WorldWideScience

Sample records for activation energy

  1. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  2. Science Activities in Energy: Wind Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 12 activities related to wind energy for elementary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question. Topics include: (1) At what time of day is there enough wind to make electricity where you live?; (2) Where is the windiest spot on your schoolground?; and…

  3. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  4. Energy Model of Neuron Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyshyn, Yuriy; Smerdov, Andriy; Petrytska, Svitlana

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of the neurophysiological strength-duration (amplitude-duration) curve of neuron activation (which relates the threshold amplitude of a rectangular current pulse of neuron activation to the pulse duration), as well as with the use of activation energy constraint (the threshold curve corresponds to the energy threshold of neuron activation by a rectangular current pulse), an energy model of neuron activation by a single current pulse has been constructed. The constructed model of activation, which determines its spectral properties, is a bandpass filter. Under the condition of minimum-phase feature of the neuron activation model, on the basis of Hilbert transform, the possibilities of phase-frequency response calculation from its amplitude-frequency response have been considered. Approximation to the amplitude-frequency response by the response of the Butterworth filter of the first order, as well as obtaining the pulse response corresponding to this approximation, give us the possibility of analyzing the efficiency of activating current pulses of various shapes, including analysis in accordance with the energy constraint.

  5. Poly (3, 4-ethylendioxithiophene) (PEDOT) oxidation: activation energy and conformational energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, T F; Romero, M C

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of films of the conducting polymer PEDOT-C1O4 after electrochemical reduction by polarization at increasing cathodic potential was studied by potential steps. The response i/t presents a maximum at intermediate oxidation times. At the maximum the reaction occurs under chemical kinetic control following the expected current variations from the Chemical and Electrochemical Kinetics, when reactant concentrations or temperatures are changed. The obtained activation energy of the oxidation present two ranges as a function of the cathodic potential of prepolarization: constant values after prepolarization at low cathodic potentials and a lineal variation after prepolarization at increasing high cathodic potentials. According with the conformational relaxation model during electrochemical reduction the polymer shrinks, closes and packs the conformational structure. The activation energy for the subsequent oxidation includes two terms: the constant chemical activation energy and the conformational energy required to relax the packed polymeric structure. The conformational energy only appears after prepolarization at more cathodic potentials than the closing potential where more packed conformations were obtained. The conformational activation energy accounts the energetic requirements to relax and unfold the polymeric chains generating the required free volume to lodge balancing counterions; meanwhile the chemical activation energy accounts the energetic requirements for the electrochemical reaction to occur.

  6. Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne M; Maddison, Ralph; Pfaeffli, Leila A; Rawstorn, Jonathan C; Gant, Nicholas; Kerse, Ngaire M

    2012-12-01

    Tayl To quantify energy expenditure in older adults playing interactive video games while standing and seated, and secondarily to determine whether participants' balance status influenced the energy cost associated with active video game play. Cross-sectional study. University research center. Community-dwelling adults (N=19) aged 70.7±6.4 years. Participants played 9 active video games, each for 5 minutes, in random order. Two games (boxing and bowling) were played in both seated and standing positions. Energy expenditure was assessed using indirect calorimetry while at rest and during game play. Energy expenditure was expressed in kilojoules per minute and metabolic equivalents (METs). Balance was assessed using the mini-BESTest, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG). Mean ± SD energy expenditure was significantly greater for all game conditions compared with rest (all P≤.01) and ranged from 1.46±.41 METs to 2.97±1.16 METs. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure, activity counts, or perceived exertion between equivalent games played while standing and seated. No significant correlations were observed between energy expenditure or activity counts and balance status. Active video games provide light-intensity exercise in community-dwelling older people, whether played while seated or standing. People who are unable to stand may derive equivalent benefits from active video games played while seated. Further research is required to determine whether sustained use of active video games alters physical activity levels in community settings for this population. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  8. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  9. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  10. A compilation of energy costs of physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Mario; Karaolis, Nadine; Draper, Alizon; Shetty, Prakash

    2005-10-01

    There were two objectives: first, to review the existing data on energy costs of specified activities in the light of the recommendations made by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/WHO/UNU) Expert Consultation of 1985. Second, to compile existing data on the energy costs of physical activities for an updated annexure of the current Expert Consultation on Energy and Protein Requirements. Electronic and manual search of the literature (predominantly English) to obtain published data on the energy costs of physical activities. The majority of the data prior to 1955 were obtained using an earlier compilation of Passmore and Durnin. Energy costs were expressed as physical activity ratio (PAR); the energy cost of the activity divided by either the measured or predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR). The compilation provides PARs for an expanded range of activities that include general personal activities, transport, domestic chores, occupational activities, sports and other recreational activities for men and women, separately, where available. The present compilation is largely in agreement with the 1985 compilation, for activities that are common to both compilations. The present compilation has been based on the need to provide data on adults for a wide spectrum of human activity. There are, however, lacunae in the available data for many activities, between genders, across age groups and in various physiological states.

  11. National energy ombudsman. 2012 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merville, Denis; Lechevin, Bruno; Mialot, Stephane; Lefeuvre, Katia

    2013-06-01

    The National Energy Ombudsman is an independent administrative authority that was created by the law of 7 December 2006 relating to the energy sector, in preparation for the imminent liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. It has two legal roles: participating in the process of informing consumers about their rights, and recommending solutions for settling disputes. The Ombudsman reports directly to the French Parliament. This 2012 edition of the National energy ombudsman's activity report has adopted a somewhat original, but very informative, format: an abc which allows us to take a look back at the highlights of 2012 and to summarise the great energy challenges that the National Energy Ombudsman has worked on since 2007: Achievements, Activity, Amicable agreement, Billing decree, Consultation, Disconnections, Energy voucher, National debate on energy transition, help to consumers, lowering gas prices, best management of public resources, communicating gas meter project, Peak hours and off-peak hours, Unpaid bills, Commercially sensitive information, Disputes, Mediation, development of the European Network of Independent Energy Ombudsmen, Combat against energy poverty, Consumer protection, Back billing time limit, Supply quality, Complaint, Recommendations, Debt distress, rise in prices etc

  12. Analysis of active piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang CUI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing piezoelectric traps are designed for a narrow frequency range of vibration, but the surrounding environment has a very wide frequency range, and the frequency may also be subject to change, causing the problem of difficult to achieve energy capture or capture inefficiency. In order to solve problem, a new T-type piezoelectric cantilever is proposed as a capture energy structure in the paper. To begin with the aspects of structural design and circuit design, the static analysis, modal analysis and resonance analysis of the structure are carried out and the natural frequency and excitation frequency of the device are analyzed. The design and calculation of the power consumption and the loss of the components of the circuit are analyzed by the simulation and verification of the active capture energy circuit, and the active and passive techniques are compared and analyzed, the simulation of the active capture circuit is verified by analyzing the power consumption of the circuit and the maximum power obtained by the active technology is 5 times of that of the passive technology. And then the voltage-controlled active boundary control method can be used for interface circuit design, taking the initiative to use each piezoelectric transduction cycle triggered by the electrical boundary conditions to effectively increase the input piezoelectric pump energy, and then increase output power. The way of utilizing the active trapping of piezoelectric materials is innovated, which has a positive effect on the development of piezoelectric traps.

  13. Feasibility of High Energy Lasers for Interdiction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS FEASIBILITY OF HIGH ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES by Carlos Abel Javier Romero... ENERGY LASERS FOR INTERDICTION ACTIVITIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Carlos Abel Javier Romero Chero 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...the people or cargo. High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons are an effective way to deliver energy precisely from a relative long range. This thesis studies

  14. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pavan K; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply.

  15. National energy ombudsman. 2013 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubert, Jean; Merville, Denis; Lechevin, Bruno; Mialot, Stephane

    2014-06-01

    The National Energy Ombudsman is an independent administrative authority that was created by the law of 7 December 2006 relating to the energy sector, in preparation for the imminent liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. It has two legal roles: participating in the process of informing consumers about their rights, and recommending solutions for settling disputes. The Ombudsman reports directly to the French Parliament. This report summarizes the 2013 national energy ombudsman's activity in the domains of energy transition, conciliation between energy operators and consumers, consumers information, mediation, dispute settlement, markets opening, energy prices, quality of supply, smart meters, fight against energy poverty etc

  16. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  17. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichchou, M N; Loukil, T; Bareille, O; Chamberland, G; Qiu, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings

  18. Physical activity recommendations: an alternative approach using energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Lanay M; Rafferty, Ann P; Reeves, Mathew J; Pivarnik, James M

    2008-10-01

    Most adults do not meet the American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACSM/CDC) physical activity recommendations. Even fewer meet the more extreme Institute of Medicine (IOM) physical activity recommendations. Compliance with either recommendation has been conventionally assessed by combining frequencies and durations of self-reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure is a cumulative measure of activity that offers an alternative method of defining compliance. To calculate the leisure-time energy expenditure of adults complying with the ACSM/CDC or the IOM physical activity recommendations determined by conventional measures and to reexamine compliance with the IOM recommendation using energy expenditure criteria. National, cross-sectional data from the 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System determined the mode, frequency, and duration of up to two leisure-time activities performed by adults. Four mutually exclusive activity groups (Non-, Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active) were defined on the basis of frequencies and durations of reported activities. Leisure-time energy expenditure (kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1)) was calculated per respondent. The energy expenditure threshold for meeting the IOM recommendation was calculated as 21 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1). Of the 162,669 respondents included in the analyses, 29.9% were Nonactive, whereas 42.3%, 23.3%, and 4.5% were Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active, respectively. Median leisure-time energy expenditure values were 9.0, 27.4, and 63.0 kcal x kg(-1) x wk(-1) for Low-, ACSM/CDC-, and IOM-Active groups, respectively. When using energy expenditure criteria, compliance with the IOM recommendation rose to 27.7% of respondents. Compliance with the IOM physical activity recommendation dramatically increased when assessed by energy expenditure compared with conventional criteria, thereby highlighting the potential bias of conventional methods. A significant proportion of adults

  19. Cellular Links Between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan K Shetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function. Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (ie, development and aging and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste byproducts. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply.

  20. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic ...

  1. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which lea...

  2. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F; Wallace, C L [ed.

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  3. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F.; Wallace, C.L. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  4. IFP Energies nouvelles. 2016 Activity Report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IFP Energies Nouvelles is a major research and training player in the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities, structured around three strategic priorities: sustainable mobility, new energies and responsible oil and gas. As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFPEN focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the transition towards sustainable mobility and the emergence of a more diversified energy mix; - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. An integral part of IFPEN, its graduate engineering school - IFP School - prepares future generations to take up these challenges. IFPEN has proven expertise across the entire value chain, from fundamental research to innovation. It is funded both by a state budget and by its own resources provided by industrial partners. The latter account for over 50% of IFPEN's total budget, a configuration that is quasi unique in France. The aim of IFPEN's R and I programs is to overcome existing scientific and technological challenges in order to develop innovations that can be used by industry. IFPEN's fundamental research program aims to create a bedrock of knowledge essential for the development of innovations. The scientific expertise of IFPEN's researchers is internationally recognized and they are regularly consulted by the public authorities to provide their insight in their specific fields to inform the decision-making process. IFPEN's economic model is based on the transfer to industry of the technologies developed by its researchers. This technology transfer to industry generates jobs and business, fostering the economic development of fields and approaches related to the mobility, energy and eco-industry sectors

  5. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Poage, T.F.; Alvarez, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR 2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  6. Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community, International Atomic Energy Agency, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed legislative instruments, Adopted legislative instruments, Non-legislative instruments, Other activities (meetings). International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: The Russian Federation to join the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; Participation by the regulatory authorities of India and the United Arab Emirates in the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP); NEA International Workshop on Crisis Communication, 9-10 May 2012; International School of Nuclear Law: 2013; Next NEA International Nuclear Law Essentials Course

  7. Energy expenditure during sexual activity in young healthy couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Frappier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.

  8. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  9. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation....

  10. A Novel Energy-Efficient Approach for Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingxiang; Wu, Dihong; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Weng, Shaolin; Peng, Ao; Tang, Biyu; Lu, Hai; Shi, Haibin; Zheng, Huiru

    2017-09-08

    In this paper, we propose a novel energy-efficient approach for mobile activity recognition system (ARS) to detect human activities. The proposed energy-efficient ARS, using low sampling rates, can achieve high recognition accuracy and low energy consumption. A novel classifier that integrates hierarchical support vector machine and context-based classification (HSVMCC) is presented to achieve a high accuracy of activity recognition when the sampling rate is less than the activity frequency, i.e., the Nyquist sampling theorem is not satisfied. We tested the proposed energy-efficient approach with the data collected from 20 volunteers (14 males and six females) and the average recognition accuracy of around 96.0% was achieved. Results show that using a low sampling rate of 1Hz can save 17.3% and 59.6% of energy compared with the sampling rates of 5 Hz and 50 Hz. The proposed low sampling rate approach can greatly reduce the power consumption while maintaining high activity recognition accuracy. The composition of power consumption in online ARS is also investigated in this paper.

  11. Energy expenditure and activity among Hadza hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzer, Herman; Raichlen, David A; Wood, Brian M; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Racette, Susan B; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Marlowe, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of total energy expenditure, (TEE; kcal/day) among traditional populations have challenged current models relating habitual physical activity to daily energy requirements. Here, we examine the relationship between physical activity and TEE among traditional Hadza hunter-gatherers living in northern Tanzania. Hadza adults were studied at two camps, with minimal intervention so as to monitor energy expenditure and activity during normal daily life. We measured daily walking distance and walking speed using wearable GPS units for 41 adults. For a subset of 30 adults, we measured TEE using doubly labeled water, three indices of work load (foraging return rate, maternal status, and number of dependent children), and urinary biomarkers of metabolic activity and stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, cortisol, and testosterone). Fat-free mass was the single strongest predictor of TEE among Hadza adults (r(2)  = 0.66, P < 0.001). Hadza men used greater daily walking distances and faster walking speeds compared with that of Hadza women, but neither sex nor any measure of physical activity or work load were correlated with TEE in analyses controlling for fat-free mass. Compared with developed, industrial populations, Hadza adults had similar TEE but elevated levels of metabolic stress as measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Our results indicate that daily physical activity may not predict TEE within traditional hunter-gatherer populations like the Hadza. Instead, adults with high levels of habitual physical activity may adapt by reducing energy allocation to other physiological activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2006 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  13. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  14. Energy utilization associated with regular activity breaks and continuous physical activity: A randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenemor, S P; Homer, A R; Perry, T L; Skeaff, C M; Peddie, M C; Rehrer, N J

    2018-06-01

    To quantify and compare energy utilization associated with prolonged sitting alone, or interrupted with regular activity breaks and/or an additional bout of continuous physical activity. Thirty six adults (11 males, BMI 24.1 ± 4.6) completed four interventions: (1) prolonged sitting (SIT), (2) sitting with 2-min of walking every 30 min (RAB), (3) prolonged sitting with 30-min of continuous walking at the end of the day (SIT + PA), (4) a combination of the activities in (2) and (3) above (RAB + PA). All walking was at a speed and incline corresponding to 60% V̇O 2max . Energy utilization over 7 h for each intervention was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Compared to SIT, SIT + PA increased total energy utilization by 709 kJ (95% CI 485-933 kJ), RAB by 863 kJ (95% CI 638-1088 kJ), and RAB + PA by 1752 kJ (95% CI 1527-1927 kJ) (all p energy utilization between SIT + PA and RAB, however, post-physical activity energy utilization in RAB was 632 kJ greater than SIT + PA (95% CI 561-704 kJ; p energy utilization compared to a single bout of continuous activity; however the total energy utilization is similar. Combining activity breaks with a longer continuous bout of activity will further enhance energy utilization, and in the longer term, may positively affect weight management of a greater magnitude than either activity pattern performed alone. ANZCTR12614000624684. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Playing active video games increases energy expenditure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Diana L; Pratt, Lauren V; Hester, Casey N; Short, Kevin R

    2009-08-01

    To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) and Nintendo's Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking. Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls (ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming. Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play (lowest step rate) than during walking (highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity. Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure.

  16. Origin of activation energy in a superionic conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamishima, O; Kawamura, K; Hattori, T; Kawamura, J

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of cation diffusion with many-body effects are discussed using Ag β-alumina as an example of a superionic conductor. Polarized Raman spectra of Ag β-alumina have been measured at room temperature. The interatomic potentials were determined by a non-linear least square fitting between the phonon eigenvalues from the Raman observations and a dynamical matrix calculation based on a rigid-ion model. The obtained potential parameters for the model crystal of Ag β-alumina successfully reproduce the macroscopic properties with respect to the heat capacity, isothermal compressibility and self-diffusion constant. A molecular dynamics (MD) calculation has been carried out using the model crystal of Ag β-alumina to understand the many-body effects for the fast ionic diffusion. It was found that the Ag-Ag repulsion by excess Ag defects significantly reduced the cost of the energy difference of the occupancy between the stable and metastable sites. It is possible for the system to take various configurations of the mobile ions through defects easily, and then the fast ionic diffusion will appear. On the other hand, the Ag-Ag repulsion changes the dynamics of the Ag ions from a random hopping to a cooperative motion. In the cooperative motion, the ionic transport becomes difficult due to the additional energy required for the structural relaxation of the surrounding Ag ions. We propose a new insight into the superionic conduction, that is, the activation energy for the ionic transport is composed of two kinds of elements: a 'static' activation energy and a 'dynamic' one. The static activation energy is the cost of the averaged energy difference in the various structural configurations in the equilibrium state. The dynamic activation energy is the additional energy required for the structural relaxation induced by the jump process.

  17. Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Khor, G L; Mirnalini, K; Norimah, A K; Ang, M

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To

  18. IFP Energies Nouvelles. 2014 Activity report - Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFP Energies Nouvelles (IFPEN) focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix, - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. Despite the current economic environment, 2014 was a good year for IFPEN. In the field of renewable energies, major milestones were reached in two significant projects dedicated to the production of second generation biofuels in which IFPEN is very actively involved: processes developed in Futurol TM are already in the pre-marketing phase, while the construction of the two pilot units for the BioTfueL project has just been launched. In the field of ocean energies, IFPEN research has led to the first partnership agreements relating to floating wind turbines anchor technologies and command control systems for wind energy and wave energy conversion. In the transport sector, game-changing concepts are beginning to emerge, such as smart battery charging and a Rankine cycle system for an internal combustion engine transforming combustion heat into energy. In addition, IFPEN have joined forces with innovative SMEs to boost their research in the fields of electric power-trains and power electronics. Finally, IFPEN launched an eco-driving application that has proved extremely popular with the public. Turning now to oil and gas, IFPEN continued to expand its range of basin and reservoir simulation, modeling and characterization software, and it signed several contracts in the field of chemical enhanced recovery solutions with its EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) Alliance TM partners. IFPEN also developed new generations of high-performance catalysts and improved the conversion rate of its processes to enable refiners to convert increasingly heavy crudes and

  19. Energy harvesting with Di-Electro Active Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Jens; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a way of using Di-Electro Active Polymers (D-EAPs) for harvesting mechanical energy sources. The article describes the basics of energy harvesting with D-EAPs, and an electrical model of a D-EAP is suggested. This leads to a converter design which is able to extract...... the electrical energy harvested by the D-EAP. This converter is simulated and realized. Through experimental results both the model of the DEAP and the converter are verified. It is found that it is possible to harvest energy with a D-EAP and build a converter that can extract the harvested energy....

  20. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activity. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labelled water technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate physical activity in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of physical activity and their relationship with energy expenditure. The measures discussed include those based on energy expenditure or oxygen uptake including doubly labelled water, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures.

  1. Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Fang-Yu; Hu, Jin-Li; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.

  2. 78 FR 64414 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... nonproliferation norms, and to update the activities and technologies subject to the Secretary of Energy's specific... consistent with current global civil nuclear trade practices and nonproliferation norms, and to update the activities and technologies subject to the Secretary of Energy's specific authorization and DOE reporting...

  3. Socio-economic Impacts—Offshore Activities/Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Drews, Martin; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2016-01-01

    sector and renewable electricity generation—mainly from offshore wind—is increasing. Energy and offshore activities in the North Sea are critically vulnerable to climate change along the full supply chain. The major vulnerabilities for offshore installations like rigs, offshore wind energy and pipelines......, it is highly uncertain how much the future potential of other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, terrestrial biomass, or emerging technologies like wave, tidal or marine biomass could be positively or negatively affected. Due to the different national energy supply mixes the vulnerability to climate......-related impacts will vary among North Sea countries. To ensure safe and reliable future operations comprehensive and systematic risk assessments are therefore needed which account for, for example, the high integration of power systems in the region....

  4. Direction of Nuclear Energy. Activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This report proposes an overview of the research activities performed by the French DEN (Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, Direction of Nuclear Energy) within the CEA. These activities address the future nuclear industrial systems (4. generation reactors, back-end of the future fuel cycle, basic scientific and technological research), the optimization of the industrial nuclear power (fuel cycle front end, second and third generation reactors, back-end of the present fuel cycle), major tools for the development of nuclear energy (simulation tools, Jules Horowitz reactor, value creation), clean up and dismantling of nuclear facilities (present status, the Passage project in Grenoble, the Aladin project in Fontenay-aux-Roses, projects at Marcoule, flow management of radioactive wastes, materials and disused fuels, transport). Three research centres are presented: Marcoule, Cadarache and Saclay

  5. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2007. Network of solar energy professionals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2007 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  6. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2008. Acting for solar energy promotion and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2008 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  7. Calorimetric investigation on mechanically activated storage energy mechanism of sphalerite and pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhongliang; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Hu Huiping; Wu Daoxin

    2005-01-01

    The structural changes of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite under different grinding conditions were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), laser particle size analyzer and elemental analysis. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite was measured by a calorimetric method. A thermochemical cycle was designed so that mechanically activated and non-activated minerals reached the same final state when dissolved in the same oxidizing solvent. The results show that the storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite rises with increased in grinding time, and reaches a maximum after a certain grinding period. The storage energy of mechanically activated pyrite decreases when heated under inert atmosphere. The storage energy of mechanically activated sphalerite and pyrite remains constant when treated below 573 K under inert atmosphere. The percentage of the storage energy caused by surface area increase during mechanical activation decreases with increasing grinding time. These results support our opinion that the mechanically activated storage energy of sphalerite is closely related to lattice distortions, and the mechanically activated storage energy of pyrite is mainly caused by the formation of reactive sites on the surface

  8. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization ...

  9. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  10. Energy consumption in leisure-time activities; Vapaa-ajan harrastuksiin liittyvae energiankulutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentylae, K. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Alppivuori, K. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to examine the amount and the structure of direct and indirect energy consumption in connection with leisure occupations at the beginning of the 1990s and to estimate energy saving possibilities connected to these activities. The study deals with 22 activities: going to restaurants, coffee shops, cafeterias, and pubs, going to the theatre, going to the opera, going to ice-hockey matches, going to horse races, going to automobile races, domestic travel, summer cottage use, boating, jogging, cross-country skiing, downhill skiing, ski jumping, ice hockey and other ice sports, swimming in indoor pools, swimming at spas, golf, and car racing. The energy use of individual leisure activities makes up 0,02-1,86 % of Finland`s total annual household energy consumption. Total energy consumption is affected not only by the frequency of an activity but especially by the related need for transportation for an activity. Transportation makes up 20-90 % of the total energy used, and the bulk of this consumption is caused by recreation participants travelling to facilities. The proportion of energy use at the facilities is usually 10-30 %. Recreational equipment require 1-20 %, and activity-related accommodation generally 0-5 % of the total. Activities can be compared to each other on the basis of how much energy is used in one event. By individual choice, consumption related to travel and equipment can be minimized the most. However, individuals have little possibility of influencing the amount of energy used at leisure facilities. (85 refs.)

  11. Strain energy storage and dissipation rate in active cell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosti, A.; Ambrosi, D.; Turzi, S.

    2018-05-01

    When living cells are observed at rest on a flat substrate, they can typically exhibit a rounded (symmetric) or an elongated (polarized) shape. Although the cells are apparently at rest, the active stress generated by the molecular motors continuously stretches and drifts the actin network, the cytoskeleton of the cell. In this paper we theoretically compare the energy stored and dissipated in this active system in two geometric configurations of interest: symmetric and polarized. We find that the stored energy is larger for a radially symmetric cell at low activation regime, while the polar configuration has larger strain energy when the active stress is beyond a critical threshold. Conversely, the dissipation of energy in a symmetric cell is always larger than that of a nonsymmetric one. By a combination of symmetry arguments and competition between surface and bulk stress, we argue that radial symmetry is an energetically expensive metastable state that provides access to an infinite number of lower-energy states, the polarized configurations.

  12. Energy Harvesting Cycles of Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Energy harvesting via Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has attracted much of the scientific interest over the past few years, mainly due to the advantages that these smart materials offer against competing technologies, as electromagnetic generators and piezoelectrics. Their hig......Energy harvesting via Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has attracted much of the scientific interest over the past few years, mainly due to the advantages that these smart materials offer against competing technologies, as electromagnetic generators and piezoelectrics....... Their higher energy density, superior low-speed performance, light-weighted nature as well as their shapely structure have rendered DEAPs candidate solutions for various actuation and energy harvesting applications. In this paper, a thoroughly analysis of all energy harvesting operational cycles of a DEAP...

  13. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  14. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  15. Measuring the energy intensity of domestic activities from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.; Liao, J.; Wilson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative method linking appliance usage and energy use with domestic activities. • Inferring the energy and time use profile of activities based on smart meter data. • Standardised metrics quantifying energy intensity + temporal routines of activities. • Insights from analysing electricity consumption through the lens of activities. - Abstract: Household electricity consumption can be broken down to appliance end-use through a variety of methods such as modelling, sub-metering, load disaggregation or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NILM). We advance and complement this important field of energy research through an innovative methodology that characterises the energy consumption of domestic life by making the linkages between appliance end-use and activities through an ontology built from qualitative data about the household and NILM data. We use activities as a descriptive term for the common ways households spend their time at home. These activities, such as cooking or laundering, are meaningful to households’ own lived experience. Thus, besides strictly technical algorithmic approaches for processing quantitative smart meter data, we also draw on social science time use approaches and interview and ethnography data. Our method disaggregates a households total electricity load down to appliance level and provides the start time, duration, and total electricity consumption for each occurrence of appliance usage. We then make inferences about activities occurring in the home by combining these disaggregated data with an ontology that formally specifies the relationships between electricity-using appliances and activities. We also propose two novel standardised metrics to enable easy quantifiable comparison within and across households of the energy intensity and routine of activities of interest. Finally, we demonstrate our results over a sample of ten households with an in-depth analysis of which activities can be inferred with

  16. The Current Status and Implications of Nuclear Energy Cultural Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Won

    2006-01-01

    The Korean nuclear energy community paid a high price in terms of the tremendous social costs incurred in the process of securing a site for mid-to-low radioactive waste disposal facility, indicating that interest in the technical danger of nuclear energy has spread to the realm of people's daily lives. Under the circumstances it is important to raise rational public awareness of nuclear science as a foundation of everyday life through nuclear cultural activities. This study examines the various types of public relations activities of the Korea Nuclear Energy Foundation, an organization in charge of promoting nuclear energy, and explores what activities are required to ensure efficient promotion in accordance with development of nuclear culture

  17. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Diaz, M.E.; Aleman-Mateo, H.; Valencia-Julleirat, M.; Salazar, G.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 % of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1.77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The total energy expenditure: The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11 % and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method. The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated

  18. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...... restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. Methods: 35 adults (age......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting...

  19. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets

  20. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets, Natural gas

  1. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  2. Assessment of physical activity, energy expenditure and energy intakes of young men practicing aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierniuk, Alicja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Adequate nutrition and energy intake play key rule during the training period and recovery time. The assessment of athlete's energetic needs should be calculated individually, based on personal energy expenditure and Sense Wear PRO3 Armband (SWA) mobile monitor is a useful tool to achieve this goal. However, there is still few studies conducted with use of this monitor. To assess individual energy needs of athletes by use of SWA and to determine whether their energy intake fulfils the body's energy expenditure. Subjects were 15 male students attending Military University of Technology in Warsaw, aged 19-24 years, practicing aerobic. The average body mass was 80.7 ± 7.7 kg and average height was 186.9 ± 5.2 cm, (BMI 23.09 ± 1.85 kg/m2). Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure (TEE) was established using SWA, which was placed on the back side of dominant hand and worn continuously for 48 hours (during the training and non-training day). The presented results are the average values of these 2 days. Assessment of athletes' physical activity level was established by use of metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and number of steps (NS). Estimation of energy intake was based on three-day dietary recalls (two weekdays and one day of the weekend), evaluated using the Polish Software 'Energia' package. The average TEE of examined athletes was 3877 ± 508 kcal/day and almost half of this energy was spend on physical activity (1898 ± 634 kcal/day). The number of steps was on average 19498 ± 5407 and average MET was 2.05 ± 2.09. The average daily energy intake was 2727 ± 576 kcal. Athletes consumed inadequate amount of energy in comparison to their energy expenditure. Examined group did not have an adequate knowledge about their energy requirement, which shows the need of nutritional consulting and education among these athletes. athletes, aerobic sports, energy expenditure, energy intake.

  3. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  4. Graphical analysis of processes with multiple activation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachter, J.; Bragg, R.H.; Close, E.

    1986-01-01

    The activation energies characterizing a kinetic process are derived from the slopes of the Arrhenius diagrams obtained by plotting rate constants versus reciprocal temperature. Those rate constants correspond to the shifts along the time axis needed to superpose the successive isotherms. A general method based on Chebyshev interpolation is proposed for the optimization of the superposition of the experimental data points. This method is applied to determine the activation energies of the graphitization kinetics of the interlayer spacings of pitch coke and pyrocarbon samples

  5. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  6. National energy ombudsman - 2010 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of the evolutions noticed on the energy market (natural gas and electric power) from the mediator's point of view for the consumer protection: improvement of transparency, struggle against energy precariousness, improvement of the protection of European consumers. Some figures and a description of a typical week of work are given to illustrate the mediator's activity. Solutions are proposed to improve practices: excess payment, index correction, set prices, first necessity tariff, and bill readability. Some social indicators are given and a financial report is provided

  7. Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)

  8. Physical activity, sleep pattern and energy expenditure in double-handed offshore sailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, C; Ardigò, L P; Alberti, M; Daniele, F; Capelli, C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify total energy expenditure, activity energy expenditure and time spent at three levels of physical activity (low, moderate, high intensity) in four two-person crews during a 500-mile double-handed sailing regatta. Physical activity intensity and energy expenditure were assessed during a 500-nautical-mile double-handed offshore competition in eight male sailors (46.3±3.4 years; 180±13 cm; 85.4±12.5 kg). During the whole regatta, they wore an activity monitor that estimated energy expenditure and minutes spent at each level of intensity (sedentary, 6.0 METs). The sailors spent longer periods (Penergy expenditure was 14.26±1.89 MJ/day and the activity energy expenditure was 5.06±1.42 MJ/day. Activity energy expenditure was significantly correlated with total sleep time, boat speed, and distance covered each day (Penergy expenditure was more likely a consequence of the short and rare periods of sleep during the competition rather than of the bouts of moderate and vigorous physical activities.

  9. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-02-01

    Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Young adults aged 18-35 (N = 97, 50 female) game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterward. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ(2)(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity in Prader–Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G.; Theodoro, Mariana F.; Bittel, Douglas C.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypotonia, suck and feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, small hands and feet, developmental delay, hyperphagia and early childhood obesity and a particular facial appearance. The obesity associated with PWS is the result of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) due to hyperphagia, decreased physical activity, reduced metabolic rate and an inability to vomit. EE is affected by body composition as well as exercise. Individuals with PWS have a lower lean body mass (LBM) compared with controls which may contribute to reduced basal level EE. To determine the relationship among body composition, activity levels and metabolic rates, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and a whole-room respiration chamber were used to measure body composition, total EE (TEE), resting EE (REE), physical activity, and mechanical work (MW) during an 8 hr monitoring period. The chamber consisted of a live-in whole-room indirect calorimeter equipped with a force platform floor to allow simultaneous measurement of EE, physical activity, and work efficiency during spontaneous activities and standardized exercise. Participants with PWS (27 with 15q11–q13 deletion and 21 with maternal disomy 15 with an average age of 23 years) had significantly decreased TEE by 20% and reduced LBM compared to 24 obese subjects. Similarly, REE was significantly reduced by 16% in the individuals with PWS relative to the comparison subjects. Total MW performed during the 8 hr monitoring period was significantly reduced by 35% in the PWS group. The energy cost of physical activity is related to the duration, intensity and type of activity and the metabolic efficiency of the individual. After adjusting group differences in LBM by analysis of variance, TEE and REE were no longer different between the two groups. Our data indicate that there is a significant reduction of EE in individuals with PWS

  11. Activation energies for iodine-exchange systems containing organic iodine compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, N. (Takyo Univ. of Education (Japan). Faculty of Science) Takahashi, Yasuko

    1976-01-01

    In studies on the nonequilibrium isotopic exchange method for determining iodine in organic iodine compounds, activation energies have been measured to find systems having appropriate rate of exchange reactions. Activation energies are discussed by considering the effect of the structure of organic iodine compounds, the concentrations of reactants and solvent, etc. In homogeneous systems, activation energy is found to become larger in the order of CH/sub 3/Iactivation energy is less in 100% acetone than in 90% acetone solution. In heterogeneous systems, e.g. org. I(aq.)--I/sub 2/(CCL/sub 4/ or C/sub 2/H/sub 4/Cl/sub 2/), activation energy increases in the order of 3,5-diiodotyrosine<3-iodotyrosine<5-iodouracil. The catalytic effect of I/sub 2/ is large, and the iodine ratio between I/sub 2/ and organic iodine is a predominant factor in determining the rate of the exchange reaction.

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the most important activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency during the period September 1992 - September 1993, in particular in the following areas: (i) nuclear power; (ii) nuclear fuel cycle; (iii) radioactive waste management; (iv) comparative assessment of energy sources; (v) IAEA laboratory activities; (vi) nuclear applications in the food industry and in agriculture; (vii) human health applications of nuclear techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of diseases and in the analysis of health problems related to the environment; (viii) industry and earth sciences; (ix) physical and chemical sciences; (x) radiation protection; (xi) safety of nuclear installations; (xii) safeguards and non-proliferation activities; (xiii) activities in the area of public and technical information such as the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and other IAEA computerized databases and reference systems, the publication Nuclear Fusion, a monthly scientific journal of articles on thermonuclear fusion research and development, and the organization of meetings on atomic energy; and (xiv) a description of the Agency's technical assistance activities, including financial data

  13. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew P Hills; Andrew P Hills; Najat eMokhtar; Nuala M Byrne

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure and estimate physical activity in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity) and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that physical activity and energy expenditure are different constructs with physical activity defined as any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of physical activit...

  14. TRADING ACTIVITY AND PRICES IN ENERGY FUTURES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ates

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine trading activity and the relationship between futures trading activity by trader type and energy price movements in three energy futures markets –natural gas, crude oil and heating oil. We find that the level of net positions of speculators are positively related to future returns and in contrast net positions of hedgers are negatively related to futures price changes in all three markets. The changes in net positions are relatively more informative compare to the level of net positions in predicting price changes in related markets.

  15. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Triana, M; Aleman Mateo, H; Valencia Julleirat, M [Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Havana (Cuba); and others

    2002-07-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  16. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Aleman Mateo, H.; Valencia Julleirat, M.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity and NIDDM are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 48 elderly people aged 61-74 years living in a rural mountain community was submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary and biochemical study of the nutritional status. Glucose intolerance was diagnosed in 40% and arterial hypertension was present in 23 of them. Ten subjects without signs or symptoms of the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome were submitted to a measurement of the total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method. PAL values of 2.13 and 1. 77 were measured for men and women, values which were significantly higher that the recommended value of 1.51 for elderly subjects. The estimation of energy requirements by the energy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW-method The value of 1.51 x BMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

  17. 2011 activity report of the national energy ombudsman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merville, Denis; Lechevin, Bruno; Le Tallec, Marie-Francoise; Ladoucette, Philippe de; Brottes, Francois; Bazot, Alain; Poniatowski, Ladislas; Cohen, Elsa; Loos, Francois; Lapostolet, Bertrand; Kosciusko-Morizet, Nathalie; Besson, Eric; Bellon, Michele; Aldebert, Marc; Chone, Fabien; Herve, Jean-Pierre; Roberton, Alain; Goyens, Monique; Mogg, John

    2012-01-01

    The national energy ombudsman is an independent administrative authority set up by the law of 7 December 2006 governing the liberalisation of the French gas and electricity markets. Consumers fund its activities by way of a fee levied on electricity bills. The national energy ombudsman is a unique mediation service in France and is the only public institution in the consumer sector to have the remit of seeking alternative settlements to disputes in accordance with European directives. The national energy ombudsman's role is to recommend solutions to disputes 'arising from the execution of supply contracts' between energy market operators and their private consumer or small business clients. The legislator has also invested the ombudsman with the remit of participating in the process of informing consumers of their rights. The ombudsman proposes straightforward and equitable solutions to disputes referred to it and formulates recommendations based on an in-depth legal and technical analysis, during which it may call for comments on the part of the stakeholders involved, within a set deadline. While its recommendations have no binding effect on operators, the latter are obliged to keep the ombudsman informed of their follow-up action within a maximum period of two months. This report summarizes the 2011 national energy ombudsman's activity in the domains of consumer protection, energy markets, Combat against energy poverty, mediation, market improvement, development of smart meters for consumers' real-time information, recommendations to the Minister of Energy etc

  18. Calculation of the intermediate energy activation cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furihata, Shiori; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We discussed the activation cross section in order to predict accurately the activation of soil around an accelerator with high energy and strong intensity beam. For the assessment of the accuracy of activation cross sections estimated by a numerical model, we compared the calculated cross section with various experimental data, for Si(p,x){sup 22}Na, Al(p,x){sup 22}Na, Fe(p,x){sup 22}Na, Si(p,x){sup 7}Be, O(p,x){sup 3}H, Al(p,x){sup 3}H and Si(p,x){sup 3}H reactions. We used three computational codes, i.e., quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) plus statistical decay model (SDM), HETC-3STEP and the semiempirical method developed by Silberberg et.al. It is observed that the codes are accurate above 1GeV, except for {sup 7}Be production. We also discussed the difference between the activation cross sections of proton- and neutron-induced reaction. For the incident energy at 40MeV, it is found that {sup 3}H production cross sections of neutron-induced reaction are ten times as large as those of proton-induced reaction. It is also observed that the choice of the activation cross sections seriously affects to the estimate of saturated radioactivity, if the maximum energy of neutron flux is below 100MeV. (author)

  19. Renewable energy activities in Senegal: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, I.; Sarr, J.; Kane, M.M.; Sall, M.

