 1121.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1121.1 Section 1121.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.1 Scope. These procedures generally govern...

  8. 25 CFR 571.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 571.1 Section 571.1 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS General § 571.1 Scope. This part sets forth general procedures governing Commission monitoring...

  9. 32 CFR 751.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 751.1 Section 751.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.1 Scope. This part prescribes procedures and substantive bases...

  10. 49 CFR 192.801 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.801 Section 192.801 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Qualification of Pipeline Personnel § 192.801 Scope....

  11. 31 CFR 15.737-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 15.737-1 Section 15.737-1 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST General Provisions § 15.737-1 Scope. This part contains rules governing discipline of a former officer...

  12. 42 CFR 424.30 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 424.30 Section 424.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Claims for Payment § 424.30 Scope. This subpart sets forth the...

  13. 49 CFR 195.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 195.0 Section 195.0 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... General § 195.0 Scope. This part prescribes safety standards and reporting requirements for...

  14. 49 CFR 192.601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.601 Section 192.601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.601 Scope. This subpart...

  15. 42 CFR 423.558 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.558 Section 423.558 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE..., and Reconsiderations § 423.558 Scope. (a) This subpart sets forth the requirements relating to...

  16. 49 CFR 396.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 396.1 Section 396.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.1 Scope....

  17. 42 CFR 423.452 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 423.452 Section 423.452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Drug Coverage § 423.452 Scope. This section sets forth the application of Part D rules to Part C...

  18. 28 CFR 92.7 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 92.7 Section 92.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING SERVICES (COPS) Police Recruitment Program Guidelines § 92.7 Scope. (a) The Police Recruitment program offers funds to...

  19. 49 CFR 192.141 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.141 Section 192.141 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.141 Scope....

  20. 49 CFR 192.701 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 192.701 Section 192.701 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.701 Scope. This subpart...

  1. 49 CFR 1120.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting instruction number 27 of the Board's Uniform System of Accounts (49 CFR Part 1207). ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1120.1 Section 1120.1 Transportation Other... RULES OF PRACTICE USE OF 1977-1978 STUDY OF MOTOR CARRIER PLATFORM HANDLING FACTORS § 1120.1 Scope....

  2. 48 CFR 970.1707-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 970.1707-1 Section 970.1707-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Special Contracting Methods 970.1707-1 Scope. Pursuant...

  3. 42 CFR 417.140 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 417.140 Section 417.140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... Application for Federal Qualification § 417.140 Scope. This subpart sets forth— (a) The requirements for—...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2601 Section 193.2601 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2601 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements...

  5. 21 CFR 866.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 866.1 Section 866.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 866.1 Scope. (a) This part sets forth the classification of immunology and microbiology devices intended for human use that are in commercial distribution. (b)...

  6. Special Education in Indonesia (Scope and Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiawan, Conny

    The paper covers characteristics of Indonesia's special education program. Considered are the scope of special education, some viewpoints on the impact of culture on the perspective of special education in Indonesia (including programs, services, teacher training, and financial resources). The scope of special education is considered; and some…

  7. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  8. 10 CFR 850.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 850.1 Section 850.1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.1 Scope. This part provides for establishment of a chronic beryllium disease prevention program (CBDPP) that supplements and is deemed...

  9. 77 FR 52313 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... rulings, the Department indicated it had completed the scope review of magnesia carbon bricks from Mexico...-910/C-570-911: Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Pipe from the People's Republic of China Requestor... ruling, finding Fedmet's magnesia alumina carbon bricks within the scope of the antidumping...

  10. Time to Grow: Year Two Report on ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of data from the second year of The After-School Corporation's (TASC's) national demonstration of an expanded school day for elementary and middle school students shows that ExpandED Schools improved school culture, decreased rates of students' chronic absenteeism and helped students develop positive learning habits and attitudes.…

  11. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Belov, S; Casey, J; Dvorak, F; Gaidioz, B; Karavakis, E; Kodolova, O; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Krenek, A; Lanciotti, E; Maier, J; Mulac, M; Rocha Da Cunha Rodrigues, D F; Rocha, R; Saiz, P; Sidorova, I; Sitera, J; Tikhonenko, E; Vaibhav, K; Vocu, M

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  12. AIDSCAP initiative expands prevention efforts for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    By 2000, women will likely comprise 50% of HIV-infected persons worldwide. Women, regardless of number of sexual partners, are especially vulnerable to HIV. One act of intercourse puts women at an 18 times greater risk than men of acquiring HIV. Traditional gender roles denying women the power to protect their own health exacerbate their biological susceptibility to HIV infection. AIDSCAP's Women's Initiative (AWI) aims to secure culturally and gender-sensitive AIDSCAP interventions and strategies and to advance AIDSCAP's leadership role in developing HIV/AIDS prevention models for women. More than 50% of AIDSCAP current projects target women. AWI integrates a broader gender perspective into AIDSCAP's project design, technical assistance, evaluation and monitoring, and policy projects. It has expanded target women's groups beyond the groups traditionally considered at high risk. To date, various AIDSCAP projects have trained and educated about one million women. The Christian Reformed World Relief Committee (CRWRC) is involved in HIV/AIDS prevention activities. Its AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Health Promotion Prevention Program with Market Women in Senegal targets self-employed market women and urban female youth in Dakar, Kaoloack, and Thies. CRWRC worked with two women's groups to develop a sexual health promotion package with HIV/AIDS and STD IEC (information, education, and communication) materials and has trained 20 facilitators to use the promotion package. It helps the two collaborating groups to develop their organization capacities so they can implement and evaluate sustainable HIV/STD prevention programs. AIDSCAP also supports training of Kenyan family planning provider activities in HIV prevention of the JSI Family Planning Sector Project. It collaborates with the Center of Women Workers in Haiti to provide women factory workers IEC and condoms to promote risk reduction behavior. AWI also conducts research and policy activities (e

  13. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The goal of credentialed dietetics practitioners(RDs and DTRs) is to provide safe,culturally competent, quality care. Within the flexible and broad boundaries of the profession of nutrition and dietetics, RDs and DTRs assume accountability and responsibility for safe, ethical, and competent practice that achieves desirable outcomes. RDs and DTRs engage in continuing education and training to maintain currency,demonstrate competence, and advance their careers. The Academy developed this Scope of Practice in Nutrition and Dietetics overview document, as well as other resources, such as the Scope of Practice for the Registered Dietitian and the Scope of Practice for the Dietetic Technician, Registered to aid RDs and DTRs in assessing their individual scope of practice and, if applicable, statutory scope of practice,and to support RDs and DTRs in providing safe, quality food and nutrition services.The Scope of Practice Decision Tool,which is an online, interactive tool, assists RDs and DTRs in examining his or her individual scope of practice activities to meet the needs of quality food and nutrition services.

