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Sample records for activation coordinates multiple

  1. Redox activity and multiple copper(I) coordination of 2His-2Cys oligopeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, DongWon; Alshahrani, Aisha A; Vytla, Yashodharani; Deeconda, Manogna; Serna, Victor J; Saenz, Robert F; Angel, Laurence A

    2015-02-01

    Copper binding motifs with their molecular mechanisms of selective copper(I) recognition are essential molecules for acquiring copper ions, trafficking copper to specific locations and controlling the potentially damaging redox activities of copper in biochemical processes. The redox activity and multiple Cu(I) binding of an analog methanobactin peptide-2 (amb2) with the sequence acetyl-His1-Cys2-Tyr3-Pro4-His5-Cys6 was investigated using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry analyses. The Cu(II) titration of amb2 showed oxidation of amb2 via the formation of intra- and intermolecular Cys-Cys disulfide bridges and the multiple Cu(I) coordination by unoxidized amb2 or the partially oxidized dimer and trimer of amb2. The principal product of these reactions was [amb2 + 3Cu(I)](+) which probably coordinates the three Cu(I) ions via two bridging thiolate groups of Cys2 and Cys6 and the δN6 of the imidazole groups of His6, as determined by geometry optimized structures at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The products observed by IM-MS showed direct correlation to spectral changes associated with disulfide bond formation in the UV-Vis spectrophotometric study. The results show that IM-MS analysis is a powerful technique for unambiguously determining the major ion species produced during the redox and metal binding chemistry of oligopeptides.

  2. Flexible coordination of stationary and mobile conversations with gaze: Resource allocation among multiple joint activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mayor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaze is instrumental in coordinating face-to-face social interactions. But little is known about gaze use when social interactions co-occur with other joint activities. We investigated the case of walking while talking. We assessed how gaze gets allocated among various targets in mobile conversations, whether allocation of gaze to other targets affects conversational coordination, and whether reduced availability of gaze for conversational coordination affects conversational performance and content. In an experimental study, pairs were videotaped in four conditions of mobility (standing still, talking while walking along a straight-line itinerary, talking while walking along a complex itinerary, or walking along a complex itinerary with no conversational task. Gaze to partners was substantially reduced in mobile conversations, but gaze was still used to coordinate conversation via displays of mutual orientation, and conversational performance and content was not different between stationary and mobile conditions. Results expand the phenomena of multitasking to joint activities.

  3. Cadmium Activates Multiple Signaling Pathways That Coordinately Stimulate Akt Activity to Enhance c-Myc mRNA Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiuan Tsai

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a known environmental carcinogen. Exposure of Cd leads to the activation of several proto-oncogenes in cells. We investigated here the mechanism of c-Myc expression in hepatic cells under Cd treatment. The c-Myc protein and mRNA levels increased in dose- and time-dependent manners in HepG2 cells with Cd treatment. This increase was due to an increase in c-Myc mRNA stability. To explore the mechanism involved in enhancing the mRNA stability, several cellular signaling factors that evoked by Cd treatment were analyzed. PI3K, p38, ERK and JNK were activated by Cd. However, ERK did not participate in the Cd-induced c-Myc expression. Further analysis revealed that mTORC2 was a downstream factor of p38. PI3K, JNK and mTORC2 coordinately activated Akt. Akt was phosphorylated at Thr450 in the untreated cells. Cd treatment led to additional phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473. Blocking any of the three signaling factors resulted in the reduction of phosphorylation level at all three Akt sites. The activated Akt phosphorylated Foxo1 and allowed the modified protein to translocate into the cytoplasm. We conclude that Cd-induced accumulation of c-Myc requires the activation of several signaling pathways. The signals act coordinately for Akt activation and drive the Foxo1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Reduction of Foxo1 in the nucleus reduces the transcription of its target genes that may affect c-Myc mRNA stability, resulting in a higher accumulation of the c-Myc proteins.

  4. Dynamical modelling of coordinated multiple robot systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Samad

    1987-01-01

    The state of the art in the modeling of the dynamics of coordinated multiple robot manipulators is summarized and various problems related to this subject are discussed. It is recognized that dynamics modeling is a component used in the design of controllers for multiple cooperating robots. As such, the discussion addresses some problems related to the control of multiple robots. The techniques used to date in the modeling of closed kinematic chains are summarized. Various efforts made to date for the control of coordinated multiple manipulators is summarized.

  5. Coordinated formation control of multiple nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei KANG; Ning XI; Jindong TAN; Yiwen ZHAO; Yuechao WANG

    2005-01-01

    A general method of controller design is developed for the purpose of formation keeping and reconfiguration of nonlinear systems with multiple subsystems,such as the formation of multiple aircraft,ground vehicles,or robot arms.The model consists of multiple nonlinear systems.Controllers are designed to keep the subsystems in a required formation and to coordinate the subsystems in the presence of environmental changes.A step-by-step algorithm of controller design is developed.Sufficient conditions for the stability of formation tracking are proved.Simulations and experiments are conducted to demonstrate some useful coordination strategies such as movement with a leader,simultaneous movement,series connection of formations,and human-machine interaction.

  6. Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook

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    Chang, Briana L.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Tran, Nhi

    2016-01-01

    Coordination of multiple representations (CMR) is widely recognized as a critical skill in mathematics and is frequently demanded in reform calculus textbooks. However, little is known about the prevalence of coordination tasks in such textbooks. We coded 707 instances of CMR in a widely used reform calculus textbook and analyzed the distributions…

  7. Deductive Coordination of Multiple Geospatial Knowledge Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, R.; Reddy, M.; Culy, C.; Hobbs, J.; Jarvis, P.; Dungan, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Deductive inference is applied to choreograph the cooperation of multiple knowledge sources to respond to geospatial queries. When no one source can provide an answer, the response may be deduced from pieces of the answer provided by many sources. Examples of sources include (1) The Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer, a repository that gives the locations for almost six million place names, (2) The Cia World Factbook, an online almanac with basic information about more than 200 countries. (3) The SRI TerraVision 3D Terrain Visualization System, which displays a flight-simulator-like interactive display of geographic data held in a database, (4) The NASA GDACC WebGIS client for searching satellite and other geographic data available through OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Map Servers, and (5) The Northern Arizona University Latitude/Longitude Distance Calculator. Queries are phrased in English and are translated into logical theorems by the Gemini Natural Language Parser. The theorems are proved by SNARK, a first-order-logic theorem prover, in the context of an axiomatic geospatial theory. The theory embodies a representational scheme that takes into account the fact that the same place may have many names, and the same name may refer to many places. SNARK has built-in procedures (RCC8 and the Allen calculus, respectively) for reasoning about spatial and temporal concepts. External knowledge sources may be consulted by SNARK as the proof is in progress, so that most knowledge need not be stored axiomatically. The Open Agent Architecture (OAA) facilitates communication between sources that may be implemented on different machines in different computer languages. An answer to the query, in the form of text or an image, is extracted from the proof. Currently, three-dimensional images are displayed by TerraVision but other displays are possible. The combined system is called Geo-Logica. Some example queries that can be handled by Geo-Logica include: (1) show the

  8. The gene vitellogenin has multiple coordinating effects on social organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Mindy Nelson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal division of labor and foraging specialization are key characteristics of honeybee social organization. Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera initiate foraging for food around their third week of life and often specialize in collecting pollen or nectar before they die. Variation in these fundamental social traits correlates with variation in worker reproductive physiology. However, the genetic and hormonal mechanisms that mediate the control of social organization are not understood and remain a central question in social insect biology. Here we demonstrate that a yolk precursor gene, vitellogenin, affects a complex suite of social traits. Vitellogenin is a major reproductive protein in insects in general and a proposed endocrine factor in honeybees. We show by use of RNA interference (RNAi that vitellogenin gene activity paces onset of foraging behavior, primes bees for specialized foraging tasks, and influences worker longevity. These findings support the view that the worker specializations that characterize hymenopteran sociality evolved through co-option of reproductive regulatory pathways. Further, they demonstrate for the first time how coordinated control of multiple social life-history traits can originate via the pleiotropic effects of a single gene that affects multiple physiological processes.

  9. Repairing Multiple Failures with Coordinated and Adaptive Regenerating Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Scouarnec, Nicolas Le

    2011-01-01

    Erasure correcting codes are widely used to ensure data persistence in distributed storage systems. This paper addresses the repair of such codes in the presence of simultaneous failures. It is crucial to maintain the required redundancy over time to prevent permanent data losses. We go beyond existing work (i.e., regenerating codes by Dimakis et al.) and propose coordinated regenerating codes allowing devices to coordinate during simultaneous repairs thus reducing the costs further. We provide closed form expressions of the communication costs of our new codes depending on the number of live devices and the number of devices being repaired. We prove that deliberately delaying repairs does not bring additional gains in itself. This means that regenerating codes are optimal as long as each failure can be repaired before a second one occurs. Yet, when multiple failures are detected simultaneously, we prove that our coordinated regenerating codes are optimal and outperform uncoordinated repairs (with respect to ...

  10. Testing multiple coordination constraints with a novel bimanual visuomotor task.

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    Helene M Sisti

    Full Text Available The acquisition of a new bimanual skill depends on several motor coordination constraints. To date, coordination constraints have often been tested relatively independently of one another, particularly with respect to isofrequency and multifrequency rhythms. Here, we used a new paradigm to test the interaction of multiple coordination constraints. Coordination constraints that were tested included temporal complexity, directionality, muscle grouping, and hand dominance. Twenty-two healthy young adults performed a bimanual dial rotation task that required left and right hand coordination to track a moving target on a computer monitor. Two groups were compared, either with or without four days of practice with augmented visual feedback. Four directional patterns were tested such that both hands moved either rightward (clockwise, leftward (counterclockwise, inward or outward relative to each other. Seven frequency ratios (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2, 1∶1, 2∶3. 1∶2, 1∶3 between the left and right hand were introduced. As expected, isofrequency patterns (1∶1 were performed more successfully than multifrequency patterns (non 1∶1. In addition, performance was more accurate when participants were required to move faster with the dominant right hand (1∶3, 1∶2 and 2∶3 than with the non-dominant left hand (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2. Interestingly, performance deteriorated as the relative angular velocity between the two hands increased, regardless of whether the required frequency ratio was an integer or non-integer. This contrasted with previous finger tapping research where the integer ratios generally led to less error than the non-integer ratios. We suggest that this is due to the different movement topologies that are required of each paradigm. Overall, we found that this visuomotor task was useful for testing the interaction of multiple coordination constraints as well as the release from these constraints with practice in the presence of

  11. Physical Activity Predicts Performance in an Unpracticed Bimanual Coordination Task

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    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Serbruyns, Leen; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2017-01-01

    Practice of a given physical activity is known to improve the motor skills related to this activity. However, whether unrelated skills are also improved is still unclear. To test the impact of physical activity on an unpracticed motor task, 26 young adults completed the international physical activity questionnaire and performed a bimanual coordination task they had never practiced before. Results showed that higher total physical activity predicted higher performance in the bimanual task, controlling for multiple factors such as age, physical inactivity, music practice, and computer games practice. Linear mixed models allowed this effect of physical activity to be generalized to a large population of bimanual coordination conditions. This finding runs counter to the notion that generalized motor abilities do not exist and supports the existence of a “learning to learn” skill that could be improved through physical activity and that impacts performance in tasks that are not necessarily related to the practiced activity. PMID:28265253

  12. Attitude coordination of multiple spacecraft for space debris surveillance

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    Felicetti, Leonard; Emami, M. Reza

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the attitude coordination of a formation of multiple spacecraft for space debris surveillance. Off-the-shelf optical sensors and reaction wheels, with limited field of view and control torque, respectively, are considered to be used onboard the spacecraft for performing the required attitude maneuvers to detect and track space debris. The sequence of attitude commands are planned by a proposed algorithm, which allows for a dynamic team formation, as well as performing suitable maneuvers to eventually point towards the same debris. A control scheme based on the nonlinear state dependent Riccati equation is designed and applied to the space debris surveillance mission scenario, and its performance is compared with those of the classic linear quadratic regulator and quaternion feedback proportional derivative controllers. The viability and performance of the coordination algorithm and the controllers are validated through numerical simulations.

  13. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

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    Xie Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  14. Coordination and standardization of federal sedimentation activities

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    Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1964, the Bureau of the Budget issued Circular A-67 to set forth guidelines for the coordination of water-data acquisition activities throughout the Federal government. The U.S. Department of the Interior was assigned the task of implementing Circular A-67, which in turn redelegated this responsibility to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Delegation of the lead responsibility for water-data coordination to the USGS occurred because of its historical role as the primary agency for water-data acquisition in the United States. To provide overall leadership for implementing the provisions of Circular A-67, the USGS established the Office of Water Data Coordination in the Water Resources Division (WRD). In addition, regional and district offices of the WRD were delegated responsibility for coordinating water data within their geographic areas of responsibility. On December 10, 1991, the Office of Management and Budget issued OMB Number Memorandum M-92-01, which expands the USGS's coordination role to encompass all water information. This includes data critical to water resources in the following categories: - surface- and ground-water quality and quantity,

  15. Update of technical coordinating committee activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Technical Coordinating Committee has its origins in the earliest days of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. Between 1982 and 1985, individuals in several of the states felt that coordination among the states would be beneficial to all by affording states a cost-effective method for sharing ideas, discussing alternatives, and presenting solutions to common problems. At the current time, the committee comprises members from each of the sited states. Various compacts, federal agencies, and industry groups participate in committee activities. The Low-Level Management Program provides support for the committee through the provision of logistical support and limited manpower allocation. Activities of the committee have recently focused on waste treatment and minimization technologies. The committee also has worked diligently to see the review of the 3RSTAT computer code completed. The committee has taken a position on various regulatory proposals the past year. The committee expects to continue its work until new sites are brought online.