    2000-01-01

    Like many countries in Africa, Senegal is facing economical decline, energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. What is required is a strategy to implement renewable energy technologies at large scale. The government and many non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have tried to comprehend and have strived to address the problem of energy. This paper present a review of activities in the field of renewable energy applications in Senegal, which goes back to the mid 1970s and will discuss the socio-economic benefits that the country has derived from these environmentally sound and appropriate sources of energy. The development and trial of systems were mostly funded so far by donor agencies in collaboration with government and NGOs. Among the applications being supported are solar lighting, water pumping and small power plants. Recent efforts have been aimed at restructuring the programmes and giving them a market orientation. Future trends, some suggestion and recommendations for successful dissemination of renewable energy sources are also drawn. The present situation is seen to be much more promising and favourable for renewable energy. (Author)

  20. Selected Energy Education Activities for Pennsylvania Middle School Grades. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Nancy; And Others

    These activities are intended to help increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage students to become energy conservationists. The document is divided into sections according to discipline area. A final section is devoted to interdisciplinary activities involving several discipline areas integrated with the energy…

  1. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  2. Energy consumption in buildings for different sport activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrfors, M; Werner, G; Oertenstrand, G

    1978-01-01

    Some buildings for different kinds of sport activities have a great energy demand. The actions which could be taken in order to decrease the energy demand and at the same time decrease the operating costs for these buildings are summarized. References are given to literature of current interest in this field.

  3. Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Heather K; Robson, Paula J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Csizmadi, Ilona

    2008-02-01

    Activity energy expenditure (AEE) is the modifiable component of total energy expenditure (TEE) derived from all activities, both volitional and nonvolitional. Because AEE may affect health, there is interest in its estimation in free-living people. Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) could be a feasible approach to AEE estimation in large populations, but it is unclear whether or not any PAQ is valid for this purpose. Our aim was to explore the validity of existing PAQs for estimating usual AEE in adults, using doubly labeled water (DLW) as a criterion measure. We reviewed 20 publications that described PAQ-to-DLW comparisons, summarized study design factors, and appraised criterion validity using mean differences (AEE(PAQ) - AEE(DLW), or TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)), 95% limits of agreement, and correlation coefficients (AEE(PAQ) versus AEE(DLW) or TEE(PAQ) versus TEE(DLW)). Only 2 of 23 PAQs assessed most types of activity over the past year and indicated acceptable criterion validity, with mean differences (TEE(PAQ) - TEE(DLW)) of 10% and 2% and correlation coefficients of 0.62 and 0.63, respectively. At the group level, neither overreporting nor underreporting was more prevalent across studies. We speculate that, aside from reporting error, discrepancies between PAQ and DLW estimates may be partly attributable to 1) PAQs not including key activities related to AEE, 2) PAQs and DLW ascertaining different time periods, or 3) inaccurate assignment of metabolic equivalents to self-reported activities. Small sample sizes, use of correlation coefficients, and limited information on individual validity were problematic. Future research should address these issues to clarify the true validity of PAQs for estimating AEE.

  4. Prediction of activation energies for aromatic oxidation by cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik; Ryde, Ulf; Olsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We have estimated the activation energy for aromatic oxidation by compound I in cytochrome P450 for a diverse set of 17 substrates using state-of-the-art density functional theory (B3LYP) with large basis sets. The activation energies vary from 60 to 87 kJ/mol. We then test if these results can...... be reproduced by computationally less demanding methods. The best methods (a B3LYP calculation of the activation energy of a methoxy-radical model or a partial least-squares model of the semiempirical AM1 bond dissociation energies and spin densities of the tetrahedral intermediate for both a hydroxyl...

  5. Nuclear energy Division - 2011 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document reports the activity of the Nuclear Energy Department (DEN) within the CEA. It evokes its international relationship (participation to international initiatives, cooperation with different countries), describes the scientific activity within the DEN, presents the Advanced Material Program, and the activities undertaken in different fields: future nuclear industrial systems (fourth generation reactors, downstream part of the future fuel cycle, fundamental scientific and technological research), optimization of the present nuclear industrial activity (second and third generation reactors, nuclear security, upstream and downstream part of the present fuel cycle), tools for nuclear development (numerical simulation, Jules Horowitz reactor), cleaning up and nuclear dismantling (dismantling strategy, the Passage project in Grenoble, works in Marcoule, the Aladin project in Fontenay, waste and material flow management, nuclear support installations, transports). It finally addresses the specific activities of the Marcoule, Cadarache and Saclay centres

  6. Enerplan, activity report 2009. Acting for solar energy promotion and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2009 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  7. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  8. ENEA activities on photovoltaic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.; Messana, C.

    1989-01-01

    Photovoltaic conversion appears to be a promising technology for producing electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells directly convert sun radiation into electricity, without needing moving parts or any kind of fuel. In a long term perspective, PV conversion is expected to become an integrative energy source; at present, high costs are the main limiting factor of the diffusion of PV technology. Costs can be reduced through the joint effect of technological innovation and mass production: therefore, the Italian strategy consists in promoting the gradual enlargement of production volumes and, at the same time, the introduction of less expensive technologies and processes, as soon as they become available. The main responsibility for PV strategies and activities is assigned to ENEA, the Italian National Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources. The ENEA five year plan (1985-1989) had allocated about 100 M$ in the PV sector and, as a result, today ENEA is the main national organization promoting PV energy development. ENEA programs include both in house research and external activities. The latter are carried out by universities and industrial firms and concern the whole PV production process from raw materials to complete systems. In Italy there are three main industrial enterprises which produce PV modules an systems: Italsolar (formerly Pragma, ENI group), Ansaldo (IRI group) and Helios Technology, a private firm. Their total annual production capacity amounts to about 2 MW per shift, and is expected to increase in the near future. In 1986, the whole production has been about 0.7 MW: a substantial share of this production has been marketed abroad, mostly as complete systems. (author). 6 tabs

  9. Doctoral scientists and engineers working in energy-related activities, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The Department of Energy has a responsibility to help ensure the supply of highly trained personnel by providing supply and demand information on energy-related manpower to public and private planners and the general public. This report provides information about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists working primarily in energy-related activities. The data for the year 1981 are part of the information base for a program of continuing studies of the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Information from these studies will provide input to consideration of actions necessary to ensure that adequate numbers of qualified scientists and engineers are available, when needed, to develop the nation's energy resources and technologies

  10. Energy management for the future. A sourcebook of ideas and activities for energy conservation learning programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This book serves as a teaching aid for Canadian school programs in energy conservation and energy management. Suitable curriculum areas and objectives are outlined, and suggestions are presented for organizing thematic study units. References are made throughout to appropriate use of additional media such as filmstrips. Five study units, each with its own classroom activities, are detailed: energy resources, energy and the home, energy and food, energy and leisure, and energy in transportation. Suggestions are given for ongoing energy management educational programs to be tried out once the study units have been completed. 23 figs.

  11. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  12. Environmental control technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the research, development, and demonstration of emerging energy technologies and the promotion of energy conservation. An integral and significant part of that responsibility includes the balancing of energy goals with environmental requirements to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation. This requires that environmental effects be considered and mitigating measures be taken in all energy processes through incorporation of environmental and safety controls which are developed as an integral part of energy system design. This inventory of environmental control technology activities was initiated by the Administrator, ERDA, prior to the incorporation of that administration within the Department of Energy. This compilation of total Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) environmental control technology activities, and associated funding, related to environmental control technology identifies the resources committed by ERDA to demonstrate its objective to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of energy systems. Only ERDA research, development, and demonstration activities are covered in this report. The compilation for FY 1978 will encompass all of the DOE activities

  13. Energy-Efficient Real-Time Human Activity Recognition on Smart Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human activity recognition (HAR plays an important role in wellness-care and context-aware systems. Human activities can be recognized in real-time by using sensory data collected from various sensors built in smart mobile devices. Recent studies have focused on HAR that is solely based on triaxial accelerometers, which is the most energy-efficient approach. However, such HAR approaches are still energy-inefficient because the accelerometer is required to run without stopping so that the physical activity of a user can be recognized in real-time. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for HAR process that controls the activity recognition duration for energy-efficient HAR. We investigated the impact of varying the acceleration-sampling frequency and window size for HAR by using the variable activity recognition duration (VARD strategy. We implemented our approach by using an Android platform and evaluated its performance in terms of energy efficiency and accuracy. The experimental results showed that our approach reduced energy consumption by a minimum of about 44.23% and maximum of about 78.85% compared to conventional HAR without sacrificing accuracy.

  14. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Porrata Maury, C.; Jimenez Acosta, S.; Gonzalez Perez, T.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Sanchez, V.; Monterrey, P.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  15. Local and regional energy companies offering energy services: Key activities and implications for the business model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindström, Daniel; Ottosson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Many companies providing energy services are experiencing difficulties. • This research identifies key activities for the provision of energy services. • Findings are aggregated to the business-model level providing managerial insights. • This research identifies two different business model innovation paths. • Energy companies may need to renew parts of, or the entire, business model. - Abstract: Energy services play a key role in increasing energy efficiency in the industry. The key actors in these services are the local and regional energy companies that are increasingly implementing energy services as part of their market offering and developing service portfolios. Although expectations for energy services have been high, progress has so far been limited, and many companies offering energy services, including energy companies, are experiencing difficulties in implementing energy services and providing them to the market. Overall, this research examines what is needed for local and regional energy companies to successfully implement energy services (and consequently provide them to the market). In doing this, a two-stage process is used: first, we identify key activities for the successful implementation of energy services, and second, we aggregate the findings to the business model level. This research demonstrates that to succeed in implementing energy services, an energy company may need to renew parts or all of its existing product-based business model, formulate a new business model, or develop coexisting multiple business models. By discussing two distinct business model innovation processes, this research demonstrates that there can be different paths to success.

  16. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  17. US Department of Energy reservior research activities Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railsback, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) does not directly manage large reservoirs, but DOE laboratories conduct research on reservoir monitoring, assessment, and enhancement under several activities. These activities include (1) studies and remedial actions for reservoirs affected by releases from DOE facilities, (2) industry- sponsored research on reservoir and stream fish, (3) climate change research, (4) hydropower impact assessment studies conducted for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and (5) the DOE hydropower program. These activities fall under DOE's missions of providing support for environmentally sound energy technologies and managing the legacies of past waste disposal practices at DOE facilities. 9 refs

  18. IFP Energies nouvelles - 2013 Activity Report. 2013 financial report. Innovating for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) is a public research and training player. It has an international scope, covering the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities. As part of the public-interest mission with which it has been tasked by the public authorities, IFPEN focuses on: - providing solutions to take up the challenges facing society in terms of energy and the climate, promoting the emergence of a sustainable energy mix; - creating wealth and jobs by supporting French and European economic activity, and the competitiveness of related industrial sectors. IFPEN has proven expertise across the entire value chain, from fundamental research to industrial research and innovation. It is funded both by a state budget and by resources provided by French and foreign international partners. The aim of IFPEN's R and D programs is to overcome existing scientific and technological barriers in order to develop innovations that can be used by industry. Through its research and resulting innovations, IFPEN fosters the economic development of fields related to the energy, transport and eco-industry sectors. In so doing, it also contributes to creating wealth and jobs. IFPEN's innovations are developed industrially through close partnerships with industrial players and IFP Group subsidiaries. In both emerging and mature markets, IFPEN creates companies or acquires stakeholdings in companies of significant potential, either directly or via capital funds. In addition, IFPEN supports the development of SMEs and SMIs as part of collaboration agreements, contributing its technical and legal expertise. Representing over 50 professions, from geological engineers to power-train engineers, IFPEN's employees form a unique body of globally recognized scientific specialists and an unparalleled network of expertise. In order to carry out their research work at the cutting edge of innovation, they have

  19. Energy expenditure of sedentary screen time compared with active screen time for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Jensen, Teresa B; Foster, Randal C; Redmond, Aoife B; Walker, Brian A; Heinz, Dieter; Levine, James A

    2006-12-01

    We examined the effect of activity-enhancing screen devices on children's energy expenditure compared with performing the same activities while seated. Our hypothesis was that energy expenditure would be significantly greater when children played activity-promoting video games, compared with sedentary video games. Energy expenditure was measured for 25 children aged 8 to 12 years, 15 of whom were lean, while they were watching television seated, playing a traditional video game seated, watching television while walking on a treadmill at 1.5 miles per hour, and playing activity-promoting video games. Watching television and playing video games while seated increased energy expenditure by 20 +/- 13% and 22 +/- 12% above resting values, respectively. When subjects were walking on the treadmill and watching television, energy expenditure increased by 138 +/- 40% over resting values. For the activity-promoting video games, energy expenditure increased by 108 +/- 40% with the EyeToy (Sony Computer Entertainment) and by 172 +/- 68% with Dance Dance Revolution Ultramix 2 (Konami Digital Entertainment). Energy expenditure more than doubles when sedentary screen time is converted to active screen time. Such interventions might be considered for obesity prevention and treatment.

  20. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2008 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How CRE works: CRE regulatory authority and organisation: Powers, Organisation; Budget resources; Personnel; B - The Standing Committee for Dispute Settlement and Sanctions (CoRDiS) activity: Admissibility, Authority; C - Building a single European energy market: Overview; Organisation and coordination of the main European regulators (Work carried out collectively by European regulators, Regulator organisation and development, CRE's relations with European Community institutions, Development of CEER activities outside the European Union); CRE's European activities (The contribution of European regulators to the Third Energy Package, Integration of gas markets, Integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, Opening up markets to benefit consumers); European Community activities (The European Commission's proposals for the internal energy market: the Third Energy Package, The European Commission's proposals for fighting climate change: the Climate Package, Infringement

  1. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Colleen M; Burghardt, Paul R; Levine, James A

    2012-03-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents: Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems—including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors—that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity. PMID:22230703

  3. Application of Indenting Method for Calculation of Activation Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Seog; Kim, Tae-Ryong

    2006-01-01

    For the calculation of activation energy of cable materials, we used to apply the break-elongation test in accordance with ASTM D412(Stand Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension). For the cable jacket and insulation which have regular thickness, break-elongation test had been preferred since it showed linear character in the activation energy curve. But, for the cable which has irregular thickness or rugged surface of cable inside, break-elongation test show scattered data which can not be used for the calculation of activation energy. It is not easy to prepare break-elongation specimen for the cable smaller than 13mm diameter in accordance with ASTM D412. In the cases of above, we sometime use TGA method which heat the specimen from 50 .deg. C to 700 .deg. C at heating rates of 10, 15, 20 .deg. C/min. But, TGA is suspected for the representative of natural aging in the plant since it measure the weight decreasing rate during burning which may have different aging mechanism with that of natural aging. To solve above problems, we investigated alternatives such as indenter test. Indenter test is very convenient since it does not ask for a special test specimen as the break-elongation test does. Regular surface of cable outside is the only requirement of indenter test. Experience of activation energy calculation by using the indenter test is described herein

  4. Energy policy fundamentals research programme - Activities and projects in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Previdoli, P.

    2003-01-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reviews the activities and projects carried out within the Swiss Confederation's Energy Policy Fundamentals Research programme during 2002. The programme's main centres of activity are described, including projects involving the acquisition of data on indicators of selected cantonal energy saving measures, the possibility of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by influencing fuel prices, new construction instead of refurbishment of buildings, internalisation of risks involved with nuclear power and the marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures. In the technology monitoring area, the results of studies concerning combined heat and power systems, heat pumps and fuel cells are reviewed. Further projects are described in the building and fuel supply areas and the influence of wind power on European peak power requirements is examined. Marketing aspects concerning the thermal use of solar energy and low energy consumption housing are discussed, as is the promotion of energy efficiency in housing and industry. Also local and regional efforts being made in the energy policy area are described. The report is rounded off with a list of the various projects mentioned in the report and appropriate contact information

  5. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camporeale, Annalisa, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Demaria, Marco [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Monteleone, Emanuele [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Giorgi, Carlotta [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Wieckowski, Mariusz R. [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Pasteur Str. 3, Warsaw 02-093 (Poland); Pinton, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Poli, Valeria, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3{sup C/C}) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms.

  6. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3 C/C ) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3 C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3 C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms

  7. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency highlights of activities. 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The IAEA activities are outlined in the following areas: nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management, comparative assessment of energy sources, IAEA laboratories, research and technical cooperation, food and agriculture, human health, industry and earth sciences, physical and chemical sciences, safety of nuclear installations, radiation protection, safeguards and non-proliferation activities, public and technical information

  9. Neutron activation analysis applied to energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to a number of problems concerned with energy production and the environment. Burning of fossil fuel, the search for new sources of uranium, possible presence of toxic elements in food and water, and the relationship of trace elements to cardiovascular disease are some of the problems in which neutron activation was used. (auth)

  10. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Active Video Games in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabrava, Karina L R; Faria, Fernanda R; Lima, Jorge R P de; Guedes, Dartagnan P; Amorim, Paulo R S

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr walks, and during active games (Adventure, Boxing I, Boxing II, and Dance). During walking and active games, we also assessed physical activity using an accelerometer. The energy expenditure of the active games Adventure, Boxing I, Boxing II, and Dance was similar to that of treadmill walking at 5 km/hr in boys and girls. Heart rate was significantly higher for the game Adventure compared with walking at 3 km/hr, 4 km/hr, and 5 km/hr and the game Dance in both genders. The heart rate of girls during the games Adventure and Dance was significantly higher compared with boys. There was a statistically significant difference (p games provide energy expenditure and physical activity of moderate intensity for both genders. The use of active video games can be an interesting alternative to increase physical activity levels.

  11. Enerplan - union of solar energy professionals, activity report second half of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities during the second half of 2012 (public relations, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, projects..)

  12. Enerplan - union of solar energy professionals, activity report first half of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities during the first half of 2013 (public relations, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, projects..)

  13. Analysis of coals and biomass pyrolysis using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Chen, Zhichao; Qian, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Qunyi

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of coals and biomass was studied using thermogravimetric analysis with the distributed activation energy model. The integral method resulted in Datong bituminous coal conversions of 3-73% at activation energies of 100-486 kJ/mol. The corresponding frequency factors were e(19.5)-e(59.0)s(-1). Jindongnan lean coal conversions were 8-52% at activation energies of 100-462 kJ/mol. Their corresponding frequency factors were e(13.0)-e(55.8)s(-1). The conversion of corn-stalk skins were 1-84% at activation energies of 62-169 kJ/mol with frequency factors of e(10.8)-e(26.5)s(-1). Datong bituminous coal, Jindongnan lean coal and corn-stalk skins had approximate Gaussian distribution functions with linear ln k(0) to E relationships.

  14. Environmental physiology: effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacher, G.A.; Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Obermeyer, W.; Russell, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains a summary of research on the effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation. So far, mice have been exposed to fast neutron-gamma radiation or to the chemical effluents of an atmospheric pressure experimental fluidized-bed combustor. The physiological parameters measured included: O 2 consumption; CO 2 production; motor activity; and deep body temperatures

  15. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  16. An Active Role of Citizens on the Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrlec, D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfil climate and energy goals that EU has set for the period until 2030 and also after 2050, an engagement of the entire society is necessary. The energy sector is entering a transition towards a so called 4D model: decarbonization, decentralisation, distribution and democratisation. Citizens' engagement and responsibility in this transition requires active consumption management, energy generation and application of energy efficiency measures. To be competitive on the energy market, various forms of collective citizen collaborations are needed and to encourage people to participate in those, they have to be further educated so that the energy sector transition can succeed. The expected road transportation electrification posts further challenges on the energy sector. Horizontal connection of more EU policies, climate-energy, circular economy, digital agenda shows that a holistic approach is needed for the transition into a new, resource and energy more efficient, society.(author).

  17. 1996 Activities report on energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity survey of the French General Directory for Energy and Raw Materials, which main objectives are to preserve the competitiveness of French economy, enhance environmental protection, secure the long term supply safety and maintain the public service basis for energy supply, is presented. The main themes of the survey are: the nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the electric power inland market, the evolution of the oil market in 1996, the situation of refining in France, restructuring the BRGM (Mining and Geological Research Bureau), followed by brief facts concerning the sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power, electricity and gas common issues, gas, coal, petroleum products, raw materials and underground materials. A series of global diagrams concludes the survey

  18. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCENT SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Aerenhouts

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training

  19. Low-Force Muscle Activity Regulates Energy Expenditure after Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfel, Jessica R; Kimball, Amy L; Yen, Chu-Ling; Shields, Richard K

    2017-05-01

    Reduced physical activity is a primary risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. People with spinal cord injury (SCI) have reduced activity for a lifetime, as they cannot volitionally activate affected skeletal muscles. We explored whether low-force and low-frequency stimulation is a viable strategy to enhance systemic energy expenditure in people with SCI. This study aimed to determine the effects of low stimulation frequency (1 and 3 Hz) and stimulation intensity (50 and 100 mA) on energy expenditure in people with SCI. We also examined the relationship between body mass index and visceral adipose tissue on energy expenditure during low-frequency stimulation. Ten individuals with complete SCI underwent oxygen consumption monitoring during electrical activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 1 and 3 Hz and at 50 and 100 mA. We calculated the difference in energy expenditure between stimulation and rest and estimated the number of days that would be necessary to burn 1 lb of body fat (3500 kcal) for each stimulation protocol (1 vs 3 Hz). Both training frequencies induced a significant increase in oxygen consumption above a resting baseline level (P Energy expenditure positively correlated with stimulus intensity (muscle recruitment) and negatively correlated with adiposity (reflecting the insulating properties of adipose tissue). We estimated that 1 lb of body fat could be burned more quickly with 1 Hz training (58 d) as compared with 3 Hz training (87 d) if an identical number of pulses were delivered. Low-frequency stimulation increased energy expenditure per pulse and may be a feasible option to subsidize physical activity to improve metabolic status after SCI.

  20. Research for the energy turnaround. Phase transitions actively shape. Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanski, Petra; Wunschick, Franziska; Martin, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Conference 2014 of the Renewable Energy Research Association was held in Berlin on 6 and 7 November 2014. This book documents the contributions of the conference on research for the energy turnaround, phase transitions actively shape. After an introduction and two contributions to the political framework, the contributions to the economic phases of the energy transition, the phase of the current turn, the phases of social energy revolution, the stages of heat turnaround (Waermewende), and the stages of the mobility turn deal with the stages of development of the energy system. Finally, the Research Association Renewable Energy is briefly presented. [de

  1. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  2. Commission de regulation de l'energie. Activity report june 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets

  3. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    The document represents the 1961 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report consists of four parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry for 1961 and Related Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Power Programs for 1961; Part Three, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Four, Regulatory Activities. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  4. Challenging effective public outreach activities for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko

    2006-01-01

    An outreach activity is two-way communication for communicating information. The public outreach activities of USA and Japan for increasing mutual understanding of nuclear energy, and the effective outreach activities are stated. On USA, many communicators in the member of ANS (American Nuclear Society) play an active part in the outreach activities for the policy makers, educators, students, and stakeholders. NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute, USA) provides people with useful information such as benefits and safety control system of nuclear energy, and it has carried out an attitude survey. FPL (Florida Power and Light Company) selected the communicators by ten evaluation items and they made a group and a clear grasp of the goal, needs, and plans and then communicated residents, and sent out questionnaires. Some examples of the special education program for training the communicators in USA are described. In Japan, JAEA gave lessons of nuclear energy, radiation and disaster prevention at the primary, junior high and high schools, friendly talks with local residents, preparing the teaching materials with residents and training of communicators. (S.Y.)

  5. Flowable Conducting Particle Networks in Redox-Active Electrolytes for Grid Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzell, K. B.; Boota, M.; Kumbur, E. C.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a new hybrid approach toward achieving high volumetric energy and power densities in an electrochemical flow capacitor for grid energy storage. The electrochemical flow capacitor suffers from high self-discharge and low energy density because charge storage is limited to the available surface area (electric double layer charge storage). Here, we examine two carbon materials as conducting particles in a flow battery electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple. Highly porous activated carbon spheres (CSs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated as conducting particle networks that facilitate both faradaic and electric double layer charge storage. Charge storage contributions (electric double layer and faradaic) are distinguished for flow-electrodes composed of MWCNTs and activated CSs. A MWCNT flow-electrode based in a redox-active electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple demonstrates 18% less self-discharge, 10 X more energy density, and 20 X greater power densities (at 20 mV s-1) than one based on a non-redox active electrolyte. Furthermore, a MWCNT redox-active flow electrode demonstrates 80% capacitance retention, and >95% coulombic efficiency over 100 cycles, indicating the feasibility of utilizing conducting networks with redox chemistries for grid energy storage.

  6. Our future. Energy transition 2015-2050. ADEME's 2015 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    After a graph containing several data illustrating ADEME's activities, this report proposes an overview of the various activities undertaken by the ADEME in different fields: the struggle against climate change (the role of the ADEME during the COP21, association with the British Carbon Disclosure Project or CDP, interviews of a representative of the Club ADEME international and of the chairman of the Tunisian Agency for energy management), the objectives of a decrease of greenhouse gas emissions by 75 per cent by 2050 (number of households producing electricity, related activities of the French General Commission for Investment, development of new wooden houses, R and D activities within the ADEME, prospective study for a 100 per cent renewable electricity, projects in the sea energy sector, production of biogas, decrease of wastes, shared electric vehicles, recycling and eco-design), the development of circular economy (through a better waste management, project for titanium recycling), the evolution towards energy transition (housing renovation, soil revival, development of renewable energy technologies, use of wood-energy, certificates of energy saving, use of sea water as heating source, actions in the transport sector). A last part proposes a synthetic graph with key data on ADEME's financial assessment and human resources

  7. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. 3. Activity report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The main activities of the Agency are reviewed: study of nuclear power trends; regulatory aspects of nuclear power; technical developments: Eurochemic, Halden, Dragon, food irradiation, gas-cooled fast reactors, direct conversion, isotopic batteries; nuclear energy information

  8. International codes and model intercomparison for intermediate energy activation yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, M.; Nagel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for this intercomparison came from data needs of accelerator-based waste transmutation, energy amplification and medical therapy. The aim of this exercise is to determine the degree of reliability of current nuclear reaction models and codes when calculating activation yields in the intermediate energy range up to 5000 MeV. Emphasis has been placed for a wide range of target elements ( O, Al, Fe, Co, Zr and Au). This work is mainly based on calculation of (P,xPyN) integral cross section for incident proton. A qualitative description of some of the nuclear models and code options employed is made. The systematics of graphical presentation of the results allows a quick quantitative measure of agreement or deviation. This code intercomparison highlights the fact that modeling calculations of energy activation yields may at best have uncertainties of a factor of two. The causes of such discrepancies are multi-factorial. Problems are encountered which are connected with the calculation of nuclear masses, binding energies, Q-values, shell effects, medium energy fission and Fermi break-up. (A.C.)

  9. Climate change impacts on chosen activities from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The present work, results of a study carried out about the possible impact of climate change on the energy sector in the province Camaguey are shown. First of all, the main activities in companies, utilities, and farms related to the most significant energy consumption were chosen in order to model corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. Impacts were determined taking into account differences between present and future consumptions for each kind of energy. In developed countries, this kind of work is done using well-known empirical-statistical models, which usually require a lot of data at a nation-wide scale, but to attempt it in an undeveloped country demands the use of specific methodology, which in this case was non-existent and required us to create it. This resulted in a carefully posed question since we had to take into consideration that the spatial scale is only that of a province, and so it was necessary, above all, to study specific characteristics of provincial fuel consumption. We used the Magic-Scengen system and SRES scenarios, and outputs of general circulation models like HadCM2 to obtain values of chosen climatic variables for use in energy consumption regression models, previously developed for each kind of activity in the corresponding companies, firm, and facilities included in the present research. It made possible to estimate energy consumption in each activity at the selected time periods centered at 2020, 2050, and 2080. The study shows that impact could rise the consumption by 2,5% of the present energy level in this territory

  10. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), Grades 7-12: Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Doris G.

    Described is the Social Studies component of the Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS), a multidisciplinary energy education program designed for infusion into the curriculum of grades seven through twelve. Aspects of the energy situation addressed in these lessons include resource finiteness, exponential growth, standard of living,…

  11. Energy homeostasis and running wheel activity during pregnancy in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, S R; Carter, K M; Grattan, D R

    2018-05-05

    Pregnancy and lactation are metabolically challenging states, where the mother must supply all the energy requirements for the developing fetus and growing pups respectively. The aim of the current study was to characterize many aspects of energy homeostasis before and during pregnancy in the mouse, and to examine the role of voluntary activity on changes in energy expenditure during pregnancy. In a secondary aim, we evaluate measures of energy homeostasis during pregnancy in mice that successfully reared their litter or in mice that went on to abandon their litter, to determine if an impairment in pregnancy-induced adaptation of energy homeostasis might underlie the abandonment of pups soon after birth. During pregnancy, food intake was increased, characterized by increased meal size and duration but not number of meals per day. The duration of time spent inactive, predicted to indicate sleep behaviour, was increased both early and late in pregnancy compared to pre-pregnancy levels. Increased x + y beam breaks, as a measure of activity increased during pregnancy and this reflected an increase in ambulatory behaviour in mid pregnancy and an increase in non-ambulatory movement in late pregnancy. Energy expenditure, as measured by indirect calorimetry, increased across pregnancy, likely due to the growth and development of fetal tissue. There was also a dramatic reduction in voluntary wheel running as soon as the mice became pregnant. Compared with successful pregnancies and lactations, pregnancies where pups were abandoned soon after birth were associated with reduced body weight gain and an increase in running wheel activity at the end of pregnancy, but no difference in food intake or energy expenditure. Overall, during pregnancy there are multiple adaptations to change energy homeostasis, resulting in partitioning of provisions of energy to the developing fetus and storing energy for future metabolic demands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear Energy Division. 2009 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a presentation of the future investment programme of the nuclear energy department at the French national Nuclear Research Center (CEA), this report proposes a description of tomorrow's industrial nuclear systems (back-end of future fuel cycle, fourth generation systems, basic scientific and technological research), describes how current nuclear industrial systems are optimized (front-end and back-end of fuel cycle, second and third generation reactors). It presents the main tools for nuclear development: simulation programme, the Jules Horowitz reactor project, maintenance of specific facilities, research valorisation. It reports the activities related to the clean-up and dismantling in different nuclear sites, presents the activities of CEA's nuclear research centres (Saclay, Cadarache, Marcoule), briefly presents the transverse material programme, recalls some events, and gives some key figures

  13. International Atomic Energy Agency: Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, A.

    1992-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1992. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  14. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1991-09-01

    This document provides a brief, well-illustrated summary of the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the months up to September 1991. Especially mentioned are the programmes to enhance the safety of nuclear power, from the study of nuclear reactors to assessing the radiological consequences of reactor accidents, and the areas of non-proliferation and safeguards

  15. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    The document covers activities for the period January - December 1960. The report consists of two parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1960 and Related Activities; and Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs. Twenty-one appendices are also included.

  16. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  17. Body Segment Kinematics and Energy Expenditure in Active Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgit; Hartmann, Michael; Böhm, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) in active videogames (AVGs) is a component for assessing its benefit for cardiovascular health. Existing evidence suggests that AVGs are able to increase EE above rest and when compared with playing passive videogames. However, the association between body movement and EE remains unclear. Furthermore, for goal-directed game design, it is important to know the contribution of body segments to EE. This knowledge will help to acquire a certain level of exercise intensity during active gaming. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the best predictors of EE from body segment energies, acceleration, and heart rate during different game situations. EE and body segment movement of 17 subjects, aged 22.1 ± 2.5 years, were measured in two different AVGs. In randomized order, the subjects played a handheld-controlled Nintendo(®) Wii™ tennis (NWT) game and a whole body-controlled Sony EyeToy(®) waterfall (ETW) game. Body segment movement was analyzed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. From the video data, mean values of mechanical energy change and acceleration of 10 body segments were analyzed. Measured EE was significantly higher in ETW (7.8 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]) than in NWT (3.4 ± 1.0 METs). The best prediction parameter for the more intense ETW game was the energy change of the right thigh and for the less intense hand-controlled NWT game was the energy change of the upper torso. Segment acceleration was less accurate in predicting EE. The best predictors of metabolic EE were the thighs and the upper torso in whole body and handheld-controlled games, respectively. Increasing movement of these body segments would lead to higher physical activity intensity during gaming, reducing sedentary behavior.

  18. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Sarcopenia in Black South African Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

  19. 77 FR 46089 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial... this action are participants in EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors. Title: Information Collection Activities Associated with EPA's ENERGY STAR Program in the Commercial and...

  20. A thermal extrapolation method for the effective temperatures and internal energies of activated ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meot-Ner (Mautner), Michael; Somogyi, Árpád

    2007-11-01

    The internal energies of dissociating ions, activated chemically or collisionally, can be estimated using the kinetics of thermal dissociation. The thermal Arrhenius parameters can be combined with the observed dissociation rate of the activated ions using kdiss = Athermalexp(-Ea,thermal/RTeff). This Arrhenius-type relation yields the effective temperature, Teff, at which the ions would dissociate thermally at the same rate, or yield the same product distributions, as the activated ions. In turn, Teff is used to calculate the internal energy of the ions and the energy deposited by the activation process. The method yields an energy deposition efficiency of 10% for a chemical ionization proton transfer reaction and 8-26% for the surface collisions of various peptide ions. Internal energies of ions activated by chemical ionization or by gas phase collisions, and of ions produced by desorption methods such as fast atom bombardment, can be also evaluated. Thermal extrapolation is especially useful for ion-molecule reaction products and for biological ions, where other methods to evaluate internal energies are laborious or unavailable.

  1. Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

  2. Energy efficiency and human activity: Past trends, future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.; Howarth, R.B.; Steiner, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book, sponsored by the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI), presents a detailed analysis of changes in world energy use over the past twenty years. It considers the future prospects of energy demand, and discusses ways of restraining growth in consumption in order to meet environmental and economic development goals. Based on a decade of research by the authors and their colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in collaboration with the SEI, it presents information on energy use and the forces shaping it in the industrial, developing, and formerly planned economies. Looking separately at industry, passenger travel, freight transport, and the residential and service sectors, the authors describe the impact on energy use of growth in activity, structural change, and change in energy intensities, and discuss the role of energy prices and energy conservation policies in the industrial countries and the former Soviet Union. The book presents an overview of the potential for improving energy efficiency, and discusses the policies that could help realize the potential. While calling for strong action by governments and the private sector, the authors stress the importance of considering the full range of factors that will shape realization of the energy efficiency potential around the world

  3. Annual activity report of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The second year activities of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) was reported as follows: Activites of two R and D centres at Tehran, and one in Isfahan which is concentrated on technical and industrial problems of nuclear power plant; site selection from geographical, geological and environmental points of view; nuclear power construction in the vicinity of Bushehr; supply and quantity survey of nuclear fuel for the next 20 years and the activity program of AEOI on nuclear safety. This report also included nuclear information centre activities plus administrative organization and international relations activities

  4. Energy expenditure while playing active and inactive video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Woodruff, Sarah J; Manske, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    To examine energy expenditure (EE) when playing active and inactive videogames (VG). Predicted EE was measured among 51 undergraduate students while playing active and inactive VG (Ontario, Canada). Predicted EE was significantly higher playing the active VG compared to the inactive VG according to heart rate monitor (97.4 kcal vs 64.7 kcal) and SenseWear armband (192.4 kcal vs 42.3 kcal) estimates. Active VG may be a viable intervention tool for increasing EE among students who would otherwise be spending time in sedentary screen-based behaviors.

  5. Correlation between viscous-flow activation energy and phase diagram in four systems of Cu-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Shuang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian Xiufang, E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ren Zhenfeng [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2010-09-01

    Activation energy is obtained from temperature dependence of viscosities by means of a fitting to the Arrhenius equation for liquid alloys of Cu-Sb, Cu-Te, Cu-Sn and Cu-Ag systems. We found that the changing trend of activation energy curves with concentration is similar to that of liquidus in the phase diagrams. Moreover, a maximum value of activation energy is in the composition range of the intermetallic phases and a minimum value of activation energy is located at the eutectic point. The correlation between the activation energy and the phase diagrams has been further discussed.

  6. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  7. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The document represents the first annual reporting versus semiannual reporting of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report consists of three parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1959 and Related Activities; Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Three, Management of Radioactive Wastes. Nineteen appendices are also included.

  8. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kulseng, Bård; Truby, Helen; Martins, Cátia

    2018-06-01

    Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. 35 adults (age: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m 2 ) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting respiratory quotient (RQ), ExEff (10, 25, and 50 W), subjective appetite ratings (hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption (PFC)), and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin (AG), cholecystokinin (CCK), total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and insulin) were measured before and after WL. Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR decreased and ExEff at 25 and 50 W increased (P intermittent, does not appear to modulate the compensatory mechanisms activated by weight loss. NCT02169778 (the study was registered in clinicaltrial.gov). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and function of cardiac muscle in energy deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lachowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frequently repeated statement that energy restriction is a factor that improves cardiovascular system function seems to be not fully truth. Low energy intake modifies the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism. Thyroid hormones, as modulators of the expression and activity of many cardiomyocyte proteins, control heart function. Decreased thyroid hormone levels and their disturbanced conversion and action result in alternation of cardiac remodeling, disorder of calcium homeostasis and diminish myocardial contractility. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of energy restriction effects on thyroidal axis activity, thyroid hormone peripheral metabolism and action in target tissues, especially in cardiac myocytes. We also showed the existence of energy restriction-thyroid-heart pathway.

  10. An Energy and Application Scenario Aware Active RFID Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Björn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication protocol used is a key issue in order to make the most of the advantages of active RFID technologies. In this paper we introduce a carrier sense medium access data communication protocol that dynamically adjusts its back-off algorithm to best suit the actual application at hand. Based on a simulation study of the effect on tag energy cost, read-out delay, and message throughput incurred by some typical back-off algorithms in a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance active RFID protocol, we conclude that by dynamic tuning of the initial contention window size and back-off interval coefficient, tag energy consumption and read-out delay can be significantly lowered. We show that it is possible to decrease the energy consumption per tag payload delivery with more than 10 times, resulting in a 50% increase in tag battery lifetime. We also discuss the advantage of being able to predict the number of tags present at the RFID-reader as well as ways of doing it.