  14. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  15. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  16. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  17. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  18. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  19. Modeling Method for Increased Precision and Scope of Directly Measurable Fluxes at a Genome-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Douglas; Young, Jamey D; Xu, Sibei; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2016-04-05

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is considered to be the gold standard for determining the intracellular flux distribution of biological systems. The majority of work using MFA has been limited to core models of metabolism due to challenges in implementing genome-scale MFA and the undesirable trade-off between increased scope and decreased precision in flux estimations. This work presents a tunable workflow for expanding the scope of MFA to the genome-scale without trade-offs in flux precision. The genome-scale MFA model presented here, iDM2014, accounts for 537 net reactions, which includes the core pathways of traditional MFA models and also covers the additional pathways of purine, pyrimidine, isoprenoid, methionine, riboflavin, coenzyme A, and folate, as well as other biosynthetic pathways. When evaluating the iDM2014 using a set of measured intracellular intermediate and cofactor mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs),1 it was found that a total of 232 net fluxes of central and peripheral metabolism could be resolved in the E. coli network. The increase in scope was shown to cover the full biosynthetic route to an expanded set of bioproduction pathways, which should facilitate applications such as the design of more complex bioprocessing strains and aid in identifying new antimicrobials. Importantly, it was found that there was no loss in precision of core fluxes when compared to a traditional core model, and additionally there was an overall increase in precision when considering all observable reactions.

  20. PROLANG: an expandable software in protein chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, P; Caporale, C; Sepe, C

    1990-04-01

    PROLANG is an improved version of the PROSOFT program. Improvements to the old commands were made and new ones were added, PROLANG is an open software that users with BASIC programming experience can easily expand.

  1. 14 CFR 1221.100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and the Agency's Unified Visual Communications System § 1221.100 Scope. This subpart sets forth the... Unified Visual Communications System and prescribes the policy and guidelines for implementation of...

  2. 46 CFR 61.30-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-1 Scope. The term thermal fluid heater as used in this part... °F) and 225 psig, respectively. Thermal fluid heaters having operating temperatures and...

  3. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  4. 14 CFR 171.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Simplified Directional Facility (SDF) § 171.101 Scope. This... Directional Facilities (SDF) that are to be involved in the approval of instrument flight rules and...

  5. 49 CFR 130.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.2 Scope. (a) The requirements of... 112, appendix A). (d) The requirements in § 130.31(b) of this part do not apply to mobile marine...

  6. 21 CFR 358.301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.301 Scope. (a) An over-the-counter ingrown toenail relief drug product in a form suitable for...

  7. 23 CFR 1350.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INCENTIVE GRANT CRITERIA FOR MOTORCYCLIST SAFETY PROGRAM § 1350.1 Scope. This part establishes criteria, in accordance with section 2010 of the... single- and multi-vehicle crashes involving motorcyclists....

  8. 45 CFR 1000.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT ACCOUNT RESERVE FUNDS ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO GRANTS FOR ASSETS FOR INDEPENDENCE § 1000.1 Scope. This part applies to the Office of Community Services' Assets for Independence Program....

  9. 48 CFR 23.1000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements 23.1000 Scope...) Compliance with right-to-know laws and pollution prevention requirements; (b) Implementation of...

  10. 49 CFR 215.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components § 215.101 Scope. This subpart contains safety requirements prohibiting a railroad from placing or continuing in service a freight car that has certain defective components. Suspension System...

  11. 45 CFR 673.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Antarctic Treaty. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 673.2 Section 673.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC...

  12. 75 FR 38081 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fold-Away Truck, Relius Tray-Shelf Utility Cart, Economical Steel Cart, Solid Platform Dolly and Flush Platform Dolly are all outside the scope of the antidumping duty order; December 3, 2009. A-570-901:...

  13. 75 FR 14138 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Truck, Relius Tray-Shelf Utility Cart, Economical Steel Cart, Solid Platform Dolly and Flush Platform Dolly are all outside the scope of the antidumping duty order; December 3, 2009. A-570-899:...

  14. 7 CFR 610.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Conservation Operations § 610.2 Scope. (a) Conservation operations, including technical assistance, is the basic soil and water conservation program...

  15. 48 CFR 219.7100 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Pilot Mentor-Protege Program 219.7100 Scope. This... protege firms in enhancing their capabilities and to increase participation of such firms in...

  16. 12 CFR 303.220 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the FDI Act (Consent to Service of Persons Convicted of Certain Criminal Offenses) § 303.220 Scope. This subpart covers applications under section 19 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1829). Pursuant to...

  17. Confining caesium in expanded natural Perlite

    OpenAIRE

    Rehspringer, Jean Luc; Balencie, J.; Vilminot, Serge; Burger, Didier; Boos, Anne; Estournès, Claude

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We present the potential use of expanded perlite, a metastable amorphous hydrated aluminum silicate, as a permanent medium for the long-term confinement of caesium. A simple loading by mixing an aqueous caesium nitrate solution and expanded perlite at 300K followed by thermal annealing leads to 96% sintering. The formation of pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, a naturally occurring mineral phase, appears as the crystalline phase embedded in a glassy phase. Leaching tests on the res...

  18. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available by the polymer matrix and the exfoliating graphite prevents the formation of a flammable air fuel mixture. Keywords: Expandable graphite; graphite oxide; graphite intercalation compound; exfoliation; thermal analysis ________________ *Corresponding author: Tel... char residue [6] and this contributes to the mechanisms of flame retardant action [5]. Expandable graphite (EG) is a partially oxidized form of graphite containing intercalated guest species (e.g., sulfuric acid anions) in-between the stacked...

  19. Planning the milking center in expanding dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J F; Armstrong, D V; Gamroth, M J; Martin, J G

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on dairies that want to expand and milk more cows through an existing parlor or by building new parlor. The expansion process can be divided into the following three phases: 1) financial evaluation, 2) design, and 3) construction. A financial evaluation should be carried out first to determine the resources that are available for expanding the dairy operation. This phase is extremely important, considering that 68% of the dairies that expand have cash flow problems within the first 2 yr of operation. The next phase is to design the milking center, and options include expanding the present parlor or constructing a new parlor. The present parlor can be expanded by addition of stalls, but group size must also expand to maintain cow flow at the larger parlor size. Group size can often be increased by combining corrals or free-stall alleys. The third phase in the expansion is to determine the most efficient milking procedure during the construction or remodeling of the facilities.

  20. 21 CFR 338.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE General Provisions § 338.1 Scope. (a) An over-the-counter nighttime sleep-aid drug product in a form suitable for oral administration is generally... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 338.1 Section 338.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  1. Cementitious waste option scoping study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

  2. Dexmedetomidine: Expanding role in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna S Paranjpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential uses of dexmedetomidine (DEX, a highly selective α2 - adrenoceptor agonist are very diverse. DEX appears to mimic many of the actions of mythical ′ideal′ sedative/analgesic agent. Although not orally active, DEX shows good bioavailability when administered via various other routes like intranasal, buccal, IM than intra-venous. DEX has similar pharmacokinetics in all age groups. Its side effects are predictable and easily treatable, hence it has found place as a part of fast-tracking anesthesia regimens in children. DEX is the sedative of choice for peri-operative use in high risk patients, since it is cardioprotective, neuroprotective and renoprotective. Premedication with DEX obtunds the autonomic pressor responses due to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation when used as an adjuvant to general anesthesia. DEX in high doses offers another approach to managing morbidly obese patients and patients with a compromised airway; without causing any cardio-respiratory depression. It is near ideal hypotensive agent used for controlled hypotension. Its value as a primary sedative and analgesic is becoming more accepted and evident in critically ill patients; in adult and paediatric intensive care units. Besides use in locoregional anesthesia, it is also used as an opioid substitute, for treatment of substance withdrawal, as an anti-shivering agent, for treatment of delirium and as an end of life medication. Availability of an antidote (Atipamezole with similar elimination half life is taking the drug into new frontiers. However, use of DEX is contraindicated in patients with hepatic failure, hypovolemic shock, advanced heart block or ventricular dysfunction.