  16. Attitude coordination for spacecraft formation with multiple communication delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yaohua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication delays are inherently present in information exchange between spacecraft and have an effect on the control performance of spacecraft formation. In this work, attitude coordination control of spacecraft formation is addressed, which is in the presence of multiple communication delays between spacecraft. Virtual system-based approach is utilized in case that a constant reference attitude is available to only a part of the spacecraft. The feedback from the virtual systems to the spacecraft formation is introduced to maintain the formation. Using backstepping control method, input torque of each spacecraft is designed such that the attitude of each spacecraft converges asymptotically to the states of its corresponding virtual system. Furthermore, the backstepping technique and the Lyapunov–Krasovskii method contribute to the control law design when the reference attitude is time-varying and can be obtained by each spacecraft. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated by the numerical simulations of a spacecraft formation.

  17. Motion coordination and performance analysis of multiple vehicle systems

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    Sharma, Vikrant

    In this dissertation, issues related to multiple vehicle systems are studied. First, the issue of vehicular congestion is addressed and its effect on the performance of some systems studied. Motion coordination algorithms for some systems of interest are also developed. The issue of vehicular congestion is addressed by characterizing the effect of increasing the number of vehicles, in a bounded region, on the speed of the vehicles. A multiple vehicle routing problem is considered where vehicles are required to stay velocity-dependent distance away from each other to avoid physical collisions. Optimal solutions to the minimum time routing are characterized and are found to increase with the square root of the number of vehicles in the environment, for different distributions of the sources and destinations of the vehicles. The second issue addressed is that of the effect of vehicular congestion on the delay associated with data delivery in wireless networks where vehicles are used to transport data to increase the wireless capacity of the network. Tight bounds on the associated delay are derived. The next problem addressed is that of covering an arbitrary path-connected two dimensional region, using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles, in minimum time. A constant-factor optimal algorithm is presented for any given initial positions of the vehicles inside the environment. The last problem addressed is that of the deployment of an environment monitoring network of mobile sensors to improve the network lifetime and sensing quality. A distributed algorithm is presented that improves the system's performance starting from an initial deployment.

  18. Coordination of breathing with nonrespiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, James C

    2012-04-01

    Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The central nervous system also incorporates other CPGs, which orchestrate a wide variety of discrete and repetitive, voluntary and involuntary movements. The coordination of breathing with these other activities requires interaction and coordination between the respiratory CPG and those governing the nonrespiratory activities. Most of these interactions are complex and poorly understood. They seem to involve both conventional synaptic crosstalk between groups of neurons and fluid identity of neurons as belonging to one CPG or another: neurons that normally participate in breathing may be temporarily borrowed or hijacked by a competing or interrupting activity. This review explores the control of breathing as it is influenced by many activities that are generally considered to be nonrespiratory. The mechanistic detail varies greatly among topics, reflecting the wide variety of pertinent experiments.

  19. Coordinating control of multiple rigid bodies based on motion primitives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Wu; Zhi-Yong Geng

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of coordinated motion generation for a group of rigid bodies.Two classes of coordinated motion primitives,relative equilibria and maneuvers,are given as building blocks for generating coordinated motions.In a motion-primitive based planning framework,a control method is proposed for the robust execution of a coordinated motion plan in the presence of perturbations,The control method combines the relative equilibria stabilization with maneuver design,and results in a closeloop motion planning framework.The performance of the control method has been illustrated through a numerical simulation.

  20. Coordination of autophagy with other cellular activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan WANG; Zheng-hong QIN

    2013-01-01

    The cell biological phenomenon of autophagy has attracted increasing attention in recent years,partly as a consequence of the discovery of key components of its cellular machinery.Autophagy plays a crucial role in a myriad of cellular functions.Autophagy has its own regulatory mechanisms,but this process is not isolated.Autophagy is coordinated with other cellular activities to maintain cell homeostasis.Autophagy is critical for a range of human physiological processes.The multifunctional roles of autophagy are explained by its ability to interact with several key components of various cell pathways.In this review,we focus on the coordination between autophagy and other physiological processes,including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS),energy homeostasis,aging,programmed cell death,the immune responses,microbial invasion and inflammation.The insights gained from investigating autophagic networks should increase our understanding of their roles in human diseases and their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention.

  1. [Betahistine in the treatment of vestibular and coordination disturbances in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, N F; Chugunova, M A; Kunel'skaia, N L; Shagaev, A S; Boĭko, A N; Gusev, E I

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of the efficacy trial of betahistine (Vestibo) based on the complex clinical/instrumental examination (stabilometric, vestibulometric) in 40 patients with multiple sclerosis of different severity of vestibular and coordination dysfunction. We demonstrated the clinical efficacy and safety of using this drug as one of the areas of symptomatic therapy in treatment vestibular and coordination disturbances in multiple sclerosis.

  2. Multiple Sensory-Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that…

  3. Coordinating Learning Agents for Active Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ranging from robocup soccer [26, 27], to rover coordination [19], to trading agents [25, 43], to air traffic management [32]. What makes this problem...Bazzan, A. and Ossowski, S. (eds.), Applications of Agent Technology in Traffic and Transportation ( Springer , 2005). [19] Mataric, M. J., Coordination...of Complex Systems ( Springer , 2004). September 16, 2009 16:40 WSPC/169-ACS 00230 472 K. Tumer and N. Khani [24] Pynadath, D. and Tambe, M., The

  4. Stochastic coordination of multiple actuators reduces latency and improves chemotactic response in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Michael W; Pontius, William; Emonet, Thierry

    2012-01-17

    Individual neuronal, signal transduction, and regulatory pathways often control multiple stochastic downstream actuators, which raises the question of how coordinated response to a single input can be achieved when individual actuators fluctuate independently. In Escherichia coli, the bacterial chemotaxis pathway controls the activity of multiple flagellar motors to generate the run-and-tumble motion of the cell. High-resolution microscopy experiments have identified the key conformational changes adopted by individual flagella during this process. By incorporating these observations into a stochastic model of the flagellar bundle, we demonstrate that the presence of multiple motors imposes a trade-off on chemotactic performance. Multiple motors reduce the latency of the response below the time scale of the stochastic switching of a single motor, which improves performance on steep gradients of attractants. However, the uncoordinated switching of multiple motors interrupts and shortens cell runs, which thereby reduces signal detection and performance on shallow gradients. Remarkably, when slow fluctuations generated by the adaptation mechanism of the chemotaxis system are incorporated in the model at levels measured in experiments, the chemotactic sensitivity and performance in shallow gradients is partially restored with marginal effects for steep gradients. The noise is beneficial because it simultaneously generates long events in the statistics of individual motors and coordinates the motors to generate a long tail in the run length distribution of the cell. Occasional long runs are known to enhance exploration of random walkers. Here we show that they have the additional benefit of enhancing the sensitivity of the bacterium to very shallow gradients.

  5. Residue-based Coordinated Selection and Parameter Design of Multiple Power System Stabilizers (PSSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    data from time domain simulations. Then a coordinated approach for multiple PSS selection and parameter design based on residue method is proposed and realized in MATLAB m-files. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted in the coordination process. The IEEE 39-bus New England system model...... as the test system is built in DIgSIELNT PowerFactory 14.0, in which the proposed coordination method is validated by time domain simulations and modal analysis....

  6. Coordinate-targeted fluorescence nanoscopy with multiple off states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzl, Johann G.; Sidenstein, Sven C.; Gregor, Carola; Urban, Nicolai T.; Ilgen, Peter; Jakobs, Stefan; Hell, Stefan W.

    2016-02-01

    Far-field super-resolution fluorescence microscopy discerns fluorophores residing closer than the diffraction barrier by briefly transferring them in different (typically ON and OFF) states before detection. In coordinate-targeted super-resolution variants, such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, this state difference is created by the intensity minima and maxima of an optical pattern, causing all fluorophores to assume the off state, for instance, except at the minima. Although strong spatial confinement of the on state enables high resolution, it also subjects the fluorophores to excess intensities and state cycles at the maxima. Here, we address these issues by driving the fluorophores into a second off state that is inert to the excess light. By using reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins as labels, our approach reduces bleaching and enhances resolution and contrast in live-cell STED microscopy. Using two or more transitions to off states is a useful strategy for augmenting the power of coordinate-targeted super-resolution microscopy.

  7. Multi-agent System for Off-line Coordinated Motion Planning of Multiple Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S. Chiddarwar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent based framework for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots. The emerging paradigm of agent based systems is implemented to address various issues related to safe and fast task execution when multiple robots share a common workspace. In the proposed agent based framework, each issue vital for coordinated motion planning of multiple robots and every robot participating in coordinated task is considered as an agent. The identified agents are interfaced with each other in order to incorporate the desired flexibility in the developed framework. This framework gives a complete strategy for determination of optimal trajectories of robots working in coordination with due consideration to their kinematic, dynamic and payload constraint. The complete architecture of the proposed framework and the detailed discussion on various modules are covered in this paper.

  8. Multiple-Vehicle Longitudinal Collision Mitigation by Coordinated Brake Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rear-end collision often leads to serious casualties and traffic congestion. The consequences are even worse for multiple-vehicle collision. Many previous works focused on collision warning and avoidance strategies of two consecutive vehicles based on onboard sensor detection only. This paper proposes a centralized control strategy for multiple vehicles to minimize the impact of multiple-vehicle collision based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication technique. The system is defined as a coupled group of vehicles with wireless communication capability and short following distances. The safety relationship can be represented as lower bound limit on deceleration of the first vehicle and upper bound on maximum deceleration of the last vehicle. The objective is to determine the desired deceleration for each vehicle such that the total impact energy is minimized at each time step. The impact energy is defined as the relative kinetic energy between a consecutive pair of vehicles (approaching only. Model predictive control (MPC framework is used to formulate the problem to be constrained quadratic programming. Simulations show its effectiveness on collision mitigation. The developed algorithm has the potential to be used for progressive market penetration of connected vehicles in practice.

  9. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Murray

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  10. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  11. Activities and Participation in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, L. C.; Cardoso, A. A.; Missiuna, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review all literature published in peer reviewed journals from January 1995 to July 2008 in order to summarize and describe the activity limitations and participation restrictions of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Methods: Multiple databases were systematically searched for articles related to…

  12. Leveraging Interaction History for Intelligent Configuration of Multiple Coordinated Views in Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachuilo, Andrew R [ORNL; Ragan, Eric [Texas A& M University; Goodall, John R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Visualization tools can take advantage of multiple coordinated views to support analysis of large, multidimensional data sets. Effective design of such views and layouts can be challenging, but understanding users analysis strategies can inform design improvements. We outline an approach for intelligent design configuration of visualization tools with multiple coordinated views, and we discuss a proposed software framework to support the approach. The proposed software framework could capture and learn from user interaction data to automate new compositions of views and widgets. Such a framework could reduce the time needed for meta analysis of the visualization use and lead to more effective visualization design.

  13. Collective coordination of multi-agent systems guided by multiple leaders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jiang-Ping; Yuan Hai-Wen

    2009-01-01

    A neighbour-based coordination scheme is proposed for a multi-agent system with multiple leaders. Under assumptions of the connectivity of the intereonnection topology and a simple first-order dynamics model for each mobile agent,the results show that all the agents will flock to the polytope region formed by the leaders.

  14. Setting standards at the forefront of delivery system reform: aligning care coordination quality measures for multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Dy, Sydney; Giovannetti, Erin R; Leff, Bruce; Boyd, Cynthia M

    2013-01-01

    The primary study objective is to assess how three major health reform care coordination initiatives (Accountable Care Organizations, Independence at Home, and Community-Based Care Transitions) measure concepts critical to care coordination for people with multiple chronic conditions. We find that there are major differences in quality measurement across these three large and politically important programs. Quality measures currently used or proposed for these new health reform-related programs addressing care coordination primarily capture continuity of care. Other key areas of care coordination, such as care transitions, patient-centeredness, and cross-cutting care across multiple conditions are infrequently addressed. The lack of a comprehensive and consistent measure set for care coordination will pose challenges for healthcare providers and policy makers who seek, respectively, to provide and reward well-coordinated care. In addition, this heterogeneity in measuring care coordination quality will generate new information, but will inhibit comparisons between these care coordination programs.