  11. Activity Energy Expenditure and Mobility Limitation in Older Adults: Differential Associations by Sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manini, T.M.; Everhart, J.E.; Patel, K.V.; Schoeller, D.A.; Cummings, S.; Mackey, D.C.; Bauer, D.C.; Simonsick, E.M.; Cobert, L.H.; Visser, M.; Tylavsky, F.; Newman, A.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether higher activity energy expenditure, assessed by using doubly labeled water, was associated with a reduced decline in mobility limitation among 248 older community-dwelling US adults aged 70-82 years enrolled in 1998-1999. Activity energy

  12. CEA nuclear energy Directorate - Activity report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After an overview of the activities of the Directorate at the international level, of its scientific activities, and of the consideration given to quality, and a presentation of the transverse program on advanced materials, this report proposes presentations of activities in different domains: future nuclear industrial systems (reactors of 4. generation, back-end of the future cycle, sustainable management of nuclear materials, fundamental scientific and technological research), optimization of the present industrial nuclear activity (reactors of 2. and 3. generation, front-end and back-end of the fuel cycle), the main tools for nuclear development (numerical simulation, the Jules Horowitz reactor), valorisation, economic support of Haute-Marne and Meuse territories (the Syndiese project), nuclear dismantling and decontamination (dismantling projects, projects and works in Fontenay-aux-Roses, Grenoble and Saclay, waste and material flow management, nuclear service facilities, transports). It also presents the activities of some specific CEA centres like Marcoule (R and D in fuel cycle), Cadarache (future energies) and Saclay (nuclear sciences and simulation of reactors and fuel cycle)

  13. Estimating physical activity energy expenditure with the Kinect Sensor in an exergaming environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nathan

    Full Text Available Active video games that require physical exertion during game play have been shown to confer health benefits. Typically, energy expended during game play is measured using devices attached to players, such as accelerometers, or portable gas analyzers. Since 2010, active video gaming technology incorporates marker-less motion capture devices to simulate human movement into game play. Using the Kinect Sensor and Microsoft SDK this research aimed to estimate the mechanical work performed by the human body and estimate subsequent metabolic energy using predictive algorithmic models. Nineteen University students participated in a repeated measures experiment performing four fundamental movements (arm swings, standing jumps, body-weight squats, and jumping jacks. Metabolic energy was captured using a Cortex Metamax 3B automated gas analysis system with mechanical movement captured by the combined motion data from two Kinect cameras. Estimations of the body segment properties, such as segment mass, length, centre of mass position, and radius of gyration, were calculated from the Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's equations of de Leva, with adjustment made for posture cost. GPML toolbox implementation of the Gaussian Process Regression, a locally weighted k-Nearest Neighbour Regression, and a linear regression technique were evaluated for their performance on predicting the metabolic cost from new feature vectors. The experimental results show that Gaussian Process Regression outperformed the other two techniques by a small margin. This study demonstrated that physical activity energy expenditure during exercise, using the Kinect camera as a motion capture system, can be estimated from segmental mechanical work. Estimates for high-energy activities, such as standing jumps and jumping jacks, can be made accurately, but for low-energy activities, such as squatting, the posture of static poses should be considered as a contributing factor. When translated into the

  14. Fuel feeds function: Energy balance and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, A; Viergutz, T; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Schweigel-Röntgen, M

    2013-01-01

    A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation, the phase of the cell cycle preceding the DNA synthetic phase has hardly been investigated, but the few studies suggest that leukocyte activation may also be impaired by the limited energy/nutrient availability. Leukocyte activation is characterized by manifold processes, thus, we used the cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a measure of ATP turnover to support all these processes. We hypothesized that the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - in terms of oxygen consumed over basal levels after in vitro stimulation - is altered by energy balance around parturition. We studied peripartum high-yielding dairy cows because they undergo substantial fluctuations in energy intake, energy output and body fat mass. We established a fluorescence-based test strategy allowing for long-term (≥24h) quantification of O(2)-consumption and studied the peripartum period from 5 weeks ante partum to 5 weeks postpartum. In addition, we determined cellular lactate production, DNA/RNA synthesis and cell size and zoo-technical parameters such as animal energy intake and milk yield were assessed, as well as selected plasma parameters, e.g. glucose concentration. The basal OCR of PBMC from pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=6, -5 weeks ante partum) was 1.19±0.15 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) and increased to maximum levels of 2.54±0.49 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC. The basal OCR did not change over the peripartum period. Whereas the activation indices, herein defined as the PHA-induced 24h-increase of OCR above baseline, amounted to 1.1±0.3, 4.2±0.3, 4.1±1.1, 2.1±0.3, and

  15. Rationalization of activation energies for creep of dispersion strengthened aluminium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, F.; Ruano, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    The high apparent activation energies for creep of various aluminum dispersion strengthened materials have been analyzed. A direct relationship between the activation energies and stress exponents for every material has been observed. The values of the Q a p/n a p ratios group around some constant values, Q m , which depend solely on the deformation mechanism. Therefore, Q m establishes an easy, fast and reliable criterion to determine the underlying creep deformation mechanism of any reinforced materials. (Author) 18 refs

  16. The activation energy for loop growth in Cu and Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.; Leffers, T.; Singh, B.N.

    1978-08-01

    The apparent activation energy for the growth of interstitial dislocation loops in copper, Cu-1%Ni, Cu-2%Ni, and Cu-5%Ni during high voltage electron microscope irradiation was determined. The apparent activation energy for loop growth in all these materials can be taken to be 0.34eV+-0.02eV. This value together with the corresponding value of 0.44eV+-0.02eV determined earlier for Cu-10%Ni is discussed with reference to the void growth rates observed in these materials. The apparent activation energy for loop growth in copper (and in Cu-1%Ni that has a void growth rate similar to that in pure copper) is interpreted as twice the vacancy migration energy (indicating that divacancies do not play any significant role). For the materials with higher Ni content (in which the void growth rate is much lower than that in Cu and Cu-1%Ni) the measured apparent activation energy is interpreted to be characteristic of loops positioned fairly close to the foil surface and not of loops in ''bulk material''. From the present results in combination with the earlier results for Cu-10%Ni it is concluded that interstitial trapping is the most likely explanation of the reduced void growth rate in Cu-Ni alloys. (author)

  17. Statistical analysis of activation and reaction energies with quasi-variational coupled-cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joshua A.; Knowles, Peter J.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of quasi-variational coupled-cluster (QV) theory applied to the calculation of activation and reaction energies has been investigated. A statistical analysis of results obtained for six different sets of reactions has been carried out, and the results have been compared to those from standard single-reference methods. In general, the QV methods lead to increased activation energies and larger absolute reaction energies compared to those obtained with traditional coupled-cluster theory.

  18. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  19. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  20. Active motions of Brownian particles in a generalized energy-depot model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Koo Kim, Chul; Lee, Kong-Ju-Bock

    2008-01-01

    We present a generalized energy-depot model in which the rate of conversion of the internal energy into motion can be dependent on the position and velocity of a particle. When the conversion rate is a general function of the velocity, the active particle exhibits diverse patterns of motion, including a braking mechanism and a stepping motion. The phase trajectories of the motion are investigated in a systematic way. With a particular form of the conversion rate dependent on the position and velocity, the particle shows a spontaneous oscillation characterizing a negative stiffness. These types of active behaviors are compared with similar phenomena observed in biology, such as the stepping motion of molecular motors and amplification in the hearing mechanism. Hence, our model can provide a generic understanding of the active motion related to the energy conversion and also a new control mechanism for nano-robots. We also investigate the effect of noise, especially on the stepping motion, and observe random walk-like behavior as expected.

  1. Assessment of the physical activity, body mass index and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human ...

  2. French National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination - Ancre, Activity Report 2015-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, Nathalie; Allard, Francis; Becue, Thierry; Bernard, Herve; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Brault, Pascal; Carre, Franck; Chabrelie, Marie-Francoise; Charrue, Herve; Colonna, Paul; Compere, Chantal; Criqui, Patrick; David, Sylvain; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Dollet, Alain; Duplan, Jean-Luc; Fabre, Francoise; Ferrant, Pierre; Flamant, Gilles; Forti, Laurent; Gentier, Sylvie; Gouy, Jean-Philippe; Hadj-Said, Nouredine; Lacour, Jean-Jacques; Latroche, Michel; Legrand, Jack; Lemoine, Fabrice; Le Net, Elisabeth; Le Thiez, Pierre; Lhomme-Maublanc, Julie; Lucchese, Paul; Malbranche, Philippe; Mermilliod, Nicole; Most, Jean-Michel; Rondot, Yolande; Tilagone, Richard; Touboul, Francoise; Uster, Guillaume; Vidal, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Created on 17 July 2009, ANCRE (French National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination) brings together 19 research and innovation bodies and higher education institution consortia in the field of energy. Its missions, carried out in liaison with competitiveness clusters and funding agencies, are to: - reinforce synergies and partnerships between research bodies, universities and companies, - identify scientific and technical challenges hampering industrial development, - propose research and innovation programs and approaches to their implementation, - contribute to the development of national research strategy in the field of energy, as well as funding agency program development. Its 2 main societal challenges are: Clean, secure and efficient energy, and Sustainable mobility and urban systems. ANCRE mobilizes 200 scientists involved in 10 programmatic groups (1 - Energy from biomass, 2 - Fossil energy, geothermal energy, critical metals, 3 - Nuclear energy, 4 - Solar energy, 5 - Ocean, hydraulic and wind energy, 6 - Transport, 7 - Buildings, 8 - Industries and agriculture, 9 - Energy forecasting and economics, 10 - Energy networks and associated storage) and 2 cross-disciplinary groups (Strategy, Europe and international). This activity report presents the ANCRE's 2015-2016 Highlights, its future challenges, its contribution to public policy-making, its close cooperation with the French national research agency and active participation in European programs, its mobilizing, structuring and uniting communities, and its knowledge production and dissemination

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN PREEXPONENTIAL FACTOR AND ACTIVATION ENERGY OF ISOAMYLALCOHOL HYDROGENOLYSIS ON PLATINUM CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono Triyono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arrhenius equation stated that reaction will proceed faster at higher temperature and with lower activation energy (Ea. Many literatures reported that preexponential factor (A is constant for certain reaction and there is no relation between A and Ea. Experiment on the reaction of isoamylalcohol hydrogenolysis showed that logarithm of A increased linearly with Ea. The result of this investigation suggests that the rate of a process is affected by the number of active centers on the surface of a catalysts, which influences the value of the pre-exponential term in the expression for the rate constant of a reaction. An increase in the number of active centers corresponds to a higher value of A, the active centers would be less effective and is attended by a growth in the value of Ea. Therefore, reaction with lower activation energy will not always has higher reaction rate due to decreasing of Ea.   Keywords: isoamylalcohol hydrogenolysis, preexponential factor, activation  energy.

  4. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and obesity : increased energy intake or decreased physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.; Postma, A.; Stolk, R. P.; Kamps, W. A.

    Background Obesity is a well-known problem in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL), and it might be the result of an excess in energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. The aim of this study is to describe energy intake and physical activity during treatment for ALL with

  5. Distributed activation energy model for kinetic analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Based on the new analysis of distributed activation energy model, a bicentral distribution model was introduced to the analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal. The hydropyrolysis for linear temperature programming with and without holding stage were mathematically described and the corresponding kinetic expressions were achieved. Based on the kinetics, the hydropyrolysis (HyPr) and multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPr) of Xundian brown coal was simulated. The results shows that both Mo catalyst and 2-stage holding can lower the apparent activation energy of hydropyrolysis and make activation energy distribution become narrow. Besides, there exists an optimum Mo loading of 0.2% for HyPy of Xundian lignite. 10 refs.

  6. Energy and human activity: Steps toward a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for improving energy efficiency is enormous, but exploitation of this resource has slowed in recent years. This is regrettable for several reasons. First, not incorporating higher efficiency now often means passing up opportunities that will be more expensive or even impossible to implement in the future. This is especially true for long-lived capital, such as new buildings. Second, reduced research and development into new efficiency options will make it more difficult to accelerate the pace of efficiency improvements in the future. Finally, the flow of more efficient technologies to the non-OECD countries will be hindered by the slowdown in efficiency improvement in the OECD countries. Well-designed policies can help recapture the momentum that has been lost. Some key steps for stimulating more careful use of energy are: rationalize energy pricing and gradually internalize environmental externalities; improve present energy-using capital; implement energy-efficiency standards or agreements for new products and buildings; encourage higher energy efficiency in new products and buildings; promote international cooperation for R ampersand D technology transfer; adjust policies that encourage energy-intensive activities; and promote population restraint worldwide. 25 refs

  7. Activity-Based Approach for Teaching Aqueous Solubility, Energy, and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Laura; Marano, Nadia; Glazier, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    We describe an activity-based approach for teaching aqueous solubility to introductory chemistry students that provides a more balanced presentation of the roles of energy and entropy in dissolution than is found in most general chemistry textbooks. In the first few activities, students observe that polar substances dissolve in water, whereas…

  8. Determination of activation energy for animal fat and crude glycerol using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Crhristoph [University of Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Mortari, Daniela; Avila, Ivonete; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos; Silva, Mario Lucio Cristovam; Crnkovic, Paula Manoel [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: iavila@sc.usp.br, asantos@sc.usp.br, paulam@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The present study deals with the determination of the activation energy of animal fat and crude glycerol from a biodiesel production plant. The activation energies were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range of {delta}T = 25-600 deg C. The transient experiments were run for every sample (10 mg) at five different heating rates (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0 deg C/min) in atmosphere of synthetic air. It is possible to establish a direct relation between the activation energy and the ignition delay, which characterizes the combustion quality of a fuel. The activation energy could be determined as a function of the conversion degree and the temperature by the isoconversional model free kinetics. Four distinct phases were found for each sample and one of these phases was identified as low-temperature oxidation (LTO). As this region is responsible for the first vaporization of the fuel, the activation energies were determined for this special region along the whole conversion range (0 - 100 %). The following mean values could be determined: animal fat = 108.87 +- 52.28 kJ/mol, and crude glycerol = 65.37+- 13.17 kJ/mol. From these data, it was possible to conclude that animal fat is the most complex sample between the ones studied in this work (author)

  9. Energy-active walls for solar houses made by using energy accumulating panels with ecologically safe panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the opportunities for separate assemblage and dismounting of the structural layers of energy-accumulating panels, meant for construction of energy-active walls, which could find an application in the process of building of so called 'solar houses'. A situation has been considered, for a panel, whose structure layers after the expiration of their operational term could be dismounted separately and could be recycled for secondary use

  10. Accuracy of a novel multi-sensor board for measuring physical activity and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; Lester, Jonathan; Migotsky, Sean; Goh, Jorming; Higgins, Lisa; Borriello, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    The ability to relate physical activity to health depends on accurate measurement. Yet, none of the available methods are fully satisfactory due to several factors. This study examined the accuracy of a multi-sensor board (MSB) that infers activity types (sitting, standing, walking, stair climbing, and running) and estimates energy expenditure in 57 adults (32 females) 39.2 ± 13.5 years. In the laboratory, subjects walked and ran on a treadmill over a select range of speeds and grades for 3 min each (six stages in random order) while connected to a stationary calorimeter, preceded and followed by brief sitting and standing. On a different day, subjects completed scripted activities in the field connected to a portable calorimeter. The MSB was attached to a strap at the right hip. Subjects repeated one condition (randomly selected) on the third day. Accuracy of inferred activities compared with recorded activities (correctly identified activities/total activities × 100) was 97 and 84% in the laboratory and field, respectively. Absolute accuracy of energy expenditure [100 - absolute value (kilocalories MSB - kilocalories calorimeter/kilocalories calorimeter) × 100] was 89 and 76% in the laboratory and field, the later being different (P calorimeter. Test-retest reliability for energy expenditure was significant in both settings (P type in laboratory and field settings and energy expenditure during treadmill walking and running although the device underestimates energy expenditure in the field.

  11. Protein energy malnutrition increases arginase activity in monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corware, Karina; Yardley, Vanessa; Mack, Christopher; Schuster, Steffen; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Herath, Shanthi; Bergin, Philip; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased pathogen replication. Our results show that monocytes and macrophages are significantly increased in the bone marrow and blood of mice fed on a protein low diet. No alteration in the capacity of bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from malnourished mice to phagocytose particles, to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide and to kill intracellular Leishmania parasites was detected. However, macrophages and monocytes from malnourished mice express significantly more arginase both in vitro and in vivo. Using an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis, we show that following protein energy malnutrition, the increased parasite burden measured in the spleen of these mice coincided with increased arginase activity and that macrophages provide a more permissive environment for parasite growth. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism in protein energy malnutrition that might contributes to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases by upregulating arginase activity in myeloid cells.

  12. Activation energy of etching for CR-39 as a function of linear energy transfer of the incident particles

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, E M

    1999-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the radiation damage caused by the incident particles on the activation energy of etching for CR-39 samples. The damage produced by the incident particle is expressed in terms of the linear energy transfer (LET). CR-39 samples from American Acrylic were irradiated to three different LET particles. These are N (LET sub 2 sub 0 sub 0 = 20 KeV/mu m) as a light particle, Fe (LET sub 2 sub 0 sub 0 = 110 KeV/mu m) as a medium particle and fission fragments (ff) from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source as heavy particles. In general the bulk etch rate was calculated using the weight difference method and the track etch rate was determined using the track geometry at various temperatures (50-90 deg. C) and concentrations (4-9 N) of the NaOH etchant. The average activation energy E sub b related to the bulk etch rate v sub b was calculated from 1n v sub b vs. 1/T. The average activation energy E sub t related to the track etch rate v sub t was estimated from 1n v sub t vs. 1/T. It...

  13. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of

  15. Comparison of energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water technique with energy intake, heart rate, and activity recording in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, S.; Westerterp, K.R.; Brueck, K.

    1989-01-01

    Average daily energy expenditure determined by the doubly labeled water technique (dlwEE) was compared in six subjects (aged 20-30 y) over 2 wk under usual living conditions; average food energy intake and energy expenditure estimated from individual diary records of physical activity. In addition, energy expenditure was estimated from 24-h heart rate recordings carried out on two randomly chosen days of the 2-wk period. The group means of the dlwEE were 1.94 +/- 0.24 (means +/- SD) times larger than resting metabolic rate (= 1.94 met) and nearly identical to the average daily energy intake (1.93 +/- 0.23 met). Energy expenditure estimated from the diaries of activity and from the 24-h heart rate recording varied between 1.67 and 2.24 met depending on the calculation procedure. The dlwEE (1.94 +/- 0.24 met) is much higher than that recently determined for sedentary people (1.25 met) and thus explains that young students may achieve body weight balance with a relatively high daily food energy intake

  16. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

    2007-11-15

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  17. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, Eraldo; Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well

  18. A road to more and cheaper energy conservation. Evaluation of all the Danish energy saving activities; En vej til flere og billigere energibesparelser. Evaluering af samtlige danske energispareaktiviteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, K.; Damgaard, C.K. (and others)

    2008-12-15

    In total, about 650 million DKK yearly is used in Denmark for energy conservation incentives - 300 million DKK for the electric utilities' energy saving activities, 250 million DKK for energy labelling of buildings, and 100 million DKK for electric power saving activities. The present evaluation of all the Danish energy conservation activities has been performed based on the energy political agreements of 10 June 2005 and of 21 February 2008. The objective is to strengthen and develop the Danish energy savings efforts based on the experiences with the present activities and incentives. The evaluation is performed through data compilations from interviews with selected target groups and from questionnaires to the electric utilities. Furthermore, a statistical analysis was performed of the development of the energy consumption in eight countries, and information of other countries' energy conservation activities was compiled. The energy saving activities and incentives that are evaluated are: Taxes and CO{sub 2} quotas, the electric utilities' activities, energy labelling of buildings, the Electric Power Saving Trust, building codes, labelling of appliances, energy conservation requirements for public workplaces, agreement with the energy intensive industry, and the Energy Conservation Fund. The evaluation of these nine energy saving activities and incentives shows, that they were established over several years as answers to different energy political requirements. The coordination of these activities is in some cases insufficient. At the same time, the implementation of EU's CO{sub 2} quota system is a challenge to the other incentives. For example, the quota system has increased the incentive for electric power savings because of a higher power price but on the other hand it does not result in CO{sub 2} reductions within the actual quota period. Several of the savings systems seem to have too little focus on a systematic documentation of their

  19. Calculation of Activation Energy by OIT Method for aging evaluation of NPP cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung-Heun; Kim, Jong-Seog; Cho, Bok-Gee

    2006-01-01

    Extending the lifetime of nuclear power plant is one of the most important concerns in the world nuclear industry. Cables are one of the long live items which have not been considered to be replaced during the design life of NPP. In order to simulate the natural aging in nuclear power plant, a study on accelerated aging needs to be conducted and to carry out the accelerated aging test, we must calculate the activation energy of the cable if we don't have the activation energy information. The activation energy is the most important element and it can be calculated by indentor modulus and elongation data and so on. But there is often only a limited quantity of material available in the deposit for testing, so it is important the samples for any destructive test are conserved as much as possible. But if there is only a limited quantity of the material, OIT(Oxidation Induction Time) is very useful with calculating activation energy and evaluation of the cable lifetime

  20. Physical activity, energy intake, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Dai, Shifan; Steffen, Lyn M; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Shah, Syed M; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2009-07-01

    It is unclear to what extent factors affecting energy balance contribute to the development of body fatness in youth. The objective of the current study was to describe the relationship of physical activity, energy intake, and sedentary behavior to BMI, fat free-mass index (FFMI), and fat mass index (FMI) in children aged 10-18 years. In the subsample studied, participants were 245 girls and 227 boys (aged > or =10 years at entry or during follow-up assessments, or aged 11-14 years at entry) followed for 4 years from entry at ages 8, 11, or 14 years. At baseline and anniversary examinations, trained interviewers used a questionnaire to assess time spent daily in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior, and energy intake (kcal/day). Sexual maturation was assessed by direct observation of pubic-hair development (Tanner Stages 1-5). Triplicate recordings of height and weight were used to estimate BMI by the standard formula (kg/m(2)); bioelectric impedance was used to estimate percent body fat for calculating FFMI and FMI (kg/m(2)). Multilevel models were used to examine the association of MVPA, energy intake, and sedentary behavior with BMI, FFMI, and FMI. Data were analyzed in 2007-2008. Energy intake was unrelated to FMI or FFMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation or in any model to BMI. Sedentary behavior was unrelated to FMI in any model or to FFMI or BMI in models adjusted for age or sexual maturation. MVPA was inversely related to FMI. In children aged 10-18 years, MVPA was inversely associated with fat mass and with BMI. Investigations in youth of dietary intake and physical activity, including interventions to prevent or reverse overweight as represented by BMI, should address its fat and lean components and not BMI alone.

  1. Young Scientists Explore an Encyclopedia of Energy Activities. Book 8--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of energy. Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for each student. A…

  2. Low-level waste research and development activities of the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the technical activities of the Department of Energy's Defense and Nuclear Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Programs (LLWPs). Although each Program was established with a different purpose, the technologies developed and demonstrated by each are transferable for use in both the commercial and DOE sectors. This paper presents an overview of the technical activities being pursued through both the Defense and Nuclear Energy LLWP's. These technologies have been placed in the following categories; Criteria and Standards, Systems Analysis, Information and Technology Transfer, Waste Treatment and Wast Form, Improved Near Surface Disposal, Greater Confinement Disposal, Corrective Measures, and Monitoring

  3. Arrhenius activation energy of damage to catalase during spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation of catalase during spray-drying over a range of outlet gas temperatures could be closely represented by the Arrhenius equation. From this an activation energy for damage to the catalase could be calculated. The close fit to Arrhenius suggests that the thermally-induced part of inactivation of the catalase during the complex drying and particle-formation processes takes place at constant temperature. These processes are rapid compared with the residence time of the powder in the collecting vessel of the cyclone where dried catalase is exposed to a constant temperature equal to approximately the drying gas outlet temperature. A lower activation energy after spray drying with the ultrasonic nozzle was found than with the 2-fluid nozzle under otherwise identical spray drying conditions. It is feasible that the ultrasonic nozzle when mounted in the lid of the spray dryer heats up toward the drying gas inlet temperature much more that the air-cooled 2-fluid nozzle. Calculation of the Arrhenius activation energy also showed how the stabilizing efficacy of trehalose and mannitol on the catalase varies in strength across the range of drying gas inlet and outlet temperatures examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculations of intersection cross-slip activation energies in fcc metals using nudged elastic band method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; El-Awady, J.; Woodward, C.; Uchic, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    The nudged elastic band (NEB) method is used to evaluate activation energies for dislocation intersection cross-slip in face-centered cubic (fcc) nickel and copper, to extend our prior work which used an approximate method. In this work we also extend the study by including Hirth locks (HL) in addition to Lomer-Cottrell locks and glide locks (GL). Using atomistic (molecular statics) simulations with embedded atom potentials we evaluated the activation barrier for a dislocation to transform from fully residing on the glide plane to fully residing on the cross-slip plane when intersecting a 120 o forest dislocation in both Ni and Cu. The initial separation between the screw and the intersecting dislocation on the (1 1 1) glide plane is varied to find a minimum in the activation energy. The NEB method gives energies that are ∼10% lower than those reported in our prior work. It is estimated that the activation energies for cross-slip from the fully glide plane state to the partially cross-slipped state at the 120 o intersection forming GL in Ni and Cu are ∼0.47 and ∼0.65 eV, respectively, and from the fully cross-slip plane state to the partially cross-slipped state forming LC are ∼0.68 and ∼0.67 eV. The activation energies for cross-slip from the fully glide plane state to the partially cross-slipped state at the 120 o intersection forming HL in Ni and Cu are estimated to be ∼0.09 and ∼0.31 eV, respectively. These values are a factor of 3-20 lower than the activation energy for bulk cross-slip in Ni and, a factor of 2-6 lower than the activation energy for cross-slip in Cu estimated by Friedel-Escaig analysis. These results suggest that cross-slip should nucleate preferentially at selected screw dislocation intersections in fcc materials and the activation energies for such mechanisms are also a function of stacking fault energy.

  5. Oil and gas activities in the program energy research and development (PERD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette, N.; Marshall, S.-L.

    2002-01-01

    A broad range of non-nuclear energy research and development activities are covered under the umbrella of the Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) managed by Natural Resources Canada. The research and development budget amounts to 52.5 million dollars annually, and is distributed across twelve federal departments and agencies. Horizontal coordinated research activities are taking place. Of this total budget, approximately 14 million dollars annually are spent to carry out oil and gas research and development activities by five federal departments and one agency. A results-based management for PERD was recently implemented by the Office of Energy Research and Development in an effort to improve the strategic management. Some of the efforts are directed toward research in the following general classification: upstream activities, offshore and frontier activities, and cross-cutting activities. Upgrading technologies and advanced separation technologies with the focus on oil sands bitumen represent the main issues addressed under the heading upstream activities. The major issues studied in the offshore and frontier activities are: basin assessment and geotechnics, wind-wave-current modelling, managing sea ice, ice-structure interactions, transportation safety, marine operations and ship design, management of offshore drilling and production waste, oil spills remediation and environmental impact assessment of offshore wastes and produced waters. Flaring, pipelines and soil and groundwater remediation are topics classified under the heading cross-cutting activities. The authors provided an overview of the activities and identified the future trends in PERD to meet the requirements of the various stakeholders and the Canadian population. 1 tab

  6. Oil and gas activities in the program energy research and development (PERD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette, N.; Marshall, S.-L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    A broad range of non-nuclear energy research and development activities are covered under the umbrella of the Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) managed by Natural Resources Canada. The research and development budget amounts to 52.5 million dollars annually, and is distributed across twelve federal departments and agencies. Horizontal coordinated research activities are taking place. Of this total budget, approximately 14 million dollars annually are spent to carry out oil and gas research and development activities by five federal departments and one agency. A results-based management for PERD was recently implemented by the Office of Energy Research and Development in an effort to improve the strategic management. Some of the efforts are directed toward research in the following general classification: upstream activities, offshore and frontier activities, and cross-cutting activities. Upgrading technologies and advanced separation technologies with the focus on oil sands bitumen represent the main issues addressed under the heading upstream activities. The major issues studied in the offshore and frontier activities are: basin assessment and geotechnics, wind-wave-current modelling, managing sea ice, ice-structure interactions, transportation safety, marine operations and ship design, management of offshore drilling and production waste, oil spills remediation and environmental impact assessment of offshore wastes and produced waters. Flaring, pipelines and soil and groundwater remediation are topics classified under the heading cross-cutting activities. The authors provided an overview of the activities and identified the future trends in PERD to meet the requirements of the various stakeholders and the Canadian population. 1 tab.

  7. Energy National Mediator activity report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After some data illustrating the activity of the Energy National Mediator in 2009, and an interview of a representative of this institution who comments its practice, this report proposes the opinions of the different involved actors (communities, consumer associations, providers, and so on) about the mediator. It puts the adopted strategy in perspective from the past year to the coming one. It describes the missions: information, advice, protection. It reports actions, recommendations and facts for 2009 in terms of consumer information, group mediation, poverty management, samples of analysed disputes. It presents the social organisation and gives a financial assessment of the institution

  8. Environmental influences on food choice, physical activity and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M; Duffey, Kiyah; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2005-12-15

    In this paper, the environment is defined as the macro- and community-level factors, including physical, legal and policy factors, that influence household and individual decisions. Thus, environment is conceived as the external context in which household and individual decisions are made. This paper reviews the literature on the ways the environment affects diet, physical activity, and obesity. Other key environmental factors discussed include economic, legal, and policy factors. Behind the major changes in diet and physical activity in the US and globally lie large shifts in food production, processing, and distribution systems as well as food shopping and eating options, resulting in the increase in availability of energy-dense foods. Similarly, the ways we move at home, work, leisure, and travel have shifted markedly, resulting in substantial reductions in energy expenditure. Many small area studies have linked environmental shifts with diet and activity changes. This paper begins with a review of environmental influences on diet and physical activity, and includes the discussion of two case studies on environmental influences on physical activity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. The case studies illustrate the important role of physical activity resources and the inequitable distribution of such activity-related facilities and resources, with high minority, low educated populations at strong disadvantage. Further, the research shows a significant association of such facilities with individual-level health behavior. The inequity in environmental supports for physical activity may underlie health disparities in the US population.

  9. Employment in nuclear energy activities, 1977: a highlights report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    In spite of the uncertainties in the nuclear energy field, employment in nuclear activities increased by nearly 15 percent between July 1975 and July 1977, according to the latest Bureau of Labor Statistics survey conducted for the Department of Energy. The survey covers employment in 21 industrial sectors comprised of Government-owned facilities operated by 57 private contractors and 874 privately-owned establishments, including 21 not-for-profit institutions. Not included in the survey are employees of Federal, state, and local governments; uranium mining; construction, except for reactors; medical institutions; or educational institutions not performing work connected with the Department of Energy. Informaion is presented by type of employer, Federal region, industrial sector, and size of establishment. 6 figures, 6 tables

  10. On the High-Energy Neutrino Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Kun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We review observational aspects of the active galactic nuclei and their jets in connection with the detection of high-energy neutrinos by the Antarctic IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We propose that a reoriented jet generated by the spin-flipping supermassive black hole in a binary merger is likely the source of such high-energy neutrinos. Hence they encode important information on the afterlife of coalescing supermassive black hole binaries. As the gravitational radiation emanating from them will be monitored by the future LISA space mission, high-energy neutrino detections could be considered a contributor to multi-messenger astronomy.

  11. 78 FR 55245 - Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...-0036] Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of... available to states to evaluate compliance with building energy codes and general approaches towards... building energy codes and general approaches towards compliance. The comment period ended on September 5...

  12. Hours spent and energy expended in physical activity domains: Results from The Tomorrow Project cohort in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge of adult activity patterns across domains of physical activity is essential for the planning of population-based strategies that will increase overall energy expenditure and reduce the risk of obesity and related chronic diseases. We describe domain-specific hours of activity and energy expended among participants in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Methods The Past Year Total Physical Activity Questionnaire was completed by 15,591 Tomorrow Project® participants, between 2001 and 2005 detailing physical activity type, duration, frequency and intensity. Domain-specific hours of activity and activity-related energy expenditure, expressed as a percent of total energy expenditure (TEE) (Mean (SD); Median (IQR)) are reported across inactive (<1.4), low active (1.4 to 1.59), active (1.6 to 1.89) and very active (≥ 1.9) Physical Activity Level (PAL = TEE:REE) categories. Results In very active women and amongst all men except those classified as inactive, activity-related energy expenditure comprised primarily occupational activity. Amongst inactive men and women in active, low active and inactive groups, activity-related energy expenditure from household activity was comparable to, or exceeded that for occupational activity. Leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure decreased with decreasing PAL categories; however, even amongst the most active men and women it accounted for less than 10 percent of TEE. When stratified by employment status, leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure was greatest for retired men [mean (SD): 10.8 (8.5) percent of TEE], compared with those who were fully employed, employed part-time or not employed. Transportation-related activity was negligible across all categories of PAL and employment status. Conclusion For the inactive portion of this population, active non-leisure activities, specifically in the transportation and occupational domains, need to be considered for inclusion in daily routines

  13. Energy shift estimation of demand response activation on domestic refrigerators – A field test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Gudmand-Høyer, Kristian; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate the amount of energy that can be shifted during demand response (DR) activation on domestic refrigerator. Though there are many methods for DR activation like load reduction, load shifting and onsite generation, the method under study is load shifting....... Electric heating and cooling equipment like refrigerators, water heaters and space heaters and coolers are preferred for such DR activation because of their energy storing capacity. Accurate estimation of available regulating power and energy shift is important to understand the value of DR activation...... at any time. In this paper a novel method to estimate the available energy shift from domestic refrigerators with only two measurements, namely fridge cool chamber temperature and compressor power consumption is proposed, discussed and evaluated....

  14. Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili

    The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...

  15. Homogeneous near surface activity distribution by double energy activation for TLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thin layer activation (TLA) is a versatile tool for activating thin surface layers in order to study real-time the surface loss by wear, corrosion or erosion processes of the activated parts, without disassembling or stopping running mechanical structures or equipment. The research problem is the determination of the irradiation parameters to produce point-like or large area optimal activity-depth distribution in the sample. Different activity-depth profiles can be produced depending on the type of the investigated material and the nuclear reaction used. To produce activity that is independent of the depth up to a certain depth is desirable when the material removed from the surface by wear, corrosion or erosion can be collected completely. By applying dual energy irradiation the thickness of this quasi-constant activity layer can be increased or the deviation of the activity distribution from a constant value can be minimized. In the main, parts made of metals and alloys are suitable for direct activation, but by using secondary particle implantation the wear of other materials can also be studied in a surface range a few micrometers thick. In most practical cases activation of a point-like spot (several mm 2 ) is enough to monitor the wear, corrosion or erosion, but for special problems relatively large surfaces areas of complicated spatial geometry need to be activated uniformly. Two ways are available for fulfilling this task, (1) production of large area beam spot or scanning the beam over the surface in question from the accelerator side, or (2) a programmed 3D movement of the sample from the target side. Taking into account the large variability of tasks occurring in practice, the latter method was chosen as the routine solution in our cyclotron laboratory

  16. Energy and Rate Determinations to Activate the C-C σ-BOND of Acetone by Gaseous NI^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Vanessa A.; Dee, S. Jason; Villarroel, Otsmar J.; Laboren, Ivanna E.; Frey, Sarah E.; Bellert, Darrin J.

    2009-06-01

    A unique application of a custom fabricated photodissociation spectrometer permits the determination of thermodynamic properties (activation energies), reaction rates, and mechanistic details of bare metal cation mediated C-C σ-bond activation in the gas phase. Specifically, the products and rates resulting from the unimolecular decomposition of the Ni^+Acetone (Ni^+Ac) adduct are monitored after absorption of a known amount of energy. The three dissociative products which are observed in high yield are Ni^+, Ni^+CO, and CH3CO^+. The latter two fragment ions result from the activation of a C-C σ-bond. It was found that minimally 14 000 cm^{-1} of energy must be deposited into the adduct ion to induce C-C bond breakage. Preliminary results for the Ni^+ activation of the C-C σ-bond of acetone indicate that there are (at least) two low energy reaction coordinates leading to C-C bond breakage. The lower energy pathway emerges from the doublet ground state with an upper limit to the activation energy of 14 000 cm^{-1} and reaction rate ≈0.14 molecules/μs. The higher energy path is assumed to be along the quartet reaction coordinate with a minimum activation energy of 18 800 cm^{-1} (relative to the ground state) and a slightly slower reaction rate.

  17. A Self-Biased Active Voltage Doubler for Energy Harvesting Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tayyab, Umais

    2017-12-03

    An active voltage doubler utilizing a single supply op-amp for energy harvesting system is presented. The proposed doubler is used for rectification process to achieve both acceptably high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and large rectified DC voltage. The incorporated op-amp is self-biased, meaning no external supply is needed but rather it uses part of the harvested energy for its biasing. The proposed active doubler achieves maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 61.7% for a 200 Hz sinusoidal input of 0.8 V for a 20 K load resistor. This efficiency is 2 times more when compared with the passive voltage doubler. The rectified DC voltage is almost 2 times more than conventional passive doubler. The relation between PCE and the load resistor is also presented. The proposed active voltage doubler is designed and simulated in LF 0.15 μm CMOS process technology using Cadence virtuoso tool.

  18. Overview of nuclear data activities at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel-Sendis, F.; Dupont, E.; Gulliford, J.; Nordborg, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialised agency within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The mission of the NEA is to assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for the safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. All activities relevant to nuclear data measurements, evaluations and applications are managed by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee through the Nuclear Science section and the Data Bank, which work closely together. This paper gives an overview of current and planned nuclear data activities at the Nuclear Energy Agency through the program of work of the Data Bank in general and of the NEA Working Party on international nuclear data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) in particular. (authors)

  19. Marine energy consumption, national economic activity, and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The causal relationships among marine energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and economic growth for Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries for the period of 1990 to 2006 are discussed. The real gross domestic product is used as a proxy for economic activity. The United States is also discussed because it was the main global polluter before 2006. The co-integration methodology and an error-correction model are used to examine the causal relationships. The empirical results show that marine energy consumption and GDP are the main factors of increased GHG emissions in the short-run, and that economic activity significantly increased emissions in the long-run. Emissions from shipping are more closely related to marine energy consumption than to economic activity. Hence, policies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from marine shipping need to focus on greater energy efficiency in the design of ship engines and hulls. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption and GDP are the main causes to increased GHG emissions in the shipping industry. ► Emissions from shipping are more closely related to energy consumption than to GDP. ► Policies to mitigate GHG emissions from shipping industry should focus on the engine and hull design.

  20. Impurity diffusion activation energies in Al from first principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonovic, D.; Sluiter, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Activation energies for vacancy-mediated impurity diffusion in face-centered-cubic aluminum have been computed ab initio for all technologically important alloying elements, as well as for most of the lanthanides. The so-called five-frequency rate model is used to establish the limiting vacancy

  1. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: is physical activity more 'programmable' than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoyu; Eclarinal, Jesse; Baker, Maria S; Li, Ge; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mechanisms underlying such developmental programming of energy balance are poorly understood, limiting our ability to intervene. Most studies of developmental programming of energy balance have focused on persistent alterations in the regulation of energy intake; energy expenditure has been relatively underemphasised. In particular, very few studies have evaluated developmental programming of physical activity. The aim of this review is to summarise recent evidence that early environment may have a profound impact on establishment of individual propensity for physical activity. Recently, we characterised two different mouse models of developmental programming of obesity; one models fetal growth restriction followed by catch-up growth, and the other models early postnatal overnutrition. In both studies, we observed alterations in body-weight regulation that persisted to adulthood, but no group differences in food intake. Rather, in both cases, programming of energy balance appeared to be due to persistent alterations in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). These effects were stronger in female offspring. We are currently exploring the hypothesis that developmental programming of SPA occurs via induced sex-specific alterations in epigenetic regulation in the hypothalamus and other regions of the central nervous system. We will summarise the current progress towards testing this hypothesis. Early environmental influences on establishment of physical activity are likely an important factor in developmental programming of energy balance. Understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms in appropriate animal models will help determine whether early life

  2. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debu, Pascal; Ben-Haim, Eli; Hardin, Delphine; Laporte, Didier; Maurin, David; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2006-2007: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific activities: Physics with accelerators (LHC, Tevatron, CP Violation, ILC, Neutrino Physics); Physics without accelerators (Cosmology, high-energy gamma astronomy, extreme energy cosmic radiation, theoretical physics, physics-biology interface); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, internships and PhDs); 5 - Internal activities (seminars, meetings..); 6 - External activities (Public information, relations with the industry, valorisation..)