  3. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Omenaa; Birney, Arden; Suter, Esther; Phillips, Leah Adeline; Suen, Victoria YM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers’ legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals’ scope of practice. Results Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. PMID:27274267

  4. Structural and functional models in molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic chemistry: description of selected model complexes, present scenario and possible future scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Amit

    2014-06-28

    A brief description about some selected model complexes in molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic chemistry is provided. The synthetic strategies involved and their limitations are discussed. Current status of molybdenum and tungsten bioinorganic modeling chemistry is presented briefly and synthetic problems associated therein are analyzed. Possible future directions which may expand the scope of modeling chemistry are suggested.

  5. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wysokiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours, that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ2=16945.8, P<0.001 between the nurses’ workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs.

  6. Expanded Schools: Developing Mindsets to Support Academic Success. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The national demonstration of ExpandED Schools, The After-School Corporation's (TASC) expanded learning model, was launched in 2011-12 in New York City, Baltimore, and New Orleans. The ExpandED Schools demonstration is being evaluated by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) and is rolling out at a time when there is heightened awareness among…

  7. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  8. Smart Devices for Older Adults Managing Chronic Disease: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ben Yb; Lee, Joon

    2017-05-23

    The emergence of smartphones and tablets featuring vastly advancing functionalities (eg, sensors, computing power, interactivity) has transformed the way mHealth interventions support chronic disease management for older adults. Baby boomers have begun to widely adopt smart devices and have expressed their desire to incorporate technologies into their chronic care. Although smart devices are actively used in research, little is known about the extent, characteristics, and range of smart device-based interventions. We conducted a scoping review to (1) understand the nature, extent, and range of smart device-based research activities, (2) identify the limitations of the current research and knowledge gap, and (3) recommend future research directions. We used the Arksey and O'Malley framework to conduct a scoping review. We identified relevant studies from MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases using search terms related to mobile health, chronic disease, and older adults. Selected studies used smart devices, sampled older adults, and were published in 2010 or after. The exclusion criteria were sole reliance on text messaging (short message service, SMS) or interactive voice response, validation of an electronic version of a questionnaire, postoperative monitoring, and evaluation of usability. We reviewed references. We charted quantitative data and analyzed qualitative studies using thematic synthesis. To collate and summarize the data, we used the chronic care model. A total of 51 articles met the eligibility criteria. Research activity increased steeply in 2014 (17/51, 33%) and preexperimental design predominated (16/50, 32%). Diabetes (16/46, 35%) and heart failure management (9/46, 20%) were most frequently studied. We identified diversity and heterogeneity in the collection of biometrics and patient-reported outcome measures within and between chronic diseases. Across studies, we found 8 self-management supporting strategies and 4 distinct

  9. A medically wise approach to expanding the role of paramedics as physician extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, R A; Seaman, K G; Bass, R R; Racht, E; Gilbert, C; Weltge, A F; Doctor, M; Moriarity, S; Eslinger, D; Doherty, R

    1999-01-01

    The authors examined a portion of the complex issue of the scope of practice of paramedics in light of the epidemiologic profile of emergency patients seen at two Baltimore hospitals. They suggest that the same approach could and should be used to help decide on the scope of work of prehospital personnel in any jurisdiction. The findings lead the authors to urge caution toward any potential changes to the work done by medics, because of the enormous breadth of presenting patient conditions. The authors suggest that the epidemiologic profile witnessed in Baltimore would require increased direct physician input on patient destination decisions for all medics who would be working under an expanded scope of functions, and the paper suggests a mechanism for accomplishing this goal. Finally, while there may be compelling economic reasons to change what medics do in the field, this article cautions health care managers to design changes, based on solid evidence, that will have a positive public health impact, and then work to evaluate the character of the impact after changes are implemented.

  10. Harry Potter and the sorcerer's scope: latent scope biases in explanatory reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet S; Sussman, Abigail B; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2011-04-01

    What makes a good explanation? We examine the function of latent scope, i.e., the number of unobserved phenomena that an explanation can account for. We show that individuals prefer narrow latent scope explanations-those that account for fewer unobserved effects-to broader explanations. In Experiments 1a-d, participants found narrow latent scope explanations to be both more satisfying and more likely. In Experiment 2 we directly manipulated base rate information and again found a preference for narrow latent scope explanations. Participants in Experiment 3 evaluated more natural explanations of unexpected observations, and again displayed a bias for narrow latent scope explanations. We conclude by considering what this novel bias tells us about how humans evaluate explanations and engage in causal reasoning.

  11. Analog model for an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurtner, S E C

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few years numerous papers concerning analog models for gravity have been published. It was shown that the dynamical equation of several systems (e.g. Bose-Einstein condensates with a sink or a vortex) have the same wave equation as light in a curved-space (e.g. black holes). In the last few months several papers were released which deal with simulations of the universe. In this article the de-Sitter universe will be compared with a freely expanding three-dimensional spherical Bose-Einstein condensate. Initially the condensate is in a harmonic trap, which suddenly will be switched off. At the same time a small perturbation will be injected in the center of the condensate cloud. The motion of the perturbation in the expanding condensate will be discussed, and after some transformations the similarity to an expanding universe will be shown.

  12. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... a sample of 105 bank directors and use ANCOVA to determine the predictors of bank director perceptions and decisions. Our findings suggest that disclosing the assurance level has a significantly positive impact. In contrast, we cannot demonstrate a material effect of expanding the audit report to include...

  13. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  14. ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODEGRADABLE CHITOSAN/EXPANDED PERLITE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çabuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chitosan (CS/expanded perlite (EP composites with different chitosan fractions (10%, 20% and 50% were prepared by absorbing chitosan into porous networks of expanded perlite, as a new hybrid smart electrorheological (ER material. Structural and morphological characterizations of the composites were carried out by FTIR and SEM-EDS techniques. Also, apparent density, particle size, and conductivity of the CS/EP composites were determined. Finally, the effects of electric field strength (E, shear rate, shear stress, and temperature onto ER behavior of the CS/EP/silicone oil system were investigated. The CS/EP/SO ER fluid system showed reversible electrorheological activity when subjected to external electric field strength by showing shear thinning non-Newtonian viscoelastic behavior. The yield stress value reached to 1250 Pa under E = 3 kV/mm for CS/EP3 composite.

  15. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  16. Wankel engines as steam expanders: design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O.; Naik, S.; O' Callaghan, P.W.; Probert, S.D. (Cranfield Inst. of Tech., Bedford (GB). Dept. of Applied Energy)

    1991-01-01

    Rotary Wankel engines offer several advantages compared with turbines and other positive-displacement machines as the expansion devices in low-power-output Rankine-cycle systems. So a Wankel expander was selected as the most appropriate device for a steam Rankine-engine, operating principally as a mini combined heat-and-power unit, providing a mechanical output of 5-20 kW. A computer-aided-design technique for selecting the optimal geometry and location of the ports of the expander is described: the computer programs are available from the authors. Lubrication and possible material combinations are also discussed. (author).