  15. A new redox-active coordination polymer with cobalticinium dicarboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mitsuru; Hayakawa, Yuri; Miyazawa, Makoto; Oyama, Aiko; Unoura, Kei; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Tetsuyoshi; Maeda, Kenji; Uchida, Fumio

    2004-09-20

    A new two-dimensional coordination polymer with cobalticinium 1,1'-dicarboxylate (ccdc) incorporated in the framework has been prepared, the ccdc functioning as unique monoanionic dicarboxylate ligands. The compound shows a high redox activity based on the ccdc units.

  16. Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Pipeline Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbo Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the control problem of inspecting underwater pipeline on the seabed, with coordinated multiple autonomous underwater vehicles in a formation. Based on the leader-follower strategy, the dedicated nonlinear path following controller is rigorously built on Lyapunov-based design, driving a fleet of vehicles onto assigned parallel paths elevated and offset from the underwater pipeline, while keeping a triangle formation to capture complete 3D images for inspection. Due to the spatial-temporal decoupling characteristics of individual path following controller, the velocities of the followers can be adapted in the coordinated control level, only relying on the information of generalized along-path length from the leader, in order to build the desired formation. Thus, the communication variable broadcast from the leader is kept to a minimum, which is feasible under the severely constraints of acoustic communication bandwidth. Simulation results illustrate the efficiency of coordinated formation controller proposed for underwater pipeline inspection.

  17. Euro-VO - Coordination of Virtual Observatory activities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Genova, Francoise; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarizes the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European i...

  18. Coordinated cell motility is regulated by a combination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, S.; Hou, Y.; Zoine, J. T.; Saltz, J.; Zhang, C.; Chen, Z.; Cooper, L. A. D.; Marcus, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Cell motility requires the precise coordination of cell polarization, lamellipodia formation, adhesion, and force generation. LKB1 is a multi-functional serine/threonine kinase that associates with actin at the cellular leading edge of motile cells and suppresses FAK. We sought to understand how LKB1 coordinates these multiple events by systematically dissecting LKB1 protein domain function in combination with live cell imaging and computational approaches. We show that LKB1-actin colocalization is dependent upon LKB1 farnesylation leading to RhoA-ROCK-mediated stress fiber formation, but membrane dynamics is reliant on LKB1 kinase activity. We propose that LKB1 kinase activity controls membrane dynamics through FAK since loss of LKB1 kinase activity results in morphologically defective nascent adhesion sites. In contrast, defective farnesylation mislocalizes nascent adhesion sites, suggesting that LKB1 farnesylation serves as a targeting mechanism for properly localizing adhesion sites during cell motility. Together, we propose a model where coordination of LKB1 farnesylation and kinase activity serve as a multi-step mechanism to coordinate cell motility during migration. PMID:28102310

  19. A Coordinated Approach to Channel Estimation in Large-scale Multiple-antenna Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Haifan; Filippou, Miltiades; Liu, Yingzhuang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of channel estimation in multi-cell interference-limited cellular networks. We consider systems employing multiple antennas and are interested in both the finite and large-scale antenna number regimes (so-called "Massive MIMO"). Such systems deal with the multi-cell interference by way of per-cell beamforming applied at each base station. Channel estimation in such networks, which is known to be hampered by the pilot contamination effect, constitute a major bottleneck for overall performance. We present a novel approach which tackles this problem by enabling a low-rate coordination between cells during the channel estimation phase itself. The coordination makes use of the additional second-order statistical information about the user channels, which are shown to offer a powerful way of discriminating across interfering users with even strongly correlated pilot sequences. Importantly, we demonstrate analytically that in the large number of antennas regime the pilot contaminatio...

  20. Active Learning with Multiple Views

    CERN Document Server

    Knoblock, C A; Muslea, I; 10.1613/jair.2005

    2011-01-01

    Active learners alleviate the burden of labeling large amounts of data by detecting and asking the user to label only the most informative examples in the domain. We focus here on active learning for multi-view domains, in which there are several disjoint subsets of features (views), each of which is sufficient to learn the target concept. In this paper we make several contributions. First, we introduce Co-Testing, which is the first approach to multi-view active learning. Second, we extend the multi-view learning framework by also exploiting weak views, which are adequate only for learning a concept that is more general/specific than the target concept. Finally, we empirically show that Co-Testing outperforms existing active learners on a variety of real world domains such as wrapper induction, Web page classification, advertisement removal, and discourse tree parsing.

  1. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  2. Coordinated Multiple Spacecraft Attitude Control with Communication Time Delays and Uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guiming; LIU Liangdong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the coordinated attitude control problem of spacecraft formation with communication delays,model and disturbance uncertainties,and propose novel synchronized control schemes.Since the attitude motion is essential in non-Euclidean space,thus,unlike the existing designs which describe the delayed relative attitude via linear algorithm,we treat the attitude error and the local relative attitude on the nonlinear manifold-Lie group,and attempt to obtain coupling attitude information by the natural quatemion multiplication.Our main focus is to address two problems:1) Propose a coordinated attitude controller to achieve the synchronized attitude maneuver,i.e.,synchronize multiple spacecraft attitudes and track a time-varying desired attitude; 2) With known model information,we achieve the synchronized attitude maneuver with disturbances under angular velocity constraints.Especially,if the formation does not have any uncertainties,the designer can simply set the controller via an appropriate choice of control gains to avoid system actuator saturation.Our controllers are proposed based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii method and simulation of a spacecraft formation is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  3. Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Valentina; Vermi, William; Gianello, Veronica; Lonardi, Silvia; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Naldini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node expansion during inflammation is essential to establish immune responses and relies on the development of blood and lymph vessels. Previous work in mice has shown that this process depends on the presence of VEGF-A produced by B cells, macrophages and stromal cells. In humans, however, the cell types and the mechanisms regulating the intranodal production of VEGF-A remain elusive. Here we show that CD11c+ cells represent the main VEGF-A-producing cell population in human reactive secondary lymphoid organs. In addition we find that three transcription factors, namely CREB, HIF-1α and STAT3, regulate the expression of VEGF-A in inflamed DCs. Both HIF-1α and STAT3 are activated by inflammatory agonists. Conversely, CREB phosphorylation represents the critical contribution of endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Taken together, these results propose a crucial role for DCs in lymph node inflammatory angiogenesis and identify novel potential cellular and molecular targets to limit inflammation in chronic diseases and tumors. PMID:27256980

  4. Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Valentina; Vermi, William; Gianello, Veronica; Lonardi, Silvia; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Naldini, Antonella; Sozzani, Silvano; Bosisio, Daniela

    2016-06-28

    Lymph node expansion during inflammation is essential to establish immune responses and relies on the development of blood and lymph vessels. Previous work in mice has shown that this process depends on the presence of VEGF-A produced by B cells, macrophages and stromal cells. In humans, however, the cell types and the mechanisms regulating the intranodal production of VEGF-A remain elusive. Here we show that CD11c+ cells represent the main VEGF-A-producing cell population in human reactive secondary lymphoid organs. In addition we find that three transcription factors, namely CREB, HIF-1α and STAT3, regulate the expression of VEGF-A in inflamed DCs. Both HIF-1α and STAT3 are activated by inflammatory agonists. Conversely, CREB phosphorylation represents the critical contribution of endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Taken together, these results propose a crucial role for DCs in lymph node inflammatory angiogenesis and identify novel potential cellular and molecular targets to limit inflammation in chronic diseases and tumors.

  5. Pinatubo Emulation in Multiple Models (POEMs): co-ordinated experiments in the ISA-MIP model intercomparison activity component of the SPARC Stratospheric Sulphur and it's Role in Climate initiative (SSiRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lindsay; Mann, Graham; Carslaw, Ken; Toohey, Matthew; Aquila, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Research Program's SPARC initiative has a new international activity "Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) to better understand changes in stratospheric aerosol and precursor gaseous sulphur species. One component of SSiRC involves an intercomparison "ISA-MIP" of composition-climate models that simulate the stratospheric aerosol layer interactively. Within PoEMS each modelling group will run a "perturbed physics ensemble" (PPE) of interactive stratospheric aerosol (ISA) simulations of the Pinatubo eruption, varying several uncertain parameters associated with the eruption's SO2 emissions and model processes. A powerful new technique to quantify and attribute sources of uncertainty in complex global models is described by Lee et al. (2011, ACP). The analysis uses Gaussian emulation to derive a probability density function (pdf) of predicted quantities, essentially interpolating the PPE results in multi-dimensional parameter space. Once trained on the ensemble, a Monte Carlo simulation with the fast Gaussian emulator enabling a full variance-based sensitivity analysis. The approach has already been used effectively by Carslaw et al., (2013, Nature) to quantify the uncertainty in the cloud albedo effect forcing from a 3D global aerosol-microphysics model allowing to compare the sensitivy of different predicted quantities to uncertainties in natural and anthropogenic emissions types, and structural parameters in the models. Within ISA-MIP, each group will carry out a PPE of runs, with the subsequent analysis with the emulator assessing the uncertainty in the volcanic forcings predicted by each model. In this poster presentation we will give an outline of the "PoEMS" analysis, describing the uncertain parameters to be varied and the relevance to further understanding differences identified in previous international stratospheric aerosol assessments.

  6. Multiple-Active Multiple-Passive Antenna Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki

    2013-01-01

    -passive (MAMP) antenna topologies, as explained in Sect. 8.1. Then, Sect. 8.2 proposes MAMP antenna structures with application to reconfigurable MIMO transmission in the presence of antenna mutual coupling under poor scattering channel conditions. For this purpose, the section presents an adaptive MAMP antenna......This chapter focuses on extensions and foreseen applications of the parasitic antenna array technology. Moving beyond the single-active (single-RF) communication setup, hitherto discussed in the previous chapters, the work in this chapter extends the analysis to generalized multiple-active multiple...... adaptive MAMP system can be limited to practical dimensions whereas the passive antennas require no extra RF hardware, thus meeting the cost, space, and power constrains of the users’ mobile terminals. The simulation results show that the adaptive MAMP system, thanks to its “adaptivity”, is able to achieve...

  7. Diffusion-coupled molecular assembly: structuring of coordination polymers across multiple length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenji; Reboul, Julien; Morone, Nobuhiro; Heuser, John E; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-10-22

    Porous coordination polymers (PCPs) are an intriguing class of molecular-based materials because of the designability of framework scaffolds, pore sizes and pore surface functionalities. Besides the structural designability at the molecular scale, the structuring of PCPs into mesoscopic/macroscopic morphologies has attracted much attention due to the significance for the practical applications. The structuring of PCPs at the mesoscopic/macroscopic scale has been so far demonstrated by the spatial localization of coordination reactions on the surface of templates or at the phase boundaries. However, these methodologies have never been applied to the fabrication of solid-solution or multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), in which multiple components are homogeneously mixed. Herein, we demonstrate the structuring of a box-type superstructure comprising of a solid-solution PCP by integrating a bidirectional diffusion of multiple organic ligands into molecular assembly. The parent crystals of [Zn2(ndc)2(bpy)]n were placed in the DMF solution of additional organic component of H2bdc, and the temperature was rapidly elevated up to 80 °C (ndc = 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). The dissolution of the parent crystals induced the outward diffusion of components; contrariwise, the accumulation of the other organic ligand of H2bdc induced the inward diffusion toward the surface of the parent crystals. This bidirectional diffusion of multiple components spatially localized the recrystallization at the surface of cuboid parent crystals; therefore, the nanocrystals of a solid-solution PCP ([Zn2(bdc)1.5(ndc)0.5(bpy)]n) were organized into a mesoscopic box superstructure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the box superstructures enhanced the mass transfer kinetics for the separation of hydrocarbons.

  8. The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Kulczycki, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

  9. Case Studies on an Approach to Multiple Autonomous Vehicle Motion Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.K. Liu; X. Wu; G. Paul; G. Dissanayake

    2006-01-01

    This paper conducts a series of case studies on a novel Simultaneous Path and Motion Planning (SiPaMoP) approach[1] to multiple autonomous or Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) motion coordination in bidirectional networks. The SiPaMoP approach plans collision-free paths for vehicles based on the principle of shortest path by dynamically changing the vehicles' paths, traveling speeds or waiting times, whichever gives the shortest traveling time. It integrates path planning, collision avoidance and motion planning into a comprehensive model and optimizes the vehicles' path and motion to minimize the completion time of a set of tasks. Five case studies, i.e., head-on collision avoidance,catching-up collision avoidance, buffer node generation and collision avoidance, prioritybased motion coordination, and safety distance based planning, are presented. The results demonstrated that the method can effectively plan the path and motion for a team of autonomous vehicles or AGVs, and solve the problems of traffic congestion and collision under various conditions.