  3. Annual activity report of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Annual research activities of atomic energy organization of Iran AEOI is described for 1981. 1.Nuclear research centre acompolishment is devoted to nuclear physics radiochemistry, reactor operation, electronic and health physics. 2.The nuclear power plants activities are centered on the maintenance of the installed equipments of power plants sites and making use of these installation in the line of countrys needs. 3.Isfahan nuclear technology has reported it's goal and according to it planned a research program for reactor control systems, preparation of pure uranium oxide from yellow cake, installation and operation of equipments for fuel pellet production. 4.The exploration centre exploited a geologic survey for the potential uranium ores and despite of difficulties and deficiences rich deposits are identifed. 5.The radiation protection centre research is allocated to a)Measuring the environmental radioactivity, b)dosimetry, c)inspection and controlling the radioactivity, of the medical and industrial centers 6.The renewable energy sources described their studies on solar energy and biogas application in Iran and finally attributes of International affiars, staff services, budget and adminis trative departments are outlined

  4. Annual report and summaries of FY 1993 activities: Division of Energy Biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The mission of the Energy Biosciences program is to generate fundamental information about plants and non-health related microorganisms that will constitute the base for new biotechnologies as well as supply information to improve usages of such organisms in their current form. The collective aims are totally consistent with the Department of Energy`s objectives of developing alternate energy sources, replacements for otherwise fossil energy derived products and providing critical fundamental information for the preservation and restoration of environmental conditions affected by energy related activities. The EB program takes full advantage of its organizational locale in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences to directly interact with such disciplines as Materials Sciences, Chemistry, Engineering and Geosciences to promote cross-disciplinary research and planning activities. One of the major specific objectives of the EB program is to probe the enormous capabilities of the specified organisms to carry out biochemical conversions. The limitation to realization of entirely new products and processes via biotechnology is the lack of basic understanding of natural processes. Such knowledge will then afford the advantage of developing procedures to the benefit of people and their society in providing new products along with providing new employment possibilities. This document consists of abstracts of projects supported in FY 1993.

  5. Improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Wenxia; Jiang, Xiongwei; Peng, Qingjun; Sun, Potao

    2018-05-01

    Electrical breakdown is an important physical phenomenon in electrical equipment and electronic devices. Many related models and theories of electrical breakdown have been proposed. However, a widely recognized understanding on the following phenomenon is still lacking: impulse breakdown strength which varies with waveform parameters, decrease in the breakdown strength of AC voltage with increasing frequency, and higher impulse breakdown strength than that of AC. In this work, an improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers is proposed based on the Harmonic oscillator model. Simulation and experimental results show that, the energy of trapped charges obtained from AC stress is higher than that of impulse voltage, and the absorbed activation energy increases with the increase in the electric field frequency. Meanwhile, the frequency-dependent relative dielectric constant ε r and dielectric loss tanδ also affect the absorption of activation energy. The absorbed activation energy and modified trap level synergistically determine the breakdown strength. The mechanism analysis of breakdown strength under various voltage waveforms is consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, the proposed model of activation energy absorption in the present work may provide a new possible method for analyzing and explaining the breakdown phenomenon in semi-crystalline insulating polymers.

  6. Survey of the Relationship Between Activity Energy Expenditure Metabolic Equivalents and Barrier Factors of Physical Activity in the Elderly in Kashan

    OpenAIRE

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Khalili, Zahra; Pour Nazari, Robab; Mohammadi, Majid; Ahmadi Khatir, Maryam; Mossadegh, Najima

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity in the elderly is influenced by aspects of aging that cause personal, mental, environmental, and social changes. Increases in factors that are barriers to activity cause physical energy expenditure to decrease. Objectives The aim of the present study was to survey the relationship between energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (MET) and factors that are barriers to physical activity in elderly people in Kashan, Iran Methods This is a descriptive analysis...

  7. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  8. Energy Efficient Routing and Node Activity Scheduling in the OCARI Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes are characterized by a small size, a low cost, an advanced communication technology, but also a limited amount of energy. Energy efficient strategies are required in such networks to maximize network lifetime. In this paper, we focus on a solution integrating energy efficient routing and node activity scheduling. The energy efficient routing we propose, called EOLSR, selects the route and minimizes the energy consumed by an end-to-end transmission, while avoiding nodes with low residual energy. Simulation results show that EOLSR outperforms the solution selecting the route of minimum energy as well as the solution based on node residual energy. Cross-layering allows EOLSR to use information from the application layer or the MAC layer to reduce its overhead and increase network lifetime. Node activity scheduling is based on the following observation: the sleep state is the least power consuming state. So, to schedule node active and sleeping periods, we propose SERENA that colors all network nodes using a small number of colors, such that two nodes with the same color can transmit without interfering. The node color is mapped into a time slot during which the node can transmit. Consequently, each node is awake during its slot and the slots of its one-hop neighbors, and sleeps in the remaining time. We evaluate SERENA benefits obtained in terms of bandwidth, delay and energy. We also show how cross-layering with the application layer can improve the end-to-end delays for data gathering applications.

  9. Active Noise Control Experiments using Sound Energy Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Uli

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the latest results concerning the active noise control approach using net flow of acoustic energy. The test set-up consists of two loudspeakers simulating the engine noise and two smaller loudspeakers which belong to the active noise system. The system is completed by two acceleration sensors and one microphone per loudspeaker. The microphones are located in the near sound field of the loudspeakers. The control algorithm including the update equation of the feed-forward controller is introduced. Numerical simulations are performed with a comparison to a state of the art method minimising the radiated sound power. The proposed approach is experimentally validated.

  10. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3)

  11. International Atomic Energy Agency. Highlights of activities. September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1994-09-01

    The document presents the main activities of the IAEA between September 1993-September 1994 in the following fields: Nuclear power, Nuclear fuel cycle, Radioactive waste management, Comparative assessment of energy sources, IAEA laboratories, Food and agriculture, Human health, Industry and earth sciences, Radiation protection, Safety of nuclear installations, Safeguards and non-proliferation activities, Public and technical information, Research and technical co-operation. There are also given information about IAEA secretariat, organization and administration, the 1993 IAEA General Conference, IAEA Member States and IAEA Network

  12. Physical activity, energy restriction, and the risk of pancreatic cancer: Prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Lumey, L.H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Background: Because of their influence on insulin concentrations, we hypothesized that both physical activity and energy restriction may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We examined the associations between physical activity, proxies for energy restriction, and pancreatic cancer

  13. Inventory of U.S.-led International Activities on Building Energy Efficiency Initial Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    Several U.S. Government agencies promote energy efficiency in buildings internationally. The types and scope of activities vary by agency. Those with the largest role include the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of State and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both USAID and the Department of State have a substantial presence overseas, which may present some complementarities with the Department of Energy’s efforts to reach out to other countries. Generally speaking, USAID focuses on capacity building and policy issues; the Department of State focuses on broad diplomatic efforts and some targeted grants in support of these efforts, and EPA has more targeted roles linked to ENERGY STAR appliances and a few other activities. Several additional agencies are also involved in trade-related efforts to promote energy efficiency in buildings. These include the Department of Commerce, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA). This initial synthesis report is designed to summarize broad trends and activities relating to international cooperation on energy efficiency in buildings, which can help the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in developing its own strategy in this area. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will develop a more complete synthesis report later in 2010 as it populates a database on international projects on building energy efficiency.

  14. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  15. Commission de regulation de l'energie. activity report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2011 activity report of CRE. Contents: 1 - Board of Commissioners' Message; 2 - The operation of the CRE and the activity of CoRDiS (Standing Committee for disputes and sanctions); 3 - Overview of the electricity and gas retail markets; 4 - Third energy package and certification; 5 - Europe of Energy; 6 - Renewable energy; 7 - Nome law (law on the reorganisation of the electricity market); 8 - Gas tariff; 9 - Linky smart meter; 10 - Gas distribution tariff and smart meter; 11 - Appendix: Summary of the CRE's main decisions in 2011

  16. Activities of the Sofia EC Energy Center in the framework of the THERMIE programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latinski, K.

    1993-01-01

    The European Community Energy Center in Sofia is responsible for the EC implementation of the THERMIE programme. The programme's activities are promotion and dissemination of existing European technologies leading to better energy management and covering the fields of rational use of hydrocarbons, solid fuels and renewable energy sources. Application of these technologies would lead to substantial energy savings resulting in significant financial and environmental benefits. During its one-year operation the EC Energy Centre has organized and performed specific action as energy audits (food and beverage industrial units and buildings), demonstration projects (local heating control in buildings, diesel engine regulation of buses), training courses and seminars (in energy management and in space heating measuring and regulation), workshops (energy conservation in buildings, the bricks and clays sector and the food and beverage sector) and studies (wind energy potential, 'clean' coal technologies potential). Some of these actions have had very encouraging results showing potential energy savings of the order of 10-20% just by application of simple measures and with small additional investment. The activities of the EC Energy Centre in the coming year aimed at electricity savings along the entire line of electricity generation, transmission and consumption are outlined. (author)

  17. Activity-related energy expenditure during lower limb cast immobilization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Albane B; Martin, Xavier E; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity, which may result from immobilization, is recognized as a risk factor for the development of obesity. We aimed to quantify the decrease in activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) because of lower limb cast immobilization. We carried out a longitudinal matched case-control study: 34 adolescents with a first episode of lower limb fracture and 34 healthy cases. Physical activity was assessed during cast immobilization by an accelerometer from which we calculated the decrease in AEE. AEE in adolescents with lower limb fractures was estimated to be 16.0% lower than healthy controls. When converted into kcal per mean participants' weight, the difference in AEE amounted to 125 kcal/day, which corresponds to 5.2 h of slow walking. A significant reduction of AEE in adolescents with lower limb fractures may lead to a significantly positive energy balance as there is usually no compensatory reduction of energy intake. An increase of walking seems unrealistic in this situation and patients should be advised at the emergency unit to reduce their energy intake during the immobilization period. Level III, prospective case-control study.

  18. Energy efficient smartphone-based activity recognition using fixed-point arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Anguita, Davide; Ghio, Alessandro; Oneto, Luca; Llanas Parra, Francesc Xavier; Reyes Ortiz, Jorge Luis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel energy efficient approach for the recognition of human activities using smartphones as wearable sensing devices, targeting assisted living applications such as remote patient activity monitoring for the disabled and the elderly. The method exploits fixed-point arithmetic to propose a modified multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning algorithm, allowing to better pre- serve the smartphone battery lifetime with respect to the conventional flo...

  19. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukitaka, E-mail: yukitaka@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO{sub 2} direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO{sub 2} electrolysises, and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO{sub 2} emission.

  20. A Self-Biased Active Voltage Doubler for Energy Harvesting Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Tayyab, Umais; Alzaher, Hussain A.

    2017-01-01

    An active voltage doubler utilizing a single supply op-amp for energy harvesting system is presented. The proposed doubler is used for rectification process to achieve both acceptably high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and large rectified DC

  1. French-German Office for energy transition (OFATE). Activity report. Exercise 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    This report first contains a presentation of the association, of its governance, of its steering committee, and of its members. It indicates topics and programmes of events (conferences, side-events, seminars) organised by the OFATE in the field of wind energy, solar energy, bio-energies, systems and markets (links to web sites of these events are provided). It gives a list of its own various publications, newsletters and translations on different topics (wind energy, solar energy, bio-energies, systems and markets, efficiency and flexibility). It proposes an analysis and a typology of the various requests made by members, representatives of administrations, and journalists. It evokes the activity of the association in collaboration with ministries, briefly evokes the development of the association web site, gives a list of interventions aimed at promoting the French-German exchange in the field of energy transition, and a list of partners. A brief road-map for 2014-2016 is finally indicated

  2. Active surface model improvement by energy function optimization for 3D segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimifar, Zohreh; Mohaddesi, Mahsa

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimized and efficient active surface model by improving the energy functions, searching method, neighborhood definition and resampling criterion. Extracting an accurate surface of the desired object from a number of 3D images using active surface and deformable models plays an important role in computer vision especially medical image processing. Different powerful segmentation algorithms have been suggested to address the limitations associated with the model initialization, poor convergence to surface concavities and slow convergence rate. This paper proposes a method to improve one of the strongest and recent segmentation algorithms, namely the Decoupled Active Surface (DAS) method. We consider a gradient of wavelet edge extracted image and local phase coherence as external energy to extract more information from images and we use curvature integral as internal energy to focus on high curvature region extraction. Similarly, we use resampling of points and a line search for point selection to improve the accuracy of the algorithm. We further employ an estimation of the desired object as an initialization for the active surface model. A number of tests and experiments have been done and the results show the improvements with regards to the extracted surface accuracy and computational time of the presented algorithm compared with the best and recent active surface models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Regulation Commission. Activity report. 1 July - 31 December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After a description of the scope of activities, organisation and operation of the CRE (Commission de Regulation de l'Energie, Energy regulation commission) and of the CorDIS (Comite de reglement des differents et des sanctions de la CRE, CRE's Committee for settlements of controversies and sanctions), this report outlines the importance of the grid manager independence and of the regulation reinforcement for the building up of a domestic energy market. It discusses the role of the regulation authority in the interconnection of European grids, their operation security and supply security, but also in pricing and in investments. It highlights the relationship between the reduction of carbon emission, energy demand management, strengthening of electric grids, financial incentives, and advanced metering systems. It describes how the CRE ensures a good operation of electricity and natural gas markets

  4. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debu, Pascal; Bassler, Ursula; Boratav, Murat; Lacour, Didier; Lebbolo, Herve; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2004-2005: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific activities: Physics with accelerators (LHC, Tevatron, CP Violation, future linear electron collider, Neutrino beams); Physics without accelerators (Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy, extreme energy cosmic radiation, theoretical physics, physics-biology interface); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration, health and safety, radiation protection); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, internships and PhDs); 5 - Internal activities (seminars, meetings..); 6 - External activities (Public information, relations with the industry, valorisation..); 7 - List of publications; 8 - Appendixes: organigram, staff

  5. Design and experiment study of a semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dehua; Chen, Long; Wang, Ruochen; Jiang, Haobin; Shen, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of semi-active energy-regenerative suspension system is proposed to recover suspension vibration energy, as well as to reduce the suspension cost and demands for the motor-rated capacity. The system consists of an energy-regenerative damper and a DC-DC converter-based energy-regenerative circuit. The energy-regenerative damper is composed of an electromagnetic linear motor and an adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels. The linear motor just works as the generator to harvest the suspension vibration energy. The circuit can be used to improve the system’s energy-regenerative performance and to continuously regulate the motor’s electromagnetic damping force. Therefore, although the motor works as a generator and damps the isolation without an external power source, the motor damping force is controllable. The damping characteristics of the system are studied based on a two degrees of freedom vehicle vibration model. By further analyzing the circuit operation characteristics under different working modes, the double-loop controller is designed to track the desired damping force. The external-loop is a fuzzy controller that offers the desired equivalent damping. The inner-loop controller, on one hand, is used to generate the pulse number and the frequency to control the angle and the rotational speed of the step motor; on the other hand, the inner-loop is used to offer the duty cycle of the energy-regenerative circuit. Simulations and experiments are conducted to validate such a new suspension system. The results show that the semi-active energy-regenerative suspension can improve vehicle ride comfort with the controllable damping characteristics of the linear motor. Meanwhile, it also ensures energy regeneration. (paper)

  6. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  7. Glycoprotein Ib activation by thrombin stimulates the energy metabolism in human platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona de la Peña, Norma; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3–38 times vs. non-activated platelets) whereas ristocetin was ineffective. OxPhos (33 times) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (88%) were increased only by thrombin. OxPhos was the main source of ATP in thrombin-activated platelets, whereas in platelets activated by any of the other agonists, glycolysis was the principal ATP supplier. In order to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced OxPhos activation in platelets, several signaling pathways associated with mitochondrial activation were analyzed. Wortmannin and LY294002 (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors), ristocetin and heparin (GPIb inhibitors) as well as resveratrol, ATP (calcium-release inhibitors) and PP1 (Tyr-phosphorylation inhibitor) prevented the thrombin-induced platelet activation. These results suggest that thrombin activates OxPhos and glycolysis through GPIb-dependent signaling involving PI3K and Akt activation, calcium mobilization and protein phosphorylation. PMID:28817667

  8. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by nuclear respiratory factor 1: implication in the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2012-11-23

    NRF-1 regulates mediators of neuronal activity and energy generation. NRF-1 transcriptionally regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits α1 and β1. NRF-1 functionally regulates mediators of energy consumption in neurons. NRF-1 mediates the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption at the molecular level. Energy generation and energy consumption are tightly coupled to neuronal activity at the cellular level. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a major energy-consuming enzyme, is well expressed in neurons rich in cytochrome c oxidase, an important enzyme of the energy-generating machinery, and glutamatergic receptors that are mediators of neuronal activity. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the molecular level, whereby Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits are regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), found recently by our laboratory to regulate all cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes and some NMDA and AMPA receptor subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 genes but not of the Atp1a3 gene in neurons. The transcripts of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 subunit genes were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by tetrodotoxin. Atp1b1 is positively regulated by NRF-1, and silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Atp1b1 induced by KCl, whereas overexpression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts from being suppressed by tetrodotoxin. On the other hand, Atp1a1 is negatively regulated by NRF-1. The binding sites of NRF-1 on Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 are conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 regulates key Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits and plays an important role in mediating the tight coupling between

  9. Biological energy from the igneous rock enhances cell growth and enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Y.-L.; Kuo, H.-S; Chen, C.-T.; Kuo, S.-C.

    2000-01-01

    Some effects from natural resources might be ignored and unused by humans. Environmental hormesis could be a phenomena necessary to bio-organism existence on earth. Since 1919, radiation and some heavy metal hormesis from the environment were proved in various reports. In this study, igneous rock with very low radioactivity and high ferrous activity was measured by multichannel analyzer and inductively coupled plasma analyzer. The water treated by igneous rock, both directly soaked or indirectly in contact, induced increased activities of glucose oxidase, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It also increased cell growth of SC-M1, HCT-15, Raji, and fibroblast cell lines. The water after treatment of igneous rock had no change in pH values, but displayed decreased conductivity values. We assume that the igneous rock could transfer energy to water to change the molecular structure or conformation of water cluster, or by radiation hormesis effect could then induce increased enzyme activity and cell growth. It is also possible that the energy from rock may combine radiation hormesis with other transferable biological energy forms to change water cluster conformation

  10. Active pipe-embedded structures in buildings for utilizing low-grade energy sources: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Jinbo; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade energy sources such as geothermal energy, favorable ambient air and industrial waste heat etc. exist widely. Sufficient utilization of these low-grade energy sources may reduce our daily dependence on high-grade energy sources such as electricity resulting in reduced emission of green house gas for environmental conservation. Active pipe-embedded structure as floor/ceiling usually with water as the medium to carry heat or coolth may utilize these low-grade energy sources for providing space air-conditioning. Compact arrangement of pipes in the structure may significantly enlarge heat transfer surface between the slab mass and water in the pipe allowing substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. Application of the heat or coolth storage capacity of this structure for preheating or pre-cooling is also one among the advantages of this structure for shifting load and exploiting the nighttime cheap electricity tariff in some regions. This paper presents the technology of the active pipe-embedded structure for utilizing widely existing low-grade energy sources following by a comprehensive review on the heat transfer calculation models of this structure and its practical applications in real building systems for space air-conditioning. This review shows that more works on the active structure, especially simple and transient models for dynamic and accurate performance prediction and easy integration with existing building energy simulation packages, are worthwhile for further promoting the practical application wherever the low-grade energy sources are favorable. (author)

  11. Computer calculations of activation energy for pyrolysis from thermogravimetric curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    1994-01-01

    A BASIC programme to determine energy of activation for the degradation of polymers has been described. The calculations are based on the results of thermogravimetric curves. This method is applicable for those polymers which produce volatile products upon thermal degradation. (author)

  12. How shall we hand over the atomic energy to the next generation? Publicity activities to the youth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Kumagaya, Akira; Shibata, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Tamaki; Murakami, Masatoshi; Nishina, Kojiro.

    1995-01-01

    It is important for Atomic Energy Society of Japan which covers the wide fields related to atomic energy to know exactly what the youths who bear the next generation learn about atomic energy and what feeling they have. However, the attitude or the attempt of meeting young generation from such viewpoint was not sufficient so far. In the phenomena of 'away from atomic energy' recently pointed out frequently, the root seems to have existed long ago. In this feature article, from such critical mind, the present status and the plan for hereafter of atomic energy publicity activities for young generation and those concerned to education are made clear. The publicity activities for school education and young generation, the publicity activities for those concerned to education, the questionnaire of the consciousness about energy and environment, the open school activity of Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the nuclear reactor experiment and study for middle and high school teachers, the assembling of simplified GM counters and the experiment of measuring radiation, the activities of Plasnet for young generation and the exercise and seminar on radiation for high school students are reported. Japanese social system is at the root of atomic energy problem, and the effort to improve it contributes to innovate the constitution of whole Japan. (K.I.)

  13. Status of Nuclear Activities of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Zakia [Planning and Development, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission - BAEC, Paramanu Bhaban, E 12/A, Agargoan, 01207 Shere Banglanagar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-07-01

    Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the national authority for acquisition, development and application of Nuclear Science and Technology and thus is playing the pioneering role for the development of the country's nuclear research programmes and thus helping to achieve the cherished goal of self-reliance through national efforts and international co-operation. Being firmly committed to the peaceful uses of Atomic Energy, programmes have been undertaken in Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering and Nuclear Power Sector by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and some of the results have been transferred from laboratories to hospitals, agriculture, industries and environment for practical applications. In spite of some major constrains, presently BAEC's activities have increased many folds and keeping in view of the overall power crisis of the country efforts have also been given to establish Nuclear Power Plant in the country. (author)

  14. Portable Physical Activity Monitors for Measuring Energy Metabolism in ROTC Cadets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Kong

    2004-01-01

    ...". Given the significance of physical activity and energy expenditure (EE) to health for both military and civilian populations, we proposed a feasibility study to achieve the following goals: 1...

  15. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report; Commission de regulation de l'energie. Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  16. Mississippi Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Report. A snap shot of related activities in the state of Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Sumesh M. [Mississippi Technology Alliance, Jackson, MS (United States); Linton, Joseph A. [Mississippi Technology Alliance, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2011-05-11

    In recent years, due to concerns over national security from both economic and military standpoints, increased attention has been given to the production of renewable energy in order to reduce American dependence on foreign supplies of energy. These concerns, along with those related to the effect of fossil fuels on the environment, have served to heighten the enthusiasm for finding replacements for traditional energy sources, along with helping to highlight the need for energy efficiency in American homes and businesses. Throughout the nation, this has been exemplified in an increased entrepreneurial activity to produce liquid fuels, thermal energy and electricity from a vast range of sources such as plants, trees, bacteria, the sun, wind, waves and the Earth itself. Coupled with tax subsidies, loan guarantees, renewable fuel standards, and various other government incentives and legislative encouragements we have seen a big jump in the production of renewable energy in the United States in the last ten years. But we are just getting started!

  17. The energy expenditure of an activity-promoting video game compared to sedentary video games and TV watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure in obese and lean children. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game console. Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console. When examining movement with accelerometry, children moved significantly more when playing the video game on the Nintendo Wii console. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living.

  18. Predicting energy expenditure of physical activity using hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kong Y; Acra, Sari A; Majchrzak, Karen; Donahue, Candice L; Baker, Lemont; Clemens, Linda; Sun, Ming; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical activity and health, we need accurate and detailed free-living physical activity measurements. The determination of energy expenditure of activity (EEACT) may also be useful in the treatment and maintenance of nutritional diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Minute-to-minute energy expenditure during a 24-h period was measured in 60 sedentary normal female volunteers (35.4 +/- 9.0 years, body mass index 30.0 +/- 5.9 kg/m2), using a state-of-the-art whole-room indirect calorimeter. The activities ranged from sedentary deskwork to walking and stepping at different intensities. Body movements were simultaneously measured using a hip-worn triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, Hemokentics, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin) and a wrist-worn uniaxial accelerometer (ActiWatch AW64, MiniMitter Co., Sunriver, Oregon) on the dominant arm. Movement data from the accelerometers were used to develop nonlinear prediction models (separately and combined) to estimate EEACT and compared for accuracy. In a subgroup (n=12), a second 24-h study period was repeated for cross-validation of the combined model. The combined model, using Tritrac-R3D and ActiWatch, accurately estimated total EEACT (97.7 +/- 3.2% of the measured values, p=0.781), as compared with using ActiWatch (86.0 +/- 4.7%, ptypes and intensity of activities. This concept can be extended to develop valid models for the accurate measurement of free-living energy metabolism in clinical populations.

  19. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  20. An energy harvesting system for passively generating power from human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Yuan; Cheng, Shuo; Arnold, David P

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete, self-contained energy harvesting system composed of a magnetic energy harvester, an input-powered interface circuit and a rechargeable battery. The system converts motion from daily human activities such as walking, jogging, and cycling into usable electrical energy. By using an input-powered interface circuit, the system requires no external power supplies and features zero standby power when the input motion is too small for successful energy reclamation. When attached to a person's ankle during walking, the 100 cm 3 system prototype is shown to charge a 3.7 V, 65 mAh lithium-ion polymer battery at an average power of 300 µW. The design and testing of the system under other operating conditions are presented herein. (paper)

  1. Current radiation protection activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program of the Radiation Safety Section is described in this paper. The Section has two main components: (1) the development of consensus safety documentation and (2) the use of that documentation as the basis for assisting countries to deal safely with their applications of radiation and radioactivity. Main activities of the section are listed for each of these components. Activities include documentation, coordinated research programs, and assistance to developing countries. 14 tabs

  2. High Habitual Physical Activity Improves Acute Energy Compensation in Nonobese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Hopkins, Mark; Long, Cecilia; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signaling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP), and control preloads. Thirty-four nonobese individuals were grouped by tertiles of accelerometry-measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous PA (low, LoMVPA; moderate, ModMVPA; high, HiMVPA), similar in age, sex, and body mass index. After a preliminary assessment, EI (fixed-energy breakfast and ad libitum lunch, dinner, and evening snack box meals) was determined for three probe meal days in which preloads varying in energy content (HEP, 699 kcal; LEP, 258 kcal; control, 0 kcal) were consumed before the lunch meal. Liking and wanting were assessed before and after preload consumption (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire), and appetite ratings were taken throughout the day. Relative to control, EI at lunch was reduced to a greater extent after consumption of HEP compared with LEP in ModMVPA (P reflecting more accurate energy compensation in HiMVPA and ModMVPA. There were no effects on cumulative EI after preload consumption of (lunch, dinner, and snack box combined). HEP led to a greater suppression of hunger, liking, and wanting compared with LEP in all MVPA tertiles. Nonobese individuals with lower levels of measured PA were insensitive to the nutritional manipulation of the preloads, suggesting a weaker satiety response to food. This study provides objective evidence that higher habitual PA improves acute homeostatic appetite control.

  3. Aloe vera Derived Activated High-Surface-Area Carbon for Flexible and High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, M; Subramani, K; Sudhan, N; Ilayaraja, N; Sathish, M

    2016-12-28

    Materials which possess high specific capacitance in device configuration with low cost are essential for viable application in supercapacitors. Herein, a flexible high-energy supercapacitor device was fabricated using porous activated high-surface-area carbon derived from aloe leaf (Aloe vera) as a precursor. The A. vera derived activated carbon showed mesoporous nature with high specific surface area of ∼1890 m 2 /g. A high specific capacitance of 410 and 306 F/g was achieved in three-electrode and symmetric two-electrode system configurations in aqueous electrolyte, respectively. The fabricated all-solid-state device showed a high specific capacitance of 244 F/g with an energy density of 8.6 Wh/kg. In an ionic liquid electrolyte, the fabricated device showed a high specific capacitance of 126 F/g and a wide potential window up to 3 V, which results in a high energy density of 40 Wh/kg. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation temperature has significant role in the electrochemical performance, as the activated sample at 700 °C showed best activity than the samples activated at 600 and 800 °C. The electron microscopic images (FE-SEM and HR-TEM) confirmed the formation of pores by the chemical activation. A fabricated supercapacitor device in ionic liquid with 3 V could power up a red LED for 30 min upon charging for 20s. Also, it is shown that the operation voltage and capacitance of flexible all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors fabricated using aloe-derived activated carbon could be easily tuned by series and parallel combinations. The performance of fabricated supercapacitor devices using A. vera derived activated carbon in all-solid-state and ionic liquid indicates their viable applications in flexible devices and energy storage.

  4. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  5. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  6. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Jensen-Otsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E. 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01. There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09–2.90, but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  7. Energy and polarization of the telluric field in correlation with seismic activity in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargemezis, G.; Tsokas, G. N. [Geophysical Laboratory of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Zlotnicki, J. [Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2001-04-01

    Many attempts have been made to disclose anomalous changes of the electromagnetic field in relation with tectonic earthquakes. It was tentatively developed a new approach based on the energy and polarity of the electric field, and apply this method to the seismicity in Greece. The study of the parameters of the horizontal electric field is realized in a time interval of five years. The data allows the study of long-term variations of the field. Further, it was examined the possible relation of the geoelectric activity with long distance seismicity (up to 500 km). The energy of the electric signal was estimated and correlated with the logarithm of the seismic moment (M{sub 0}). The values of the seismic moment estimated for each earthquake were summed for daily intervals, and the logarithm of the sum was computed. The same process was applied to the energy of the geoelectric field. Then, a correlation was attempted between the energy of the geoelectric field and the seismic moment referring to daily intervals. In two cases, changes in the energy of the horizontal geoelectric field were observed before the burst of the seismic activity. The energy of the telluric field increased several months before the burst of seismic activity and recovered right after the occurrence of the mainshocks. The hodograms of the horizontal geoelectric field show polarization changes regardless of the magnetic field. This is possibly attributed to the process of generation of electric currents before major earthquakes. Due to high and continuous regional seismicity in Greece, it was impossible to attribute the response of the polarization to the activation of specific seismic areas. It seems that the long-term energy variations of the horizontal geoelectric field as well as the polarization could be used in tandem with other possible precursors in order to contribute to earthquake prediction studies.

  8. Wheel-running activity and energy metabolism in relation to ambient temperature in mice selected for high wheel-running activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Garland, Theodore; Daan, Serge; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore; Heldmaier, G.

    Interrelationships between ambient temperature, activity, and energy metabolism were explored in mice that had been selectively bred for high spontaneous wheel-running activity and their random-bred controls. Animals were exposed to three different ambient temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C) and

  9. Cost-time management for environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourr, B.R.; Owen, A.H.; Williamson, D.J. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nash, C.L. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-05-22

    Cost-time management methods have been developed by Westinghouse to examine business applications from a cost-time perspective. The initial application of cost-time management within Westinghouse was targeted at reducing cycle time in the manufacturing sector. As a result of the tremendous success of reduced cycle time in manufacturing, Westinghouse initiated application of the management technique to Environmental Restoration activities at its Government Owned Contractor Operated facilities. The Westinghouse initiative was proposed in support of the Department of Energy`s goals for cost effective Environmental Restoration activities. This paper describes the application of the cost-time method to Environmental Restoration work currently being performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO).

  10. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, Pierre; Bassler, Ursula; Levy, Jean-Michel; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2002-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2000-2001: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific and technical activities of the laboratory: Physics with accelerators (CP Violation, hadronic physics, proton-antiproton physics, Neutrino beams, LEP, LHC, future linear electron collider); Physics without accelerators (extreme energy cosmic radiation, Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy); theoretical physics (QCD, phenomenological approaches); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, Internal activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - staff

  11. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagoret-Campagne, Sylvie; Roos, Lydia; Schwemling, Philippe; Cossin, Isabelle; Mathy, Jean-Yves

    2004-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2002-2003: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Scientific and technical activities of the laboratory: Physics with accelerators (CP Violation, proton-antiproton physics, LHC, Neutrino beams, LEP, future linear electron collider); Physics without accelerators (extreme energy cosmic radiation, Cosmology and supernovae, high-energy gamma astronomy); theoretical physics (QCD, phenomenological approaches); 3 - Technical and administrative activities (electronics, computers, mechanics departments, Administration and general services); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, training, Internal activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - Appendix: staff

  12. Department of Energy interest and involvement in nuclear plant license renewal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of nuclear license renewal to the nation's energy strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a plant lifetime improvement program during 1985 to determine the feasibility of the license renewal option for US nuclear plants. Initial activities of the DOE program focused on determining whether there were technical and economic obstacles that might preclude or limit the successful implementation of the license renewal option. To make this determination, DOE cosponsored with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pilot-plant efforts by Virginia Electric Power and Northern States Power. Both pilot-plant efforts concluded that life extension is technically and economically feasible. In parallel with the pilot-plant activities, DOE performed national economic studies that demonstrated the economic desirability of life extension. Having demonstrated the feasibility of life extension, DOE, in conjunction with EPRI, selected two lead plants to demonstrate the license renewal process. These lead plants are Yankee Atomic's Yankee Rowe facility and Northern States Power's Monticello facility. DOE also initiated activities to develop the technical and regulatory bases to support the license renewal process in the United States. DOE has recently identified nuclear plant license renewal to be an important element of its National Energy Strategy. This paper summarizes the significant results, conclusions, and ongoing activities of the DOE effort. 18 refs

  13. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2008 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How CRE works: CRE regulatory authority and organisation: Powers, Organisation; Budget resources; Personnel; B - The Standing Committee for Dispute Settlement and Sanctions (CoRDiS) activity: Admissibility, Authority; C - Building a single European energy market: Overview; Organisation and coordination of the main European regulators (Work carried out collectively by European regulators, Regulator organisation and development, CRE's relations with European Community institutions, Development of CEER activities outside the European Union); CRE's European activities (The contribution of European regulators to the Third Energy Package, Integration of gas markets, Integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, Opening up markets to benefit consumers); European Community activities (The European Commission's proposals for the internal energy market: the Third Energy Package, The European Commission's proposals for fighting climate change: the Climate Package, Infringement

  14. A Critical SUMO1 Modification of LKB1 Regulates AMPK Activity during Energy Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ritho, Joan

    2015-07-23

    SUMOylation has been implicated in cellular stress adaptation, but its role in regulating liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major upstream kinase of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Here, we show that energy stress triggers an increase in SUMO1 modification of LKB1, despite a global reduction in both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 conjugates. During metabolic stress, SUMO1 modification of LKB1 lysine 178 is essential in promoting its interaction with AMPK via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) essential for AMPK activation. The LKB1 K178R SUMO mutant had defective AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function, inducing death in energy-deprived cells. These results provide additional insight into how LKB1-AMPK signaling is regulated during energy stress, and they highlight the critical role of SUMOylation in maintaining the cell’s energy equilibrium.

  15. A Critical SUMO1 Modification of LKB1 Regulates AMPK Activity during Energy Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ritho, Joan; Arold, Stefan T.; Yeh, Edward  T.H.

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation has been implicated in cellular stress adaptation, but its role in regulating liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major upstream kinase of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Here, we show that energy stress triggers an increase in SUMO1 modification of LKB1, despite a global reduction in both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 conjugates. During metabolic stress, SUMO1 modification of LKB1 lysine 178 is essential in promoting its interaction with AMPK via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) essential for AMPK activation. The LKB1 K178R SUMO mutant had defective AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function, inducing death in energy-deprived cells. These results provide additional insight into how LKB1-AMPK signaling is regulated during energy stress, and they highlight the critical role of SUMOylation in maintaining the cell’s energy equilibrium.

  16. Determination of the activation energy of A-center in the uniaxially deformed n-Ge single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Luniov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the decisions of electroneutrality equation and experimental results of measurements of the piezo-Hall-effect the dependences of activation energy of the deep level A-center depending on the uniaxial pressure along the crystallographic directions [100], [110] and [111] for n-Ge single crystals, irradiated by the electrons with energy 10 MeV are obtained. Using the method of least squares approximational polynomials for the calculation of these dependences are obtained. It is shown that the activation energy of A-center deep level decreases linearly for the entire range of uniaxial pressure along the crystallographic direction [100]. For the cases of uniaxial deformation along the crystallographic directions [110] and [111] decrease of the activation energy according to the linear law is observed only at high uniaxial pressures, when the A-center deep level interacts with the minima of the germanium conduction band, which proved the lower at the deformation. The various dependences of the activation energy of A-center depending on the orientation of the axis of deformation may be connected with features of its microstructure.

  17. Investigation on Hot Workability of Homogenized Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Based on Activation Energy and Processing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Su, Wusen; Xiao, Dan; Xu, Guofu

    2018-06-01

    Hot deformation behaviors of the homogenized Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy were studied by uniaxial compression tests carried out at 623-743 K and strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. The constitutive equation was developed for the activation energy, and thus the activation energy map was constructed. During the hot deformation, the dominated softening mechanisms were the dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization, which were most likely to be driven with increasing temperature and decreasing activation energy. Based on the superposition of the activation energy map and the processing map, together with the microstructure characteristics, the optimized hot workability of the alloy was proposed at the domain (670-743 K and 0.01-0.16 s-1), where the peak efficiency was 0.39 and the activation energy range was 196-260 kJ mol-1.

  18. Activation energy of tracer-diffusion of manganese ions (Mn2+) in alkali metal chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borhade, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The activation energy of the tracer diffusion of Mn 2+ ions in alkali chloride solutions (0.1M) has been determined in agar gel medium (1-2.5%) over the temperature range of 25 - 45 deg C. The decrease in the value of the Arrhenius parameters, E and D 0 , with gel percentage is explained on the basis of the transition state theory. Further, the activation energy as a function of electrolyte concentration is also investigated using 1% agar gel in the temperature range of 25 - 45 deg C. In both the cases, the activation energies are determined by the least square fitting of the diffusion coefficient data obtained at various temperatures through the Arrhenius plots. (author)

  19. Diversification of companies' activity of the Arctic fuel and energy complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoseev S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of diversification role in company's activity has been considered. Special attention has been paid to the levels of strategy for a diversified company of the fuel and energy complex

  20. Increase the Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector by Implementing the Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Letitia-Maria Rof; Sorinel Capusneanu

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the increasing performances as result of implementation stages of the ActivityBased Costing in the companies operating in the energy sector in Romania. There are presented some aspects of the usefulness of applying the Activity-Based Costing in the energy sector and the advantages it offers compared to traditional costing. There are also outlined the steps for applying the Activity-Based Costing and its implementation in the largest hydropower producer in Romania. The ...

  1. Radiation shielding activities at the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Enrico; Vaz, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has devoted considerable effort over the years to radiation shielding issues. The issues are addressed through international working groups. These activities are carried out in close co-ordination and co-operation with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). The areas of work include: basic nuclear data activities in support of radiation shielding, computer codes, shipping cask shielding applications, reactor pressure vessel dosimetry, shielding experiments database. The method of work includes organising international code comparison exercises and benchmark studies. Training courses on radiation shielding computer codes are organised regularly including hands-on experience in modelling skills. The scope of the activity covers mainly reactor shields and spent fuel transportation packages, but also fusion neutronics and in particular shielding of accelerators and irradiation facilities. (author)

  2. Apparent activation energy for creep controlled by jog-drag and cell-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povolo, F.; Marzocca, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The expression for the apparent activation energy for creep controlled by jog-drag and cell-formation is given in terms of the parameters of the physical model. It is shown that, in general, this energy does not coincide with that for self-diffusion. The results are applied to actual experimental data obtained in stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 at 673 K. (orig.)