  17. Radiation damping in closed expanding universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernui, Armando

    The dynamics of a coupled model (harmonic oscillator-relativistic scalar field) in Conformal Robertson-Walker (k = +1) spacetimes is investigated. The exact radiation-reaction equation of the source-including the retarded radiation terms due to the closed space geometry - is obtained and analyzed. A suitable family of Lyapunov functions is constructed to show that, if the spacetime expands monotonely, then the source's energy damps. A numerical simulation of this equation for expanding Universes, with and without Future Event Horizon, is performed.

  18. Bound systems in an expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, G A

    2000-01-01

    The Schwarzchild solution insertion in an expanding universe, the so-called "Swiss cheese model," is shown to possess an extrinsic curvature miss-match. One consequence is that some trajectories are discontinuous functions of their initial conditions. An alternate metric is proposed which goes smoothly between the Schwarzchild exterior solution and the Friedmann-Lemaitre, expanding universe metric. It is further shown that the effects of the expansion on planetary motions in the solar system are too small to be currently observed for this alternate metric.

  19. Emerging Developments in Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Address Unmet Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne L

    2016-09-01

    Pharmacists' comprehensive training is being leveraged in emerging patient care service opportunities that include prescriptive authority under collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) with prescribers or through state-based protocols. CPAs and state-based protocols expand pharmacists' scope of practice to allow the pharmacist to perform designated functions under the terms of the agreement or protocol. For patient-specific CPAs, this often includes initiating, modifying, or discontinuing therapy and ordering laboratory tests. For population-based CPAs and state-based protocols, pharmacists are often authorized to initiate medications to address a public health need. CPAs and state-based protocols are mechanisms to optimally use pharmacists' education and training.

  20. Caffeic Acid Expands Anti-Tumor Effect of Metformin in Human Metastatic Cervical Carcinoma HTB-34 Cells: Implications of AMPK Activation and Impairment of Fatty Acids De Novo Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Konieczny, Pawel; Majka, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of cancer treatments is often limited and associated with substantial toxicity. Appropriate combination of drug targeting specific mechanisms may regulate metabolism of tumor cells to reduce cancer cell growth and to improve survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met) and a natural compound caffeic acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) alone and in combination to treat an aggressive metastatic human cervical HTB-34 (ATCC CRL­1550) cancer cell line. CA at concentration of 100 µM, unlike Met at 10 mM, activated 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). What is more, CA contributed to the fueling of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle with pyruvate by increasing Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDH) activity, while Met promoted glucose catabolism to lactate. Met downregulated expression of enzymes of fatty acid de novo synthesis, such as ATP Citrate Lyase (ACLY), Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS), Fatty Acyl-CoA Elongase 6 (ELOVL6), and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 (SCD1) in cancer cells. In conclusion, CA mediated reprogramming of glucose processing through TCA cycle via oxidative decarboxylation. The increased oxidative stress, as a result of CA treatment, sensitized cancer cells and, acting on cell biosynthesis and bioenergetics, made HTB-34 cells more susceptible to Met and successfully inhibited neoplastic cells. The combination of Metformin and caffeic acid to suppress cervical carcinoma cells by two independent mechanisms may provide a promising approach to cancer treatment. PMID:28230778

  1. Caffeic Acid Expands Anti-Tumor Effect of Metformin in Human Metastatic Cervical Carcinoma HTB-34 Cells: Implications of AMPK Activation and Impairment of Fatty Acids De Novo Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Konieczny, Pawel; Majka, Marcin

    2017-02-21

    The efficacy of cancer treatments is often limited and associated with substantial toxicity. Appropriate combination of drug targeting specific mechanisms may regulate metabolism of tumor cells to reduce cancer cell growth and to improve survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drug Metformin (Met) and a natural compound caffeic acid (trans-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) alone and in combination to treat an aggressive metastatic human cervical HTB-34 (ATCC CRL-1550) cancer cell line. CA at concentration of 100 µM, unlike Met at 10 mM, activated 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). What is more, CA contributed to the fueling of mitochondrial tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle with pyruvate by increasing Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDH) activity, while Met promoted glucose catabolism to lactate. Met downregulated expression of enzymes of fatty acid de novo synthesis, such as ATP Citrate Lyase (ACLY), Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS), Fatty Acyl-CoA Elongase 6 (ELOVL6), and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 (SCD1) in cancer cells. In conclusion, CA mediated reprogramming of glucose processing through TCA cycle via oxidative decarboxylation. The increased oxidative stress, as a result of CA treatment, sensitized cancer cells and, acting on cell biosynthesis and bioenergetics, made HTB-34 cells more susceptible to Met and successfully inhibited neoplastic cells. The combination of Metformin and caffeic acid to suppress cervical carcinoma cells by two independent mechanisms may provide a promising approach to cancer treatment.

  2. Psycholinguistic Evidence for Inverse Scope in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; O'Grady, William

    2016-08-01

    We use experimental data to shed light on the ongoing question of whether Korean allows inverse scope interpretation in sentences containing an indefinite subject and a universally quantified direct object (e.g., 'Someone bought each loaf of bread at the bakery'). The results of an off-line acceptability judgment task (n = 38) and an online self-paced reading task (n [Formula: see text] 22) indicate that inverse scope interpretations are in fact permitted in Korean as a secondary option, as is also the case in English. We argue that the dispreference for the inverse scope reading reflects processing considerations related to burden on working memory.

  3. 宜丽客 Scope Node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    老未

    2011-01-01

    话说美编卡卡入手了宜丽客(ELECOM)的握笔型镭射鼠Scope Node之后(见2010年最后一期的Gadget),对那玩意可谓是爱不释手,老朱屡次欲把她的爱鼠借来给各位童鞋做个试用报告,均遭到了卡卡无情的拒绝。终于有一天,老朱趁着卡卡吃饱了盖浇饭、趴在桌子上午睡的时候,才偷偷地把Scope Node“借”过来折腾了一番,至此Scope Node之谜才大白于天下。

  4. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  5. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  6. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  7. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  8. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  9. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  10. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  11. Expanded austenite; crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of expanded austenite as developing during low temperature nitriding and/or carburizing of austenitic stainless steel has been under debate since the very first observation of this phase. In the present article recent results obtained with i) homogeneous samples of various uniform...

  12. Consonant confusions in amplitude-expanded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Nerbonne, G P

    1996-12-01

    The perceptual consequences of expanding the amplitude variations in speech were studied under conditions in which spectral information was obscured by signal correlated noise that had an envelope correlated with the speech envelope, but had a flat amplitude spectrum. The noise samples, created individually from 22 vowel-consonant-vowel nonsense words, were used as maskers of those words, with signal-to-noise ratios ranging from -15 to 0 dB. Amplitude expansion was by a factor of 3.0 in terms of decibels. In the first experiment, presentation level for speech peaks was 80 dB SPL. Consonant recognition performance for expanded speech by 50 listeners with normal hearing was as much as 30 percentage points poorer than for unexpanded speech and the types of errors were dramatically different, especially in the midrange of S-N ratios. In a second experiment presentation level was varied to determine whether reductions in consonant levels produced by expansion were responsible for the differences between conditions. Recognition performance for unexpanded speech at 40 dB SPL was nearly equivalent to that for expanded speech at 80 dB SPL. The error patterns obtained in these two conditions were different, suggesting that the differences between conditions in Experiment 1 were due largely to expanded amplitude envelopes rather than differences in audibility.