  10. Unveiling multiple AGN activity in galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, A; Bogdanovic, T; Decarli, R; Heidt, J; Herrero-Illana, R; Husemann, B; Komossa, S; Kun, E; Loiseau, N; Guainazzi, M; Paragi, Z; Perez-Torres, M; Piconcelli, E; Schawinski, K; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the MAGNA (Multiple AGN Activity) project aiming at a comprehensive study of multiple supemassive black hole systems. With the main goal to characterize the sources in merging systems at different stages of evolution, we selected a sample of objects optically classified as multiple systems on the basis of emission line diagnostics and started a massive multiband observational campaign. Here we report on the discovery of the exceptionally high AGN density compact group SDSS~J0959+1259. A multiband study suggests that strong interactions are taking place among its galaxies through tidal forces, therefore this system represents a case study for physical mechanisms that trigger nuclear activity and star formation. We also present a preliminary analysis of the multiple AGN system SDSS~J1038+3921.}

  11. 75 FR 2595 - Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Activity: Comment... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)...

  12. 75 FR 15496 - Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT)) Activity Under OMB Review...).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Care Coordination Home Telehealth (CCHT) Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA...

  13. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  14. Evidence of platelet activation in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Steven

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A fatality in one multiple sclerosis (MS patient due to acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and a near fatality in another stimulated our interest in platelet function abnormalities in MS. Previously, we presented evidence of platelet activation in a small cohort of treatment-naive MS patients. Methods In this report, 92 normal controls and 33 stable, untreated MS patients were studied. Platelet counts, measures of platelet activation [plasma platelet microparticles (PMP, P-selectin expression (CD62p, circulating platelet microaggragtes (PAg], as well as platelet-associated IgG/IgM, were carried out. In addition, plasma protein S activity was measured. Results Compared to controls, PMP were significantly elevated in MS (p Conclusion Platelets are significantly activated in MS patients. The mechanisms underlying this activation and its significance to MS are unknown. Additional study of platelet activation and function in MS patients is warranted.

  15. Multiple diguanylate cyclase-coordinated regulation of pyoverdine synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yicai; Yuan, Mingjun; Mohanty, Anee;

    2015-01-01

    intrinsic feature of c-di-GMP signalling is the abundance of DGCs and PDEs encoded by many bacterial species. It is unclear whether the different DGCs or PDEs coordinately establish the c-di-GMP regulation or function independently of each other. Here, we provide evidence that multiple DGCs are involved...... in regulation of c-di-GMP on synthesis of the major iron siderophore pyoverdine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Constitutive expression of the WspG or YedQ DGC in P.aeruginosa is able to induce its pyoverdine synthesis. Induction of pyoverdine synthesis by high intracellular c-di-GMP depends on the synthesis...... of exopolysaccharides and another two DGCs, SiaD and SadC. SiaD was found to boost the c-di-GMP synthesis together with constitutively expressing YedQ. The exopolysaccharides and the SiaD DGC were found to modulate the expression of the RsmY/RsmZ ncRNAs. Induction of the RsmY/RsmZ ncRNAs might enhance the pyoverdine...

  16. Ecosystemic needs assessment for children with developmental coordination disorder in elementary school: multiple case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Emmanuelle; Tétreault, Sylvie; Joly, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    This study explored the needs of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) from an ecosystemic viewpoint as part of a theory-driven program evaluation process. A multiple case study needs assessment was conducted. Participants included ten children with DCD, their parents (n = 12), teachers (n = 9), and service providers (n = 6). Data collection involved semi-structured interviews, validated questionnaires, and a review of the children's records. The results support the relevance of using an ecosystemic model to assess the needs of children with DCD in their life and social contexts. More specifically, the results highlight the need to provide additional services at school, such as occupational therapy and special education, as well as information and training regarding DCD for parents and teachers. The results also point to the relevant variables to consider in an intervention program based on theory-driven evaluations. This study shows how employing an ecosystemic frame of reference provides a better understanding of the needs of children with DCD. Future research should document the ecosystemic profiles and evolution of the needs of children with DCD with a larger sample from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds using a longitudinal study design.

  17. A putatively novel form of spontaneous coordination in neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermer-Vazquez, Raymond; Hermer-Vazquez, Linda; Srinivasan, Sridhar

    2009-04-06

    We simultaneously recorded local field potentials from three sites along the olfactory-entorhinal axis in rats lightly anesthetized with isoflurane, as part of another experiment. While analyzing the initial data from that experiment with spectrograms, we discovered a potentially novel form of correlated neural activity, with near-simultaneous occurrence across the three widely separated brain sites. After validating their existence further, we named these events Synchronous Frequency Bursts (SFBs). Here we report our initial investigations into their properties and their potential functional significance. In Experiment 1, we found that SFBs have highly regular properties, consisting of brief (approximately 250 ms), high amplitude bursts of LFP energy spanning frequency ranges from the delta band (1-4 Hz) to at least the low gamma band (30-50 Hz). SFBs occurred almost simultaneously across recording sites, usually with onsets sites. While the SFBs had fairly typical, exponentially decaying power spectral density plots, their coherence structure was unusual, with high peaks in several narrow frequency ranges and little coherence in other bands. In Experiment 2, we found that SFBs occurred far more often under light anesthesia than deeper anesthetic states, and were especially prevalent as the animals regained consciousness. Finally, in Experiment 3 we showed that SFBs occur simultaneously at a significant rate across brain sites from putatively different functional subsystems--olfactory versus motor pathways. We suggest that SFBs do not carry information per se, but rather, play a role in coordinating activity in different frequency bands, potentially brain-wide, as animals progress from sleep or anesthesia toward full consciousness.

  18. 多机械臂协调控制研究综述%Survey of coordinated multiple manipulators control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘亚辉; 戴先中

    2013-01-01

    多机械臂系统的协调控制是当今机器人领域的研究热点.针对机器人基坐标系标定,协调系统动力学建模,控制器综合方法等问题,介绍近年来多机械臂系统在协调控制上研究工作的进展,主要从系统的动力学模型建立方式和协调运动的控制综合方式两个方面进行深入介绍.全面系统地介绍多机械臂系统协调控制问题的研究现状与发展方向,并指明未来工作的研究方向.%Multiple manipulators coordination control is a hot topic in the field of robotic research. Key research issues are explored in this paper, including the base frame calibration, the dynamic modeling of coordinating system and the coordination motion controller synthesis. The problems of coordinating system dynamic modeling and motion controller synthesis are extensively analyzed. This paper presents a review of the research development and present status for the problem of multiple manipulators coordination control, aiming to show readers the future research direction in this field.

  19. Incremental activity modeling in multiple disjoint cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Chen Change; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-09-01

    Activity modeling and unusual event detection in a network of cameras is challenging, particularly when the camera views are not overlapped. We show that it is possible to detect unusual events in multiple disjoint cameras as context-incoherent patterns through incremental learning of time delayed dependencies between distributed local activities observed within and across camera views. Specifically, we model multicamera activities using a Time Delayed Probabilistic Graphical Model (TD-PGM) with different nodes representing activities in different decomposed regions from different views and the directed links between nodes encoding their time delayed dependencies. To deal with visual context changes, we formulate a novel incremental learning method for modeling time delayed dependencies that change over time. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using a synthetic data set and videos captured from a camera network installed at a busy underground station.

  20. Co-immobilization of multiple enzymes by metal coordinated nucleotide hydrogel nanofibers: improved stability and an enzyme cascade for glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Jiang, Shuhui; Yuan, Qipeng; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Zijie; Liu, Juewen

    2016-03-21

    Preserving enzyme activity and promoting synergistic activity via co-localization of multiple enzymes are key topics in bionanotechnology, materials science, and analytical chemistry. This study reports a facile method for co-immobilizing multiple enzymes in metal coordinated hydrogel nanofibers. Specifically, four types of protein enzymes, including glucose oxidase, Candida rugosa lipase, α-amylase, and horseradish peroxidase, were respectively encapsulated in a gel nanofiber made of Zn(2+) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with a simple mixing step. Most enzymes achieved quantitative loading and retained full activity. At the same time, the entrapped enzymes were more stable against temperature variation (by 7.5 °C), protease attack, extreme pH (by 2-fold), and organic solvents. After storing for 15 days, the entrapped enzyme still retained 70% activity while the free enzyme nearly completely lost its activity. Compared to nanoparticles formed with AMP and lanthanide ions, the nanofiber gels allowed much higher enzyme activity. Finally, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor for glucose was prepared using the gel nanofiber to co-immobilize glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase for an enzyme cascade system. A detection limit of 0.3 μM glucose with excellent selectivity was achieved. This work indicates that metal coordinated materials using nucleotides are highly useful for interfacing with biomolecules.

  1. Coordination of physicians' operational activities : a Contingency perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Manda; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of three different dimensions of customer-induced uncertainty and task uncertainty on the mix of physicians' coordination practices. Design/methodology/approach - An improvement and research project are combined resulting in 16 case st

  2. Centrally Coordinated Control of Multiple HVDC Links for Power Oscillation Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Robert; Söder, Lennart

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a method of how to design a centrally coordinated controller for several HVDC links. The controller increases the damping of the power oscillations by modulating the current through the HVDC links coordinately. To design a centrally coordinated controller a reduced order open system model is estimated. The open system model of the power system is developed by using black-box system identifications techniques. The current setpoint change through the HVDC links is the set of input signals and, the speeds of the generators are the set of outputs. Numerical Algorithms for Subspace State-Space System Identification (N4SID) is used to identify a model. This controller design method increases the damping significantly which is shown for a small power system.

  3. Iron Coordination and Halogen-Bonding Assisted Iodosylbenzene Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegeberg, Christina; Poulsen de Sousa, David; McKenzie, Christine

    catalytic mixtures using soluble terminal oxygen transfer agents. Isolation of a reactive iron-terminal oxidant adduct, an unique Fe(III)-OIPh complex, is facilitated by strong stabilizing supramolecular halogen-bonding. L3-edge XANES suggests +1.6 for the average oxidation state for the iodine atom3...... in the iron(III)-coordinated PhIO. This represents a reduction of iodine relative to the original “hypervalent” (+3) PhIO. The equivalent of electron density must be removed from the {(tpena)Fe(III)O} moiety, however Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the iron atom is not high valent....

  4. Patient- and family-centered care coordination: a framework for integrating care for children and youth across multiple systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Understanding a care coordination framework, its functions, and its effects on children and families is critical for patients and families themselves, as well as for pediatricians, pediatric medical subspecialists/surgical specialists, and anyone providing services to children and families. Care coordination is an essential element of a transformed American health care delivery system that emphasizes optimal quality and cost outcomes, addresses family-centered care, and calls for partnership across various settings and communities. High-quality, cost-effective health care requires that the delivery system include elements for the provision of services supporting the coordination of care across settings and professionals. This requirement of supporting coordination of care is generally true for health systems providing care for all children and youth but especially for those with special health care needs. At the foundation of an efficient and effective system of care delivery is the patient-/family-centered medical home. From its inception, the medical home has had care coordination as a core element. In general, optimal outcomes for children and youth, especially those with special health care needs, require interfacing among multiple care systems and individuals, including the following: medical, social, and behavioral professionals; the educational system; payers; medical equipment providers; home care agencies; advocacy groups; needed supportive therapies/services; and families. Coordination of care across settings permits an integration of services that is centered on the comprehensive needs of the patient and family, leading to decreased health care costs, reduction in fragmented care, and improvement in the patient/family experience of care.

  5. Activation of Necroptosis in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Ofengeim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS, a common neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in MS, can activate necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 under caspase-8-deficient conditions. Here, we demonstrate defective caspase-8 activation, as well as activation of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL, the hallmark mediators of necroptosis, in the cortical lesions of human MS pathological samples. Furthermore, we show that MS pathological samples are characterized by an increased insoluble proteome in common with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and Huntington’s disease (HD. Finally, we show that necroptosis mediates oligodendrocyte degeneration induced by TNF-α and that inhibition of RIPK1 protects against oligodendrocyte cell death in two animal models of MS and in culture. Our findings demonstrate that necroptosis is involved in MS and suggest that targeting RIPK1 may represent a therapeutic strategy for MS.

  6. The Multiple Demands of a Tutor Coordinator: How To Balance a Very Split-Personality Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thot, Iris Dolores

    The author of this article describes the various aspects of her job as the Modern Language Tutor Coordinator at Santa Monica College. The author writes that, in general, her days consist of wearing a number of different hats each day, including that of budget and payroll administrator, grant writer, tutor screener, tutor trainer, tutor employer,…

  7. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  8. Coordinated Active Power Dispatch for a Microgrid via Distributed Lambda Iteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Z. Q. Chen, Michael; Cao, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    A novel distributed optimal dispatch algorithm is proposed for coordinating the operation of multiple micro units in a microgrid, which has incorporated the distributed consensus algorithm in multi-agent systems and the -iteration optimization algorithm in economic dispatch of power systems. Spec...

  9. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary DNA replication must be coordinated with cellular physiology to ensure proper genome inheritance. Model bacteria such as the soil-dwelling Bacillus subtilis can achieve a wide range of growth rates in response to nutritional and chemical signals. In order to match the rate of DNA synthesis to the rate of nutrient-mediated cell growth, bacteria regulate the initiation frequency of DNA replication. This control of bacterial DNA replication initiation was first observed over forty...