  3. Energy Expenditure and Intensity of Active Video Games in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabrava, Karina L. R.; Faria, Fernanda R.; de Lima, Jorge R. P.; Guedes, Dartagnan P.; Amorim, Paulo R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare the energy expenditure and intensity of active video games to that of treadmill walking in children and adolescents. Method: Seventy-two boys and girls (aged 8-13 years) were recruited from local public schools. Energy expenditure and heart rate were measured during rest, during 3-km/hr, 4-km/hr, and 5-km/hr…

  4. Definition of apparent activation energy on DTG curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Serikbayeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of sulphidation oxidized copper ores and tailings with sulfur. Defined by the apparent activation energy in the conditions of heating the mixture of substances interacting with a constant speed by differential thermogravimetry (DTG. It was established that the sulfiding may occur in a kinetic mode , since the interaction is charged, in the presence of liquid and gaseous sulfur , i.e. transport of sulfur to the surface of the mineral is not a limiting process.

  5. Comparison of diffusion coefficients and activation energies for AG diffusion in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Yeo, Sung Hwan; Lee, Young Woo; Cho, Moon Sung

    2015-01-01

    The migration of silver (Ag) in silicon carbide (SiC) and 110mAg through SiC of irradiated tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel has been studied for the past three to four decades. However, there is no satisfactory explanation for the transport mechanism of Ag in SiC. In this work, the diffusion coefficients of Ag measured and/or estimated in previous studies were reviewed, and then pre-exponential factors and activation energies from the previous experiments were evaluated using Arrhenius equation. The activation energy is 247.4 kJ·mol -1 from Ag paste experiments between two SiC layers produced using fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD), 125.3 kJ·mol -1 from integral release experiments (annealing of irradiated TRISO fuel), 121.8 kJ·mol -1 from fractional Ag release during irradiation of TRISO fuel in high flux reactor (HFR), and 274.8 kJ·mol -1 from Ag ion implantation experiments, respectively. The activation energy from ion implantation experiments is greater than that from Ag paste, fractional release and integral release, and the activation energy from Ag paste experiments is approximately two times greater than that from integral release experiments and fractional Ag release during the irradiation of TRISO fuel in HFR. The pre-exponential factors are also very different depending on the experimental methods and estimation. From a comparison of the pre-exponential factors and activation energies, it can be analogized that the diffusion mechanism of Ag using ion implantation experiment is different from other experiments, such as a Ag paste experiment, integral release experiments, and heating experiments after irradiating TRISO fuel in HFR. However, the results of this work do not support the long held assumption that Ag release from FBCVD-SiC, used for the coating layer in TRISO fuel, is dominated by grain boundary diffusion. In order to understand in detail the transport mechanism of Ag through the coating layer, FBCVD-SiC in TRISO fuel, a

  6. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  7. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INTENSITY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SOCCER REFEREES DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Inácio da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs. The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil, Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765, with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006, and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play

  8. Present situation of Japan's public acceptance of nuclear energy - JAERO's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Kozo

    1993-01-01

    Electricity demand in Japan is expected to keep increasing without doubt, reflecting her constant economic growth and the rising living standard of the people. The target figure is 20.5% or a capacity of 52 million kW, and 11 nuclear power plants with a capacity of 12 million kW are under construction. Whether such a target is achievable depends on whether or not information activities will succeed in obtaining public consensus to the siting of the new nuclear power plants. According to the result of public opinion poll by the Science and Technology Agency in 1992, 73 % people recognize the necessity of nuclear energy, however, 10% feel uneasy as well. It seems that the scale of damage caused by severe accidents and the distrust against nuclear promoters are major factors to create uneasiness among the people. This presentation describes public information activities by JAERO, the Japan Atomic Energy Relations Organization (JAERO), a non-profit organization established in 1969. There is no secret strategy or specific remedy to obtain public consensus on the nuclear issues, and an immediate effect is in no way expected, either. It is all the more imperative to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants, pursue further the operational safety, and to gain the trust from the general public. We must investigate more effective means for public information activities to gain public consent, and implement them positively and continuously with beliefs. We are prepared to do so. Activities for public acceptance of nuclear energy may vary in line with the situation in each country. It is therefore very meaningful to have the experts' gatherings like this workshop to exchange, views on the public acceptance

  9. Commission de regulation de l'energie. Activity Report June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the June 2003 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Energy markets regulation: a new step; B - Gas market regulation: gas markets and actors, gas market regulation (legal and institutional framework, networks access, methane terminals and modulation services, freedom spaces, European market regulation, gas utility, CRE gas activities and priorities in 2003); C - Electricity market regulation: electricity markets (European markets, operators activity on the French market), French electricity market regulation (public networks access, trans-border power exchanges, EDF's un-bundled accounts audit, market operation), electric utility in the regulated market (public utility content, public utility charges, power generation public utility financing, electricity pre-tax sale tariffs for non-eligible customers); D - CRE operation (means and resources, exercise of its implementing powers, European and international activities); E - Appendixes: Glossary; Units and conversions; Council of European Energy Regulators, Index of figures and tables

  10. Evaluation of the differential energy distribution of systems of non-thermally activated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A non-thermally activated molecule may undergo pressure dependent deactivation or energy dependent decomposition. It should be possible to use the pressure dependent stabilization/decomposition yields to determine the energy distribution in non-thermal systems. The numerical technique of regularization has been applied to this chemical problem to evaluate this distribution. The resulting method has been tested with a number of simulated distributions and kinetic models. Application was then made to several real chemical systems to determine the energy distribution resulting from the primary excitation process. Testing showed the method to be quite effective in reproducing input distributions from simulated data in all test cases. The effect of experimental error proved to be negligible when the error-filled data were first smoothed with a parabolic spline. This method has been applied to three different hot atom activated systems. Application to 18 F-for-F substituted CH 3 CF 3 generated a broad distribution extending from 62 to 318 kcal/mol, with a median energy of 138 kcal/mol. The shape of this distribution (and those from the other applications) indicated the involvement of two mechanisms in the excitation process. Analysis of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 F system showed a more narrow distribution (56-218 kcal/mol) with a median energy of 79.8 kcal/mol. The distribution of the T-for-H substituted CH 3 CH 2 Cl system, extending from 54.5 to 199 kcal/mol was seen to be quite similar. It was concluded that this method is a valid approach to evaluating differential energy distributions in non-thermal systems, specifically those activated by hot atom substitution

  11. Compact, Energy-Efficient High-Frequency Switched Capacitor Neural Stimulator With Active Charge Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yang; Schmid, Alexandre

    2017-08-01

    Safety and energy efficiency are two major concerns for implantable neural stimulators. This paper presents a novel high-frequency, switched capacitor (HFSC) stimulation and active charge balancing scheme, which achieves high energy efficiency and well-controlled stimulation charge in the presence of large electrode impedance variations. Furthermore, the HFSC can be implemented in a compact size without any external component to simultaneously enable multichannel stimulation by deploying multiple stimulators. The theoretical analysis shows significant benefits over the constant-current and voltage-mode stimulation methods. The proposed solution was fabricated using a 0.18 μm high-voltage technology, and occupies only 0.035 mm 2 for a single stimulator. The measurement result shows 50% peak energy efficiency and confirms the effectiveness of active charge balancing to prevent the electrode dissolution.

  12. A road to more and cheaper energy conservation. Evaluation of all the Danish energy saving activities. Appendix; En vej til flere og billigere energibesparelser. En evaluering af samtlige danske energispareaktiviteter. Billagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The appendix together with the main report constitutes the result of the evaluation carried out in 2008 of all Danish energy conservation activities and incentives. A brief introduction is given to the social context of the effort to promote energy conservation and the use of incentives. The main part of the appendix is a presentation of each of the present nine main incentives and activities, their effects and cost. The nine energy saving activities and incentives are: Taxes and CO{sub 2} quotas, the electric utilities' activities, energy labelling of buildings, the Electric Power Saving Trust, building codes, labelling of appliances, energy conservation requirements for public workplaces, agreement with the energy intensive industry, and the Energy Conservation Fund. Finally, the achieved effects of the present Danish energy saving efforts are presented. (ln)

  13. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.; Pavlicsek, I.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195 Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  14. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI Use with Energy Intake, Physical Activity, and Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Czwornog

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest proton pump inhibitor (PPI use impacts body weight regulation, though the effect of PPIs on energy intake, energy extraction, and energy expenditure is unknown. We used data on 3073 eligible adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity were extracted from NHANES. Multivariate regression models included confounding variables. Daily energy intake was similar between PPI users and non-users (p = 0.41. Diet composition was similar between the two groups, except that PPI users consumed a slightly greater proportion of calories from fat (34.5% vs. 33.2%; p = 0.02. PPI users rated themselves as being as physically active as their age/gender-matched peers and reported similar frequencies of walking or biking. However, PPI users were less likely to have participated in muscle-strengthening activities (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30–0.95. PPI users reported similar sedentary behaviors to non-users. Male PPI users had an increase in weight (of 1.52 ± 0.59 kg; p = 0.021 over the previous year compared to non-users, while female PPI users had a non-significant increase in weight. The potential mechanisms for PPI-associated weight gain are unclear as we did not find evidence for significant differences in energy intake or markers of energy expenditure.

  15. Validation of the Actiheart Activity Monitor for Measurement of Activity Energy Expenditure in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of this study was to develop an activity energy expenditure (AEE) prediction equation for the Actiheart activity monitor (AH) for use in children with chronic disease. Methods: 63 children, aged 8-18 years with different types of chronic disease (Juvenile Arthritis, Hemophilia, Dermatomyositis, neuromuscular disease, Cystic Fibrosis or Congenital Heart Disease) participated in an activity testing session which consisted of a resting protocol, ...

  16. Estimation of 129I by low energy spectrometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, P.M.; Iyer, M.R.; Sahasrabudhe, S.G.; Somasundaram, S.; Subramanian, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Methods have been developed for the estimation of 129 I by direct passive counting and by neutron activation analysis. The direct counting method using low energy photon spectrometry has been standardised for liquid samples. Interference from different induced radionuclides in the activation method was studied. Limits of detection of 129 I by direct counting method and neutron activation analysis work out to be 0.4 Bq and 1mBq respectively. (author). 6 refs

  17. Parallel Computing:. Some Activities in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Ian

    This paper examines some activities in High Energy Physics that utilise parallel computing. The topic includes all computing from the proposed SIMD front end detectors, the farming applications, high-powered RISC processors and the large machines in the computer centers. We start by looking at the motivation behind using parallelism for general purpose computing. The developments around farming are then described from its simplest form to the more complex system in Fermilab. Finally, there is a list of some developments that are happening close to the experiments.

  18. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela K. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  19. Activation measurements of α-induced reactions at sub-Coulomb energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Philipp; Dewald, Alfred; Heinze, Stefan; Mayer, Jan; Mueller-Gatermann, Claus; Netterdon, Lars; Zilges, Andreas [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Endres, Anne [Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Network calculations of the γ process rely almost completely on theoretically predicted reaction rates within the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach Statistical Model. Especially the prediction of cross sections for (γ,α)-reactions at energies within or close to the astrophysically relevant energy window remains a problem due to the uncertainties in the underlying α-optical-model potentials. Although experimental values far above the Coulomb-barrier are well reproduced, commonly used α-optical potentials often fail to describe the trend at energies comparable to those at astrophysical sites of the γ process. Improvements of the adopted optical-model potentials are hampered by the lack of experimental cross sections at sub-Coulomb energies. In order to enlarge the experimental data base, cross sections of the {sup 187}Re(α,n) and {sup 108}Cd(α,n) reactions were investigated using the activation technique with the Cologne Clover Counting Setup. Besides recent experimental results, future plans for more sensitive cross-section studies applying Accelerator Mass Spectrometry using CologneAMS are presented.

  20. Converging Light, Energy and Hormonal Signaling Control Meristem Activity, Leaf Initiation, and Growth1[CC-BY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Binish; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Grove, Elliot; Railo, Saana; Palme, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The development of leaf primordia is subject to light control of meristematic activity. Light regulates the expression of thousands of genes with roles in cell proliferation, organ development, and differentiation of photosynthetic cells. Previous work has highlighted roles for hormone homeostasis and the energy-dependent Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in meristematic activity, yet a picture of how these two regulatory mechanisms depend on light perception and interact with each other has yet to emerge. Their relevance beyond leaf initiation also is unclear. Here, we report the discovery that the dark-arrested meristematic region of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) experiences a local energy deprivation state and confirm previous findings that the PIN1 auxin transporter is diffusely localized in the dark. Light triggers a rapid removal of the starvation state and the establishment of PIN1 polar membrane localization consistent with auxin export, both preceding the induction of cell cycle- and cytoplasmic growth-associated genes. We demonstrate that shoot meristematic activity can occur in the dark through the manipulation of auxin and cytokinin activity as well as through the activation of energy signaling, both targets of photomorphogenesis action, but the organ developmental outcomes differ: while TOR-dependent energy signals alone stimulate cell proliferation, the development of a normal leaf lamina requires photomorphogenesis-like hormonal responses. We further show that energy signaling adjusts the extent of cell cycle activity and growth of young leaves non-cellautonomously to available photosynthates and leads to organs constituted of a greater number of cells developing under higher irradiance. This makes energy signaling perhaps the most important biomass growth determinant under natural, unstressed conditions. PMID:29284741

  1. Commission de regulation de l'energie. Activity Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2009 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How the CRE works and the activity of the CoRDiS; B - Implementation of the third energy package will strengthen regulation in this sector; C - The regulator contributes to the correct operation of the infrastructures, the interconnection of European grids and security of supplies; D - Regulation: serving investment and quality; E - Renewable energy, advanced metering systems and the grids of the future are all priority means of delivering sustainable development; F - The CRE is contributing to the smooth operation of electricity and gas markets to the benefit of consumers; G - Appendices: 1. Summary of the principal deliberations of the CRE; 2. European and international calendar for 2009; 3. Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER); 4. Glossary; 5. Acronyms; 6. Units and conversions; 7. Index; 8. List of boxes, figures and tables

  2. Breakdown of the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy for a quantum body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Andrei G.

    2016-01-01

    We determine active gravitational mass operator of the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom - within the semiclassical approach to the Einstein equation for a gravitational field. We show that the expectation value of the mass is equivalent to energy for stationary quantum states. On the other hand, it occurs that, for quantum superpositions of stationary states with constant expectation values of energy, the expectation values of the gravitational mass exhibit time-dependent oscillations. This breaks the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy and can be observed as a macroscopic effect for a macroscopic ensemble of coherent quantum states of the atoms. The corresponding experiment could be the first direct observation of quantum effects in General Relativity. (paper)

  3. Energy Cost of Active and Sedentary Music Video Games: Drum and Handheld Gaming vs. Walking and Sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Edwin; Overstreet, Brittany S; Fountain, William A; Gutierrez, Vincent; Kolankowski, Michael; Overstreet, Matthew L; Sapp, Ryan M; Wolff, Christopher A; Mazzetti, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    To compare energy expenditure during and after active and handheld video game drumming compared to walking and sitting. Ten experienced, college-aged men performed four protocols (one per week): no-exercise seated control (CTRL), virtual drumming on a handheld gaming device (HANDHELD), active drumming on drum pads (DRUM), and walking on a treadmill at ~30% of VO 2max (WALK). Protocols were performed after an overnight fast, and expired air was collected continuously during (30min) and after (30min) exercise. DRUM and HANDHELD song lists, day of the week, and time of day were identical for each participant. Significant differences (p DRUM > HANDHELD. No significant differences in the rates of energy expenditure among groups during recovery were observed. Total energy expenditure was significantly greater (p < 0.05) during WALK (149.5 ± 30.6 kcal) compared to DRUM (118.7 ± 18.8 kcal) and HANDHELD (44.9±11.6 kcal), and greater during DRUM compared to HANDHELD. Total energy expenditure was not significantly different between HANDHELD (44.9 ± 11.6 kcal) and CTRL (38.2 ± 6.0 kcal). Active video game drumming at expert-level significantly increased energy expenditure compared to handheld, but it hardly met moderate-intensity activity standards, and energy expenditure was greatest during walking. Energy expenditure with handheld video game drumming was not different from no-exercise control. Thus, traditional aerobic exercise remains at the forefront for achieving the minimum amount and intensity of physical activity for health, individuals desiring to use video games for achieving weekly physical activity recommendations should choose games that require significant involvement of lower-body musculature, and time spent playing sedentary games should be a limited part of an active lifestyle.

  4. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Activation Energies for Carrier Capture by Defects in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.

    The rate of defect-induced carrier recombination is determined by both defect levels and carrier capture cross-sections. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to predict defect levels, but only recently has work begun to focus on using DFT to determine carrier capture cross-sections. Lang and Henry developed the theory of carrier-capture by multiphonon emission in the 1970s and showed that carrier-capture cross-sections differ between defects primarily due to differences in their carrier capture activation energies. We present an approach to using DFT to calculate carrier capture activation energies that does not depend on an assumed configuration coordinate and that fully accounts for anharmonic effects, which can substantially modify carrier activation energies. We demonstrate our approach for intrinisic defects in GaAs and GaN and discuss how our results depend on the choice of exchange-correlation functional and the treatment of spin polarization. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Physical activity energy expenditure in Dutch adolescents: contribution of active transport to school, physical education, and leisure time activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2012-05-01

    Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from school, physical education (PE), and leisure time activities to total PAEE during a regular school week in adolescents. Seventy-three adolescents (mean age: 15.7 years) wore an individually calibrated combined heart rate-acceleration monitor and kept an activity diary during a regular school week. Branched equation modeling was used to calculate PAEE of the specific activity categories, and their relative contribution to total PAEE was determined. Active transport and PE contributed 30.0% and 17.4%, respectively, to school-related PAEE. Active transport to and from school contributed 15% to total PAEE. Youth with a high physical activity level (PAL) spent 4 hours less in sedentary behavior than subjects with a medium or low PAL (F = 77.415 (2.70), p activities (F = 10.583 (2.70), p Active transport and PE contribute significantly to PAEE during school hours in adolescents. To achieve an increase in total PAEE in the least active group of adolescents, promising strategies might be to reduce inactive behavior, increase participation in leisure time sports, and possibly to replace inactive for active jobs. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  6. On the relation between the ratio of energy of vaporization to activation energy for flow and physical properties of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, N.V.K.; Ravikumar, Y.V.L.; Prasad, D.H.L.

    1993-01-01

    A relation between the ratio of energy of vaporization (Esub(vap) to the activation energy for flow (Esub(vis)) and the ratio of melting point (T m ) to the critical temperature (T c ) has been developed for liquid metals, and is shown to be superior to the examinations from Eyring theory. (author). 12 refs

  7. Regulation of Energy Stores and Feeding by Neuronal and Peripheral CREB Activity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Koichi; Zhao, LiJuan; Shenton, Christopher; Iijima-Ando, Kanae

    2009-01-01

    The cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB functions in adipose tissue and liver to regulate glycogen and lipid metabolism in mammals. While Drosophila has a homolog of mammalian CREB, dCREB2, its role in energy metabolism is not fully understood. Using tissue-specific expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (DN-CREB), we have examined the effect of blocking CREB activity in neurons and in the fat body, the primary energy storage depot with functions of adipose tissue and the liver in flies, on energy balance, stress resistance and feeding behavior. We found that disruption of CREB function in neurons reduced glycogen and lipid stores and increased sensitivity to starvation. Expression of DN-CREB in the fat body also reduced glycogen levels, while it did not affect starvation sensitivity, presumably due to increased lipid levels in these flies. Interestingly, blocking CREB activity in the fat body increased food intake. These flies did not show a significant change in overall body size, suggesting that disruption of CREB activity in the fat body caused an obese-like phenotype. Using a transgenic CRE-luciferase reporter, we further demonstrated that disruption of the adipokinetic hormone receptor, which is functionally related to mammalian glucagon and β-adrenergic signaling, in the fat body reduced CRE-mediated transcription in flies. This study demonstrates that CREB activity in either neuronal or peripheral tissues regulates energy balance in Drosophila, and that the key signaling pathway regulating CREB activity in peripheral tissue is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:20041126

  8. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Regulates Energy Metabolism through Modulating Thermogenesis in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingyan; Zhang, Lina; Li, Bohan; Jiang, Haowen; Duan, Yanan; Xie, Zhifu; Shuai, Lin; Li, Jia; Li, Jingya

    2018-01-01

    Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic “brown-like” cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood. To illuminate the effect of adipocyte AMPK on energy metabolism, we generated Adiponectin-Cre-driven adipose tissue-specific AMPK α1/α2 KO mice (AKO). These AKO mice were cold intolerant and their inguinal WAT displayed impaired mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis, and reduced expression of thermogenic markers upon cold exposure. High-fat-diet (HFD)-fed AKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and exacerbated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were markedly decreased in the AKO mice both in basal conditions and after stimulation with a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, CL 316,243. In contrast, we found that in HFD-fed obese mouse model, chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 protected against obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. A-769662 alleviated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and reduced body weight gain and WAT expansion. Notably, A-769662 increased energy expenditure and cold tolerance in HFD-fed mice. A-769662 treatment also induced the browning process in the inguinal fat depot of HFD-fed mice. Likewise, A-769662 enhanced thermogenesis in differentiated inguinal stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells via AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, a lack of adipocyte AMPKα induced thermogenic impairment and obesity in response to cold and nutrient-overload, respectively

  9. Major activities of the association ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft Solar NRW''. Decentralized energy systems development, trial and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliss, M.

    1996-01-01

    In North-Rhine Westphalia, the Ministry for Science and Research and the Ministry for Economic Affairs, Medium-Sized Companies and Technology (MWF) in 1991 decided to jointly establish a research and technology association called AG Solar NRW, intended to function as a central body for promotion and coordination of existing but dispersed projects and activities in North-Rhine Westphalia for research into and development of solar technology and energy systems, and for promotion of demonstration projects and training programmes supporting enhanced use of solar energy. The total budget made available for activities of the AG Solar in phase 1 (1991 - 1995) was approx. DM 60 million. The article in hand summarizes the main activities and results achieved in this first phase which was committed to decentralized energy systems, performance testing and qualification. (orig.) [de

  10. Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid flow with nonlinear thermal radiation and activation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sajid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is about the study of Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid over a linear stretching surface. Effects like variable thermal conductivity, activation energy, nonlinear thermal radiation is also incorporated for the analysis of heat and mass transfer. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs with convective boundary conditions are first converted into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs with the help of similarity transformation, and then the resulting nonlinear ODEs are solved with the help of shooting method and MATLAB built-in bvp4c solver. The impact of different physical parameters like Brownian motion, thermophoresis parameter, Reynolds number, magnetic parameter, nonlinear radiative heat flux, Prandtl number, Lewis number, reaction rate constant, activation energy and Biot number on Nusselt number, velocity, temperature and concentration profile has been discussed. It is viewed that both thermophoresis parameter and activation energy parameter has ascending effect on the concentration profile.

  11. Linear free energy relationships between aqueous phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and free energy of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2011-04-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs.

  12. EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30–60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field

  13. EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongqi [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Brandenburg, Axel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Sokoloff, D. D., E-mail: hzhang@bao.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Moscow University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-10

    We adopt an isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field to estimate the magnetic energy and helicity spectra as well as current helicity spectra of two individual active regions (NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11515) and the change of the spectral indices during their development as well as during the solar cycle. The departure of the spectral indices of magnetic energy and current helicity from 5/3 are analyzed, and it is found that it is lower than the spectral index of the magnetic energy spectrum. Furthermore, the fractional magnetic helicity tends to increase when the scale of the energy-carrying magnetic structures increases. The magnetic helicity of NOAA 11515 violates the expected hemispheric sign rule, which is interpreted as an effect of enhanced field strengths at scales larger than 30–60 Mm with opposite signs of helicity. This is consistent with the general cycle dependence, which shows that around the solar maximum the magnetic energy and helicity spectra are steeper, emphasizing the large-scale field.

  14. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency activities in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenweaver, D W.; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been addressing the safety and technical issues of decommissioning for over 20 years, but their focus has been primarily on planning. Up to know, the activities have been on an ad hoc basis and sometimes, important issues have been missed. A new Action Plan on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities has recently been approved by the Agency's board of Governors which will focus the Agency's efforts and ensure that our Member States' concerns are addressed. The new initiatives associated with this Action Plan will help ensure that decommissioning activities in the future are performed in a safe and coherent manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been preparing safety and technical documents concerning decommissioning since the mid-1980's. There have been over 30 documents prepared that provide safety requirements, guidance and supporting technical information. Many of these documents are over 10 years old and need updating. The main focus in the past has been on planning for decommissioning. During the past five years, a set of Safety Standards have been prepared and issued to provide safety requirements and guidance to Member States. However, decommissioning was never a real priority with the Agency, but was something that had to be addressed. To illustrate this point, the first requirements documents on decommissioning were issued as part of a Safety Requirements [1] on pre-disposal management of radioactive waste. It was felt that decommissioning did not deserve its own document because it was just part of the normal waste management process. The focus was mostly on waste management. The Agency has assisted Member States with the planning process for decommissioning. Most of these activities have been focused on nuclear power plants and research reactors. Now, support for the decommissioning of other types of facilities is being requested. The Agency is currently providing technical

  16. Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed for balancing the state of charge of the energy storage units for distributed PV-based active generators. The proposed method, weights the action of conventional droop control loops for privileging the charge of the energy...... expandable and can be applied to a several number of power generators interconnected in a microgrid. Frequency and voltage bus signaling is used in order to coordinate the control operation mode between units. Simulation results in a low-voltage, three-phase, islanded AC microgrid show the feasibility...... of the proposed method and its applicability even for several active generators....

  17. The energy cost of playing active video games in children with obesity and children of a healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, C; Roche, E F; Hussey, J

    2014-08-01

    Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour form a large part of the treatment of paediatric obesity. However, many children today spend prolonged periods of time playing sedentary video games. Active video games (AVGs) represent a novel and child friendly form of physical activity. To measure the energy cost of playing two AVGs in children with obesity and healthy age- and gender-matched children. The energy cost of gaming and heart rates achieved during gaming conditions were compared between groups. AVG play can result in light-to-moderate intensity physical activity (2.7-5.4 metabolic equivalents). When corrected for fat-free mass those with obesity expended significantly less energy than healthy weight peers playing Nintendo Wii Fit Free Jogging (P = 0.017). No significant difference was seen between groups in the energy cost of playing Boxing. Certain AVGs, particularly those that require lower limb movement, could be used to increase total energy expenditure, replace more sedentary activities, or achieve moderate intensity physical activity among children with obesity. There seems to be some differences in how children with obesity and children of a healthy weight play AVGs. This could result in those with obesity expending less energy than their lean peers during AVG play. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Energy in the market services sector in 2011: uses differentiated according to activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    In 2011, average energy consumption in the market services sector (excluding transport) was 266 kWh/ m 2 . This is greater than the consumption for residential buildings, which reached 186 kWh/m2. Indeed, activities in certain service-sector establishments sometimes require specific uses that do not exist in the residential sector or are more intensive, such as cooking, intensive computing, laundering or refrigeration. Businesses employing at least one person could be divided into five groups depending on their energy mix and energy uses. (author)

  19. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report; Commission de regulation de l'energie. Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  20. Cooking time harmonization attempts for main rubbers in a truck tyre-III. Activation energy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadima, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The harmonization of optimum cooking time of rubbers containing in a tyre is became possible. This occurrence is the result of the knowledge about the respective function of each element containing in the rubber. Many kind of rubbers are been studied. The obtained results demonstrate the realization of the harmonization of optimum cooking time in different rubbers at some conditions by modifying either a kind of vulcanization accelerator or a quantity of vulcanization activator. So, accelerator or activator modifies need of energy during cooking. In this paper, we are estimated activation energy for all new rubbers obtained

  1. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  2. Wind energy activities at UNIANDES, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla, A.

    1991-01-01

    In Colombia, a cooperation has been established between the Universidad de Los Andes and local manufacturers. It shows that the interaction between a local R ampersand D institution and local manufacturers can stimulate the introduction of small wind pumps. Wind energy activities at the University started in 1973, which resulted in the first product in 1976. Two wind pumps have been developed. One is the Jober (D=2.5 m, H<25m, 900 US$, 600 when installed), the other is the Gaviotas (D=2m, H<15m, 450 US$) wind pump. A lot of good, low cost measuring equipment has been developed at the University, a.o. an electro-magnetic flow meter, which costs only 200 US$ (commercially available products cost 3,000 US$). Good experiences have been obtained in research under field conditions, with participation of the end-users. Gaviotas has a remarkable marketing strategy: during the wet season some 40 to 60 wind pumps are manufactured. In the dry season each installed Gaviotas wind pump is visited for maintenance. These maintenance visits are combined with promotion: potential users in the neighbourhood are taken to the wind pumps for demonstration. Regarding future activities, a proposal for a joint program with the Technical University in Eindhoven (Netherlands) and the Reading University in the United Kingdom has been approved. 6 figs., 4 ills., 5 refs

  3. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.; Currie, J.W.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies

  4. Mobile Energy Laboratory energy-efficiency testing programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G B; Currie, J W

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes energy-efficiency testing activities applying the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing capabilities during the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year (FY) 1991. The MELs, developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), are administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Naval Energy and Environmental Support Activity (NEESA) for energy testing and energy conservation program support functions at federal facilities. The using agencies principally fund MEL applications, while DOE/FEMP funds program administration and capability enhancement activities. This report fulfills the requirements established in Section 8 of the MEL Use Plan (PNL-6861) for semi-annual reporting on energy-efficiency testing activities using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee, formally established in 1989, developed the MEL Use Plan and meets semi-annually to establish priorities for energy-efficient testing applications using the MEL capabilities. The MEL Use Committee is composed of one representative each of the US Department of Energy, US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and other federal agencies.

  5. Energy Conservation Analysis and Control of Hybrid Active Semiactive Suspension with Three Regulating Damping Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active suspension has not been popularized for high energy consumption. To address this issue, this paper introduces the concept of a new kind of suspension. The linear motor is considered to be integrated into an adjustable shock absorber to form the hybrid active semiactive suspension (HASAS. To realize the superiority of HASAS, its energy consumption and regeneration mechanisms are revealed. And the system controller which is composed of linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller, mode decision and switch controller, and the sliding mode control based thrust controller is developed. LQR controller is designed to maintain the suspension control objectives, while mode decision and switch controller decides the optimal damping level to tune motor thrust. The thrust controller ensures motor thrust tracking. An adjustable shock absorber with three regulating levels to be used in HASAS is trial produced and tested to obtain its working characteristics. Finally, simulation analysis is made with the experimental three damping characteristics. The impacts of adjustable damping on the motor force and energy consumption are investigated. Simulation results demonstrate the advantages of HASAS in energy conservation with various suspension control objectives. Even self-powered active control and energy regenerated to the power source can be realized.

  6. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  7. The Energy Expenditure of an Activity-Promoting Video Game compared to Sedentary Video Games and TV Watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Naim; Foster, Randal C; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Levine, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Screen time continues to be a major contributing factor to sedentariness in children. There have been more creative approaches to increase physical over the last few years. One approach has been through the use of video games. In the present study we investigated the effect of television watching and the use of activity-promoting video games on energy expenditure and movement in lean and obese children. Our primary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement decreases while watching television, in lean and obese children. Our secondary hypothesis was that energy expenditure and movement increases when playing the same game with an activity-promoting video game console compared to a sedentary video game console, in lean and obese children. Methods Eleven boys (10 ± 1 year) and eight girls (9 ± 1 year) ranging in BMI from 14–29 kg/m2 (eleven lean and eight overweight or obese) were recruited. Energy expenditure and physical activity were measured while participants were watching television, playing a video game on a traditional sedentary video game console, and while playing the same video game on an activity-promoting video game (Nintendo Wii) console. Results Energy expenditure was significantly greater than television watching and playing video games on a sedentary video game console when children played the video game on the activity-promoting console(125.3 ± 38.2 Kcal/hr vs. 79.7 ± 20.1 and 79.4 ±15.7, Pvideo games on a sedentary video game console is not different. Activity-promoting video games have shown to increase movement, and be an important tool to raise energy expenditure by 50% when compared to sedentary activities of daily living. PMID:22145458

  8. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, E.P.

    1990-05-01

    This program, which has been supported for twenty-four years by the Us Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, has produced significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of chemical activation by nuclear processes; the stereochemistry of radioactivity for solution of specific problems. This program was contributed to the training of approximately seventy scientists at various levels. This final report includes a review of the areas of research and chronological tabulation of the publications

  9. Microbial catabolic activities are naturally selected by metabolic energy harvest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cabaleiro, Rebeca; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Lema, Juan M; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The fundamental trade-off between yield and rate of energy harvest per unit of substrate has been largely discussed as a main characteristic for microbial established cooperation or competition. In this study, this point is addressed by developing a generalized model that simulates competition between existing and not experimentally reported microbial catabolic activities defined only based on well-known biochemical pathways. No specific microbial physiological adaptations are considered, growth yield is calculated coupled to catabolism energetics and a common maximum biomass-specific catabolism rate (expressed as electron transfer rate) is assumed for all microbial groups. Under this approach, successful microbial metabolisms are predicted in line with experimental observations under the hypothesis of maximum energy harvest rate. Two microbial ecosystems, typically found in wastewater treatment plants, are simulated, namely: (i) the anaerobic fermentation of glucose and (ii) the oxidation and reduction of nitrogen under aerobic autotrophic (nitrification) and anoxic heterotrophic and autotrophic (denitrification) conditions. The experimentally observed cross feeding in glucose fermentation, through multiple intermediate fermentation pathways, towards ultimately methane and carbon dioxide is predicted. Analogously, two-stage nitrification (by ammonium and nitrite oxidizers) is predicted as prevailing over nitrification in one stage. Conversely, denitrification is predicted in one stage (by denitrifiers) as well as anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation). The model results suggest that these observations are a direct consequence of the different energy yields per electron transferred at the different steps of the pathways. Overall, our results theoretically support the hypothesis that successful microbial catabolic activities are selected by an overall maximum energy harvest rate.

  10. Designing an Energy Drink: High School Students Learn Design and Marketing Skills in This Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Doug

    2008-01-01

    A decade ago, energy drinks were almost nonexistent in the United States, but in the past five years they've become wildly popular. In fact, the $3.4 billion energy-drink market is expected to double this year alone, and the younger generation is the market targeted by manufacturers. This article presents an energy-drink designing activity. This…

  11. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2008 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How CRE works: CRE regulatory authority and organisation: Powers, Organisation; Budget resources; Personnel; B - The Standing Committee for Dispute Settlement and Sanctions (CoRDiS) activity: Admissibility, Authority; C - Building a single European energy market: Overview; Organisation and coordination of the main European regulators (Work carried out collectively by European regulators, Regulator organisation and development, CRE's relations with European Community institutions, Development of CEER activities outside the European Union); CRE's European activities (The contribution of European regulators to the Third Energy Package, Integration of gas markets, Integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, Opening up markets to benefit consumers); European Community activities (The European Commission's proposals for the internal energy market: the Third Energy Package, The European Commission's proposals for fighting climate change: the Climate

  12. Optimizing the Activation of Chlorin e6 Utilizing Upconversion Energy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Julio C.; Pedraza, Francisco J.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Current cancer therapy techniques, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, possess several drawbacks including lack of selectivity resulting in harmful side effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the fastest emerging techniques due to its many advantages, including the use of nonionizing radiation, targeted delivery, and controlled doses. In PDT, photosensitizers (PSs) are activated inside targeted cells to produce irreversible damage inducing cell death. Since most PSs operate in the visible range, it is difficult to activate them due to the high attenuation of soft tissue. Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNP) are able to absorb in the NIR region, where light is less attenuated, and emit in the visible range, resulting in deeper tissue penetration. UCNPs are able to assist with the activation of the PS by energy transfer when the PS is conjugated onto the UCNP. Chlorin e6 (Ce6) is a commonly used PSs due to its ability to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is one of the main processes utilized in PDT. The UCNP studied contain a combination of rare earth doped ions including Erbium, Thulium, and Holmium precisely doped into the host nanocrystal to improve upconversion emission and energy transfer. The work presented will focus on exploring the factors that affect the activation of Ce6. The results will include the enhancement of Ce6 activation and ROS release when conjugated onto a rare earth-doped UCNP. This research was funded by NSF-PREM Grant No. DMR -0934218 and RISE Grant No. GM 060655.

  13. 76 FR 68720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Geophysical Survey in the Western... conducting a low-energy marine geophysical (i.e., seismic) survey in the western tropical Pacific Ocean... Science Foundation (NSF), and ``Environmental Assessment of a Low-Energy Marine Geophysical Survey by the...

  14. Nonlinear Modeling and Coordinate Optimization of a Semi-Active Energy Regenerative Suspension with an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farong Kou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to coordinate the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of energy regenerative suspension, this paper proposes a structure of a vehicle semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA. In light of the proposed concept, a specific energy regenerative scheme is designed and a mechanical properties test is carried out. Based on the test results, the parameter identification for the system model is conducted using a recursive least squares algorithm. On the basis of the system principle, the nonlinear model of the semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an EHA is built. Meanwhile, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control strategy of the system is designed. Then, the influence of the main parameters of the EHA on the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of the suspension is analyzed. Finally, the main parameters of the EHA are optimized via the genetic algorithm. The test results show that when a sinusoidal is input at the frequency of 2 Hz and the amplitude of 30 mm, the spring mass acceleration root meam square value of the optimized EHA semi-active energy regenerative suspension is reduced by 22.23% and the energy regenerative power RMS value is increased by 40.51%, which means that while meeting the requirements of vehicle ride comfort and driving safety, the energy regenerative performance is improved significantly.

  15. The French market of solutions for active energy efficiency. Energy, central home automation systems, consumption monitoring software, distributed load shedding, energy performance contract... which tools will stand out?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at proposing an overview of solutions for energy efficiency and at assessing their impact on energy consumption, at identifying the growth dynamics of three market segments (assisted efficiency, automated efficiency and contract-based efficiency), at comparing the posture and strategies of the different actors present on this market (energy providers, equipment manufacturers, pure players, NTIC...), at identifying actors who are in the best position to benefit market development, and at imagining tomorrow's supply for energy efficiency. The report addresses the definition of active energy efficiency, the rationale of its development, the European regulatory and legal context, the strengthening of regulatory and environmental constraints in France, the three different market segments (examples, opportunities), and the competition context

  16. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Trianna, M.