  13. Properties of extruded expandable breadfruit products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried breadfruit was extruded with a twin screw extruder to develop a value-added expanded fruit product. This research studied the effects of barrel temperature (120-160°C), moisture content (13-25%), feeding rate (13-25 kg/h) and screw speed (115-175rpm) on physicochemical properties (bulk densit...

  14. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...

  15. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  16. Heat expanded starch-based compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur K; Holtman, Kevin M; Shey, Justin; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Berrios, Jose; Wood, Delilah; Orts, William J; Imam, Syed H

    2007-05-16

    A heat expansion process similar to that used for expanded bead polystyrene was used to expand starch-based compositions. Foam beads made by solvent extraction had the appearance of polystyrene beads but did not expand when heated due to an open-cell structure. Nonporous beads, pellets, or particles were made by extrusion or by drying and milling cooked starch slurries. The samples expanded into a low-density foam by heating 190-210 degrees C for more than 20 s at ambient pressures. Formulations containing starch (50-85%), sorbitol (5-15%), glycerol (4-12%), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL, 5-15%), and water (10-20%) were studied. The bulk density was negatively correlated to sorbitol, glycerol, and water content. Increasing the EVAL content increased the bulk density, especially at concentrations higher than 15%. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL) increased the bulk density more than EVAL. The bulk density was lowest in samples made of wheat and potato starch as compared to corn starch. The expansion temperature for the starch pellets decreased more than 20 degrees C as the moisture content was increased from 10 to 25%. The addition of EVAL in the formulations decreased the equilibrium moisture content of the foam and reduced the water absorption during a 1 h soaking period.

  17. Scope of practice in renal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byham-Gray, Laura D; Wiesen, Karen; Goode, Jill

    2006-04-01

    Clinical standards for practice in renal nutrition can vary dramatically from region to region, state to state, and clinic to clinic, and are greatly affected by the policies of several governing bodies. This review explores the factors that influence practice patterns among renal dietitians and examines the current American Dietetic Association's Scope of Dietetics Practice Framework for its applicability to kidney disease. Lastly, this article discusses current strategies for establishing a scope of practice in renal nutrition and evaluates licensure and credentialing issues that impact standards for practice across the various regions of the United States.

  18. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boakye O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Omenaa Boakye,1 Arden Birney,1 Esther Suter,1 Leah Adeline Phillips,2 Victoria YM Suen3 1Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, 2College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Addiction and Mental Health SCN, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada Purpose: This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods: We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Results: Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. Keywords: scope of practice review, low back pain, integrated service model, centralized intake, interprofessional team

  19. Fat and expanded act in parallel to regulate growth through warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2007-12-18

    The conserved Drosophila tumor suppressors Fat and Expanded have both recently been implicated in regulating the activity of the Warts tumor suppressor. However, there has been disagreement as to the nature of the links among Fat, Expanded, and Warts and the significance of these links to growth control. We report here that mutations in either expanded or fat can be rescued to viability simply by overexpressing Warts, indicating that their essential function is their influence on Warts rather than reported effects on endocytosis or other pathways. These rescue experiments also separate the transcriptional from the planar cell polarity branches of Fat signaling and reveal that Expanded does not directly affect polarity. We also investigate the relationship between expanded and fat and show, contrary to prior reports, that they have additive effects on imaginal disk growth and development. Although mutation of fat can cause partial loss of Expanded protein from the membrane, mutation of fat promotes growth even when Expanded is overexpressed and accumulates at its normal subapical location. These observations argue against recent proposals that Fat acts simply as a receptor for the Hippo signaling pathway and instead support the proposal that Fat and Expanded can act in parallel to regulate Warts through distinct mechanisms.

  20. Effect of hydrogen and oxygen on stability of expanders and performance of lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources); Gancheva, S. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources); Andreev, P. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Electrochemical Power Sources)

    1993-10-15

    Expanders are organic additives to the negative active mass that increase plate capacity, especially at low temperatures. They operate under constant hydrogen and oxygen attack at strongly negative potentials as a result of which they undergo degradation. This leads to changes in plate capacity, which may limit the life of the battery. The aims of the present work are: (i) to suggest a method for determining the effect of hydrogen, oxygen and the potential on the stability of expanders; (ii) to identify some of the structural groups in organic compounds that exert an efficient expander action. The influence of Velex, Mimosa, Quebraco, Syntan NK (SNK) and EZE-Skitan on the electrochemical characteristics and the life of negative battery plates has been investigated. It is established that structural groups of the pyrocatechin type (Quebraco and EZE-Skitan) have effective expander action. Quebraco increases the plate capacity during the first cycles. EZE-Skitan increases the capacity of the plates after 50 to 60 charge/discharge cycles, when disintegration of its structure, probably to pyrocatechin groups, proceeds. By applying a new method for determining the expander stability, it is found that expanders containing pyrocatechin structural groups are more easily oxidized than hydrogenated. It is concluded that the most effective expander should be a combination of several compounds with different stabilities to oxidation and reduction. Appropriate expanders should be selected for each type of battery. (orig.)

  1. Integration of educational methods and physical settings: design guidelines for High/Scope methodology in pre-schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Izadpanah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality design and appropriate space organization in preschool settings can support preschool children's educational activities. Although the relationship between the well-being and development of children and physical settings has been emphasized by many early childhood researchers, there is still a need for theoretical design guidelines that are geared towards the improvement of this issue. This research focuses on High/Scope education and aims to shape a theoretical guideline that raises teachers' awareness about the potential of learning spaces and guides them to improve the quality of the physical spaces. To create a theoretical framework, reliable sources are investigated in the light of High/Scope education and the requirements of pre-school children educational spaces. Physical space characteristics, the preschool child's requirements and High/Scope methodology identified design inputs, design considerations and recommendations that shape the final guideline for spatial arrangement in a High/Scope setting are integrated. Discussions and suggestions in this research benefit both designers and High/ Scope teaching staff. Results help High/Scope teaching staff increase the quality of a space in an educational setting without having an architectural background. The theoretical framework of the research allows designers to consider key features and users' possible activities in High/ Scope settings and shape their designs accordingly.

  2. INSTRUMENTED MICROSCRATCH TESTS USAGE FOR STUDY OF EXPANDED AUSTENITE PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Sato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance and poor mechanical properties are both characteristics of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. Nitrogen supersaturated expanded austenite, or S-phase, promotes surface hardening of the alloy without the formation of undesirable that can reduce passivation properties. Mechanical characterization of this layer using instrumented microscratch tests gives an important set of empirical data useful for comprehension and modeling of tribological phenomena occurring in mechanical system. This work presents results from a series of instrumented microscratch tests performed on Low Temperature Plasma Nitrided (LTPN AISI 316 stainless steel samples with an expanded austenite layer. The specimens were produced by 20 h active screen plasma nitriding treatment, done in direct current reactor at 400°C in an atmosphere containing three parts of nitrogen for one part of hydrogen (3N2 :1H2 . The reduced friction coefficient (< 0,1 between the indenter and the expanded austenite layer observed in the initial stage of scratch test and the absence of adhesive failure along the test are also discussed.