  10. The discontinuous nature of motor execution. I. A model concept for single-muscle multiple-task coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, G; Dengler, R; Wolf, W

    2000-01-01

    Human movement control requires adequate coordination of different movements, which is particularly important when different motor tasks are simultaneously executed by the same effector(s) (e.g. a muscle or a joint). The process of movement execution involves a series of highly nonlinear elements; for instance, a motor unit of a muscle produces force only in the direction of muscle shortening, thus representing a threshold operator that transforms the bipolar (i.e. excitatory or inhibitory) information at its spinal input into a purely unipolar signal (i.e. muscle force). This tripartite research report addresses the contribution of the nonlinearity of neuromuscular elements to the coordination of different motor tasks simultaneously executed by the same limb. In this first part of the series, a new hypothesis for such a single-muscle multiple-task coordination is presented which suggests an essentially threshold-linear coordination mechanism. Control signals generated by the central nervous system for each individual movement independently and feedback information from peripheral receptors are linearly superimposed. This compound control/feedback signal is processed by a nonlinear limiter element reflecting the discontinuous properties of the muscle and its reflex circuitry. It is shown that threshold-linear interaction of descending commands and afferent feedback information can lead to complex interdependent patterns of compound motor action. This includes the possibility of gating (i.e. the ability of one movement pattern to constrain or even impede the execution of another pattern) and of delayed response initiation when simultaneously performing more than one voluntary motor task. A theoretical analysis of the threshold-linear coordination mechanism and an extensive experimental validation of the model is provided in part II and part III of the report.

  11. How students learn from multiple contexts and definitions: Proper time as a coordination class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Levrini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an empirical analysis of a single classroom episode in which students reveal difficulties with the concept of proper time in special relativity but slowly make progress in improving their understanding. The theoretical framework used is “coordination class theory,” which is an evolving model of concepts and conceptual change. The paper will focus on showing to what extent and in what sense most of the conditions and events in the data corpus seem understandable from the point of view of coordination class theory. In addition, however, some extensions of the theory are implicated, although we argue that they are “natural” extensions, improvements that extend, but do not threaten, the core theory. In particular, we observe students articulately aligning different ways of determining proper time, and we conjecture, more generally, that such a process is strongly consistent with coordination class theory and likely to be productive in other cases of conceptual change. The empirical analysis is explicitly connected to the general issue of theories and theory development in studies of conceptual change.

  12. Coordinated path following of multiple underacutated marine surface vehicles along one curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Dan; Peng, Zhouhua

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the coordinated path following problem for a fleet of underactuated marine surface vehicles (MSVs) along one curve. The dedicated control design is divided into two tasks. One is to steer individual underactuated MSV to track the given spatial path, and the other is to force the vehicles dispersed on a parameterized path subject to the constraints of a communication network. Specifically, a robust individual path following controller is developed based on a line-of-sight (LOS) guidance law and a reduced-order extended state observer (ESO). The vehicle sideslip angle due to environmental disturbances can be exactly identified. Then, the vehicle coordination is achieved by a path variable containment approach, under which the path variables are evenly dispersed between two virtual leaders. Another reduced-order ESO is developed to identify the composite disturbance related to the speed of virtual leaders and neighboring vehicles. The proposed coordination design is distributed since the reference speed does not need to be known by all vehicles as a priori. The input-to-state stability of the closed-loop network system is established via cascade theory. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  13. Co-immobilization of multiple enzymes by metal coordinated nucleotide hydrogel nanofibers: improved stability and an enzyme cascade for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Jiang, Shuhui; Yuan, Qipeng; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Zijie; Liu, Juewen

    2016-03-01

    Preserving enzyme activity and promoting synergistic activity via co-localization of multiple enzymes are key topics in bionanotechnology, materials science, and analytical chemistry. This study reports a facile method for co-immobilizing multiple enzymes in metal coordinated hydrogel nanofibers. Specifically, four types of protein enzymes, including glucose oxidase, Candida rugosa lipase, α-amylase, and horseradish peroxidase, were respectively encapsulated in a gel nanofiber made of Zn2+ and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with a simple mixing step. Most enzymes achieved quantitative loading and retained full activity. At the same time, the entrapped enzymes were more stable against temperature variation (by 7.5 °C), protease attack, extreme pH (by 2-fold), and organic solvents. After storing for 15 days, the entrapped enzyme still retained 70% activity while the free enzyme nearly completely lost its activity. Compared to nanoparticles formed with AMP and lanthanide ions, the nanofiber gels allowed much higher enzyme activity. Finally, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor for glucose was prepared using the gel nanofiber to co-immobilize glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase for an enzyme cascade system. A detection limit of 0.3 μM glucose with excellent selectivity was achieved. This work indicates that metal coordinated materials using nucleotides are highly useful for interfacing with biomolecules.Preserving enzyme activity and promoting synergistic activity via co-localization of multiple enzymes are key topics in bionanotechnology, materials science, and analytical chemistry. This study reports a facile method for co-immobilizing multiple enzymes in metal coordinated hydrogel nanofibers. Specifically, four types of protein enzymes, including glucose oxidase, Candida rugosa lipase, α-amylase, and horseradish peroxidase, were respectively encapsulated in a gel nanofiber made of Zn2+ and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with a simple mixing step. Most

  14. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, James B; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C

    2012-10-11

    The morphological and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to show in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision.

  15. The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U

  16. Modified Active Site Coordination in a Clinical Mutant of Sulfite Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doonan, C.J.; Wilson, H.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; Garrett, R.M.; Bennett, B.; Prince, R.C.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-02

    The molybdenum site of the Arginine 160 {yields} Glutamine clinical mutant of the physiologically vital enzyme sulfite oxidase has been investigated by a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We conclude that the mutant enzyme has a six-coordinate pseudo-octahedral active site with coordination of Glutamine O{sup {epsilon}} to molybdenum. This contrasts with the wild-type enzyme which is five-coordinate with approximately square-based pyramidal geometry. This difference in the structure of the molybdenum site explains many of the properties of the mutant enzyme which have previously been reported.

  17. Simulating Activities: Relating Motives, Deliberation and Attentive Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that "working" is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

  18. Coordinating the Effects of Multiple Variables: A Skill Fundamental to Scientific Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Deanna; Pease, Maria; Wirkala, Clarice

    2009-01-01

    The skill of predicting outcomes based on simultaneous effects of multiple factors was examined. Over five sessions, 91 sixth graders engaged this task either individually or in pairs and either preceded or followed by six sessions on the more widely studied inquiry task that requires designing and interpreting experiments to identify individual…

  19. Endocytosis-dependent coordination of multiple actin regulators is required for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yutaka; Coulson-Gilmer, Camilla; Millard, Tom H

    2015-08-01

    The ability to heal wounds efficiently is essential for life. After wounding of an epithelium, the cells bordering the wound form dynamic actin protrusions and/or a contractile actomyosin cable, and these actin structures drive wound closure. Despite their importance in wound healing, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the assembly of these actin structures at wound edges are not well understood. In this paper, using Drosophila melanogaster embryos, we demonstrate that Diaphanous, SCAR, and WASp play distinct but overlapping roles in regulating actin assembly during wound healing. Moreover, we show that endocytosis is essential for wound edge actin assembly and wound closure. We identify adherens junctions (AJs) as a key target of endocytosis during wound healing and propose that endocytic remodeling of AJs is required to form "signaling centers" along the wound edge that control actin assembly. We conclude that coordination of actin assembly, AJ remodeling, and membrane traffic is required for the construction of a motile leading edge during wound healing.

  20. Active debris removal of multiple priority targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Vitali; Lüpken, A.; Flegel, S.; Gelhaus, J.; Möckel, M.; Kebschull, C.; Wiedemann, C.; Vörsmann, P.

    2013-05-01

    Today's space debris environment shows major concentrations of objects within distinct orbital regions for nearly all size regimes. The most critical region is found at orbital altitudes near 800 km with high declinations. Within this region many satellites are operated in so called sun-synchronous orbits (SSO). Among those, there are Earth observation, communication and weather satellites. Due to the orbital geometry in SSO, head-on encounters with relative velocities of about 15 km/s are most probable and would thus result in highly energetic collisions, which are often referred to as catastrophic collisions, leading to the complete fragmentation of the participating objects. So called feedback collisions can then be triggered by the newly generated fragments, thus leading to a further population increase in the affected orbital region. This effect is known as the Kessler syndrome.Current studies show that catastrophic collisions are not a major problem today, but will become the main process for debris generation within the SSO region in the near future, even without any further launches. In order to avoid this effect, objects with a major impact on collisional cascading have to be actively removed from the critical region after their end of life. Not having the capability to perform an end-of-life maneuver in order to transfer to a graveyard orbit or to de-orbit, many satellites and rocket bodies would have to be de-orbited within a dedicated mission. In such a mission, a service satellite would perform a de-orbit maneuver, after having docked to a specific target.In this paper, chemical and electric propulsion systems were analysed with the main focus on removing multiple targets within one single mission. The targets were chosen from a previously defined priority list in order to enhance the mission efficiency. Total mission time, ΔV and system mass were identified as key parameters to allow for an evaluation of the different concepts. It was shown that it

  1. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.

    2016-07-19

    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  2. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  3. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  4. Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

  5. Coordination of fictive motor activity in the larval zebrafish is generated by non-segmental mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Wiggin

    Full Text Available The cellular and network basis for most vertebrate locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs is incompletely characterized, but organizational models based on known CPG architectures have been proposed. Segmental models propose that each spinal segment contains a circuit that controls local coordination and sends longer projections to coordinate activity between segments. Unsegmented/continuous models propose that patterned motor output is driven by gradients of neurons and synapses that do not have segmental boundaries. We tested these ideas in the larval zebrafish, an animal that swims in discrete episodes, each of which is composed of coordinated motor bursts that progress rostrocaudally and alternate from side to side. We perturbed the spinal cord using spinal transections or strychnine application and measured the effect on fictive motor output. Spinal transections eliminated episode structure, and reduced both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination. Preparations with fewer intact segments were more severely affected, and preparations consisting of midbody and caudal segments were more severely affected than those consisting of rostral segments. In reduced preparations with the same number of intact spinal segments, side-to-side coordination was more severely disrupted than rostrocaudal coordination. Reducing glycine receptor signaling with strychnine reversibly disrupted both rostrocaudal and side-to-side coordination in spinalized larvae without disrupting episodic structure. Both spinal transection and strychnine decreased the stability of the motor rhythm, but this effect was not causal in reducing coordination. These results are inconsistent with a segmented model of the spinal cord and are better explained by a continuous model in which motor neuron coordination is controlled by segment-spanning microcircuits.

  6. Sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbasan Bülent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate sensory integration and activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder Subjects and methods 37 cases with developmental coordination disorder and 35 healthy age-matched peers were included in this study. Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test was used for evaluating the sensory integration and Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM was used for evaluating the activities of daily living. Results Significant differences were found in the visual shape perception, position in space, and design copying (p p p p p = 0.002 between the groups. Discussion Special education and rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance will increase independence in the activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder.

  7. Coordination and conformational isomers in mononuclear iron complexes with pertinence to the [FeFe] hydrogenase active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthaber, Andreas; Karnahl, Michael; Tschierlei, Stefanie; Streich, Daniel; Stein, Matthias; Ott, Sascha

    2014-03-21

    A series of six mononuclear iron complexes of the type [Fe(X-bdt)(P(R)2N(Ph)2)(CO)] (P(R)2N(Ph)2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphaoctane, bdt = benzenedithiolate with X = H, Cl2 or Me and R = Ph, Bn, Cyc or tert-Bu) was prepared. This new class of penta-coordinate iron complexes contains a free coordination site and a pendant base as essential structural features of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase active site. The bidentate nature of the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligands was found to be crucial for the preferential formation of coordinatively unsaturated penta-coordinate complexes, which is supported by first principle calculations. IR-spectroscopic data suggest the presence of coordination isomers around the metal center, as well as multiple possible conformers of the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligand. This finding is further corroborated by X-ray crystallographic and computational studies. (31)P{(1)H}-NMR- and IR-spectroscopic as well as electrochemical measurements show that the electronic properties of the complexes are strongly, and independently, influenced by the P-substituents at the P(R)2N(Ph)2 ligand as well as by modifications of the bdt bridge. These results illustrate the advantages of this modular platform, which allows independent and selective tuning through site specific modifications. Potential catalytic intermediates, namely singly reduced and protonated complexes, have been further investigated by spectroscopic methods and exhibit remarkable stability. Finally, their general capacity for electro-catalytic reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen was verified.

  8. Supramolecular coordination and antimicrobial activities of constructed mixed ligand complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Abou-Dobara, M. I.; Seyam, H. A.

    2013-03-01

    A novel series of copper(II) and palladium(II) with 4-derivatives benzaldehyde pyrazolone (Ln) were synthesized. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as second ligand. The structure of these complexes was identified and confirm by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and magnetic moment measurements as well as thermal analysis. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through ON donor sites. ESR spectra show the simultaneous presence of a planar trans and a nearly planar cis isomers in the 1:2 ratio for all N,O complexes [Cu(Ln)2]Cl2ṡ2H2O. Schiff bases (Ln) were tested against bacterial species; namely two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium italicum and Alternaria alternata). The tested compounds have antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus and K. pneumoniae.