    2002-01-01

    Physical activity levels (PALs) values of urban elderly of developed countries obtained by the DLW-method are usually higher than the recommendations of the Expert Committee on Energy and Protein. This underestimation should be more evident for the rural elderly

  17. Energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity and with weight gain in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Anne-Elisabeth; Montaurier, Christophe; Cano, Noël; Caillot, Nicolas; Blot, A; Meunier, Nathalie; Pereira, Bruno; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Jouve, Christelle; Boirie, Yves; Deteix, Patrice; Morio, Beatrice

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in energy metabolism could trigger weight gain after renal transplantation. Nineteen transplanted non-diabetic men, 53 ± 1.6 years old, receiving calcineurin inhibitors but no corticosteroids were studied. They were compared with nine healthy men matched for height, age and lean body mass. Daily energy expenditure and its components (sleeping, basal and absorptive metabolic rates) were analyzed for 24 h in calorimetric chambers and for 4 days in free living conditions using calibrated accelerometry. Other variables known to influence energy expenditure were assessed: body composition, physical activity, 4-day food intake, drug consumption, serum C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, thyroid and parathyroid hormones, and epinephrine. Transplant recipients who gained more than 5% body weight after transplantation (n = 11, +11.0 ± 1.5 kg) were compared with those who did not (n = 8) and with the controls. Weight gain compared with non-weight gain patients and controls exhibited higher fat mass without change in lean body mass. Daily, sleeping and resting energy expenditure adjusted for lean body mass was significantly higher in non-weight gain (167.1 ± 4.2 kJ/kg/lean body mass/24 h, P controls (146.1 ± 4.6). Weight gain compared with controls and non-weight gain subjects had lower free living physical activity and a higher consumption of antihypertensive drugs and β-blockers. After kidney transplantation, weight gain patients were characterized by lower adjusted energy expenditure, reduced spontaneous physical activity but a more sedentary life style and a trend toward a higher energy intake explaining the reason they gained weight. The nWG KTR had increased resting and sleeping EE which protected them from weight gain. Such hypermetabolism was also observed in 24-h EE measurements. By comparison with the nWG patients, the WG transplant recipients were characterized by higher β-blocker consumption. These data could be helpful in the prevention of weight

  18. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  19. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning activities embodying the substance metaphor for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of activities called Energy Theater. We illustrate several mechanisms by which the blended aspect of the learning environment promotes productive intellectual engagement with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including distinguishing among energy processes, disambiguating matter and energy, identifying energy transfer, and representing energy as a conserved quantity. Conceptual advancement appears to be promoted especially by the symbolic material and social structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants and objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope, and by Energy Theater's embodied action, including body locomotion, gesture, and coordination of speech with symbolic spaces in the Energy Theater arena. Our conclusions are (1) that specific conceptual metaphors can be leveraged to benefit science instruction via the blending of an abstract space of ideas with multiple modes of concrete human action, and (2) that participants' structured improvisation plays an important role in leveraging the blend for their intellectual development.

  20. Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship Program: Summary of program activities for calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program (MFETF) for the 1985 calendar year. The MFETF program has continued to support the mission of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) and its Division of Development and Technology (DDT) by ensuring the availability of appropriately trained engineering manpower needed to implement the OFE/DDT magnetic fusion energy agenda. This program provides training and research opportunities to highly qualified students at DOE-designated academic, private sector, and government magnetic fusion energy institutions. The objectives of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Technology Fellowship program are: (1) to provide support for graduate study, training, and research in magnetic fusion energy technology; (2) to ensure an adequate supply of appropriately trained manpower to implement the nation's magnetic fusion energy agenda; (3) to raise the visibility of careers in magnetic fusion energy technology and to encourage students to pursue such careers; and (4) to make national magnetic fusion energy facilities available for manpower training

  1. Conductance and activation energy for electron transport in series and parallel intramolecular circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Ning; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-11-30

    We investigate electron transport through series and parallel intramolecular circuits in the framework of the multi-level Redfield theory. Based on the assumption of weak monomer-bath couplings, the simulations depict the length and temperature dependence in six types of intramolecular circuits. In the tunneling regime, we find that the intramolecular circuit rule is only valid in the weak monomer coupling limit. In the thermally activated hopping regime, for circuits based on two different molecular units M a and M b with distinct activation energies E act,a > E act,b , the activation energies of M a and M b in series are nearly the same as E act,a while those in parallel are nearly the same as E act,b . This study gives a comprehensive description of electron transport through intramolecular circuits from tunneling to thermally activated hopping. We hope that this work can motivate additional studies to design intramolecular circuits based on different types of building blocks, and to explore the corresponding circuit laws and the length and temperature dependence of conductance.

  2. Dopant redistribution and electrical activation in silicon following ultra-low energy boron implantation and excimer laser annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, S.; La Magna, A.; Privitera, V.; Mannino, G.; Italia, M.; Bongiorno, C.; Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L.

    2003-01-01

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) of ultra-low-energy (ULE) B-ion implanted Si has been performed. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been used to assess the as-implanted damage and the crystal recovery following ELA. The electrical activation and redistribution of B in Si during ELA has been investigated as a function of the laser energy density (melted depth), the implant dose, and the number of laser pulses (melt time). The activated and retained dose has been evaluated with spreading resistance profiling and secondary ion mass spectrometry. A significant amount of the implanted dopant was lost from the sample during ELA. However, the dopant that was retained in crystal material was fully activated following rapid resolidification. At an atomic concentration below the thermodynamic limit, the activation efficiency (dose activated/dose implanted into Si material) was a constant for a fixed melt depth, irrespective of the dose implanted and hence the total activated dose was raised as the implant dose was increased. The electrical activation was increased for high laser energy density annealing when the dopant was redistributed over a deeper range

  3. Possibility of cellulose-based electro-active paper energy scavenging transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo Hyung

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a cellulose-based Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) energy scavenging transducer is presented. Cellulose is proven as a smart material, and exhibits piezoelectric effect. Specimens were prepared by coating gold electrodes on both sides of cellulose film. The fabricated specimens were tested by a base excited aluminum cantilever beam at resonant frequency. Different tests were performed with single and multiple parallel connected electrodes coated on the cellulose film. A maximum of 131 mV output voltage was measured, when three electrodes were connected in parallel. It was observed that voltage output increases significantly with the area of electrodes. From these results, it can be concluded that the piezoelectricity of cellulose-based EAPap can be used in energy transduction application.

  4. Resting sympathetic activity is associated with the sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Malterer, Katherine R; Matzek, Luke J; Levine, James A; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miles, John M; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with high plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels at rest have a smaller reduction in resting energy expenditure (REE) following β -adrenergic blockade. If this finding extends to the response to a meal, it could have important implications for the role of the sympathetic nervous system in energy balance and weight gain. We hypothesized high muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) would be associated with a low sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. Fourteen young, healthy adults completed two visits randomized to continuous saline (control) or intravenous propranolol to achieve systemic β -adrenergic blockade. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and REE were measured (indirect calorimetry) followed by a liquid mixed meal (Ensure). Measures of energy expenditure continued every 30 min for 5 h after the meal and are reported as an area under the curve (AUC). Sympathetic support of energy expenditure was calculated as the difference between the AUC during saline and β -blockade (AUC P ropranolol -AUC S aline , β -REE) and as a percent (%) of control (AUC P ropranolol ÷AUC S aline  × 100). β -REE was associated with baseline sympathetic activity, such that individuals with high resting MSNA (bursts/100 heart beats) and plasma NE had the greatest sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal (MSNA: β -REE R  =   -0.58, P =  0.03; %REE R  = -0.56, P =  0.04; NE: β -REE R  = -0.55, P  = 0.0535; %REE R  = -0.54, P  = 0.0552). Contrary to our hypothesis, high resting sympathetic activity is associated with a greater sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a liquid meal. These findings may have implications for weight maintenance in individuals with varying resting sympathetic activity. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  6. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group housed, growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  7. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  8. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  9. A Kinematically Beamed, Low Energy Pulsed Neutron Source for Active Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, D.; Hagmann, C.; Kerr, P.; Nakae, L.; Rowland, M.; Snyderman, N.; Stoeffl, W.; Hamm, R.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a new active interrogation system based on a kinematically focused low energy neutron beam. The key idea is that one of the defining characteristics of SNM (Special Nuclear Materials) is the ability for low energy or thermal neutrons to induce fission. Thus by using low energy neutrons for the interrogation source we can accomplish three goals, (1) Energy discrimination allows us to measure the prompt fast fission neutrons produced while the interrogation beam is on; (2) Neutrons with an energy of approximately 60 to 100 keV do not fission 238U and Thorium, but penetrate bulk material nearly as far as high energy neutrons do and (3) below about 100keV neutrons lose their energy by kinematical collisions rather than via the nuclear (n,2n) or (n,n') processes thus further simplifying the prompt neutron induced background. 60 keV neutrons create a low radiation dose and readily thermal capture in normal materials, thus providing a clean spectroscopic signature of the intervening materials. The kinematically beamed source also eliminates the need for heavy backward and sideway neutron shielding. We have designed and built a very compact pulsed neutron source, based on an RFQ proton accelerator and a lithium target. We are developing fast neutron detectors that are nearly insensitive to the ever-present thermal neutron and neutron capture induced gamma ray background. The detection of only a few high energy fission neutrons in time correlation with the linac pulse will be a clear indication of the presence of SNM

  10. Energy Utilization for Survival and Fertilization-Parsimonious Quiescent Sperm Turn Extravagant on Motility Activation in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Yadav, Santosh K; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Pandey, Aastha; Sharma, Vikas; Verma, Vikas; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Rajender, Singh; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-04-01

    Quiescent sperm survive in cauda epididymis for long periods of time under extreme crowding conditions and with a very limited energy substrate, while after ejaculation, motile sperm live for a much shorter period with an unlimited energy resource and without crowding. Thus, the energy metabolism in relation to the energy requirement of the two may be quite different. A simple physiological technique was evolved to collect viable quiescent sperm from rat cauda epididymis to compare its energy metabolism with motile sperm. Quiescent sperm exhibited 40%-60% higher activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I-IV and ATP synthase in comparison to motile sperm and accumulated Ca(2+) in the midpiece mitochondria to enhance oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). In contrast, motile sperm displayed up to 75% higher activities of key glycolytic enzymes and secreted more than two times the lactate than quiescent sperm. Quiescent sperm phosphorylated AMPK and MAPK-p38, while motile sperm phosphorylated AKT and MAPK/ERK. Glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetamide prevented motility activation of quiescent rat sperm and inhibited conception in rabbits more effectively than OxPhos uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. Apparently, quiescent sperm employ the most energy efficient OxPhos to survive for extended periods of time under extreme conditions of nutrition and crowding. However, on motility initiation, sperm switch predominantly to glycolysis to cater to their high- and quick-energy requirement of much shorter periods. This study also presents a proof of concept for targeting sperm energy metabolism for contraception. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. Autonomous Active Power Control for Islanded AC Microgrids with Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    In an islanded AC microgrid with distributed energy storage system (ESS), photovoltaic (PV) generation and loads, a coordinated active power regulation is required to ensure efficient utilization of renewable energy, while keeping the ESS from overcharge and over discharge conditions. In this paper...

  12. Study of Energy Deposition and Activation for the LINAC4 Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Mauro, E; Mereghetti, A; Silari, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    This document provides estimates of energy deposition and activation for the dump of the future LINAC4 accelerator. Detailed maps of power density deposited in the dump are given, allowing to perform further thermo mechanical studies. Residual dose rates at a few cooling times for different irradiation scenarios have been calculated. Moreover, the air activation has been evaluated and doses to the reference population group and to a worker intervening in the cave at the shutdown have been predicted. Calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport and interaction code FLUKA.

  13. A thermal spike analysis of low energy ion activated surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, G.M.; Haeri, A.; Sprague, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a thermal spike analysis utilized to predict the time evolution of energy propagation through a solid resulting from energetic particle impact. An analytical solution was developed that can predict the number of surface excitations such as desorption, diffusion or chemical reaction activated by an energetic particle. The analytical solution is limited to substrates at zero Kelvin and to materials with constant thermal diffusivities. These limitations were removed by developing a computer numerical integration of the propagation of the thermal spike through the solid and the subsequent activation of surface processes

  14. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruxi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Lai, Rixin [General Electric; Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Rajashekara, Kaushik [Rolls Royce

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  15. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli . Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  16. Department of Energy interest and involvement in nuclear plant license renewal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustard, Larry D.; Harrison, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of nuclear license renewal to the nation's energy strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a plant lifetime improvement program during 1985 to determine the feasibility of the license renewal option for US nuclear plants. Initial activities of the DOE program focused on determining whether there were technical and economic obstacles that might preclude or limit the successful implementation of the license renewal option. To make this determination, DOE co-sponsored with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 'pilot-plant' efforts by Virginia Electric Power and Northern States Power. Both pilot-plant efforts concluded that life extension is technically and economically feasible. In parallel with the pilot plant activities, DOE performed national economic studies that demonstrated the economic desirability of life extension. Having demonstrated the feasibility of life extension, DOE, in conjunction with EPRI, selected two lead plants to demonstrate the license renewal process. These lead plants are Yankees Atomic's Yankee Rowe facility and Northern States Power's Monticello facility. DOE also initiated activities to develop the technical and regulatory bases to support the license renewal process in the United States. These include (1) development of a methodology for identifying systems, structures, and components important to license renewal, (2) development of industry reports that describe industry-accepted approaches for license renewal of ten important classes of equipment, (3) development of technical basis to support license renewal, and (4) interaction/negotiation with the NRC through the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC) regarding appropriate regulatory requirements for license renewal. DOE has recently identified nuclear plant license renewal to be an important element of its National Energy Strategy. This paper summarizes the significant results, conclusions and ongoing activities of the DOE effort

  17. Contribution of activation products to occupational exposure following treatment using high-energy photons in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, N.; Krestic-Vesovic, J.; Stojanovic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Lazarevic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2011-01-01

    When high-energy photon beams are used for irradiation in radiotherapy, neutrons that are the result of photonuclear reactions create activation products that affect the occupational dose of radiotherapy staff. For the assessment of activation products in situ gamma spectroscopy was performed parallel to dose-rate measurements following irradiation, by using a high-energy photon beam from a linear accelerator Elekta Precise (Elekta, Stockholm (Sweden)) used in radiotherapy. The major identified activation products were the following radioisotopes: 2 '8Al, 24 Na, 56 Mn, 5 4 M n, 187 W, 64 Cu and 62 Cu. Based on the typical workload and dose-rate measurement, the assessed additional annual occupational dose ranged from 1.7 to 0.25 mSv. As the measured dose rate arising from the activation products rapidly decreases as a function of time, the assessed additional dose is negligible after 10 min following irradiation. To keep the occupational dose as low as reasonably achievable, it is recommended to delay entrance to the therapy room at least 2-4 min, when high-energy photons are used. This would reduce the effective dose by 30 %. (authors)

  18. Energy storage applications of activated carbons: supercapacitors and hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Solís, Marta; Mokaya, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbons have several advantageous properties with respect to their use in energy applications that require constrained space such as in electrode materials for supercapacitors and as solid state hydrogen stores. The attractive properties of porous carbons include, ready abundance, chemical and thermal stability, ease of processability and low framework density. Activated carbons, which are perhaps the most explored class of porous carbons, have been traditionally employed as catalyst s...

  19. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, J W; Bakker, G C

    1999-12-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14 pigs were fed one of four diets in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Factors included 1) gastrointestinal fermentation and 2) dietary bulkiness. Contrasts in fermentation were created by exchanging gelatinized maize starch with raw potato starch on a volume basis. Bulkiness was altered by adding 15% milled wheat straw to the diets. Apart from these differences, amounts of other dietary ingredients fed to the pigs were similar. Pigs were housed in groups. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per cluster during a 14-d period. Dietary bulkiness did not affect ME intake, heat production, or energy retention. Metabolizability decreased when maize starch was replaced with raw potato starch (P< .01), resulting in a lower energy retention on the potato starch diets (P<.01). However, the lower ME intake on the potato diets was partially compensated by a reduced energy expenditure on physical activity (P< .01), which was 17.6% lower than that of pigs fed the maize starch diets. Dietary bulkiness did not affect physical activity. The effect of fiber-rich diets (nonstarch polysaccharides) on activity in growing group-housed pigs seems to be related to fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, and not to bulkiness (volume).

  20. Activity related energy expenditure, appetite and energy intake: potential implications for weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D M; Martin, C K; Ravussin, E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4years; BMI 23.5kg/m(2)) and 42 female (26.9years; BMI 22.4kg/m(2)) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accelerated aging embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steel: Activation energy for extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.

    1989-05-01

    Cast duplex stainless steels, used extensively in LWR systems for primary pressure boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, valves, and pumps, are susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement at reactor operating or higher temperatures. Since a realistic aging embrittlement for end-of-life or life-extension conditions (i.e., 32--50 yr of aging at 280--320 degree C) cannot be produced, it is customary to simulate the metallurgical structure by accelerated aging at ∼400 degree C. Over the past several years, extensive data on accelerated aging have been reported from a number of laboratories. The most important information from these studies is the activation energy, namely, the temperature dependence of the aging kinetics between 280 and 400 degree C, which is used to extrapolate the aging characteristics to reactor operating conditions. The activation energies (in the range of 18--50 kcal/mole) are, in general, sensitive to material grade, chemical composition, and fabrication process, and a few empirical correlations, obtained as a function of bulk chemical composition, have been reported. In this paper, a mechanistic understanding of the activation energy is described on the basis of the results of microstructural characterization of various heats of CF-3, -8, and -8M grades that were used in aging studies at different laboratories. The primary mechanism of aging embrittlement at temperatures between 280 and 400 degree C is the spinodal decomposition of the ferrite phase, and M 23 C 6 carbide precipitation on the ferrite/austenite boundaries is the secondary mechanism for high-carbon CF-8 grade. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Shengwei; Wang, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review on the development and modeling of active hollow core slab is presented. • The applications and performance evaluation of the slab in building are reviewed. • Finite element or finite difference method is often used in multidimensional model. • Performance evaluations of building using active slabs for ventilation are limited. • More works on the active hollow core slab are worthwhile. - Abstract: The society and the building professionals have paid much concern in recent years on building energy efficiency and the development and applications of low energy technologies for buildings/green buildings allowing the elimination, or at least reduction of dependence on electricity or fossil fuel while maintaining acceptable indoor environment. Utilizations of favorable diurnal temperature difference and ground thermal source for air conditioning are among these low energy technologies. Utilization of the hollow cores in the prefabricated slab for ventilation and the mass of the slab for thermal storage is widely used in building systems in Europe by exploiting the low energy source of the ambient air. These hollow core slabs aim at enlarging the heat transfer surface between the slab mass and the air in the core, which permits substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. This, in turn, allows the use of low energy cooling or heating sources, such as the ground, outside air or recovered process heat. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources. The principle and development of active hollow core slabs in building systems for leveling the indoor temperature fluctuation by ventilation air passing the cores are described. Calculation models of the active hollow core concrete slab as well as the practical applications and performance evaluation of the slab applied in building systems for air

  3. The influence of vessel movements on the energy expenditure of fishermen in relation to activities and occupational tasks on board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Tomas; Christensen, Michael; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2015-01-01

    the activities carried out on board. This continuation of the study goes further by exploring the relation between the exposure to the ship’s movements and the fishermen’s energy expenditure during various physical activities on board. Materials and methods: Four fishermen on 2 contemporary steel trawlers...... demonstrated that vessel’s movements in calm weather increase the energy expenditure during navigation, fishing, and machine handling and that the relation differs in between these activities on board and rest.......Background: Previous studies of professional fishing activities have indicated that vessel movements correlate to fishermen’s energy expenditure. We have previously demonstrated that even in calm weather, the heel and pitch significantly increase the fishermen’s energy expenditure, ignoring...

  4. Relation between interfacial energy and adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.

    2013-03-01

    The adsorption efficacy of 16 pharmaceuticals on six different activated carbons is correlated to the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which was derived following the surface tension component approach. Immersion calorimetry was used to determine the surface tension components of activated carbon, while contact angle measurements on compressed plates were used to determine these for solutes. We found that the acid-base surface tension components of activated carbon correlated to the activated carbon oxygen content. Solute-water interaction correlated well to their solubility, although four solutes deviated from the trend. In the interaction between solute and activated carbon, van der Waals interactions were dominant and explained 65-94% of the total interaction energy, depending on the hydrophobicity of the activated carbon and solute. A reasonable relationship (r2 > 70) was found between the calculated work of adhesion and the experimentally determined activated carbon loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation between interfacial energy and adsorption of organic micropollutants onto activated carbon

    KAUST Repository

    De Ridder, David J.; Verliefde, Arne R. D.; Schoutteten, K.; Van Der Linden, Bart Th; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Beurroies, Isabelle; Denoyel, Renaud O.; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption efficacy of 16 pharmaceuticals on six different activated carbons is correlated to the thermodynamic work of adhesion, which was derived following the surface tension component approach. Immersion calorimetry was used to determine the surface tension components of activated carbon, while contact angle measurements on compressed plates were used to determine these for solutes. We found that the acid-base surface tension components of activated carbon correlated to the activated carbon oxygen content. Solute-water interaction correlated well to their solubility, although four solutes deviated from the trend. In the interaction between solute and activated carbon, van der Waals interactions were dominant and explained 65-94% of the total interaction energy, depending on the hydrophobicity of the activated carbon and solute. A reasonable relationship (r2 > 70) was found between the calculated work of adhesion and the experimentally determined activated carbon loading. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 54095 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low-Energy Marine Seismic Survey in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Low- Energy Marine Seismic Survey in the Eastern... low-energy marine seismic survey. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is... funding provided by the National Science Foundation, a low-energy marine seismic survey. NMFS reviewed SIO...

  7. The activity of Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beljaev, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The structure and the history of the Ministry for Atomic Energy are discussed. The fundamental principles of activity in the following fields: the scientific research activity, the NPP construction and operation, nuclear weapons and disarmament, reactor engineering, instrument making, microelectronics, mechanical engineering, construction industry and international cooperation are presented. The information about this industry as a self-contained scientific and technical complex of technologically related industries concerned with the mining of the row materials from which to make components for military equipment: which the reprocessing of spent fuel and the subsequent storage and disposal of radioactive waste has been given. (author)

  8. Model documentation report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 1997 (AEO 97). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code. This document serves three purposes. First it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS MAM used for the AEO 1997 production runs for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  9. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  10. Validity of Multisensor Array for Measuring Energy Expenditure of an Activity Bout in Early Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Flora Kramer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke survivors use more energy than healthy people during activities such as walking, which has consequences for the way exercise is prescribed for stroke survivors. There is a need for wearable device that can validly measure energy expenditure (EE of activity to inform exercise prescription early after stroke. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the SenseWear-Armband (SWA to measure EE and step-counts during activity 0.75 for walking and sit-to-stand, respectively. However, agreement levels changed with increasing EE levels (i.e., proportional bias. The SWA did not accurately measure step-counts. Conclusion. The SWA should be used with caution to measure EE of activity of mild to moderate stroke survivors <1 month after stroke.

  11. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    The document represents the 1962 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report opens with a section of Highlights of the Atomic Energy Programs of 1962, followed by five parts: Part One, Commission Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Three, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Four, Other Major Programs; and Part Five, The Regulatory Program. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  12. High energy density supercapacitors from lignin derived submicron activated carbon fibers in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sixiao; Zhang, Sanliang; Pan, Ning; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2014-12-01

    Highly porous submicron activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were robustly generated from low sulfonated alkali lignin and fabricated into supercapacitors for capacitive energy storage. The hydrophilic and high specific surface ACFs exhibited large-size nanographites and good electrical conductivity to demonstrate outstanding electrochemical performance. ACFs from KOH activation, in particular, showed very high 344 F g-1 specific capacitance at low 1.8 mg cm-2 mass loading and 10 mV s-1 scan rate in aqueous electrolytes. Even at relatively high scan rate of 50 mV s-1 and mass loading of 10 mg cm-2, a decent specific capacitance of 196 F g-1 and a remarkable areal capacitance of 0.55 F cm-2 was obtained, leading to high energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 based on averaged electrodes mass. Furthermore, over 96% capacitance retention rates were achieved after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Such excellent performance demonstrated great potential of lignin derived carbons for electrical energy storage.

  13. Improvement in minimum detectable activity for low energy gamma by optimization in counting geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma spectrometry for environmental samples of low specific activities demands low minimum detection levels of measurement. An attempt has been made to lower the gamma detection level of measurement by optimizing the sample geometry, without compromising on the sample size. Gamma energy of 50–200 keV range was chosen for the study, since low energy gamma photons suffer the most self-attenuation within matrix. The simulation study was carried out using MCNP based software “EffCalcMC” for silica matrix and cylindrical geometries. A volume of 250 ml sample geometry of 9 cm diameter is optimized as the best suitable geometry for use, against the in-practice 7 cm diameter geometry of same volume. An increase in efficiency of 10%–23% was observed for the 50–200 keV gamma energy range and a corresponding lower minimum detectable activity of 9%–20% could be achieved for the same.

  14. Origins and implications of temperature-dependent activation energy barriers for dislocation nucleation in face-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.H.; Curtin, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    The linking of atomistic simulations of stress-driven processes to experimentally observed mechanical behavior via the computation of activation energy barriers is a topic of intense current research. Using dislocation nucleation from a crack tip as the reaction process, long-time multiscale molecular dynamics simulations show that the activation barrier can exhibit significant temperature dependence. Using an analytic model for the nucleation process and computing the relevant material properties (elastic constants and stacking fault energies), the temperature dependence is shown to arise primarily from the temperature dependence of the material parameters for both Al and Ni. After thermally activated emission of the first partial dislocation, there is then a competition between two other thermally activated processes: twinning and full dislocation emission. Because the activation barriers depend on temperature, this transition is more complex than usually envisioned. Simulations in Al reveal that a transition from twinning to full dislocation emission back to twinning occurs with increasing temperature, which is counter to traditional metallurgical wisdom. Temperature-dependent activation energies are thus essential to accurate understanding and prediction of those phenomena that control fracture and deformation in metals at realistic loading rates.

  15. Brain MRI Tumor Detection using Active Contour Model and Local Image Fitting Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important issue in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here an automatic brain tumor detection method is introduced that uses T1-weighted images and K. Zhang et. al.'s active contour model driven by local image fitting (LIF) energy. Local image fitting energy obtains the local image information, which enables the algorithm to segment images with intensity inhomogeneities. Advantage of this method is that the LIF energy functional has less computational complexity than the local binary fitting (LBF) energy functional; moreover, it maintains the sub-pixel accuracy and boundary regularization properties. In Zhang's algorithm, a new level set method based on Gaussian filtering is used to implement the variational formulation, which is not only vigorous to prevent the energy functional from being trapped into local minimum, but also effective in keeping the level set function regular. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy brain tumor segmentation results.

  16. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities on PTS evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Safety Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provides the secretariat for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), which deals with technological aspects, and for the Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) dealing with regulatory aspects. Under these committees, activities are carried out through five Principal Working Groups (PWGs). The relevant group for PTS is PWG-3 on the integrity of structures and components. There is also PWG-2 on coolant system behavior, but the thermal hydraulic aspects of PTS have not been considered by PWG-2. PWG-3 carries out it work in a similar manner to the IAEA IWG LMNPP, by preparing reports and organizing round robins, Specialists Meetings and Workshops. The general context of RPV PTS has been considered in several workshops: on the 'Complementary roles of Fracture Mechanics and Non-Destructive Examination in the Safety Assessment of Components' in Wuerenlingen in 1988; on the 'Safety Assessment of RPVs' in Espoo in 1990; and on 'Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large Scale Testing' (joint with IAEA) at Oak Ridge in 1992. Activities specific to PTS have been an international survey on regulatory practices on PTS carried out in 1991, and a series of fracture round robins addressing PTS conditions organized by GRS in Germany and ORNL in the USA. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  17. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities on PTS evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A [NEA Nuclear Safety Div., Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1997-09-01

    The Safety Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provides the secretariat for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), which deals with technological aspects, and for the Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) dealing with regulatory aspects. Under these committees, activities are carried out through five Principal Working Groups (PWGs). The relevant group for PTS is PWG-3 on the integrity of structures and components. There is also PWG-2 on coolant system behavior, but the thermal hydraulic aspects of PTS have not been considered by PWG-2. PWG-3 carries out it work in a similar manner to the IAEA IWG LMNPP, by preparing reports and organizing round robins, Specialists Meetings and Workshops. The general context of RPV PTS has been considered in several workshops: on the `Complementary roles of Fracture Mechanics and Non-Destructive Examination in the Safety Assessment of Components` in Wuerenlingen in 1988; on the `Safety Assessment of RPVs` in Espoo in 1990; and on `Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large Scale Testing` (joint with IAEA) at Oak Ridge in 1992. Activities specific to PTS have been an international survey on regulatory practices on PTS carried out in 1991, and a series of fracture round robins addressing PTS conditions organized by GRS in Germany and ORNL in the USA. 3 refs, 5 tabs.

  18. Optimal Intra-Urban Hierarchy of Activity Centers—A Minimized Household Travel Energy Consumption Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers interconnected by non-motorized and public transportation is broadly believed to be the ideal urban spatial structure for sustainable cities. However, the proper hinterland area for centers at each level lacks empirical study. Based on the concentric structure of everyday travel distances, working centers, shopping centers, and neighborhood centers are extracted from corresponding types of POIs in 286 Chinese cities at the prefectural level and above. A U-shaped curve between Household Transportation Energy Consumption (HTEC per capita and center density at each of the three levels has been found through regression analysis. An optimal intra-urban hierarchy of activity centers is suggested to construct energy-efficient cities.

  19. Commission de regulation de l'energie. Activity report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2013 activity report of CRE. Contents: 1 - Message from the board; 2 - The Energy Regulatory Commission; 3 - 2013: the energy market/S; 4 - The action of the regulator under the control of the judge; 5 - The usage tariff for public electricity networks; 6 - Smart grids; 7 - Consumers; 8 - Annex; 9 - Acronyms

  20. Activities on nuclear energy introduction in the SR of Serbia without territory of provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boljanac, C.; Vukovic, D.; Putnik, S.; Tankosic, D.

    1984-01-01

    In the paper the review of the past and the present activities on nuclear energy introduction in the SR Serbia without territory of provinces is given. The program of the activities in this field includes extensive spectrum of different tasks from investigation of the nuclear raw material and the development in the field of nonconventional uranium production, through studies in fuel cycle area up to the preparatory activities for the nuclear power plant construction. (author)

  1. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N.M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P.M.; Poludniowski, G.; Green, S.; Parker, D.J.; Price, T.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  2. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Evans, P M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Poludniowski, G; Price, T; Waltham, C; Allinson, N M

    2015-06-03

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  3. Novel Approaches to Obesity Prevention: Effects of Game Enjoyment and Game Type on Energy Expenditure in Active Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Komoski, Stephanie E.; Carr, Philip M.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some active video games have been found to promote physical activity adherence because of enjoyment. However, many active games are exercise themed, which may interfere with the distracting properties that make game-based exercise more enjoyable than traditional exercise. This study compared exercise-themed and game-themed active games to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment. Method Young adults (N = 100, 50 female, 55 overweight, aged 18–35 years) played two of four Wii Fit games (one aerobic game and one balance game per person) for 10 min each. Of the two aerobic games, one was exercise themed (jogging) and the other was game themed (hula hooping). Both balance games were game themed. Energy expenditure and enjoyment were measured. Results After adjustment for gender and weight, aerobic games produced 2.70 kcal/kg-1/h-1 (95% confidence interval 2.41, 3.00) greater energy expenditure than balance games (p games were more enjoyable (p games, jogging produced greater energy expenditure than hula hooping in normal-weight and male participants (p .17). Hula hooping was enjoyed more than jogging (p = .008). Enjoyment predicted energy expenditure in aerobic games (B = 0.767, p = .010). Conclusions Aerobic games produced greater energy expenditure but lower enjoyment than balance games, and a game-themed aerobic game was found more enjoyable than an exercise-themed aerobic game. Integrating more strenuous activity into entertaining games instead of games that simply simulate exercise may be a fruitful avenue for active game development. PMID:22920810

  4. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabalda Aegina B

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98, 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (≥ 60 to 2 (p = 0.003 for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age.

  5. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  6. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enhad A Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR, an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24 and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™. During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01. The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01. None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors

  7. Optimization based on benefit of regional energy suppliers of distributed generation in active distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xianxu; Li, Guodong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of electricity market, distributed generation (DG) technology and related policies, regional energy suppliers are encouraged to build DG. Under this background, the concept of active distribution network (ADN) is put forward. In this paper, a bi-level model of intermittent DG considering benefit of regional energy suppliers is proposed. The objective of the upper level is the maximization of benefit of regional energy suppliers. On this basis, the lower level is optimized for each scene. The uncertainties of DG output and load of users, as well as four active management measures, which include demand-side management, curtailing the output power of DG, regulating reactive power compensation capacity and regulating the on-load tap changer, are considered. Harmony search algorithm and particle swarm optimization are combined as a hybrid strategy to solve the model. This model and strategy are tested with IEEE-33 node system, and results of case study indicate that the model and strategy successfully increase the capacity of DG and benefit of regional energy suppliers.

  8. Physical activity levels and energy expenditure of 9-year-old – 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-23

    Sep 23, 2010 ... recruited for a follow-up intervention study, of which this study formed part. However ... transportation problems, also contributed to the small sample size. Because the ... count) is converted to units of energy (calories). Specific MET .... lack the motor skills and self-confidence to participate in activities and ...

  9. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Gibson

    Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.

  10. The Energy Audit Activity Focused on the Lighting Systems in Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Salvadori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy audit for a building is a procedure designed mainly to obtain adequate knowledge of the energy consumption profile, identify, and quantify opportunities for energy savings by a cost-benefit analysis and report, clearly and comprehensively, about the obtained results. If the audit is referred to a building with a significant historical and artistic value, a compatibility evaluation of the energy saving interventions with the architectural features should also be developed. In this paper, analysing the case study of a historical building used as public offices in Pisa (Italy, the authors describe how it is possible to conduct an energy audit activity (especially dedicated to the lighting system and they show how, for this type of buildings, it is possible to obtain significant energy savings with a refurbishment of the lighting system. A total number of seven interventions on indoor and outdoor lighting sub-systems were analysed in the paper. They are characterised by absolute compatibility with the historical and artistic value of the building and they show short payback times, variable between 4 and 34 months, allowing a reduction of the electrical energy consumption for the artificial indoor and outdoor lighting variable from 1.1 MWh/year to 39.0 MWh/year. The followed methodology and the evaluation results described in the paper, although based on a case study, can be extended to numerous historical buildings used as public offices, a recurring situation in the centres of Italian historical cities.

  11. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  12. Hypoxia Induces Changes in AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activity and Energy Metabolism in Muscle Tissue of the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Sun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has important effects on biological activity in crustaceans, and modulation of energy metabolism is a crucial aspect of crustaceans’ ability to respond to hypoxia. The adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK enzyme is very important in cellular energy homeostasis; however, little information is known about the role of AMPK in the response of prawns to acute hypoxia. In the present study, three subunits of AMPK were cloned from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNAs of the α, β, and γ AMPK subunits were 1,837, 3,174, and 3,773 bp long, with open reading frames of 529, 289, and 961 amino acids, respectively. Primary amino acid sequence alignment of these three subunits revealed conserved similarity between the functional domains of the M. nipponense AMPK protein with AMPK proteins of other animals. The expression of the three AMPK subunits was higher in muscle tissue than in other tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of AMPKα, AMPKβ, and AMPKγ were significantly up-regulated in M. nipponense muscle tissue after acute hypoxia. Probing with a phospho-AMPKα antibody revealed that AMPK is phosphorylated following hypoxia; this phosphorylation event was found to be essential for AMPK activation. Levels of glucose and lactic acid in hemolymph and muscle tissue were significantly changed over the course of hypoxia and recovery, indicating dynamic changes in energy metabolism in response to hypoxic stress. The activation of AMPK by hypoxic stress in M. nipponense was compared to levels of muscular AMP, ADP, and ATP, as determined by HPLC; it was found that activation of AMPK may not completely correlate with AMP:ATP ratios in prawns under hypoxic conditions. These findings confirm that the α, β, and γ subunits of the prawn AMPK protein are regulated at the transcriptional and protein levels during hypoxic stress to facilitate maintenance of energy homeostasis.

  13. Determination of the activation energy in a cast aluminium alloy by TEM and DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovono Ovono, D.; Guillot, I.; Massinon, D.

    2007-01-01

    The precipitation behaviour and microstructure development of the A319 alloy during ageing were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and STEM). During T5 treatment, θ' precipitates with an average size of about 18 nm were observed by TEM. The precipitate sizes increased with ageing temperature and attained an average size of 107 nm. In addition, there was a linear relationship between precipitate growth temperature and the cube of the precipitate size. This indicates that precipitate growth of the A319 alloy belongs to a thermal activated process of the Arrhenius type. The activation energy for the precipitate growth was calculated to be 140.4 ± 13.3 kJ/mol. However, under continuous heating conditions, the activation energy for the precipitate growth obtained by Kissinger plot was determined to be 119.5 ± 8.3 kJ/mol. Allowing for experimental error, both values are comparable and are related to the diffusion of Cu and/or Si in Al

  14. Control of a three-phase four-wire shunt-active power filter based on DC-bus energy regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a nonconventional three-phase four-wire shunt active power filter (APF) topology controlled by using an energy approach. A general study of power terms involved in the operation of the four-wire APF is conducted in order to evidence the relationship between instantaneous energy...... stored in the DC bus and active power requirements on the APF. Harmonics and imbalances both on the utility voltage and load current have been considered and the power developed by the active power filter has been evaluated. This study allows designing a controller for the APF based on the regulation...

  15. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  16. National report card on energy efficiency : 2. annual report card on government activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This second annual report card produced by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance is a means by which to monitor the efforts of Canada's federal, provincial and territorial governments in energy efficiency activities. The Alliance works in partnership with manufacturers, utilities, governments, builders, labour, consumer groups and environmental organizations. Energy efficiency is one of the primary tools governments can use to meet the Kyoto climate change commitment. The issue of climate change was examined in greater depth in this second annual report card. Ten specific measures that each government should take in order to be efficiency leaders were identified. These included minimum standards and regulations for buildings and appliances, supporting energy efficiency in the marketplace, and leadership programs to improve energy efficiency and achieve emission reduction targets. Efficiency in transportation was not included in this report card. A brief summary of what the federal government, as well as each provincial and territorial government are doing to promote energy efficiency was included. Each jurisdiction was given a grade. The Yukon received the highest mark of A minus. Saskatchewan received the lowest, and only failed mark. It was emphasized that public and private utilities also play a key role in supporting energy efficiency in Canada. 2 tabs

  17. Neural network controller for Active Demand-Side Management with PV energy in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matallanas, E.; Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutiérrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamaño-Martín, E.; Masa, D.; Jiménez-Leube, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have developed a neural controller for Active Demand-Side Management. ► The controller consists of Multilayer Perceptrons evolved with a genetic algorithm. ► The architecture of the controller is distributed and modular. ► The simulations show that the electrical local behavior improves. ► Active Demand-Side Management helps users to control his energy behaviour. -- Abstract: In this paper, we describe the development of a control system for Demand-Side Management in the residential sector with Distributed Generation. The electrical system under study incorporates local PV energy generation, an electricity storage system, connection to the grid and a home automation system. The distributed control system is composed of two modules: a scheduler and a coordinator, both implemented with neural networks. The control system enhances the local energy performance, scheduling the tasks demanded by the user and maximizing the use of local generation.

  18. The energy; L'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In order to inform the public on the stakes bonded to the energy, the french government developed seven days of information on the energy. Visits of energy facilities (production, transport, storage, distribution) are proposed. Colloquium, exhibitions and debates on the energy questions are also offered to the public. This paper summarizes the activities and the concerned addresses of these energy days. (A.L.B.)