  3. 40 CFR 305.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND General § 305.1 Scope. (a)(1) This part governs all administrative proceedings for the total or partial denial of response...

  4. 12 CFR 308.600 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 308.600 Section 308.600 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 308.600...

  5. 12 CFR 263.400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 263.400 Section 263.400 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES OF PRACTICE FOR HEARINGS Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit...

  6. 29 CFR 1450.19 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prohibited by another statute (e.g., travel advances in 5 U.S.C. 5705 and employee training expenses in 5 U.S... STATES Salary Offset § 1450.19 Scope. (a) Coverage. This subpart applies to agencies and employees as... by offset, except where the employee consents to the recovery, from the current pay account of...

  7. 49 CFR 563.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.1 Scope. This part specifies uniform, national requirements for vehicles equipped with event data recorders (EDRs) concerning the collection, storage, and retrievability of onboard motor vehicle crash event data. It also specifies requirements for...

  8. 5 CFR 550.371 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Allotments From Federal Employees Foreign Affairs Agency Organizations § 550.371 Scope. If an agency permits an employee to make an allotment for dues to a foreign affairs agency organization, the agency must... dues withholding agreement between a foreign affairs agency and the organization is terminated or...

  9. 46 CFR 164.013-1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-1 Scope. (a) This subpart contains performance requirements, acceptance tests, and production testing and inspection requirements for polyethylene foam used in the construction of personal flotation devices (PFDs...

  10. 34 CFR 668.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 1087aa et seq.; 34 CFR parts 673 and 674); (11) The National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 668.1 Section 668.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 34 CFR 691.71 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 691.71 Section 691.71 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS...

  12. 12 CFR 370.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 370.1 Section 370.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY..., requirements, and other provisions related to participation in the FDIC's temporary liquidity guarantee program....

  13. 45 CFR 5.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 5.3 Scope. These rules apply to all components of the Department. Some units may establish additional rules because of unique program requirements, but such rules must be consistent with these rules and must have the concurrence of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. Existing...

  14. 40 CFR 300.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Introduction § 300.3 Scope. (a) The NCP applies to and is in effect for: (1) Discharges of oil into or on the... and is in effect when the Federal Response Plan and some or all its Emergency Support Functions...

  15. 21 CFR 26.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.3 Scope. (a) The provisions of this subpart... inspections and the good manufacturing practices (GMP's) requirements. (c) Appendix B of this subpart...

  16. 49 CFR 585.11 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PHASE-IN REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Advanced Air Bag Phase-in Reporting Requirements § 585.11 Scope. This subpart establishes requirements for manufacturers of passenger cars and... air bag requirements of Standard No. 208, Occupant crash protection (49 CFR 571.208). ...

  17. 32 CFR 516.27 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proceeding. Examples of civil actions alleging individual liability include the following: a medical... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Individual Liability § 516.27 Scope. This subpart guidance when DA personnel, as a result of...

  18. Scope management in web application projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Coelho de Abreu Pinna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Software projects are subjected to certain risks and uncertainties, especially those that include Web applications, due to the fact that market competition aims to have electronic and virtual services available in a shorter and shorter period of time (also known as “Internet timing”. Another critical factor relates to the focus to be adopted into the management of Web application projects – should technology or business process be emphasized? This fact produces some difficulties in the acceptance of the software by the customer. This problem could be minimized by appropriate management of the project scope from its earliest phases (conception and planning. The article will present an approach that can be utilized on the management of Web applications projects for the minimization of uncertainties and risks when defining scope. A comparative and critical analysis will be carried out among several instruments and techniques that can be utilized on the definition of scope and priorities such as: QFD, Business Process Modeling and Partitioning. Key-words: Project Management, Scope Management, Web applications, QFD.

  19. Scope Management of Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, M.; Ormandjieva, O.; Mueller, P.; Lyggesmeyer, P.; Maehle, E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet commitments in software projects, a realistic assessment must be made of project scope. Such an assessment relies on the availability of knowledge on the user-defined project requirements and their effort estimates and priorities, as well as their risk. This knowledge enables analys

  20. 30 CFR 756.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.1 Scope. This part implements the provisions in Pub. L. 100-71 which authorize the Crow, Hopi, and Navajo Tribes to obtain the Secretary's...

  1. 19 CFR 111.0 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 111.0 Section 111.0 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS... to, persons desiring to transact customs business as customs brokers, including the...

  2. 77 FR 9893 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Bearings from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: New Trend Engineering Limited; its wheel hub units... Ltd.; its wheel hub units are within the scope of the antidumping duty order; June 14, 2011. A-570-803...-570-868: Folding Metal Tables and Chairs from the People's Republic of China. Requestor:...

  3. Every document has a geographical scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, G.; Bouma, G.; Nerbonne, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is a useful premise to assume that every document in a collection and every query issued to an information retrieval (IR) system are geography-dependent. If one can determine what area an article is about (i.e., its geographical scope), this information can be used to improve the accuracy with wh

  4. Quantifier Scope in Categorical Compositional Distributional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous work with J. Hedges, we formalised a generalised quantifiers theory of natural language in categorical compositional distributional semantics with the help of bialgebras. In this paper, we show how quantifier scope ambiguity can be represented in that setting and how this representation can be generalised to branching quantifiers.

  5. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MANUAL § 9.2 Scope. (a) The Manual shall contain appropriate information about the Executive... interest to warrant inclusion shall also be published in the Manual. ...

  6. 18 CFR 401.71 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 401.71 Section 401.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL... and issues arising as a result of administrative actions and decisions taken or rendered by the...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2501 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2501 Section 193.2501 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2401 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2401 Section 193.2401 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2301 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2301 Section 193.2301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 193.2101 Section 193.2101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES...

  11. 12 CFR 13.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 13.1 Scope..., government securities brokers or dealers pursuant to section 15C of the Securities Exchange Act (15 U.S.C. 78o-5) and Department of the Treasury rules under section 15C (17 CFR 400.1(d) and part 401)....

  12. 45 CFR 95.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Time Limits for States To File Claims § 95.1 Scope. (a) This subpart establishes a two year time limit (15 months in some cases) for a... Children (except for Section 402(a)(19)(G) of the Act). Title IV-B—Child Welfare Services. Title...

  13. 10 CFR 434.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.101 Scope. 101.1 This part provides design requirements for the building envelope, electrical distribution systems and equipment for electric power... (3) A substantial renovation of a building for which design for construction began before January...

  14. 32 CFR 775.8 - Scoping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scoping. 775.8 Section 775.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE... to be addressed and to identify the significant issues to be analyzed in depth related to...

  15. 78 FR 42934 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... curtain walls with non-Chinese extrusions are not within the scope of the antidumping duty and...-917: Laminated Woven Sacks from the People's Republic of China Requestor: Laminated Woven Sacks Committee and its individual members; laminated woven sacks produced with two ink colors printed in...