  9. Multiple-robot drug delivery strategy through coordinated teams of microswimmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kei Cheang, U; Kim, Min Jun, E-mail: mkim@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Lee, Kyoungwoo [Department of Computer Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Julius, Anak Agung [Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-08-25

    Untethered robotic microswimmers are very promising to significantly improve various types of minimally invasive surgeries by offering high accuracy at extremely small scales. A prime example is drug delivery, for which a large number of microswimmers is required to deliver sufficient dosages to target sites. For this reason, the controllability of groups of microswimmers is essential. In this paper, we demonstrate simultaneous control of multiple geometrically similar but magnetically different microswimmers using a single global rotating magnetic field. By exploiting the differences in their magnetic properties, we triggered different swimming behaviors from the microswimmers by controlling the frequency and the strength of the global field, for example, one swim and the other does not while exposed to the same control input. Our results show that the balance between the applied magnetic torque and the hydrodynamic torque can be exploited for simultaneous control of two microswimmers to swim in opposite directions, with different velocities, and with similar velocities. This work will serve to establish important concepts for future developments of control systems to manipulate multiple magnetically actuated microswimmers and a step towards using swarms of microswimmers as viable workforces for complex operations.

  10. 'Unconventional' coordination chemistry by metal chelating fragments in a metalloprotein active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David P; Blachly, Patrick G; Marts, Amy R; Woodruff, Tessa M; de Oliveira, César A F; McCammon, J Andrew; Tierney, David L; Cohen, Seth M

    2014-04-01

    The binding of three closely related chelators: 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (allothiomaltol, ATM), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiomaltol, TM), and 3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-thione (thiopyromeconic acid, TPMA) to the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) has been investigated. Two of these ligands display a monodentate mode of coordination to the active site Zn(2+) ion in hCAII that is not recapitulated in model complexes of the enzyme active site. This unprecedented binding mode in the hCAII-thiomaltol complex has been characterized by both X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, the steric restrictions of the active site force the ligands into a 'flattened' mode of coordination compared with inorganic model complexes. This change in geometry has been shown by density functional computations to significantly decrease the strength of the metal-ligand binding. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the mode of binding by small metal-binding groups can be significantly influenced by the protein active site. Diminishing the strength of the metal-ligand bond results in unconventional modes of metal coordination not found in typical coordination compounds or even carefully engineered active site models, and understanding these effects is critical to the rational design of inhibitors that target clinically relevant metalloproteins.

  11. Bidirectional coupling between astrocytes and neurons mediates learning and dynamic coordination in the brain: a multiple modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Wade

    Full Text Available In recent years research suggests that astrocyte networks, in addition to nutrient and waste processing functions, regulate both structural and synaptic plasticity. To understand the biological mechanisms that underpin such plasticity requires the development of cell level models that capture the mutual interaction between astrocytes and neurons. This paper presents a detailed model of bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons (the astrocyte-neuron model or AN model which yields new insights into the computational role of astrocyte-neuronal coupling. From a set of modeling studies we demonstrate two significant findings. Firstly, that spatial signaling via astrocytes can relay a "learning signal" to remote synaptic sites. Results show that slow inward currents cause synchronized postsynaptic activity in remote neurons and subsequently allow Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity based learning to occur at the associated synapses. Secondly, that bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes underpins dynamic coordination between neuron clusters. Although our composite AN model is presently applied to simplified neural structures and limited to coordination between localized neurons, the principle (which embodies structural, functional and dynamic complexity, and the modeling strategy may be extended to coordination among remote neuron clusters.

  12. [Role of acetylcholine in coordination od spontaneous electrical activity of various areas of the rat uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Akopian, R R

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity of myometrium was studied in areas of the uterine corpus, zone of its connection with uterine tube and cervix at intravenous administration of various acetylcholine concentrations. Under these conditions, changes of the frequency and amplitude characteristics of rhythmogenesis were studied both separately and in their combined active state. The presence of 10(-3) M acetylcholine in the animal blood creates the most optimal conditions for synchronization and coordination of activities of all studied uterus areas.

  13. The relationship between segmental coordination, agility and physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo García Cantó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor competence (MC may be related to youth physical activity (PA level. In the last few years, MC has been studied as a possible determinant of children PA level, but has not been widely studied in adolescents. To analyze the relationship between MC and PA level 533 adolescents (271 men and 261 women from the southeast of Spain were assessed. To register weekly PA was used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and for the MC, four coordination tests including throw and catch test, eye-hand and eye-foot coordination tests and agility circuit. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and binary logistic regression. The overall MC is consistently related with PA level. Eye-hand coordination test and the agility test define more accurately the tendency to high PA level. Programs to promote PA and focused on MC should be emphasized from early ages to adolescence.

  14. Brain activation associated with motor imagery of coordination exercises and social abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Akito Azumane; Sudo, Michiko Mochizuki; Kirino, Eiji; Itoh, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were: (1) to investigate the brain activation associated with coordination exercises done by one person and those by two persons and (2) to examine the interrelationships between the brain activation and social abilities. We were interested in testing the hypothesis that viewing two-person coordination exercises evokes more sophisticated brain activation than viewing one-person coordination exercises. Thirty Japanese college students served as subjects. There were two sessions in this study: the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session and the social ability session. In the fMRI session, the subjects were instructed to imagine they were performing coordination exercises. Also, we examined the social abilities from the viewpoint of empathising. Empathising was measured by self-reports on the Systemising, Empathy and Autism Spectrum Quotients (SQ, EQ and AQ). Regarding brain activation, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation was significant in specific areas such as the left cuneus (Brodmann area: BA 17) when the subjects imagined they were performing exercises involving two persons, as compared with the cases when they imagined they were performing exercises involving only one person. The fMRI results showed that exercises done by two persons require more sophisticated communication than those done by one person. Furthermore, the results of this study suggested that those with more autistic traits may undergo difficulties in the exercises done by two persons, especially in the case of playing a role as a follower.

  15. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2‧-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate selectively a mutant glutamate receptor in live neurons, which initiated a subsequent signal-transduction pathway.

  16. A Ubiquitous Care-Support Service based on Agent-oriented Multiple-Context Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Takahashi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a gentle system for supervising care-support services that fulfill users' actual requirements based on their physical locations and statuses of system components in ubiquitous computing environments. To address issues of traditional supervisory systems based only on location information and the situation of one side of the watching site or the watched site, we consider all the detailed situations (contexts of associated entities such as devices, software, networks, and users, in both sides, in addition to the users' physical locations. We propose a ubiquitous supervision system called uEyes to realize this. We introduce an autonomous decision making ability and cooperative behavior to each entity in uEyes, based on agentbased computing technologies. Using advanced features of the entities, live video streaming systems for watching over people can be constructed autonomously according to the multiple contexts of the entities, on both sides in runtime. We implemented a prototype system of uEyes for watching over elderly people, and performed some experiments based on several scenarios. For instance, we assumed a scenario in which a son, who is caring for his ailing father, needs to see his father's facial color and expression with high-quality video. For that purpose, a live video streaming system involving a high-resolution camera and a display device was autonomously configured in run-time. We confirmed that supervision services that fulfill detailed users' requirements can be provided effectively.

  17. Method for Collision Avoidance Motion Coordination of Multiple Mobile Robots Using Central Observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, N.Y.; Seo, D.J. [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a new method driving multiple robots to their goal position without collision. Each robot adjusts its motion based on the information on the goal locations, velocity, and position of the robot and the velocity and position of the other robots. To consider the movement of the robots in a work area, we adopt the concept of avoidability measure. The avoidability measure figures the degree of how easily a robot can avoid other robots considering the following factors: the distance from the robot to the other robots, velocity of the robot and the other robots. To implement the concept in moving robot avoidance, relative distance between the robots is derived. Our method combines the relative distance with an artificial potential field method. The proposed method is simulated for several cases. The results show that the proposed method steers robots to open space anticipating the approach of other robots. In contrast, the usual potential field method sometimes fails preventing collision or causes hasty motion, because it initiates avoidance motion later than the proposed method. The proposed method can be used to move robots in a robot soccer team to their appropriate position without collision as fast as possible. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  19. 75 FR 44063 - Designation of the National Science and Technology Council to Coordinate Certain Activities Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Science and Technology Council to Coordinate Certain Activities Under the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984 Memorandum for the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy By the authority... 107 and 108 of the Act to the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, including...

  20. Leg muscle activation during gait in Parkinson's disease : Adaptation and interlimb coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, [No Value; Zijlstra, W; Prokop, T; Berger, W

    1995-01-01

    Adaptation in leg muscle activity and coordination between lower limbs were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts in one group of parkinsonian patients and one of age-matched healthy subjects. Four different belt speeds (0.25/0.5/0.75/1.0 m/sec) were applied in selected combinations

  1. A control architecture to coordinate distributed generators and active power filters coexisting in a microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control architecture of distributed generators (DGs) inverters and shunt active power filters (APFs) in microgrids to compensate voltage harmonics in a coordinated way. For this, a hierarchical control structure is proposed that includes two control levels. The primary (local...

  2. A Control Architecture to Coordinate Distributed Generators and Active Power Filters Coexisting in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashempour, Mohammad M.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control architecture of distributed generators (DGs) inverters and shunt active power filters (APFs) in microgrids to compensate voltage harmonics in a coordinated way. For this, a hierarchical control structure is proposed that includes two control levels. The primary (local...

  3. Coupling of Dirichlet-to-Neumann boundary condition and finite difference methods in curvilinear coordinates for multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Villamizar, Vianey

    2010-08-01

    The applicability of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann technique coupled with finite difference methods is enhanced by extending it to multiple scattering from obstacles of arbitrary shape. The original boundary value problem (BVP) for the multiple scattering problem is reformulated as an interface BVP. A heterogenous medium with variable physical properties in the vicinity of the obstacles is considered. A rigorous proof of the equivalence between these two problems for smooth interfaces in two and three dimensions for any finite number of obstacles is given. The problem is written in terms of generalized curvilinear coordinates inside the computational region. Then, novel elliptic grids conforming to complex geometrical configurations of several two-dimensional obstacles are constructed and approximations of the scattered field supported by them are obtained. The numerical method developed is validated by comparing the approximate and exact far-field patterns for the scattering from two circular obstacles. In this case, for a second order finite difference scheme, a second order convergence of the numerical solution to the exact solution is easily verified.

  4. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Sex, and Activity Deficit over Time: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participation Trajectories in Children with and without Coordination Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Veldhuizen, Scott; Missiuna, Cheryl; Faught, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are known to participate in active play less than typically developing children. However, it is not known whether the activity deficit between children with and without DCD widens or diminishes over time. Method: Data were obtained from a large, prospective cohort study of children…

  5. Coordinate activation of inflammatory gene networksalveolar destruction and neonatal death in AKNA deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Ma; Woong-Kyung Suh; Hitoshi Okada; Tak W Mak; Yang Zhou; Michael R Blackburn; Hector Martinez-Valdez; Blanca Ortiz-Quintero; Roberto Rangel; Morgan R McKeller; Sara Herrera-Rodriguez; Eliseo F Castillo; Kimberly S Schluns; Mary Hall; Huiyuan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression can be regulated by chromatin modifiers,transcription factors and proteins that modulate DNA architecture.Among the latter,AT-hook transcription factors have emerged as multifaceted regulators that can activate or repress broad A/T-rich gene networks.Thus,alterations of AT-hook genes could affect the transcription of multiple genes causing global cell dysfunction.Here we report that targeted deletions of mouse AKNA,a hypothetical AT-hook-like transcription factor,sensitize mice to pathogen-induced inflammation and cause sudden neonatal death.Compared with wild-type littermates,AKNA KO mice appeared weak,failedto thrive and most died by postnatal day 10.Systemic inflammation,predominantly in the lungs,was accompanied by enhanced leukocyte infiltration and alveolar destruction.Cytologic,immunohistochemical and molecular analyses revealed CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils as major tissue infiltrators,neutrophilic granule protein,cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide and S100A8/9 as neutrophil-specific chemoattracting factors,interleukin-1β and interferon-γ as proinflammatory mediators,and matrix metalloprotease 9 as a plausible proteolytic trigger of alveolar damage.AKNA KO bone marrow transplants in wildtype recipients reproduced the severe pathogen-induced reactions and confirmed the involvement of neutrophils in acute inflammation.Moreover,promoter/reporter experiments showed that AKNA could act as a gene repressor.Our results support the concept of coordinated pathway-specific gene regulation functions modulating the intensity of inflammatory responses,reveal neutrophils as prominent mediators of acute inflammation and suggest mechanisms underlying the triggering of acute and potentially fatal immune reactions.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Aiyelabola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of aspartic acid were synthesized in basic and acidic media, with metal ligand M : L stoichiometric ratio 1 : 2. The complexes were characterized using infrared, electronic and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was determined against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The results obtained indicated that the availability of donor atoms used for coordination was a function of the pH of the solution in which the reaction was carried out. This resulted in varying geometrical structures for the complexes. The compounds exhibited a broad spectrum of activity and in some cases better activity than the standard.