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency programme and activity on the utilization of low energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalnov, A.V.; Whetstone, S.L.

    1974-01-01

    One of the chief missions of the Agency is as intermediary between the more highly developed of its member states and the less developed. This involves transmittal of needs of the latter to the former and, where possible, in response to the needs, an appropriate transfer of information and technical assistance. The physics section of the IAEA has recently encouraged and supported requests for technical assistance for programs based on neutron activation studies or pedagogic neutron physics experiments for institutes entering the nuclear field. Neutron generator laboratories have been set up with IAEA-assistance most recently in Burma, Hong Kong, Lebanon. Other recent technical assistance projects involving low-energy accelerators include: (1) consultation on the future program for the accelerator laboratory in Algeria; (2) equipment and experts to assist the nuclear physics program at the Van de Graaff in Bangladesh; (3) expert assistance and equipment in support of the installation of an electron linear accelerator in Egypt; and (4) expert assistance for nuclear physics studies at the cyclotron in Chile. A large number of young scientists, particularly from S.E. Europe, but also from the Middle East and South America, have received training in nuclear physics experimentation by advanced countries at low energy accelerator laboratories under the IAEA fellowship program

  20. Energy efficiency: Lever for the Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The Eco-electric industry group (FFIE, FGME, Gimelec, IGNES, SERCE) has conducted a study to evaluate the energy saving potential of active energy efficiency solutions in the residential and commercial building sectors. Based on field implementations and demonstrators, it has been demonstrated that active energy efficiency can sustainably achieve substantial savings for households, companies and public authorities. Energy Efficiency - Lever for the energy transition presents the results and conclusions of that study, alongside with recommendations for public authority in terms of building retrofit policy for putting France on the best possible 'trajectory' from a budgetary and environmental point of view. (author)

  1. Prediction of activation energies for hydrogen abstraction by cytochrome p450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Rydberg, Patrik; Rod, Thomas Holm

    2006-01-01

    We have estimated the activation energy for hydrogen abstraction by compound I in cytochrome P450 for a diverse set of 24 small organic substrates using state-of-the-art density functional theory (B3LYP). We then show that these results can be reproduced by computationally less demanding methods,...... of the less demanding methods are applied to study the CYP3A4 metabolism of progesterone and dextromethorphan....

  2. Television viewing and obesity in 300 women: evaluation of the pathways of energy intake and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2011-10-01

    We assessed the roles of energy intake and physical activity in the relationships among television (TV) viewing, body composition, and obesity using high-quality measurement methods. Adult women (n = 300) reported TV viewing behavior, which was categorized into infrequent (≤ 1 h/day), moderate (2 h/day), and frequent (≥ 3 h/day) viewing. Body fat percentage (BF%) was assessed using plethysmography (Bod Pod) and BMI was calculated from height and body weight. Energy intake and physical activity, including time spent in sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity (PA), were objectively measured using 7-day weighed food records and 7-day accelerometry, respectively. The mean BF% of frequent TV viewers (34.6 ± 6.9%) was significantly greater (F = 3.9, P = 0.0218) than those of moderate (31.5 ± 6.7%) and infrequent viewers (30.8 ± 7.0%); however, BMI did not differ across the TV viewing groups (F = 0.8, P = 0.4172). Controlling statistically for differences in age, education, time in sedentary activity, time in moderate activity, and energy intake, considered individually, had no influence on the relationships between TV viewing and BF%, nor TV and BMI. Moreover, the relationship between TV and BF% remained significant after adjusting for differences in BMI (F = 3.6, P = 0.0276). However, adjusting for total PA reduced the relationship between TV and BF% to nonsignificance (F = 2.5, P = 0.0810), as did time spent in vigorous PA (F = 2.2, P = 0.1307). These data suggest a strong relationship between TV viewing and BF%. This association appears to be due, in part, to differences in total PA, particularly vigorous PA, but not time spent in sedentary activity, moderate activity, or energy intake.

  3. How to tackle energy saving and load leveling. Energy saving towards 2000 and measures for the coming winter (energy-saving activities by California`s SCE, demand side management activities); Sho energy fuka heijunka ni do torikumuka. Seireki 2000 nen ni muketa sho energy to konto no shoene taisaku, Kashu SCE no sho energy (DSM katsudo wo saguru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, S. [The Energy Conservation Center Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Tokyo Electric Power has realized a peak shift of 5% for the maximum power demand by various measures to cope with increasing power demand and differential rate by time zone, including expansion of the differential rate system and heat-storage systems. Some of more notable recent techniques are eco-ice and eco-vendor systems, the former storing ice in the heat-storage tanks and the latter strongly cooling vending machines during nighttime. The NAS battery system is being developed as the new technique for load leveling. The energy-related advisory organ for Minister of International Trade and Industry asks each industrial unit to save at least 1% of power on the annual average as the energy-saving measure towards 2000. The energy-saving measures promoted by the government for the coming winter are controlled release of wastes, efficient use of power, setting room temperature at 19{degree}C or lower and voluntarily refrain from commuting by cars. The US power industry is abandoning the concept of DSM in the midst of deregulation and increased competition, and cutting budgets for new energy development. California`s SCE is promoting energy-saving through expanded use of high-efficiency motors, accurate grasp of customers` needs and publicity activities through internet systems. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-01-01

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy s...

  5. Regulation of Liver Energy Balance by the Nuclear Receptors Farnesoid X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang Ho; Moore, David D

    2017-01-01

    The liver undergoes major changes in substrate utilization and metabolic output over the daily feeding and fasting cycle. These changes occur acutely in response to hormones such as insulin and glucagon, with rapid changes in signaling pathways mediated by protein phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications. They are also reflected in chronic alterations in gene expression in response to nutrient-sensitive transcription factors. Among these, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) provide an intriguing, coordinated response to maintain energy balance in the liver. FXR is activated in the fed state by bile acids returning to the liver, while PPARα is activated in the fasted state in response to the free fatty acids produced by adipocyte lipolysis or possibly other signals. Key Messages: Previous studies indicate that FXR and PPARα have opposing effects on each other's primary targets in key metabolic pathways including gluconeogenesis. Our more recent work shows that these 2 nuclear receptors coordinately regulate autophagy: FXR suppresses this pathway of nutrient and energy recovery, while PPARα activates it. Another recent study indicates that FXR activates the complement and coagulation pathway, while earlier studies identify this as a negative target of PPARα. Since secretion is a very energy- and nutrient-intensive process for hepatocytes, it is possible that FXR licenses it in the nutrient-rich fed state, while PPARα represses it to spare resources in the fasted state. Energy balance is a potential connection linking FXR and PPARα regulation of autophagy and secretion, 2 seemingly unrelated aspects of hepatocyte function. FXR and PPARα act coordinately to promote energy balance and homeostasis in the liver by regulating autophagy and potentially protein secretion. It is quite likely that their impact extends to additional pathways relevant to hepatic energy balance, and

  6. Thermal oxidative degradation kinetics of agricultural residues using distributed activation energy model and global kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu'e; Chen, Jianbiao; Li, Gang; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Fan, Shuanshi

    2018-08-01

    The study concerned the thermal oxidative degradation kinetics of agricultural residues, peanut shell (PS) and sunflower shell (SS). The thermal behaviors were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis and the kinetic parameters were determined by using distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and global kinetic model (GKM). Results showed that thermal oxidative decomposition of two samples processed in three zones; the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustibility between two agricultural residues were of great difference; and the combustion performance could be improved by boosting heating rate. The activation energy ranges calculated by the DAEM for the thermal oxidative degradation of PS and SS were 88.94-145.30 kJ mol -1 and 94.86-169.18 kJ mol -1 , respectively. The activation energy obtained by the GKM for the oxidative decomposition of hemicellulose and cellulose was obviously lower than that for the lignin oxidation at identical heating rate. To some degree, the determined kinetic parameters could acceptably simulate experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of Department of Energy HEPA filter test activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Filter Test Facilities (FTFs) and the FTF Technical Support Group (TSG) continue to provide services to the Department of Energy (DOE). Additional tasks relating to the HEPA filter cycle have been added to the TSG. The tasks include the quality assessment review for the in-place testing of HEPA filters at DOE sites and the formation of an in-place testing standards writing group. Summary of ongoing FTFs and TSG activities for FY 1990-FY 1992 including the technical input for implementation of the High Flow Alternative Test System (HFATS), update of the DOE Standards, the status of the quality assessment review and in-place testing standards writing group are discussed

  8. Energy audit and energy security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Agnieszka Kulessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In article, we present the issue of energy security. This article to answer the questions concerning the future of energy in Poland. These activities are directly related to energy security and the reduction of CO2 emissions. One element of this plan is the introduction in the EU energy certification of buildings. The energy certificates in Poland launched on 01.01.2009 and implements the objectives adopted by the European Union and contribute to energy security, increasing energy efficiency in construction and environmental protection.

  9. Higher energy intake at dinner decreases parasympathetic activity during nighttime sleep in menstruating women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yuki; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tanaka, Izumi; Kanehara, Rieko; Kato, Misao; Hatta, Naoko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2018-06-09

    Previous studies have found more frequent increases in dietary intake and nonrestorative nocturnal sleep during the luteal phase than in the follicular phase, but few studies have investigated how increased energy intake at dinner influences sleep by considering the correlation between female hormone and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. This study examined the effects of energy intake at dinner on ANS activity during nighttime sleep in order to evaluate restorative sleep in healthy women. We also examined whether ANS activity is associated with female hormone dynamics. Twenty-four healthy collegiate women participated in this randomized crossover trial. Each was assigned to receive a High Energy Dinner (HED) or Low Energy Dinner (LED) treatment. Energy ratios of each test meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) to total energy intake were 1:1:2 and 1:2:1 for HED and LED treatments, respectively. Each participant wore an ECG recorder before dinner and removed it upon waking the next morning. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to calculate low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and total spectral power (TP). Cardiac sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous system activity were evaluated as LF/HF and HF/TP, respectively. Mean HF/TP for the entire sleeping period was lower with HED treatment compared to LED treatment (41.7 ± 11.4 vs. 45.0 ± 12.13, P = .034). Intergroup comparisons of the initial 3-h sleeping period revealed that LF/HF (0.87 ± 0.82 vs. 0.66 ± 0.82, P = .013) and HF/TP (45.6 ± 13.9 vs. 51.5 ± 11.8, P = .002) were higher and lower, respectively, with HED treatment compared to LED treatment. Progesterone levels were positively correlated with LF/HF with LED treatment, and negatively correlated with HF/TP with both HED and LED treatments. Higher energy intake at dinner increases and decreases SNS and PNS activities, respectively, resulting in nonrestorative nocturnal

  10. The Interplay of Energy Balance and Daily Timing of Activity in a Subterranean Rodent: A Laboratory and Field Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Valentinuzzi, Verónica S; Oda, Gisele A; Buck, C Loren

    The tuco-tuco (Ctenomys aff. knighti) is among the rodent species known to be nocturnal under standard laboratory conditions and diurnal under natural conditions. The circadian thermoenergetics (CTE) hypothesis postulates that switches in activity timing are a response to energetic challenges; daytime activity reduces thermoregulatory costs by consolidating activity to the warmest part of the day. Studying wild animals under both captive and natural conditions can increase understanding of how temporal activity patterns are shaped by the environment and could serve as a test of the CTE hypothesis. We estimated the effects of activity timing on energy expenditure for the tuco-tuco by combining laboratory measurements of metabolic rate with environmental temperature records in both winter and summer. We showed that, in winter, there would be considerable energy savings if activity is allocated at least partially during daylight, lending support to the CTE hypothesis. In summer, the impact of activity timing on energy expenditure is small, suggesting that during this season other factors, such as predation risk, water balance, and social interaction, may have more important roles than energetics in the determination of activity time.

  11. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  12. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1978--February 14, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, E.P.

    1979-02-01

    High energy reactions of halogen atoms or ions, activated by nuclear transformations, were studied in gaseous, high pressure and condensed phase saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, halomethanes and other organic systems in order to better understand the mechanisms and dynamics of high energy monovalent species. The experimental and theoretical program consists of six interrelated areas: (1) the reactions of iodine with alkenes and alkynes activated by radiative neutron capture and isomeric transition in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators, high pressure and liquid systems; (2) the gas to condensed state transition in halogen high chemistry, involving bromine activated by the (n,γ) and (I.T.) processes in ethane was investigated in more detail; (3) systematics of halogen hot atom reactions. The reactions of 80 Br/sup m/, 80 Br, 82 Br/sup m/ + 82 Br, 82 Br, 128 I, 130 I, and 130 I/sup m/ + 130 I activated by radiative neutron capture or isomeric transition in hydrocarbons and halo-substituted alkanes in low pressure and high pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators; (4) kinetic theory applications of high energy reactions and mathematical development of caging mechanisms were developed; (5) the sterochemistry of 38 Cl substitution reactions involving diastereomeric 1,2-dichloro-1,2-difluorethane in liquid mixtures was completed, suggesting that the stereochemical course of the substitution process is controlled by the properties of the solvent molecules; and (6) the applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems was continued, especially involving aluminum and vanadium trace determinations

  13. U.S. Department of Energy thermal energy storage research activities review: 1989 Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.W. [ed.] [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tomlinson, J.J. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) offers the opportunity for the recovery and re-use of heat currently rejected to the ambient environment. Further, through the ability of TES to match an energy supply with a thermal energy demand, TES increases efficiencies of energy systems and improves capacity factors of power plants. The US Department of Energy has been the leader in TES research, development, and demonstration since recognition in 1976 of the need for fostering energy conservation as a component of the national energy budget. The federal program on TES R and D is the responsibility of the Office of Energy Storage and Distribution within the US Department of Energy (DOE). The overall program is organized into three program areas: diurnal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat for use in residential and commercial buildings on a daily cycle; industrial--relating primarily to higher temperature heat for use in industrial and utility processes on an hourly to daily cycle; seasonal--relating primarily to lower temperature heat or chill for use in residential complexes (central supply as for apartments or housing developments), commercial (light manufacturing, processing, or retail), and industrial (space conditioning) on a seasonal to annual cycle. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Activated aging dynamics and effective trap model description in the random energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baity-Jesi, M.; Biroli, G.; Cammarota, C.

    2018-01-01

    We study the out-of-equilibrium aging dynamics of the random energy model (REM) ruled by a single spin-flip Metropolis dynamics. We focus on the dynamical evolution taking place on time-scales diverging with the system size. Our aim is to show to what extent the activated dynamics displayed by the REM can be described in terms of an effective trap model. We identify two time regimes: the first one corresponds to the process of escaping from a basin in the energy landscape and to the subsequent exploration of high energy configurations, whereas the second one corresponds to the evolution from a deep basin to the other. By combining numerical simulations with analytical arguments we show why the trap model description does not hold in the former but becomes exact in the second.

  15. Running behavior and its energy cost in mice selectively bred for high voluntary locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Locomotion is central to behavior and intrinsic to many fitness-critical activities (e.g., migration, foraging), and it competes with other life-history components for energy. However, detailed analyses of how changes in locomotor activity and running behavior affect energy budgets are scarce. We quantified these effects in four replicate lines of house mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) and in their four nonselected control lines (C lines). We monitored wheel speeds and oxygen consumption for 24-48 h to determine daily energy expenditure (DEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), locomotor costs, and running behavior (bout characteristics). Daily running distances increased roughly 50%-90% in S lines in response to selection. After we controlled for body mass effects, selection resulted in a 23% increase in DEE in males and a 6% increase in females. Total activity costs (DEE - RMR) accounted for 50%-60% of DEE in both S and C lines and were 29% higher in S males and 5% higher in S females compared with their C counterparts. Energetic costs of increased daily running distances differed between sexes because S females evolved higher running distances by running faster with little change in time spent running, while S males also spent 40% more time running than C males. This increase in time spent running impinged on high energy costs because the majority of running costs stemmed from "postural costs" (the difference between RMR and the zero-speed intercept of the speed vs. metabolic rate relationship). No statistical differences in these traits were detected between S and C females, suggesting that large changes in locomotor behavior do not necessarily effect overall energy budgets. Running behavior also differed between sexes: within S lines, males ran with more but shorter bouts than females. Our results indicate that selection effects on energy budgets can differ dramatically between sexes and that energetic constraints in S

  16. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  17. Quantum theoretical calculations of activation energies for the mass transfer at phase boundaries of ionic crystals. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that a direct proportionality exists between the activation energy for the mass transfer at the respective crystal faces of ionic crystals and the frequency of the phonones (longitudinal-optical), Planck's constant being found once more as a proportionality constant. Thus it could be demonstrated that the different activation energies measured at different time intervals for the mass transfer processes at phase boundaries of ionic crystals can be attributed to the specific growth of the crystal faces. Thus, NaCl crystal fractions which were mechanically stressed (pulverized and sifted) and consequently contained a great amount of [111]- and [110]-faces, respectively, experimentally yielded an activation energy which agrees with the values determined by quantum theory when the frequency of propagation of the phonons is inserted into a derived equation. This relation was also confirmed by NaCl crystal fractions predominantly containing cubic faces. This also indicates that in mass transfer processes on phase boundaries of ionic crystals quantum mechanical laws are of importance. (author)

  18. Energy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerici, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy has taken with his reflections on the environment, the geopolitical aspects and its pervasive use in all activities a crucial role for sustainable development of our planet. The energy in the future will be increasingly a global problem [it

  19. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  20. Input-output analysis of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities: An application for Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llop, Maria; Pie, Laia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the economic impact of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities of the Catalan production system. Specifically, we analyze the effects of a tax on intermediate energy uses, a reduction in intermediate energy demand, and a tax on intermediate uses combined with a reduction in intermediate energy demand. The methodology involves two versions of the input-output price model: a competitive price formulation and a mark-up price formulation. The input-output price framework will make it possible to evaluate how the alternative measures modify production prices, consumption prices, private real income, and intermediate energy uses. The empirical application is for the Catalan economy and uses economic data for the year 2001. The combination of a tax on energy uses and an improvement in the energy efficiency of the production system is a measure that accomplishes both economic and environmental goals, since it has no effects on prices, it has a positive effect on private real income and, finally, energy consumption is considerably reduced. (author)

  1. Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, S.; Priest, E. R.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganization of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We inves...

  2. Solar Energy Educational Material, Activities and Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Educational Materials Solar with glasses " ;The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as

  3. Energy Cost and Enjoyment of Active Videogames in Children and Teens: Xbox 360 Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Kimberly A; Howe, Cheryl A

    2015-08-01

    New active videogames (AVGs) may provide youth an alternative to traditional play. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), intensity, and enjoyment of AVGs with those of seated videogames (SVGs). Youth (8-17 years old) volunteered to play a random selection of six (two SVGs, four AVGs) videogames for 6-10 minutes each. Prior to participation, height, weight, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured. A portable metabolic analyzer was worn during the games to measure total energy expenditure, and PAEE was calculated as (total energy expenditure - measured RMR). An accelerometer was worn on the right hip to measure intensity in counts/minute and steps/minute. Youth were classified as child (8-12 years old) versus teen (13-17 years old), healthy weight (body mass index [BMI] <85th percentile) versus overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile), and male versus female. A three-way mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare differences in PAEE (metabolic equivalents [METs] and kcal/minute) with sex, weight status, and age group as main effects, including Bonferroni's adjustment. Most AVGs were moderate to vigorous intensity (4.6±0.1 METs; range, 2.8-6.6 METs), where steps/minute (lower-body movement) was positively related to PAEE (R(2)=0.68). All SVGs were classified as light intensity (1.7±0.0 METs). PAEE (kcal/minute) was significantly higher during AVGs and for teens, males, and overweight youth. There was no significant difference in enjoyment between AVGs and SVGs. AVGs elicited sufficient energy cost to be a suitable alternative for traditional play and may contribute to the recommended dose of physical activity, particularly in teens, males, and overweight youth.

  4. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  5. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no

  6. Energy consumption during the building life cycle – influence of investment activities and operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytlačil Dalibor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the dynamic model of maintenance and investments of a building structure and HVAC systems. The aim of the research is finding the time dependent curve for energy consumption and also the cash flow that depends on the investments to energy saving arrangements and operations. The solution is based on the system dynamics method. The method makes possible to interconnect technical and economic parts of the problem. The main parameter in the model is the energy consumption in the building per floor square meter and year. This parameter is influenced by a deterioration of the building structure and the components of the active elements. The investments realized with the aim to decrease the energy consumption is another influence. The example of the computer simulation of the building parameters during the life cycle is presented in the paper.

  7. Children and youth's biopsychosocial wellbeing in the context of energy resource activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robin S; Irwin, Pamela; Scannell, Leila; Ungar, Michael; Bennett, Trevor Dixon

    2017-10-01

    Children and youth emerge as key populations that are impacted by energy resource activities, in part because of their developmental vulnerabilities, as well as the compounding effects of energy systems on their families, communities, and physical environments. While there is a larger literature focused on fossil fuel emissions and children, the impacts of many aspects of energy systems on children and youth remain under examined and scattered throughout the health, social science, and environmental science literatures. This systematic interdisciplinary review examines the biological, psychosocial, and economic impacts of energy systems identified through social science research - specifically focused on household and industrial extraction and emissions - on children and youth functioning. A critical interpretive search of interdisciplinary and international social sciences literature was conducted using an adaptive protocol focusing on the biopsychosocial and economic impacts of energy systems on children and youth. The initial results were complemented with a purposeful search to extend the breadth and depth of the final collection of articles. Although relatively few studies have specifically focused on children and youth in this context, the majority of this research uncovers a range of negative health impacts that are directly and indirectly related to the development and ongoing operations of natural resource production, particularly oil and gas, coal, and nuclear energy. Psychosocial and cultural effects, however, remain largely unexamined and provide a rich avenue for further research. This synthesis identifies an array of adverse biopsychosocial health outcomes on children and youth of energy resource extraction and emissions, and identifies gaps that will drive future research in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The physical activity energy cost of the latest active video games in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Cheryl A; Barr, Marcus W; Winner, Brett C; Kimble, Jenelyn R; White, Jason B

    2015-02-01

    Although promoted for weight loss, especially in young adults, it has yet to be determined if the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensity of the newest active video games (AVGs) qualifies as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; > 3.0 METs). This study compared the PAEE and intensity of AVGs to traditional seated video games (SVGs). Fifty-three young adults (18-35 y; 27 females) volunteered to play 6 video games (4 AVGs, 2 SVGs). Anthropometrics and resting metabolism were measured before testing. While playing the games (6-10 min) in random order against a playmate, the participants wore a portable metabolic analyzer for measuring PAEE (kcal/min) and intensity (METs). A repeated-measures ANOVA compared the PAEE and intensity across games with sex, BMI, and PA status as main effects. The intensity of AVGs (6.1 ± 0.2 METs) was significantly greater than SVGs (1.8 ± 0.1 METs). AVGs elicited greater PAEE than SVGs in all participants (5.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.0 kcal/min); PAEE during the AVGs was greater in males and overweight participants compared with females and healthy weight participants (p's < .05). The newest AVGs do qualify as MVPA and can contribute to the recommended dose of MVPA for weight management in young adults.

  9. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Barwais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™ was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001 was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day. Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day, p < 0.001, moderate- (33% (1 h/day p < 0.001, vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day, p < 0.001, and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 . Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm −2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g −1 ). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg −1 and 1.63 kW kg −1 , respectively, were achieved for EDLC

  11. High-Speed and Low-Energy Flip-Flop Operation of Asymmetric Active-Multimode Interferometer Bi-Stable Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haisong; Chaen, Yutaka; Hagio, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses.......High-speed (121/25 ps rise/fall time) and low-switching energy (7.1 and 3.4 fJ) alloptical flip-flop operation of single-wavelength high-mesa asymmetric active-MMI bi-stable laser diodes is demonstrated for the first time using 25 ps long switching pulses....

  12. Fluctuation-driven directional flow of energy in biochemical cycle: Electric activation of Na,K ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow Tsong, Tian

    1998-03-01

    Na,K ATPase is an ion pump which uses chemical bond energy of ATP to pump Na ion out of, and K ion into living cell thus maintaining ionic and osmotic balances of the cell. Both are uphill transport reactions. Surprisingly we have found that electric energy can also substitute chemical energy to fuel the pump activity. However, in this case only electric fields of certain waveforms, amplitudes, and frequencies are effective. Waveform, amplitude and frequency are three elements of signal. In other words, Na,K ATPase can recognize, process, and harvest energy from an oscillating or a fluctuating electric field to drive an endergonic reaction. The enzyme is a molecular transducer of electric signal. This report will describe electric activation experiment to define electric signal. Electric signal will then mixed with electric noise of broad power spectrum for experiment. Effect of white noise (WN) on the efficiency of Na,K ATPase will be investigated. It will be shown that WN of appropriate power level can improve the pump efficiency when a sub-optimal electric field is used. WN can also carry a sub-threshold signal to cross over the threshold. Stochastic resonance will be discussed in reference to these observations.

  13. [Coactivators in energy metabolism: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Chang, Yong-sheng; Fang, Fu-de

    2009-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) family is highly expressed in tissues with high energy metabolism. They coactivate transcription factors in regulating genes engaged in processes such as gluconeogenesis, adipose beta-oxydation, lipoprotein synthesis and secretion, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Protein conformation studies demonstrated that they lack DNA binding domains and act as coactivators through physical interaction with transcription factors. PGC1 activity is regulated at transcription level or by multiple covalent chemical modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation/deacetylation. Abnormal expression of PGC1 coactivators usually is closely correlated with diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and arterial and brain neuron necrosis diseases.

  14. Commission for energy regulation - 2012 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    After a presentation of the organisation, role and missions of the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and of its relationship with other institutional actors, this report describes and comments the action of the CRE in the fields of dialogue and transparency. It presents and comments key figures regarding the electricity and gas retail markets. It reports and comments the European reaction to the cold peak of February 2012 (historical peak for consumption and prices, inquiry on the causes of these price peaks, need of a European market). The next part addresses the relationship between electricity grids and territories (solidarity between electricity grids as the basis of the Europe of energy, evolution of French grids to face new needs and to take regional and local dimensions into account). Another part addresses gas infrastructures which are considered as the cornerstone of a good operation for the French market and for the integration of the European energy market (gas world market in 2012, definition of a target model for the gas market by European regulators, evolution of the French market in compliance with the European target model, new tariffs for the use of natural gas transport networks). The report then addresses the development of renewable energies: actions of CRE (bidding, opinion of tariffs), influence of renewable energy development on electricity prices on gross markets, needed evolution of electricity grids. A last part addresses the issues of energy cost, demand management, and struggle against energy poverty

  15. Detection of low-energy antinuclei in space using an active-target particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Thomas; Greenwald, Daniel; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measuring antimatter in space excellently probes various astrophysical processes. The abundances and energy spectra of antiparticles reveal a lot about the creation and propagation of cosmic-ray particles in the universe. Abnormalities in their spectra can reveal exotic sources or inaccuracies in our understanding of the involved processes. The measurement of antiprotons and the search for antideuterons and antihelium are optimal at low kinetic energies since background from high-energy cosmic-ray collisions is low. For this reason, we are developing an active-target particle detector capable of detecting ions and anti-ions in the energy range of 30-100 MeV per nucleon. The detector consists of 900 scintillating fibers coupled to silicon photomultipliers and is designed to operate on nanosatellites. The primary application of the detector will be the Antiproton Flux in Space (AFIS) mission, whose goal is the measurement of geomagnetically trapped antiprotons inside Earth's inner radiation belt. In this talk, we explain our particle identification technique and present results from first in-beam measurements with a prototype.

  16. Environment taxation and greenhouse gases (general tax on energy polluting activities and emissions trading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parayre, P.; Bruhnes, P.; Huglo, Ch.

    2000-12-01

    This document brings together 11 expert testimonies about the French general tax on polluting activities (GTPA). Content: 1 - the GTPA today and in 2001: the first year GTPA, the GTPA 2001 in the water sector, the everyday formal procedures linked with GTPA, the contentious aspects of GTPA; 2 - the eco-tax or energy-GTPA: European framework of energy products taxing, enforcement and implementation of the energy-GTPA in France; 3 - the negotiable emission permits: negotiable permits for companies with a strong energy intensity, functioning of emission permits in a global strategy, the position of the European Commission about negotiable permits and the perspectives in this domain at the community level; 4 - towards a reduction of greenhouse gases: the Goeteborg protocol, the consequences of La Haye's COP6, the position of a type-sector, an efficient system for the abatement of greenhouse gases by the producing sector. (J.S.)

  17. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  18. Using energy scenarios to explore alternative energy pathways in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca; Koomey, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops and analyzes four energy scenarios for California that are both exploratory and quantitative. The business-as-usual scenario represents a pathway guided by outcomes and expectations emerging from California's energy crisis. Three alternative scenarios represent contexts where clean energy plays a greater role in California's energy system: Split Public is driven by local and individual activities; Golden State gives importance to integrated state planning; Patriotic Energy represents a national drive to increase energy independence. Future energy consumption, composition of electricity generation, energy diversity, and greenhouse gas emissions are analyzed for each scenario through 2035. Energy savings, renewable energy, and transportation activities are identified as promising opportunities for achieving alternative energy pathways in California. A combined approach that brings together individual and community activities with state and national policies leads to the largest energy savings, increases in energy diversity, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Critical challenges in California's energy pathway over the next decades identified by the scenario analysis include dominance of the transportation sector, dependence on fossil fuels, emissions of greenhouse gases, accounting for electricity imports, and diversity of the electricity sector. The paper concludes with a set of policy lessons revealed from the California energy scenarios

  19. Nuclear data activity at Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Molla, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear data activity at AERE, Savar is briefly presented in this paper. Major thrust is on the customization of cross section libraries for general purpose reactor and shielding calculations. The processing codes that are available are NJOY91.91, some AMPX-Modules and the modules in SCALE-PC. Recent measurements on cross section data over the energy range 13-15 MeV at the Institute of Nuclear science and Technology have been reviewed. Measurements and calculations are based on the determination of excitation functions of neutron induced reactions on the elements and isotopes of FRT-relevant structural materials. (author)

  20. The role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Flanagan, Eamonn P

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide strength and conditioning practitioners with an understanding of the role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements. Specifically, the article covers 1) the nature of elasticity and its application to human participants, 2) the role of elastic energy in activities requiring a stretch-shorten cycle such as the vertical jump, 3) the role of muscular stiffness in athletic performance, 4) the control of muscular stiffness through feedforward and feedback mechanisms, and 5) factors affecting muscular stiffness. Finally, practical applications are provided. In this section, it is suggested that the storage and reuse of elastic energy is optimized at relatively higher levels of stiffness. Because stiffness decreases as fatigue ensues as well as with stretching before an event, the article emphasizes the need for proper preparation phases in a periodized cycle and the avoidance of long static stretches before high-force activities. The importance of teaching athletes to transition from eccentric to concentric movements with minimal time delays is also proposed due to the finding that time delays appear to decrease the reuse of elastic energy. In addition to teaching within the criterion tasks, evidence is provided that minimizing transitions in plyometric training, a technique demonstrated to increase musculotendinous stiffness, can optimize power output in explosive movements. Finally, evidence is provided that training and teaching programs designed to optimize muscular stiffness may protect athletes against sports-related injuries.

  1. The effects of Ramadan fasting on activity and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessan, Nader; Saadane, Ilham; Alkaf, Budour; Hambly, Catherine; Buckley, Adam J; Finer, Nick; Speakman, John R; Barakat, Maha T

    2018-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan entails abstinence from eating and drinking between dawn and sunset and a major shift in meal times and patterns with associated changes in several hormones and circadian rhythms; whether there are accompanying changes in energy metabolism is unclear. We have investigated the impact of Ramadan fasting on resting metabolic rate (RMR), activity, and total energy expenditure (TEE). Healthy nonobese volunteers (n = 29; 16 women) fasting during Ramadan were recruited. RMR was measured with the use of indirect calorimetry. In subgroups of participants, activity (n = 11; 5 women) and TEE (n = 10; 5 women) in free-living conditions were measured with the use of accelerometers and the doubly labeled water technique, respectively. Body composition was measured with the use of bioelectrical impedance. Measurements were repeated after a wash-out period of between 1 and 2 mo after Ramadan. Nonparametric tests were used for comparative statistics. Ramadan fasting did not result in any change in RMR (mean ± SD: 1365.7 ± 230.2 compared with 1362.9 ± 273.6 kcal/d for Ramadan and post-Ramadan respectively, P = 0.713, n = 29). However, controlling for the effects of age, sex, and body weight, RMR was higher in the first week of Ramadan than in subsequent weeks. During Ramadan, the total number of steps walked were significantly lower (n = 11, P = 0.001), while overall sleeping time was reduced and different sleeping patterns were seen. TEE did not differ significantly between Ramadan and post-Ramadan (mean ± SD: 2224.1 ± 433.7 compared with 2121.0 ± 718.5 kcal/d for Ramadan and post-Ramadan, P = 0.7695, n = 10). Ramadan fasting is associated with reduced activity and sleeping time, but no significant change in RMR or TEE. Reported weight changes with Ramadan in other studies are more likely to be due to differences in food intake. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02696421. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights

  2. Educational activity on nuclear energy in Aomori region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsunori

    2008-01-01

    There are many nuclear industries and research facilities in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Fuel cycle facilities and a LWR power station are now in operation. Another fuel cycle facilities and power stations will soon be under construction. Fusion research activity, ITER-BA, has started last year. We have launched nuclear-related education and research programs to teach nuclear engineering knowledge and skills to the local students. Hachinohe Institute of Technology is located on Pacific ocean side of Aomori Prefecture close to Rokkasho area, and has six undergraduate departments and three graduate courses. Hitherto, many alumni have engaged in nuclear-related companies in the area. In addition to previous subject on nuclear engineering, a new activity 'Challenge Nuclear-site Experience Program' started in 2007, as one of nuclear educational promotion programs in Japan. The students from various engineering departments learned the status and role of nuclear industries and researches. A curriculum course for nuclear engineering will be ready in 2009 for undergraduate students through various departments. In the summer of 2007, the introductory lesson on nuclear power generation and the technical tour to the power station were carried out for two days. In the autumn, the introductory lesson on nuclear fuel cycle and the tour to fuel cycle facilities were performed for three days, including one day tour to research facilities in the area. Its aim was to let the students recognize the role of regional nuclear activities and the attractiveness of nuclear-related industries. The program was supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was performed in cooperation with Tohoku Electric Power Company, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited and Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  3. Comparative study of passive and semi-active energy dissipation devices intended for overhead cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihot, P.; Revaud, D.

    1996-04-01

    This paper deals with the results of a bibliographic survey of energy dissipation devices which could be adapted for overhead cranes. The principle of passive devices using friction, yielding steel systems of viscous and viscoelastic systems are remembered. An active control system, which needs a minimum of external control energy is also presented. The application to overhead cranes which have a strong non linear behaviour under strong seismic motion (sliding between rails and wheels, local yielding and damage) is further discussed. The first results of a numerical study in progress are likewise purposed. The criterion of selection of the devices turn on the performance, the robustness and the reliability. The behaviour in the presence of non linearities, the sensitivity to the variations of the vibratory characteristics, and lastly the sensitivity to the response delay of the active controller are taken into account. (authors). 14 refs., 4 figs

  4. Linear active disturbance rejection-based load frequency control concerning high penetration of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yanmei; Bai, Yan; Huang, Congzhi; Du, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A disturbance rejection solution to the load frequency control issue is proposed. • Several power systems with wind energy conversation system have been tested. • A tuning algorithm of the controller parameters was proposed. • The performance of the proposed approach is better than traditional controllers. - Abstract: A new grid load frequency control approach is proposed for the doubly fed induction generator based wind power plants. The load frequency control issue in a power system is undergoing fundamental changes due to the rapidly growing amount of wind energy conversation system, and concentrating on maintaining generation-load balance and disturbance rejection. The prominent feature of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach is that the total disturbance can be estimated and then eliminated in real time. And thus, it is a feasible solution to deal with the load frequency control issue. In this paper, the application of the linear active disturbance rejection control approach in the load frequency control issue for a complex power system with wind energy conversation system based on doubly fed induction generator is investigated. The load frequency control issue is formulated as a decentralized multi-objective optimization control problem, the solution to which is solved by the hybrid particle swarm optimization technique. To show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, the robust performance testing based on Monte-Carlo approach is carried out. The performance superiority of the system with the proposed linear active disturbance rejection control approach over that with the traditional proportional integral and fuzzy-proportional integral-based controllers is validated by the simulation results

  5. Energy Conservation, Understanding and Activities for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication on energy conservation is designed as a resource material for the classroom. It is divided into three chapters concerning a definition of energy, the conservation of energy, and the uses of energy. For each subtopic within the chapters, there is background information and suggested project topics designed for secondary school…

  6. Energy harvesting using ionic electro-active polymer thin films with Ag-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S V; Arvind, K; Bharath, P; Roy Mahapatra, D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we employ the phenomenon of bending deformation induced transport of cations via the polymer chains in the thickness direction of an electro-active polymer (EAP)–metal composite thin film for mechanical energy harvesting. While EAPs have been applied in the past in actuators and artificial muscles, promising applications of such materials in hydrodynamic and vibratory energy harvesting are reported in this paper. For this, functionalization of EAPs with metal electrodes is the key factor in improving the energy harvesting efficiency. Unlike Pt-based electrodes, Ag-based electrodes have been deposited on an EAP membrane made of Nafion. The developed ionic metal polymer composite (IPMC) membrane is subjected to a dynamic bending load, hydrodynamically, and evaluated for the voltage generated against an external electrical load. An increase of a few orders of magnitude has been observed in the harvested energy density and power density in air, deionized water and in electrolyte solutions with varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) as compared to Pt-based IPMC performances reported in the published literature. This will have potential applications in hydrodynamic and residual environmental energy harvesting to power sensors and actuators based on micro-and nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) for biomedical, aerospace and oceanic applications

  7. Activation energy of fractional vortices and spectroscopy of a vortex molecule in long Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckenmaier, Kai

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts, the measurement of the activation energy of a fractional vortex and the spectroscopy of a vortex-molecule. Fractional vortices can be studied in long 0-κ Josephson junctions, where a jump of the Josephson phase is created artificially with a pair of tiny current injectors. To compensate for this phase discontinuity, a ρ vortex is formed. Here, ρ describes the vortex's so called topological charge. The ρ vortices are pinned at the discontinuity and they carry the fraction (ρ/2).Φ 0 of magnetic flux, with the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 2.07.10 -15 . Two stable vortex configurations are possible, a direct Vortex and a complementary one. ρ depends on the injector current. When the bias current of the junction exceeds a characteristic threshold, which dependents on ρ, the Lorentz force is bigger than the pinning force of the vortex and a fluxon is pulled away. In this case a complementary (ρ-2π) vortex is left behind. This switching of the ρ vortex and the resulting emission of a fluxon can be described as a Kramers like escape of a particle out of a tilted washboard potential. The washboard potential is tilted to the point where the barrier is small enough, so that the particle can escape via thermal or quantum fluctuations. In the case of thermal fluctuations the barrier height is called activation energy. The activation energy can be determined by measuring the junction's switching current statistics. In this thesis, the activation energy, necessary for the vortex escape, was measured as a function of ρ and a homogenous external magnetic field perpendicular to the junction. The main focus was the investigation of 0-π junctions. The temperature dependence of the activation energy was investigated, too. It turns out, that the transition-state-theory is convenient to describe the switching probability of the standard Nb-AlO x -Nb junctions at 4.2 K. For the measurements at 0.5 K a model of low to intermediate damping

  8. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  9. Ingerop - Energy activities and industry - General brochure 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Ingerop is a leading player in France and a major player internationally in engineering and consulting in sustainable mobility, energy transition and living environment and in major issues of today and tomorrow. The industrial engineering provided by Ingerop in France and for export, provides a response to customer expectations, integrating more and more the theme of sustainable development. Faced with a growing demand for electricity both in the world and in Europe Ingerop made the energy sector its priority development. The controlled use of energy (energy efficiency, renewable energy) is an ongoing challenge for Ingerop. The group continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad until the decommissioning phases in France and abroad. Ingerop continues its development in nuclear energy by extending its remit from the upstream phases for new construction projects abroad to decommissioning in France and abroad. Ingerop strengthens its expertise in new energy with new projects in biomass boilers and heat networks. The group has profound geothermal skills in heating networks or fatal energy recovery, permitting them to intervene with local authorities such as farmers, from feasibility studies to commissioning and assisting project management with technical studies. The expertise acquired by the group Ingerop in the 1990's, through the construction of fifty data centers on behalf of SFR, enables a significant experience going back twenty years. Furthermore, development continued on the design of more energy-efficient projects and ensuring increasingly high reliability. This brochure presents Ingerop's skills and main references in its four domains of intervention: energy industry (operation in nuclear environment, conventional power plants, new energy technologies, data centers), other industries, infrastructures, and building industry

  10. Decisions on Energy Demand Response Option Contracts in Smart Grids Based on Activity-Based Costing and Stochastic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred J. Hildreth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids enable a two-way energy demand response capability through which a utility company offers its industrial customers various call options for energy load curtailment. If a customer has the capability to accurately determine whether to accept an offer or not, then in the case of accepting an offer, the customer can earn both an option premium to participate, and a strike price for load curtailments if requested. However, today most manufacturing companies lack the capability to make the correct contract decisions for given offers. This paper proposes a novel decision model based on activity-based costing (ABC and stochastic programming, developed to accurately evaluate the impact of load curtailments and determine as to whether or not to accept an energy load curtailment offer. The proposed model specifically targets state-transition flexible and Quality-of-Service (QoS flexible energy use activities to reduce the peak energy demand rate. An illustrative example with the proposed decision model under a call-option based energy demand response scenario is presented. As shown from the example results, the proposed decision model can be used with emerging smart grid opportunities to provide a competitive advantage to the manufacturing industry.