  16. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  17. 31 CFR 800.101 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 800.101 Section 800.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... when provisions of law other than section 721 and the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50...

  18. 45 CFR 670.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., exporting or having custody, control, or possession of any mammal, bird, or plant native to Antarctica that... ANIMALS AND PLANTS Introduction § 670.2 Scope. The regulations in this part apply to: (a) Taking mammals, birds, or plants native to Antarctica. (b) Engaging in harmful interference of mammals, birds...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 868.1 Scope. (a) This part sets forth the classification of anesthesiology... equivalent to other devices, as required by § 807.87. (c) To avoid duplicative listings, an...

  20. 78 FR 32372 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... calendar quarter. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Moats, AD/CVD Operations, China/NME Group... Brands, LLC; 17 of its birthday candles are within the scope of the antidumping duty order; five of its... Countries A-201-837/A-570-954/C-570-955: Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China...

  1. Two Objections to Wide-Scoping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    2011-01-01

    Wide-scopers argue that the detachment of intuitively false ‘ought’ claims from hypothetical imperatives is blocked because ‘ought’ takes wide, as opposed to narrow, scope. I present two arguments against this view. The first questions the premise that natural language conditionals are true just in

  2. 41 CFR 105-70.000 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope. 105-70.000 Section 105-70.000 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  3. 30 CFR 702.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.1 Scope. This part implements the exemption contained in section 701(28) of the Act concerning the extraction of coal incidental to the extraction of other minerals where coal does not exceed 162/3 percent of the total tonnage of coal and other...

  4. 30 CFR 707.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENT TO GOVERNMENT-FINANCED HIGHWAY OR OTHER CONSTRUCTION § 707.1 Scope. (a) This... which are exempt from the Act and this chapter because the extraction of coal is an incidental part of... extraction of coal which is incidental to government-financed construction from the requirements of the Act...

  5. 49 CFR 232.601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER TRAINS AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.601 Scope. This subpart contains specific requirements applicable to freight trains and freight cars equipped with ECP...

  6. Scope Management of Non-Functional Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassab, M.; Daneva, Maia; Ormandjieva, O.; Mueller, P.; Lyggesmeyer, P.; Maehle, E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet commitments in software projects, a realistic assessment must be made of project scope. Such an assessment relies on the availability of knowledge on the user-defined project requirements and their effort estimates and priorities, as well as their risk. This knowledge enables

  7. 45 CFR 95.503 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Cost Allocation Plans § 95.503... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 95.503 Section 95.503 Public Welfare... Refugee Act of 1980, title IV, Chapter 2 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1521 et seq...

  8. 40 CFR 263.10 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Scope. (d) A transporter of hazardous waste subject to the Federal manifesting requirements of 40 CFR... hazardous waste within the United States if the transportation requires a manifest under 40 CFR part 262... water, a transporter who meets all applicable requirements of 49 CFR parts 171 through 179 and...

  9. 48 CFR 970.4400 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 970.4400 Section 970.4400 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4400...

  10. 48 CFR 970.0808-00 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 970.0808-00 Section 970.0808-00 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Required sources of supplies and services 970.0808-00...

  11. 16 CFR 1501.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Commercial... IDENTIFYING TOYS AND OTHER ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OF AGE WHICH PRESENT CHOKING... by children under 3 years (36 months) of age that are introduced into interstate commerce after...

  12. Consumer Behavior: Its Scope and Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph

    Consumer behavior can be conceptualized by introducing a theoretical framework which defines its scope and boundary and identifies six developmental levels. The infancy stage, Level I, is the study of consumer behavior referred to as the scientific study of psychological structure and process dynamics of individuals consuming an economic good…

  13. 75 FR 79339 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...: Academy Sports & Outdoors; whether its bistro sets, consisting of two chairs and a table, are outside the...: Blackstone OTR LLC and OTR Wheel Engineering, Inc.; whether its wheel hub assemblies are within the scope of... People's Republic of China Requestor: New Trend Engineering Ltd.; whether certain of its wheel...

  14. 12 CFR 334.40 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Furnishers of Information § 334.40 Scope. This subpart applies to a financial institution or... subsidiary of such entities (except dealers, persons providing insurance, investment companies,...

  15. On the Scope of Egalitarian Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Heath

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear whether the social contract is supposed to merely supplement the unequal gains that individuals are able to make through the exercise of their natural endowments with a set of equal gains secured through social cooperation, or whether the social contract must also compensate individuals for the effects of these natural inequalities, so that they literally become all equal. The issue concerns, in effect, whether natural inequality falls within the scope of egalitarian justice. I think it is fair to say that the majority of egalitarians assume that the principle of equality imposes an obligation to redress natural inequality. Yet there is no consensus on this issue. David Gauthier has made the rejection of the principle of redress a central component of his project. It has often escaped notice that John Rawls also rejects the principle of redress. Thus it is not just anti-egalitarians who reject the principle of redress. There is a current of egalitarian thought– which we might call, for lack of a better term, narrow-scope egalitarianism – which also rejects this principle. In this paper, I would like to show that there is considerable wisdom in the narrow-scope egalitarian position. Many of the problems that lead theorists to reject egalitarianism in its entirety are a consequence, not of the principle of equality per se, but rather of the commitment to redress natural inequality. The narrow-scope view avoids all of these difficulties.

  16. 40 CFR 792.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope. 792.1 Section 792.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED... fate testing. This part is intended to ensure the quality and integrity of data submitted pursuant to...

  17. 14 CFR 171.21 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Nondirectional Radio Beacon Facilities § 171.21 Scope. (a) This... radio beacon facilities that are to be involved in the approval of instrument flight rules and air traffic control procedures related to those facilities. (b) A nondirectional radio beacon (“H”...

  18. 47 CFR 15.601 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.601 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for Access Broadband over Power Line (Access BPL) devices operating in the 1.705-80 MHz band over medium or low voltage lines....

  19. 12 CFR 313.1 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 313.1 Section 313.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT... apply: (1) To debts or claims arising under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (Title 26, U.S. Code), the...

  20. 12 CFR 313.40 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 313.40 Section 313.40 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT... arising under the Internal Revenue Code, the tariff laws of the United States or to any case where...

  1. 47 CFR 73.401 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Audio Broadcasting § 73.401 Scope. This subpart contains those rules which apply exclusively to the digital audio broadcasting (DAB) service, and are in addition to those rules in Subparts A, B, C, G and...

  2. 22 CFR 8.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... personnel); (4) Has an organizational structure (e.g., officers) and a staff. (c) Where a group provides... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.3 Scope. (a) The Federal Advisory Committee Act... Office of Management and Budget, may establish a group which shall be known as an advisory committee...

  3. 47 CFR 68.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.2 Scope. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of... public switched telephone network for use in conjunction with all services other than party line services... telephone company provided communications network without compliance with this part, provided that...

  4. 76 FR 31301 - Notice of Scope Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...; requested June 14, 2010; initiated September 13, 2010. A-570-937/C-570-938: Citric Acid and Certain Citrate... citric acid and blends of citrate salts are within the scope of the antidumping duty and countervailing...-the-Road Tires from the People's Republic of China. Requestor: Wide Open Cycles Inc.; whether custom...