  7. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, G.; Zanca, P.

    2005-12-01

    A two-dimensional array of saddle coils at Mc poloidal and Nc toroidal positions is used on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (Brunsell P R et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1457) to study active control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). Spontaneous growth of several RWMs with poloidal mode number m = 1 and different toroidal mode number n is observed experimentally, in agreement with linear MHD modelling. The measured plasma response to a controlled coil field and the plasma response computed using the linear circular cylinder MHD model are in quantitive agreement. Feedback control introduces a linear coupling of modes with toroidal mode numbers n, n' that fulfil the condition |n - n'| = Nc. Pairs of coupled unstable RWMs are present in feedback experiments with an array of Mc × Nc = 4 × 16 coils. Using intelligent shell feedback, the coupled modes are generally not controlled even though the field is suppressed at the active coils. A better suppression of coupled modes may be achieved in the case of rotating modes by using the mode control feedback scheme with individually set complex gains. In feedback with a larger array of Mc × Nc = 4 × 32 coils, the coupling effect largely disappears, and with this array, the main internal RWMs n = -11, -10, +5, +6 are all simultaneously suppressed throughout the discharge (7 8 wall times). With feedback there is a two-fold extension of the pulse length, compared to discharges without feedback.

  8. Reprogramming metabolism by histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives endocrine resistance via coordinated activation of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjian; Duan, Zhijian; Nugent, Zoann; Zou, June X; Borowsky, Alexander D; Zhang, Yanhong; Tepper, Clifford G; Li, Jian Jian; Fiehn, Oliver; Xu, Jianzhen; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Murphy, Leigh C; Chen, Hong-Wu

    2016-08-10

    Metabolic reprogramming such as the aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect is well recognized as a common feature of tumorigenesis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic alterations for tumor therapeutic resistance are poorly understood. Through gene expression profiling analysis we found that histone H3K36 methyltransferase NSD2/MMSET/WHSC1 expression was highly elevated in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines and clinical tumors. IHC analysis indicated that NSD2 protein overexpression was associated with the disease recurrence and poor survival. Ectopic expression of NSD2 wild type, but not the methylase-defective mutant, drove endocrine resistance in multiple cell models and xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, NSD2 was recruited to and methylated H3K36me2 at the promoters of key glucose metabolic enzyme genes. Its overexpression coordinately up-regulated hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), two key enzymes of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), as well as TP53-induced glycolysis regulatory phosphatase TIGAR. Consequently, NSD2-driven tamoxifen-resistant cells and tumors displayed heightened PPP activity, elevated NADPH production, and reduced ROS level, without significantly altered glycolysis. These results illustrate a coordinated, epigenetic activation of key glucose metabolic enzymes in therapeutic resistance and nominate methyltransferase NSD2 as a potential therapeutic target for endocrine resistant breast cancer.

  9. Coordinated activation of candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens via promoter demethylation in head and neck cancer and lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of solid tumors, however, proto-oncogenes activated by promoter demethylation have been sporadically reported. We used an integrative method to analyze expression in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC and pharmacologically demethylated cell lines to identify aberrantly demethylated and expressed candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens in HNSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We noted coordinated promoter demethylation and simultaneous transcriptional upregulation of proto-oncogene candidates with promoter homology, and phylogenetic footprinting of these promoters demonstrated potential recognition sites for the transcription factor BORIS. Aberrant BORIS expression correlated with upregulation of candidate proto-oncogenes in multiple human malignancies including primary non-small cell lung cancers and HNSCC, induced coordinated proto-oncogene specific promoter demethylation and expression in non-tumorigenic cells, and transformed NIH3T3 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Coordinated, epigenetic unmasking of multiple genes with growth promoting activity occurs in aerodigestive cancers, and BORIS is implicated in the coordinated promoter demethylation and reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes in human cancers.

  10. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Michael; Gao, Guo-Jie; Thomas, Jeffrey; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity.

  11. Twinning in fcc lattice creates low-coordinated catalytically active sites in porous gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajčí, Marian; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2016-08-28

    We describe a new mechanism for creation of catalytically active sites in porous gold. Samples of porous gold prepared by de-alloying Al2Au exhibit a clear correlation between the catalytic reactivity towards CO oxidation and structural defects in the fcc lattice of Au. We have found that on the stepped {211} surfaces quite common twin boundary defects in the bulk structure of porous gold can form long close-packed rows of atoms with the coordination number CN = 6. DFT calculations confirm that on these low-coordinated Au sites dioxygen chemisorbs and CO oxidation can proceed via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism with the activation energy of 37 kJ/mol or via the CO-OO intermediate with the energy barrier of 19 kJ/mol. The existence of the twins in porous gold is stabilized by the surface energy.

  12. Fabrication of a PANI/CPs composite material: a feasible method to enhance the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Cui, Zhong-Ping; Qi, Ji; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2013-03-21

    To improve the photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer in the visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) was loaded onto its surface through a facile in situ chemical oxidation polymerization process. The resulting PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials with excellent stability exhibit significantly higher photocatalytic activities than the pure coordination polymer photocatalyst on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. This enhancement can be ascribed to the introduction of PANI on the surface of the coordination polymer, which leads to efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs as well as a significant expansion of the photoresponse region. Finally, we discussed the influence of acidity on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of the composite material. An optimal condition to obtain the PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material with excellent photocatalytic activity has been obtained.

  13. Falls and Physical Activity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Sosnoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the association between fall history and physical activity using an objective measure of physical activity (i.e., accelerometry in persons with multiple sclerosis. Design. A community-based sample of 75 ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis volunteered for the investigation. Participants self-reported fall history in the last year, underwent a neurological exam to determine Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and wore an accelerometer around the waist for 7 consecutive days to determine physical activity. Results. Overall, 37 persons (49.3% of the sample reported falling in the last year with 28 of the 37 falling more than once. Persons who fell in the last year had a significantly lower number of steps/day than nonfallers (3510 versus 4940 steps/day; P.05. Conclusions. Collectively, the findings suggest that fall history may have little impact on current physical activity levels in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  14. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.

  15. 45 CFR 287.140 - With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work activities and services? 287.140 Section 287.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating... and Operations § 287.140 With whom should the Tribe coordinate in the operation of its work...

  16. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Leitner

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  17. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  18. Diffusional correlations among multiple active sites in a single enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Carlos; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-04-07

    Simulations of the enzymatic dynamics of a model enzyme containing multiple substrate binding sites indicate the existence of diffusional correlations in the chemical reactivity of the active sites. A coarse-grain, particle-based, mesoscopic description of the system, comprising the enzyme, the substrate, the product and solvent, is constructed to study these effects. The reactive and non-reactive dynamics is followed using a hybrid scheme that combines molecular dynamics for the enzyme, substrate and product molecules with multiparticle collision dynamics for the solvent. It is found that the reactivity of an individual active site in the multiple-active-site enzyme is reduced substantially, and this effect is analyzed and attributed to diffusive competition for the substrate among the different active sites in the enzyme.

  19. Multiple switches in G protein-coupled receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Shivani; Smith, Steven O

    2009-09-01

    The activation mechanism of G protein-coupled receptors has presented a puzzle that finally may be close to solution. These receptors have a relatively simple architecture consisting of seven transmembrane helices that contain just a handful of highly conserved amino acids, yet they respond to light and a range of chemically diverse ligands. Recent NMR structural studies on the active metarhodopsin II intermediate of the visual receptor rhodopsin, along with the recent crystal structure of the apoprotein opsin, have revealed multiple structural elements or 'switches' that must be simultaneously triggered to achieve full activation. The confluence of several required structural changes is an example of "coincidence counting", which is often used by nature to regulate biological processes. In ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors, the presence of multiple switches may provide an explanation for the differences between full, partial and inverse agonists.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); H.Z. Flach (Zwenneke); J. Groen (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To study in relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) whether exacerbations and brain activity as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with plasma levels of anti-Epstein Barr (EBV) antibodies and EBV DNA. METHODS: This was a prospective study wit

  1. Multiple strategies to activate gold nanoparticles as antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuyun; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-08-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance calls for new strategies. Nanotechnology provides a chance to overcome antibiotic resistance by multiple antibiotic mechanisms. This paper reviews the progress in activating gold nanoparticles with nonantibiotic or antibiotic molecules to combat bacterial resistance, analyzes the gap between experimental achievements and real clinical application, and suggests some potential directions in developing antibacterial nanodrugs.

  2. Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

  3. Loading of a coordination polymer nanobelt on a functional carbon fiber: a feasible strategy for visible-light-active and highly efficient coordination-polymer-based photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Hong-Yu; Li, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2015-02-23

    To improve the photocatalytic properties of coordination polymers under irradiation in the visible-light region, coordination polymer nanobelts (CPNB) were loaded on functional carbon fiber (FCF) through the use of a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination polymer nanobelt loaded functional carbon fiber composite material (CPNB/FCF) exhibited dramatically improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CPNB/FCF originated from high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of CPNB and FCF, which was produced by the synergy effect between them. In the composite material, the role of FCF could be described as photosensitizer and good electron transporter. For FCF, the number of functional groups on its surface has a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting CPNB/FCF composite material, and an ideal FCF carrier was obtained as a highly efficient CPNB/FCF photocatalyst. CPNB/FCF showed outstanding stability during the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB); thus, the material is suitable for use as a photocatalyst in the treatment of organic dyes in water.

  4. SATB1 packages densely-looped, transciptionally-active chromatinfor coordinated expression of cytokine genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Shutao; Lee, Charles C.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-05-23

    SATB1 is an important regulator of nuclear architecture that anchors specialized DNA sequences onto its cage-like network and recruits chromatin remodeling/modifying factors to control gene transcription. We studied the role of SATB1 in regulating the coordinated expression of Il5, Il4, and Il13 from the 200kb cytokine gene cluster region of mouse chromosome 11 during T-helper 2 (Th2)-cell activation. We show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is rapidly induced to form a unique transcriptionally-active chromatin structure that includes the cytokine gene region. Chromatin is folded into numerous small loops all anchored by SATB1, is histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9/14, and associated with Th2-specific factors, GATA3, STAT6, c-Maf, the chromatin-remodeling enzyme Brg-1, and RNA polymerase II across the 200kb region. Before activation, the chromatin displays some of these features, such as association with GATA3 and STAT6, but these were insufficient for cytokine gene expression. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we show that upon cell activation, SATB1 is not only required for chromatin folding into dense loops, but also for c-Maf induction and subsequently for Il4, Il5, and Il13 transcription. Our results show that SATB1 is an important determinant for chromatin architecture that constitutes a novel higher-order, transcriptionally-active chromatin structure upon Th2-cell activation.

  5. Normal coordinate analysis and fungicidal activity study on anilazine and its related compound using spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeja Mol, Gilbert Pushpam; Arul Dhas, Deva Dhas; Hubert Joe, Isaac; Balachandran, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of anilazine have been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-3500 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometrical parameters of the compound were calculated using B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The distribution of the vibrational bands were carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The 1H and 13C nuclear spectra have been recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 190-900 nm and the electronic properties were determined by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Anilazine was screened for its antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies are conducted to predict its fungicidal activity.

  6. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  7. Ligand effects on the structural dimensionality and antibacterial activities of silver-based coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyi; Ye, Junwei; Sun, Yuan; Bogale, Raji Feyisa; Zhao, Limei; Tian, Peng; Ning, Guiling

    2014-07-14

    Four Ag-based coordination polymers [Ag(Bim)] (1), [Ag2(NIPH)(HBim)] (2), [Ag6(4-NPTA)(Bim)4] (3) and [Ag2(3-NPTA)(bipy)0.5(H2O)] (4) (HBim = 1H-benzimidazole, bipy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, H2NIPH = 5-nitroisophthalic acid, H2NPTA = 3-/4-nitrophthalic acid) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of Ag(i) salts with N-/O-donor ligands. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that these coordination polymers constructed from mononuclear or polynuclear silver building blocks exhibit three typical structure features from 1-D to 3-D frameworks. These compounds favour a slow release of Ag(+) ions leading to excellent and long-term antimicrobial activities, which is distinguished by their different topological structures, towards both Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In addition, these compounds show good thermal stability and light stability under UV-vis and visible light, which are important characteristics for their further application in antibacterial agents.

  8. Coordinated activation of premotor and ventromedial prefrontal cortices during vicarious reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Sotaro; Matsumoto, Madoka; Takahashi, Hidefumi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    The vicarious reward we receive from watching likable others obtaining a positive outcome is a pervasive phenomenon, yet its neural correlates are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a series of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to test the hypothesis that the brain areas responsible for action observation and reward processing work in a coordinated fashion during vicarious reward. In the first experiment (manipulation phase), the participant was instructed to cheer for a particular player in a two-player competitive game (Rock-Paper-Scissors). This manipulation made participants feel more unity with that player and resulted in unity-related activation in the premotor area during action observation. In the following main experiment, the participant witnessed the previously cheered-for or non-cheered-for player succeed in a new solitary game (a stopwatch game). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was activated when the cheered-for player succeeded in the game but not when the other player did. Interestingly, this vmPFC activation was functionally connected with premotor activation only during the cheered-for player's success. These results suggest that vicarious reward is processed in the vmPFC-premotor network, which is activated specifically by the success of the other person with whom the individual feels unity and closeness.