  11. Directed surfaces structures and interfaces for enhanced electrocatalyst activity, selectivity, and stability for energy conversion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Thomas F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Shriram Center

    2016-04-20

    In this project, we have employed a systematic approach to develop active, selective, and stable catalyst materials for important electrochemical reactions involving energy conversion. In particular, we have focused our attention on developing active catalyst materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). HER: We have synthesized and investigated several highly active and acid stable non-precious metal HER catalysts, including: [Mo3S13]2- nanoclusters (Nature Chemistry, 2014) and molybdenum phosphosulfide (MoP|S) (Angewandte Chemie, 2014). We have also aimed to engineer these catalyst formulations in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for fundamental studies of water electrolysis at high current densities, approximately 1 A/cm2 (ChemSusChem, 2015). We furthermore investigated transition metal phosphide (TMP) catalysts for HER by a combined experimental–theoretical approach (Energy & Environmental Science, 2015). By synthesizing different TMPs and comparing experimentally determined HER activities with the hydrogen adsorption free energies, ΔGH, calculated by density functional theory, we showed that the TMPs follow a volcano relationship for the HER. Using our combined experimental–theoretical model, we predicted that the mixed metal TMP, Fe0.5Co0.5P, should have a near-optimal ΔGH. We synthesized several mixtures of Co and Fe phosphides alloys and confirmed that Fe0.5Co0.5P exhibits the highest HER activity of the investigated TMPs (Energy & Environmental Science, 2015). The understanding gained as to how to improve catalytic activity for the HER, particularly for non-precious metal materials, is important to DOE targets for sustainable H2 production. OER: We have developed a SrIrO3/IrOx catalyst for acidic conditions (submitted, 2016). The Sr

  12. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1980-February 14, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The stereochemistry of high energy 18 F, /sup 34m/Cl, and 76 Br substitution reactions involving enantiomeric molecules in the gas and condensed phase is studied. The gas to condensed state transition in halogen high energy chemistry, involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine activated by the (n,γ) and (I.T.) processes in halomethanes, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is being investigated in more detail. Special attention is given to defining the nature of the enhancement yields in the condensed phase. High energy halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of organic and biomolecular solutes are studied in an attempt to learn more about these reactions. The applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems are being continued. Special attention is given to developing procedures for trace molecular determinations in biological systems. The applications of hot halogen atoms as indicators of solute-solute interactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated bases and nucleosides are being developed. Experiments are designed to explain the mechanisms of the radioprotection offered biomolecular solutes trapped within the frozen ice lattice. Reactions of bromine and iodine activated by isomeric transition with halogenated biomolecular solutes in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions are studied. The high energy reactions of iodine with the isomers of pentene have been studied in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators and liquid systems. Reactivity of excited complex formation and structural effects of electrophilic iodine attack on the pi-bond systems are studied

  13. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1980-February 14, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The stereochemistry of high energy /sup 18/F, /sup 34m/Cl, and /sup 76/Br substitution reactions involving enantiomeric molecules in the gas and condensed phase is studied. The gas to condensed state transition in halogen high energy chemistry, involving chlorine, bromine, and iodine activated by the (n,..gamma..) and (I.T.) processes in halomethanes, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons is being investigated in more detail. Special attention is given to defining the nature of the enhancement yields in the condensed phase. High energy halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of organic and biomolecular solutes are studied in an attempt to learn more about these reactions. The applications of high energy chemistry techniques and theory to neutron activation analysis of biological systems are being continued. Special attention is given to developing procedures for trace molecular determinations in biological systems. The applications of hot halogen atoms as indicators of solute-solute interactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated bases and nucleosides are being developed. Experiments are designed to explain the mechanisms of the radioprotection offered biomolecular solutes trapped within the frozen ice lattice. Reactions of bromine and iodine activated by isomeric transition with halogenated biomolecular solutes in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions are studied. The high energy reactions of iodine with the isomers of pentene have been studied in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators and liquid systems. Reactivity of excited complex formation and structural effects of electrophilic iodine attack on the pi-bond systems are studied.

  14. Raman active high energy excitations in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhot, Jonathan [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML - EMFL), Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Piekarz, Przemysław [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakòw (Poland); Lapertot, Gérard [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Aoki, Dai [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Méasson, Marie-Aude, E-mail: marie-aude.measson@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR 7162 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, Bât. Condorcet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2017-02-01

    We have performed Raman scattering measurements on URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} single crystals on a large energy range up to ∼1300 cm{sup −1} and in all the Raman active symmetries as a function of temperature down to 15 K. A large excitation, active only in the E{sub g} symmetry, is reported. It has been assigned to a crystal electric field excitation on the Uranium site. We discuss how this constrains the crystal electric field scheme of the Uranium ions. Furthermore, three excitations in the A{sub 1g} symmetry are observed. They have been associated to double Raman phonon processes consistently with ab initio calculations of the phonons dispersion.

  15. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  16. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications. The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately es...

  17. Fourteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1953-07-31

    The document represents the fourteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1953.

  18. Twelfth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1952-07-01

    The document represents the twelfth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1952.

  19. Eighteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-07-30

    The document represents the eighteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1955.

  20. Fifteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, July - December 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The document represents the fifteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1953.

  1. Origins of the Unfavorable Activation and Reaction Energies of 1-Azadiene Heterocycles Compared to 2-Azadiene Heterocycles in Diels-Alder Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Jason S; Martin, Blanton N; Houk, K N

    2017-02-17

    The reactivities of butadiene, cyclopentadiene, furan, thiophene, pyrrole, and their 1-aza- and 2-aza-derivatives in Diels-Alder reactions with ethylene and fumaronitrile were investigated with density functional theory (M06-2X/6-311G(d,p)). The activation free energies for the Diels-Alder reactions of cyclic 1-azadienes are 10-14 kcal mol -1 higher than those of cyclic 2-azadienes, and the reaction free energies are 17-20 kcal mol -1 more endergonic. The distortion/interaction model shows that the increased activation energies of cyclic 1-azadienes originate from increased transition state distortion energies and unfavorable interaction energies, arising from addition to the nitrogen terminus of the C═N bond.

  2. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Norma; Corcuera, Roberto; Palacios, Tulio A.; Hey, Alfredo M.; Berte, G.; Trama, L.

    2004-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author) [es

  3. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklavenitis, L.

    1967-10-01

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction 11 B (p,n) 11 C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction 34 S (p,2pn) 32 P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [fr

  4. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology is being widely used in protecting the environment, manufacturing industry, medicine, agriculture, food industry and electricity production. In the world, 438 Nuclear Power Plants are in operation, and 31 are under construction. Nuclear share of total electricity generation have reached to 17 percent. However, 2053 nuclear tests from 1945 to 1999 and 2 atom bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 have initiated nonproliferation activities aiming to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a climate where cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be fostered. In addition to international efforts for non proliferation of nuclear weapons, great affords were made for disarmament and banning the nuclear tests which damage the environment. Following the 1st Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957 by the United Nations for spreading the use of nuclear energy to contribute peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, in same year. Turkey is a candidate state to join the European Union and has already signed Custom Union Agreement, also part of the Eurasia Region. So, there are significant developments in the cultural, social, technical, economical and trade relations owing to our common historical and cultural values with the countries in the region and Central Asia. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late 1990's, TAEK, besides the co operations with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and

  5. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: sktripathi16@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm{sup −2} (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g{sup −1}). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.63 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, were achieved for EDLC.

  6. Feelings of energy are associated with physical activity and sleep quality, but not adiposity, in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Adrian, Amanda L; O'Connor, Patrick J; Binkowski, Jessica A; Rogers, Laura Q; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-03-01

    Feelings of fatigue and low energy are widespread among middle-aged women and have been shown to negatively affect quality of life. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations among adiposity, physical activity, and feelings of fatigue and energy in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women (N = 74; mean [SD] age, 58.9 [3.8] y) were assessed for adiposity (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), steps per day, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day (via an accelerometer), prior week intensity of psychological vigor (via the Profile of Mood States-Short Form), and prior month frequency of energy feelings (via the vitality scale of the 36-item Medical Outcomes Survey--Short Form). Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale. Adiposity was negatively related to steps per day (r = -0.55, P quality was also a significant predictor of vitality (both P < 0.05). Engaging in recommended amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day is associated with higher monthly frequency of energy feelings, regardless of adiposity status, in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

  7. Analysis of activation energy in Couette-Poiseuille flow of nanofluid in the presence of chemical reaction and convective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, A.; Shehzad, N.; Ellahi, R.

    2018-03-01

    The motivation of the current article is to explore the energy activation in MHD radiative Couette-Poiseuille flow nanofluid in horizontal channel with convective boundary conditions. The mathematical model of Buongiorno [1] effectively describes the current flow analysis. Additionally, the impact of chemical reaction is also taken in account. The governing flow equations are simplified with the help of boundary layer approximations. Non-linear coupled equations for momentum, energy and mass transfer are tackled with analytical (HAM) technique. The influence of dimensionless convergence parameter like Brownian motion parameter, radiation parameter, buoyancy ratio parameter, dimensionless activation energy, thermophoresis parameter, temperature difference parameter, dimensionless reaction rate, Schmidt number, Brinkman number, Biot number and convection diffusion parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed graphically and in tabular form. From the results, it is elaborate that the nanoparticle concentration is directly proportional to the chemical reaction with activation energy and the performance of Brownian motion on nanoparticle concentration gives reverse pattern to that of thermophoresis parameter.

  8. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  9. NEA activities in 1993. 22. Annual Report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The titles and themes of the ten chapters of this report on NEA activities are: trends in nuclear energy; nuclear development and the fuel cycle (potential contribution of nuclear energy, policy alternatives, maintaining the nuclear option, prospective); reactor safety and regulation (safety research, regulatory approach, safety assessment, accident phenomenology and management, human factors, international standards); radiation protection (revision of the standards, assessment of the protection, international emergency exercises); radioactive waste management (long term safety assessment, in situ evaluation, other radioactive wastes); nuclear science (role, nuclear data, use of supercomputers, actinide transmutation, NEA Data Bank); joint projects (Three Mile Island vessel investigation, Halden reactor project...); legal affairs (liability aspects...); information programme; relations with non-member countries. 28 figs

  10. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  11. Ignition dynamics and activation energies of metallic thermites: From nano- to micron-scale particulate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Emily M.; Pantoya, Michelle L.

    2005-08-01

    Ignition behaviors associated with nano- and micron-scale particulate composite thermites were studied experimentally and modeled theoretically. The experimental analysis utilized a CO2 laser ignition apparatus to ignite the front surface of compacted nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) pellets at varying heating rates. Ignition delay time and ignition temperature as a function of both Ni and Al particle size were measured using high-speed imaging and microthermocouples. The apparent activation energy was determined from this data using a Kissinger isoconversion method. This study shows that the activation energy is significantly lower for nano- compared with micron-scale particulate media (i.e., as low as 17.4 compared with 162.5kJ /mol, respectively). Two separate Arrhenius-type mathematical models were developed that describe ignition in the nano- and the micron-composite thermites. The micron-composite model is based on a heat balance while the nanocomposite model incorporates the energy of phase transformation in the alumina shell theorized to be an initiating step in the solid-solid diffusion reaction and uniquely appreciable in nanoparticle media. These models were found to describe the ignition of the Ni /Al alloy for a wide range of heating rates.

  12. NEA activities in 1992. 21. Annual report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This annual report gives informations on OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities in 1992. This report is divided into ten chapters: 1 Trends in nuclear power. 2 Nuclear development and the fuel cycle. 3 Reactor safety and regulation. 4 Radiation protection. 5 Radioactive waste management. 6 Nuclear science. 7 Joint projects. 8 Legal affairs. 9 Informations programs. 10 Relations with non-member countries

  13. Effects of easy-to-use protein-rich energy bar on energy balance, physical activity and performance during 8 days of sustained physical exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna M Tanskanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC. This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA, physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC. METHODS: Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr. were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12 had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar group (n = 14 field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day(-1. Energy (EI and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate. PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI, hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC. RESULTS: Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA. CONCLUSION: An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy

  14. Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1996-01-01

    A model for the viscosity of glass-forming molecular liquids is proposed in which a "flow event" requires a local volume increase. The activation energy for a flow event is identified with the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid; this work is proportional to the high-frequency shear...

  15. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...

  16. Active video games and energy balance in male adolescents: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbon, Aidan; McNeil, Jessica; Jay, Ollie; Tremblay, Mark S; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been shown to acutely increase energy expenditure when compared with seated video games; however, the influence of AVGs on compensatory adjustments in energy intake and expenditure is largely unknown. The aim was to examine the acute effects of AVGs on energy intake and expenditure. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 26 male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.5 ± 1.4 y) completed three 1-h experimental conditions: resting control, seated video game play (Xbox 360; Microsoft), and AVG play (Kinect Adventures on Xbox 360) followed by an ad libitum lunch. A validated food menu was used to assess food intake immediately after the conditions and for the remainder of the day, and a dietary record was used for the subsequent 3-d period. Energy expenditure was measured by using portable indirect calorimetry throughout each experimental condition, and an accelerometer was used to assess the subsequent 3-d period. Appetite sensations were assessed by using visual analog scales at different time points during the testing day. The primary outcomes were acute (immediately after the conditions and 24-h) and short-term (3-d) energy intake and expenditure. Energy expenditure was significantly higher (~145%; P 0.49) and 3 d after the experimental conditions (~3%; P > 0.82). No significant differences were observed in absolute energy intake immediately after the conditions (~2%; P > 0.94) or in absolute energy intake 24 h (~5%; P > 0.63) and 3 d (~9%; P > 0.53) after the experimental conditions. Finally, appetite sensations were similar between conditions at all time points (P > 0.05). The increase in energy expenditure promoted by a single session of Kinect AVG play is not associated with increased food intake but is compensated for after the intervention, resulting in no measurable change in energy balance after 24 h. These results suggest that the potential of Kinect to reduce the energy gap underlying weight gain is offset within 24 h in

  17. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-01-01

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of ∼8.25 × 10 30 erg over 3 days.

  18. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Kianmehr, Mohammad H.; Samimi-Akhijahani, Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray. Fick's second law was used as a major equation to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some simplification. The calculated value of moisture diffusivity varied from a minimum of 3.320 x 10 -10 to a maximum of 9 x 10 -9 m 2 /s and the value of energy activation from a minimum of 110.837 to a maximum of 130.61 kJ/mol of from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s. The high value of the energy of activation for berberis fruit probably related to the tissue of berberis fruit and high moisture content (about 74.28%w.b), and intensive changes in D eff values for a different air temperature at constant air velocity. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of berberis fruit were found to be in the range of 0.643348-35.20032 (kWh) and 20.9355-1110.0700 (kWh/kg) from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s, respectively

  19. Thermogravimetric study and kinetic analysis of fungal pretreated corn stover using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuying; Zeng, Yelin; Wang, Jinjin; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-isothermal thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) measurements are used to determine pyrolytic characteristics and kinetics of lignocellulose. TG/DTG experiments at different heating rates with corn stover pretreated with monocultures of Irpex lacteus CD2 and Auricularia polytricha AP and their cocultures were conducted. Heating rates had little effect on the pyrolysis process, but the peak of weight loss rate in the DTG curves shifted towards higher temperature with heating rate. The maximum weight loss of biopretreated samples was 1.25-fold higher than that of the control at the three heating rates, and the maximum weight loss rate of the co-culture pretreated samples was intermediate between that of the two mono-cultures. The activation energies of the co-culture pretreated samples were 16-72 kJ mol(-1) lower than that of the mono-culture at the conversion rate range from 10% to 60%. This suggests that co-culture pretreatment can decrease activation energy and accelerate pyrolysis reaction thus reducing energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation and comparison of two methods to assess human energy expenditure during free-living activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Anastasopoulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The measurement of activity energy expenditure (AEE via accelerometry is the most commonly used objective method for assessing human daily physical activity and has gained increasing importance in the medical, sports and psychological science research in recent years. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine which of the following procedures is more accurate to determine the energy cost during the most common everyday life activities; a single regression or an activity based approach. For this we used a device that utilizes single regression models (GT3X, ActiGraph Manufacturing Technology Inc., FL., USA and a device using activity-dependent calculation models (move II, movisens GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen adults (11 male, 8 female; 30.4±9.0 years wore the activity monitors attached to the waist and a portable indirect calorimeter (IC as reference measure for AEE while performing several typical daily activities. The accuracy of the two devices for estimating AEE was assessed as the mean differences between their output and the reference and evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: The GT3X overestimated the AEE of walking (GT3X minus reference, 1.26 kcal/min, walking fast (1.72 kcal/min, walking up-/downhill (1.45 kcal/min and walking upstairs (1.92 kcal/min and underestimated the AEE of jogging (-1.30 kcal/min and walking upstairs (-2.46 kcal/min. The errors for move II were smaller than those for GT3X for all activities. The move II overestimated AEE of walking (move II minus reference, 0.21 kcal/min, walking up-/downhill (0.06 kcal/min and stair walking (upstairs: 0.13 kcal/min; downstairs: 0.29 kcal/min and underestimated AEE of walking fast (-0.11 kcal/min and jogging (-0.93 kcal/min. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the activity monitor using activity-dependent calculation models is more appropriate for predicting AEE in daily life than the activity monitor using a single

  1. Quantum mechanics study of the hydroxyethylamines-BACE-1 active site interaction energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueto-Tettay, Carlos; Drosos, Juan Carlos; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo

    2011-06-01

    The identification of BACE-1, a key enzyme in the production of Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, generated by the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein, was a major advance in the field of Alzheimer's disease as this pathology is characterized by the presence of extracellular senile plaques, mainly comprised of Aβ peptides. Hydroxyethylamines have demonstrated a remarkable potential, like candidate drugs, for this disease using BACE-1 as target. Density Functional Theory calculations were employed to estimate interaction energies for the complexes formed between the hydroxyethylamine derivated inhibitors and 24 residues in the BACE-1 active site. The collected data offered not only a general but a particular quantitative description that gives a deep insight of the interactions in the active site, showing at the same time how ligand structural variations affect them. Polar interactions are the major energetic contributors for complex stabilization and those ones with charged aspartate residues are highlighted, as they contribute over 90% of the total attractive interaction energy. Ligand-ARG296 residue interaction reports the most repulsive value and decreasing of the magnitude of this repulsion can be a key feature for the design of novel and more potent BACE-1 inhibitors. Also it was explained why sultam derivated BACE-1 inhibitors are better ones than lactam based. Hydrophobic interactions concentrated at S1 zone and other relevant repulsions and attractions were also evaluated. The comparison of two different theory levels (X3LYP and M062X) allowed to confirm the relevance of the detected interactions as each theory level has its own strength to depict the forces involved, as is the case of M062X which is better describing the hydrophobic interactions. Those facts were also evaluated and confirmed by comparing the quantitative trend, of selected ligand-residue interactions, with MP2 theory level as reference standard method for electrostatic plus

  2. Operation and profits of energy boards. A study of the basis of municipal business activities and the equitableness of the profits of municipal energy boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karhu, V.; Nissinen, T.; Valkama, P.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the empirical part of the study (Chapter 6) is to evaluate the equitableness of profits on capital invested of the 16 municipal energy boards selected for this study and, at the same time, to create a general evaluation basis for equity decisions made by the authorities case by case. In this part of the study, answers are sought for the following questions: (1) how has the economic situation of the energy boards studied been recently developing based on various economic parameters? (2) have there been differences in the returns and profitability of energy boards operating as public utilities or energy boards operating in company form? (3) what kind of a price level the energy boards studied have maintained in relation to the national averages of this field? (4) is a city in a weaker economic position more tempted to require higher profits on capital invested than a city with a sound economic basis? (5) how high profits on capital invested can be considered reasonable for the whole energy board and particularly for a network business holding a monopoly? The structure of the study is as follows. Chapter 2 contains a brief description of the energy boards selected for this study and of the economic situation of the cities owning them. The theoretical part of the study is included in Chapter 3 'Municipal Self-Government and Business'. It analyses rather deeply the terminology of the municipal business, norm basis, steering of actions, restructuring of companies into business profit centres and privatisation, as well as application of the Act on Restrictions on Competition from the standpoint of a municipal self-government. Chapter 4 deals with the establishment of energy board activity, the legal basis and the criteria for pricing electricity, network services and district heat. Chapter 5 examines the Act on Restrictions on Competition as a regulator of the energy board activities. After this, there are the presentations of the research results of the

  3. Phosphine Plasma Activation of α-Fe 2 O 3 for High Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Xia, Chuan; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Miao, Xiaohe; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    , the asymmetric supercapacitor devices based on plasma-activated Fe2O3 anodes and electrodeposited MnO2 cathodes can achieve a high stack energy density of 0.42 mWh cm-3 at a stack power density of 10.3 mW cm-3 along with good stability (88% capacitance retention

  4. Energy expenditure of three public and three home based active computer games in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; de Vries, S.I.; Jongert, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy expenditure (EE) experienced by children when playing six active video games, which can be used in a home environment and in a public setting (e.g. game center), and to evaluate whether the intensity of playing these games can meet the threshold for

  5. Energy expenditure of three public and three home-based active video games in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323255639; De Vries, Sanne I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/333758412; Jongert, Tinus; Verheijden, Marieke W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy expenditure (EE) experienced by children when playing six active video games, which can be used in a home environment and in a public setting (e.g. game center), and to evaluate whether the intensity of playing these games can meet the threshold for

  6. Energy paper II: Nuclear energy revival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anonymous

    2008-01-01

    ESI Energy paper is called 'Issue Paper' awarded by think-tank Energy Security Institute. The second issue focuses on the energy security of countries from the perspective of Renaissance of construction of nuclear power plants. Topicality is documented by fluctuations in fossil fuel prices on the world commodity markets and by extortionate potential, disposed by their main producers. The Slovak Republic is actively engaged into international dialogue on the need for the development of nuclear energy.

  7. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Driven Wind Energy Conversion System Based on Parallel Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERDI Brahim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel application of the instantaneous P-Q theory in a wind energy conversion system (WECS. The proposed WECS is formed by permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system connected to the grid through parallel active power filter (PAPF. PAPF uses the generated wind energy to feed loads connected at the point of common coupling (PPC, compensates current harmonics and injects the excess of this energy into the grid using P-Q theory as control method. To demonstrate the feasibility and the performance of the proposed control scheme, simulation of this wind system has been realized using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Simulation results show the accuracy and validity of the proposed control scheme for the PMSGPAPF system.

  8. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  9. Activity-based costing of security services for a Department of Energy nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities are being encouraged to reduce costs but the accounting data typically in use by the financial organizations at these laboratories cannot easily be used to determine which security activities offer the best reduction in cost. For example, labor costs have historically been aggregated over various activities, making it difficult to determine the true costs of performing each activity. To illustrate how this problem can be solved, a study was performed applying activity-based costing (ABC) to a hypothetical DOE facility. ABC is a type of cost-accounting developed expressly to determine truer costs of company activities. The hypothetical facility was defined to have features similar to those found across the DOE nuclear complex. ABC traced costs for three major security functions - Protective Force Operations, Material Control and Accountability, and Technical Security - to various activities. Once these costs had been allocated, we compared the cost of three fictitious upgrades: (1) an improvement in training or weapons that allows the protective force to have better capabilities instead of adding more response forces; (2) a change in the frequency of inventories; and (3) a reduction in the annual frequencies of perimeter sensor tests

  10. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  11. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  12. A Correlation between the Activity of Candida antarctica Lipase B and Differences in Binding Free Energies of Organic Solvent and Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2016-01-01

    in an inhibitory effect which is also confirmed by the binding free energies for the solvent and substrate molecules estimated from the simulations. Consequently, the catalytic activity of CALB decreases in polar solvents. This effect is significant, and CALB is over 10 orders of magnitude more active in nonpolar...... of the enzyme may be ascribed to binding of solvent molecules to the enzyme active site region and the solvation energy of substrate molecules in the different solvents. Polar solvent molecules interact strongly with CALB and compete with the substrate to bind to the active site region, resulting...

  13. Deletion of Gpr55 Results in Subtle Effects on Energy Metabolism, Motor Activity and Thermal Pain Sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid molecules and has been speculated to play a modulatory role in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in metabolically perturbed states. We therefore generated male mice deficient in the gene coding for the cannabinoid/lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI receptor Gpr55 and characterized them under normal dietary conditions as well as during high energy dense diet feeding followed by challenge with the CB1 receptor antagonist/GPR55 agonist rimonabant. Gpr55 deficient male mice (Gpr55 KO were phenotypically indistinguishable from their wild type (WT siblings for the most part. However, Gpr55 KO animals displayed an intriguing nocturnal pattern of motor activity and energy expenditure (EE. During the initial 6 hours of the night, motor activity was significantly elevated without any significant effect observed in EE. Interestingly, during the last 6 hours of the night motor activity was similar but EE was significantly decreased in the Gpr55 KO mice. No significant difference in motor activity was detected during daytime, but EE was lower in the Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. The aforementioned patterns were not associated with alterations in energy intake, daytime core body temperature, body weight (BW or composition, although a non-significant tendency to increased adiposity was seen in Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. Detailed analyses of daytime activity in the Open Field paradigm unveiled lower horizontal activity and rearing time for the Gpr55 KO mice. Moreover, the Gpr55 KO mice displayed significantly faster reaction time in the tail flick test, indicative of thermal hyperalgesia. The BW-decreasing effect of rimonabant in mice on long-term cafeteria diet did not differ between Gpr55 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, Gpr55 deficiency is associated with subtle effects on diurnal/nocturnal EE and motor activity behaviours but does not

  14. Agrice 1994-2000 - Activity report. Agriculture for chemicals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of new energy, chemicals and materials markets for agricultural products calls for an ongoing commitment to significant and stable funding for research. Even more importantly, these new markets also necessitate better coordination between the actors across the field, ranging from multidisciplinary research teams and agro-industrial companies to users in the petrochemicals, chemicals and materials sectors, and agricultural production. The need for this coordination is even greater today, in light of the key role that 'non-food' supply chains play in environmental protection: efforts to mitigate the greenhouse effect, reduction of VOC emissions, product safety and biodegradability, rational farming practices, etc. With these ends in mind the scientific interest group AGRICE- Agriculture for Chemicals and Energy- was created in France in 1994 by government bodies and eight partners. Today AGRICE includes the following members: the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), the Institut National de Recherche Agronomique (INRA), the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME), professional organisations in oilseeds (ONIDOL), grains (AGPB) and beets (CGB), AVENTIS, TOTAL FINA ELF, LIMAGRAIN and EDF, the French ministries of Agriculture, Industry, Research, and Environment. AGRICE was founded for a six-year renewable term, and its management entrusted to ADEME. The group has worked to develop significant collaborative efforts across Europe, notably through the European Renewable Resources and Materials Association (ERRMA). AGRICE is due to be renewed with a broader base of partners in 2001. This report presents: 1 - the AGRICE profile, scope of activity (Biofuels vehicles (Ester/Oils, Ethanol/Ether) and non-vehicles (Energy crops, Processes), Biomolecules (Lubricants, Surfactants, Solvents, Other biomolecules), Biomaterials (Biopolymers, Agro-materials)), Financial report 1994

  15. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program. Industry, university and research interest in the US Department of Energy ECUT biocatalysis research activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Research Opportunity Notice (RON) disseminated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program's Biocatalysis Research Activity are presented. The RON was issued in late April of 1983 and solicited expressions of interest from petrochemical and chemical companies, bioengineering firms, biochemical engineering consultants, private research laboratories, and universities for participating in a federal research program to investigate potential applications of biotechnology in producing chemicals. The RON results indicate that broad interest exists within the nation's industry, universities, and research institutes for the Activity and its planned research and development program.

  16. Activation in brain energy regulation and reward centers by food cues varies with choice of visual stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, E A; Kleinhans, N M; Goldberg, J; Buchwald, D; Schwartz, M W; Maravilla, K

    2009-06-01

    To develop a non-invasive method of studying brain mechanisms involved in energy homeostasis and appetite regulation in humans by using visual food cues that are relevant to individuals attempting weight loss. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation in regions of interest between groups of food photographs. Ten healthy, non-obese women who were not dieting for weight loss. Independent raters viewed food photographs and evaluated whether the foods depicted should be eaten by individuals attempting a calorically-restricted diet. Based on their responses, we categorized photographs into 'non-fattening' and 'fattening' food groups, the latter characterized by high-caloric content and usually also high-fat or high-sugar content. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was measured by fMRI while participants viewed photographs of 'fattening' food, 'non-fattening' food, and non-food objects. Viewing photographs of fattening food compared with non-food objects resulted in significantly greater activation in the brainstem; hypothalamus; left amygdala; left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; left orbitofrontal cortex; right insular cortex; bilateral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen; bilateral thalamus; and occipital lobe. By comparison, only the occipital region had greater activation by non-fattening food than by object photographs. Combining responses to all food types resulted in attenuation of activation in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and striatum. These findings suggest that, in non-obese women, neural circuits engaged in energy homeostasis and reward processing are selectively attuned to representations of high-calorie foods that are perceived as fattening. Studies to investigate hormonal action or manipulation of energy balance may benefit from fMRI protocols that contrast energy-rich food stimuli with non-food or low-calorie food stimuli.

  17. Longitudinal study of weight, energy intake and physical activity change across two decades in older Scottish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany C; Gryka, Anna A; Aucott, Lorna S; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods are times of pronounced physiological change in body mass index (BMI), physical activity and energy intake. Understanding these changes in middle age could contribute to formation of potential public health targets. A longitudinal cohort of 5119 perimenopausal women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) recruited between 1990 and 1994, with follow-up visits at 1997-1999 and 2009-2011. At each visit, participants were weighed, measured and completed socioeconomic and demographic questionnaires. Participants at the first visit were asked to recall body weights at 20, 30 and 40 years of age. We assessed trends in BMI, physical activity and energy intake across and within visits. Over 2 decades, obesity prevalence doubled from 14% to 28% of the participants, with 69% of participants being categorised as overweight or obese. Greater than 70% of participants gained >5% of their baseline BMI with weight gain occurring across all weight categories. Energy intake and physical activity levels (PALs) did not change during the 2 decades after menopause (p trend=0.06 and 0.11, respectively), but, within the second visit, energy intake increased concomitantly with a decrease in physical activity across increasing quartiles of BMI (p trend <0.001 for all). Overweight and obesity increased by over 50% over the course of 20 years. Weight gain occurred across the adult life course regardless of starting weight. The marked increase in dietary intake and decrease in PALs in middle age suggest a potential critical period for intervention to curb excess weight gain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Renewable energy supply to an isolated rural community to enhance ecotourism activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Ventura; Cataldo, Jose [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    As part of a technology transfer project funded by OAS and carried out by Work Groups from Argentina, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, the Laureles community was selected in Uruguay to enhance its productive activities of ecotourism and craftworks selling. A complete renewable energy demonstration system was provided to improve the services offered to tourists who stay overnight at rural houses. The community selection performed by the Uruguayan Renewable Energy Work Group, assisted by sociologists using the methodology and criteria implemented in a prior project, is described. The community was characterized including social, demographic and organizational issues, a carefully designed enquiry, mostly related to energy and production issues, was performed and a forecast for future needs was completed. Agreements about the renewable energy demonstration system characteristics were reached in a workshop attended by all community members. Also, load requirements and number and type of appliances were characterized. Due to project fund restrictions, only one complete system could be installed. Its location in one of the several farm houses where lodging is offered was discussed with the community reaching a consensus. The system installed uses wind energy to satisfy illumination, communications and refrigerator needs and solar water heating. Also, excess wind power will be used to support water heating. The local wind potential assessment, using short time wind measurements related to those obtained at near-by meteorological stations, and the system design are presented. Users received training about the system operation and its power and energy restrictions. In a first project evaluation meeting, the community discussed about its perception of the benefits expected in its quality of life through an increase of the number of tourists characterization of the communities in their social, demographic and organizational issues. The methodology employed was implemented in a

  19. Activation energies as the validity criterion of a model for complex reactions that can be in oscillatory states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anić S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of any complex reaction system is a difficult task. If the system under examination can be in various oscillatory dynamic states, the apparent activation energies corresponding to different pathways may be of crucial importance for this purpose. In that case the activation energies can be determined by means of the main characteristics of an oscillatory process such as pre-oscillatory period, duration of the oscillatory period, the period from the beginning of the process to the end of the last oscillation, number of oscillations and others. All is illustrated on the Bray-Liebhafsky oscillatory reaction.

  20. Comprehensive assessment of energy systems: approach and current results of the Swiss activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Kypreos, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approaches used and results obtained to this date within the Swiss Project GaBE on ''Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems''. Based on the ''cradle to grave'' approach detailed environmental inventories for major fuel cycles have been generated. In comparison to earlier studies a very broad spectrum of resources and air and water pollutants has been covered. Also non-energetic resources such as land depreciation have been considered. Numerous examples of evaluations are provided in the paper, including comparisons of greenhouse gas emissions, land use, radiation and wastes, and illustrating the impact of consideration of full energy chains. In the part concerning severe accidents some evaluations based on the database established as the Paul Scherrer Institute are presented as well as the estimated contribution of hypothetical severe accidents to the external costs associated with a specific Swiss nuclear power plant. Results of applications of the large scale energy-economy model MARKAL to the Swiss energy system and greenhouse gas scenarios are described. This includes cost-optimal contributions of different technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions, and trade-offs on the national and international level. Finally, the content of other GaBE activities either being in progress or planned is provided. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear and high-energy physics laboratory - LPNHE. Activity report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaissiere, Christian de la; Banner, Marcel; Faivre, Maria; Moine, Marguerite; Dumas, Jean-Marc; Jos, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    The LPNHE is a joint research unit (UMR 7585) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics (IN2P3), Institute of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), UPMC and Paris Diderot Paris 7. It hosts several research teams and technical services (computers, electronics, mechanical), and two support services (administration, logistics). The laboratory is engaged in several major experimental programs pursued in the framework of international collaborations with very large research facilities around the world, centers of particle accelerators and observatories. The research programs cover current issues in particle physics, astro-particle and cosmology. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 1998-1999: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Physics experiments: LHC Physics with ATLAS, search for new physics at LEP, DIRAC experiment, Neutrinos oscillation with NOMAD, TONIC and HERA-H1 experiments, CP Violation (BaBar), DΦ experiment at Tevatron, high-energy gamma astronomy, Supernovae, Pierre Auger Laboratory); 3 - Technical activities and means (electronics, computers, mechanics departments); 4 - Laboratory life (Teaching, Administration and general services, Internal and external activities); 5 - Dissemination of scientific information; 6 - List of publications; 7 - staff

  2. Exercise, energy expenditure and energy balance, as measured with doubly labelled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2018-02-01

    The doubly labelled water method for the measurement of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) over 1-3 weeks under daily living conditions is the indicated method to study effects of exercise and extreme environments on energy balance. Subjects consume a measured amount of doubly labelled water (2H2 18O) to increase background enrichment of body water for 18O and 2H, and the subsequent difference in elimination rate between 18O and 2H, as measured in urine, saliva or blood samples, is a measure for carbon dioxide production and thus allows calculation of TDEE. The present review describes research showing that physical activity level (PAL), calculated as TDEE (assessed with doubly labelled water) divided by resting energy expenditure (REE, PAL = TDEE/REE), reaches a maximum value of 2·00-2·40 in subjects with a vigorously active lifestyle. Higher PAL values, while maintaining energy balance, are observed in professional athletes consuming additional energy dense foods to compete at top level. Exercise training can increase TDEE/REE in young adults to a value of 2·00-2·40, when energy intake is unrestricted. Furthermore, the review shows an exercise induced increase in activity energy expenditure can be compensated by a reduction in REE and by a reduction in non-exercise physical activity, especially at a negative energy balance. Additionally, in untrained subjects, an exercise-induced increase in activity energy expenditure is compensated by a training-induced increase in exercise efficiency.

  3. High-energy azimuthally polarized laser beam generation from an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with c-cut YVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Baofu; Jiao, Zhongxing; He, Guangyuan; Wang, Biao

    2018-05-01

    A high-energy, azimuthally polarized (AP) and actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. The thermal bipolar lensing effect in the Nd:YAG laser rod is used as a polarization discriminator, and a c-cut YVO4 crystal is inserted into the laser cavity to increase the mode-selecting ability of the cavity for AP mode. The laser generated AP pulses with maximum pulse energy as high as 4.2 mJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy obtained from an actively Q-switched AP laser. The pulse energy remained higher than 1 mJ over a wide range of repetition rates from 5 kHz to 25 kHz.

  4. T