  5. 7 CFR 622.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proper utilization of land, flood prevention, agricultural water management including irrigation and... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 622.2 Section 622.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 7 CFR 701.3 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participants on eligible land for certain practices, to rehabilitate farmland damaged by floods, hurricanes... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 701.3 Section 701.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. Combined biomass inventory in the scope of REDD (Reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined biomass inventory in the scope of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) ... This paper presents an approach for combined biomass inventories in the scope of future REDD regimes ... Article Metrics.

  8. The Drug-Resistant Variant P167S Expands the Substrate Profile of CTX-M β-Lactamases for Oxyimino-Cephalosporin Antibiotics by Enlarging the Active Site upon Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meha P; Hu, Liya; Stojanoski, Vlatko; Sankaran, Banumathi; Prasad, B V Venkataram; Palzkill, Timothy

    2017-07-11

    CTX-M β-lactamases provide resistance against the β-lactam antibiotic, cefotaxime, but not a related antibiotic, ceftazidime. β-Lactamases that carry the P167S substitution, however, provide ceftazidime resistance. In this study, CTX-M-14 was used as a model to study the structural changes caused by the P167S mutation that accelerate ceftazidime turnover. X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structures of the P167S apoenzyme along with the structures of the S70G/P167S, E166A/P167S, and E166A mutant enzymes complexed with ceftazidime as well as the E166A/P167S apoenzyme. The S70G and E166A mutations allow capture of the enzyme-substrate complex and the acylated form of ceftazidime, respectively. The results showed a large conformational change in the Ω-loop of the ceftazidime acyl-enzyme complex of the P167S mutant but not in the enzyme-substrate complex, suggesting the change occurs upon acylation. The change results in a larger active site that prevents steric clash between the aminothiazole ring of ceftazidime and the Asn170 residue in the Ω-loop, allowing accommodation of ceftazidime for hydrolysis. In addition, the conformational change was not observed in the E166A/P167S apoenzyme, suggesting the presence of acylated ceftazidime influences the conformational change. Finally, the E166A acyl-enzyme structure with ceftazidime did not exhibit the altered conformation, indicating the P167S substitution is required for the change. Taken together, the results reveal that the P167S substitution and the presence of acylated ceftazidime both drive the structure toward a conformational change in the Ω-loop and that in CTX-M P167S enzymes found in drug-resistant bacteria this will lead to an increased level of ceftazidime hydrolysis.

  9. Scope of space agriculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Katayama, Naomi; Nose, Akihiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Sasaki, Masami; Wada, Hidenori; 山下, 雅道; 橋本, 博文; 富田-横谷, 香織; 片山, 直美; 野瀬, 昭博; 武田, 弘

    2009-01-01

    Engineering target of space agriculture is to create bio-regenerative life support system that enables to send human to distant Mars for astrobiological exploration. Even manned space activities are driven by national prestige, manned Mars exploration might be realized under multinational cooperation and coordination. In such project, commonly shared objective should be defined clearly. Participant member should be complimentary each others in their contribution. They should be equal partner,...

  10. Expanding advanced civilizations in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, C

    2005-01-01

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way \\cite{Webb}. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  11. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  12. Using opioid receptors to expand the chemogenetic and optogenetic toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez-Werno, Diane M; Kenny, Paul J

    2015-05-20

    In this issue of Neuron, innovative new modifications to opioid receptors are used to expand the tools available to modulate neuronal activity. Vardy et al. (2015) describe a new "DREADD" chemogenetic tool based on the inhibitory κ opioid receptor (KORD) that can be used in conjunction with already-available DREADDs. Siuda et al. (2015) report the development of "opto-MOR," a light-activatable μ opioid receptor (MOR) chimera that can be used to better understand the complexities of MOR signaling.

  13. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  14. Sectoral scope and colocalisation of Spanish manufacturing industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Marta R.; Orts, Vicente; Albert, José M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use distance-based methods, specifically a slight variation of Ripley's K function and a bivariate generalisation of this function, to explore the detailed location pattern of the Spanish manufacturing industry, the scope of localisation and the tendency towards colocalisation between horizontally and vertically linked industries. To do so, we use micro-geographic data, considering a narrowly defined industry classification. Our results show heterogeneous location patterns, but with a significant tendency towards localisation. The sectoral scope is very sensitive to the degree of homogeneity of the activities in each sector. The more homogeneous the activities in a specific sector are, the more similarities we find in the spatial location patterns among its industries. Finally, although the patterns of colocalisation detected are sensitive to the counterfactuals used, between 20 and 48% of the pairs of industries with strong input-output linkages considered in this study show a significant tendency to colocalisation, and among them 74% are vertically linked industries.

  15. Sectoral scope and colocalisation of Spanish manufacturing industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Marta R.; Orts, Vicente; Albert, José M.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use distance-based methods, specifically a slight variation of Ripley's K function and a bivariate generalisation of this function, to explore the detailed location pattern of the Spanish manufacturing industry, the scope of localisation and the tendency towards colocalisation between horizontally and vertically linked industries. To do so, we use micro-geographic data, considering a narrowly defined industry classification. Our results show heterogeneous location patterns, but with a significant tendency towards localisation. The sectoral scope is very sensitive to the degree of homogeneity of the activities in each sector. The more homogeneous the activities in a specific sector are, the more similarities we find in the spatial location patterns among its industries. Finally, although the patterns of colocalisation detected are sensitive to the counterfactuals used, between 20 and 48% of the pairs of industries with strong input-output linkages considered in this study show a significant tendency to colocalisation, and among them 74% are vertically linked industries.

  16. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  17. The Galatia preparation plant expands throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.R.; Campbell, J.A.L.; Riffey, R.L. [Kerr-McGee Coal, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Profiles the Kerr-McGee`s Galatia coal preparation plant, located on the Galatia Mine complex near Marian (Illinois). The plant, first opened in 1984, originally consisted of a coarse heavy-media vessel circuit, dual heavy-media cyclone circuits, and split fine-coal flotation. In 1994 the plant was expanded adding new technology whilst retaining the original design concepts. New technology installed included new spirals and fiberglass replacement components to overcome corrosion. 3 figs.

  18. Inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafermos, Mihalis [University of Cambridge, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Rendall, Alan D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2005-12-07

    A new criterion for inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry is presented. It is applied to derive a number of new results and to simplify the proofs of existing ones. In particular, it shows that the solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with T{sup 2} symmetry, including the vacuum solutions, are inextendible in the future. The technique introduced adds a qualitatively new element to the available tool-kit for studying strong cosmic censorship. (letter to the editor)

  19. Hubble, Hubble's law and the expanding universe

    OpenAIRE

    Bagla, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hubble's name is associated closely with the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and distances of galaxies. Hubble also did a lot of pioneering work on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at Hubble's law and discuss how it relates with models of the universe. We also give a historical perspective of the discoveries that led to the Hubble's law.

  20. GWDC Expands High-End Market Share

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is a decision of great significance for GWDC to expand high-end market share in order to realize its transformation of development strategy and improve its development quality. As an important step of GWDC to explore high-end market, Oman PDO Project marks the first time that the Chinese petroleum engineering service team cooperates with the transnational petroleum corporations ranking first three in the world.