  9. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, G Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C; Bowie, Derek

    2016-03-16

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits.

  10. Advancing science and policy through a coordinated international study of physical activity and built environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Owen, Neville;

    2013-01-01

    National and international strategies to increase physical activity emphasize environmental and policy changes that can have widespread and long-lasting impact. Evidence from multiple countries using comparable methods is required to strengthen the evidence base for such initiatives. Because some...... environment and policy changes could have generalizable effects and others may depend on each country's context, only international studies using comparable methods can identify the relevant differences....

  11. Open Discussion Session: Challenges and Advancements in Coordinated Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, Kirsti

    2016-07-01

    Besides addressing the key questions in space weather research the Cospar/ILWS Roadmap presents also recommendations for teaming in the research environment and for collaboration between agencies and communities. Coordinated work of different research groups facilitate our efforts for a holistic view on the entire Sun-Earth system with its complicated feedback processes in different scale sizes. Seamless knowledge transfer from research to operational services is a crucial factor for the success of space weather research field. In this open discussion session we encourage the participants to share their views on most important challenges and advancements in our field, both in science and in collaboration. We also welcome comments on the roadmap recommendations and guidance for similar activities in the future.

  12. In vivo Study on Depressant Effects and Muscle Coordination Activity of Galphimia glauca Stem Methanol Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garige, Baba Shankar Rao; Keshetti, Srisailam; Vattikuti, Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). Materials and Methods: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test. Results: The LD50 of GGSME was found to be >2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Mice treated with stem methanol extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w. doses extended the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg. b.w., i.p.). The stem methanol extract at 400 mg/kg dose showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the number of rears and head dipping number in the hole-board test. The extract exhibited a significant (P ≤ 0.001) effect on the ambulatory behavior of mice in the open field test and also extended the onset of seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.). The extract also exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.001) effects on muscle coordination in rota-rod and grip strengthening test in mice. Conclusion: The study results conclude that the GGSME has a potential CNS depressant and muscle relaxant effects compared to the standard drugs. SUMMARY Anxiety is implicated in the number of psychiatric disordersIn vivo depressant activity is studied employing animal models like Sodium pentobarbital-.induced sleep test, Hole-board test, Open field test, Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions and Picrotoxin-induced convulsions tests.Muscle coordination activity is studied employing animal models like Grip strengthening

  13. Correlation between the structure and biological activity studies of supramolecular coordination azodye compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abou-Dobara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel bidentate azodye quinoline ligands were synthesized with various p-aromatic amines like p-(OCH3, CH3, H, Cl and NO2. Novel azodye (HLn and complexes [Cu(II/Ni(II] of these ligands have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance and magnetic measurements, infrared and electronic spectral studies. Suitable structures have been proposed for these complexes. The synthesized ligands and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against four local bacterial species, two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as against four local fungal species; namely Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium italicum and Fusarium oxysporium. The tested compounds have good antibacterial activity against B. cereus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Very low effect was detected against S. aureus and F. oxysporium. We found that the results of antifungal activity of HLn revealed that the complexes are more toxic than ligands against fungi due to the transition metal involved in the coordination. Also Cu2+ complexes are more active than Ni2+ complexes against B. cereus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The size of the clear zone was in the following order p-(OCH3 < CH3 < H < Cl < NO2 as expected from Hammett’s constants σR.

  14. Developmental coordination disorder and level of physical activity in children: systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Capistrano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with DCD may have difficulty in performing leisure activities, sports, in addition to problems in social interactions. Objective: To investigate the relationship between DCD and physical activity, as well as evaluate the research quality in the area. Method: It was conducted a search on four databases (PubMed, Bireme, Web of Science and Scopus, with the descriptors, in Portuguese and English languages: “motor activity” (“atividade motora”, “disorder of motor skills” (“transtorno das habilidades motoras”, “developmental coordination disorder” (“transtorno do desenvolvimento da coordenação”, “physical activity” (“atividade física” and “children” (“crianças”. Results: The analysis processes included the reading of titles, abstracts and full texts. The initial electronic search found 3303 manuscripts, of which 22 met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Regarding the level of physical activity in children with DCD only eleven studies approached the theme, while others used it as a mediating variable. Conclusion: Children with DCD showed a lower level of physical activity compared to their pairs, which makes the disorder, during the childhood, a risk factor for physical inactivity in adolescence .

  15. A Wolf Pack Algorithm for Active and Reactive Power Coordinated Optimization in Active Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, H. M.; Jiang, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an active and reactive power dynamic optimization model for active distribution network (ADN), whose control variables include the output of distributed generations (DGs), charge or discharge power of energy storage system (ESS) and reactive power from capacitor banks. To solve the high-dimension nonlinear optimization model, a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, namely wolf pack algorithm (WPA) with better global convergence and computational robustness, is adapted so that the network loss minimization can be achieved. In this paper, the IEEE33-bus system is used to show the effectiveness of WPA technique compared with other techniques. Numerical tests on the modified IEEE 33-bus system show that WPA for active and reactive multi-period optimization of ADN is exact and effective.

  16. Coordinating and Evaluating of Multiple Key Performance Indicators for Manufacturing Equipment:Case Study of Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Hongye Su; Shan Lu; Yue Wang; Quanling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing equipment takes the task of operation and directly effects on the manufacturing process. One single Key Performance Indicator (KPI) is mainly employed to evaluate equipment in most studies, neither inte-grating the KPIs into a completed evaluation system nor considering the impact and conflict among KPIs. In this paper, a KPI evaluation architecture is presented to define and analyze KPIs, and then a common structure for KPI to obtain the KPI set of manufacturing equipment is introduced. An available multi-KPI coordination model is proposed to discern and balance the relationship among multi-KPI. Final y, a case study is introduced to il ustrate the applicability of the coordination model by using multi-objective optimization strategy and an efficient solu-tion is obtained.

  17. Activity Participation Intensity Is Associated with Skeletal Development in Pre-Pubertal Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, William W. N.; Guo, X.; Fong, Shirley S. M.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Pang, Marco Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity and activity participation pattern between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD); and (2) to determine whether activity participation pattern was associated with the skeletal development among children with DCD. Materials and methods: Thirty-three children…

  18. Transcriptional activation by pRB and its coordination with SWI/SNF recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Stephen; Beck, George R; Moran, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    A central question in cancer biology is why most tumor susceptibility genes are linked with only limited types of cancer. Human germ-line mutation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene Rb1 is closely linked with just retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma, although the gene is universally expressed. Functional analysis of pRB and its close relatives, p107 and p130, has largely focused on their roles in repression of proliferation across all tissue types, but genetic evidence indicates an active requirement for pRB in osteoblast differentiation that correlates more directly with osteosarcoma susceptibility. Still, potential promoter targets of pRB and its role in normally differentiating osteoblasts remain insufficiently characterized. Here, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, alkaline phosphatase, is identified as a direct promoter activation target of pRB. One role of pRB on this promoter is to displace the histone lysine demethylase KDM5A, thereby favoring trimethylation of H3K4, a promoter activation mark. A major new aspect of pRB-mediated transcriptional activation revealed in this promoter analysis is its role in recruitment of an activating SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. SWI/SNF is a critical coordinator of tissue-specific gene expression. In osteoblasts, SWI/SNF complexes containing the BRM ATPase repress osteoblast-specific genes to maintain the precursor state, whereas the alternative ATPase BRG1 distinguishes an activating SWI/SNF complex necessary for RNA polymerase-II recruitment. A switch from BRM to BRG1 on the alkaline phosphatase promoter marks the onset of differentiation and is accomplished in a precise two-step mechanism. Dissociation of BRM-containing SWI/SNF depends on p300, and association of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF depends on pRB.

  19. Thiol peroxidase-like activity of some intramolecularly coordinated diorganyl diselenides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangit Kumar; Harkesh B Singh

    2005-11-01

    Several new diaryl diselenides having intramolecular coordinating groups have been synthesized by ortho-lithiation/Na2Se2 routes in good yield. Bis[2-(N-phenylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (10), bis[2-(N-tert-butylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (11), ()()-bis[2(--phenethylferrocenecarboxamide)] diselenide (12) were synthesized by the ortho-lithiation route. Bis[2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethylnaphthyl)] diselenide (13) was synthesized by lithium/bromide exchange reaction whereas bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diselenide (14) was prepared by the reaction of disodium diselenide with 2,4- dinitro-1-chlorobenzene. Thiol peroxidase-like activities of the diorganodiselenides have been evaluated by using H2O2 as substrate and PhSH as cosubstrate. Diselenides (13) and (14) with dimethylaminomethyl- or nitro-donor groups in close proximity to selenium, show much better thiol peroxidase-like activities compared to diselenides 10-12 with amide donor groups. Cyclic voltammetry study of diselenides 10-12 derived from redox-active ferrocenamide has been carried out.

  20. Mirror neuron activation in children with developmental coordination disorder: A functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jess E; Licari, Melissa K; Billington, Jac; Chen, Yihui; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Werner, Julie; Winsor, Anne M; Bynevelt, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal cortical areas that may contribute to the movement difficulties seen in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Specifically, we hypothesized that there may be a deficit in the mirror neuron system (MNS), a neural system that responds to both performed and observed actions. Using functional MRI, 14 boys with DCD (x=10.08 years ± 1.31, range=7.83-11.58 years) and 12 typically developing controls (x=10.10 years ± 1.15, range=8.33-12.00 years) were scanned observing, executing and imitating a finger sequencing task using their right hand. Cortical activations of mirror neuron regions, including posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), ventral premotor cortex, anterior inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal sulcus were examined. Children with DCD had decreased cortical activation mirror neuron related regions, including the precentral gyrus and IFG, as well as in the posterior cingulate and precuneus complex when observing the sequencing task. Region of interest analysis revealed lower activation in the pars opercularis, a primary MNS region, during imitation in the DCD group compared to controls. These findings provide some preliminary evidence to support a possible MNS dysfunction in children with DCD.

  1. Mcm10 coordinates the timely assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Mcm10 is an essential replication factor that is required for DNA replication in eukaryotes. Two key steps in the initiation of DNA replication are the assembly and activation of Cdc45–Mcm2–7-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase. However, it is not known what coordinates helicase assembly with helicase activation. We show in this manuscript, using purified proteins from budding yeast, that Mcm10 directly interacts with the Mcm2–7 complex and Cdc45. In fact, Mcm10 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 complex in vitro. To study the role of Mcm10 in more detail in vivo we used an auxin inducible degron in which Mcm10 is degraded upon addition of auxin. We show in this manuscript that Mcm10 is required for the timely recruitment of Cdc45 and GINS recruitment to the Mcm2–7 complex in vivo during early S phase. We also found that Mcm10 stimulates Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Mcm10 plays a critical role in coupling replicative helicase assembly with helicase activation. Mcm10 is first involved in the recruitment of Cdc45 to the Mcm2–7 complex. After Cdc45–Mcm2–7 complex assembly, Mcm10 promotes origin melting by stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, which thereby leads to GINS attachment to Mcm2–7. PMID:26582917

  2. Laterality of movement-related activity reflects transformation of coordinates in ventral premotor cortex and primary motor cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Kiyoshi

    2007-10-01

    The ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and the primary motor cortex (MI) of monkeys participate in various sensorimotor integrations, such as the transformation of coordinates from visual to motor space, because the areas contain movement-related neuronal activity reflecting either visual or motor space. In addition to relationship to visual and motor space, laterality of the activity could indicate stages in the visuomotor transformation. Thus we examined laterality and relationship to visual and motor space of movement-related neuronal activity in the PMv and MI of monkeys performing a fast-reaching task with the left or right arm, toward targets with visual and motor coordinates that had been dissociated by shift prisms. We determined laterality of each activity quantitatively and classified it into four types: activity that consistently depended on target locations in either head-centered visual coordinates (V-type) or motor coordinates (M-type) and those that had either differential or nondifferential activity for both coordinates (B- and N-types). A majority of M-type neurons in the areas had preferences for reaching movements with the arm contralateral to the hemisphere where neuronal activity was recorded. In contrast, most of the V-type neurons were recorded in the PMv and exhibited less laterality than the M-type. The B- and N-types were recorded in the PMv and MI and exhibited intermediate properties between the V- and M-types when laterality and correlations to visual and motor space of them were jointly examined. These results suggest that the cortical motor areas contribute to the transformation of coordinates to generate final motor commands.

  3. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal...... and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS)], and enzymatic NO synthase activity. MRI guided biopsies documented more active plaques than macroscopic examination, and histological examination revealed further lesions. Inducible NOS (iNOS) was the dominant IR isoform, while reactive astrocytes were the dominant i......NOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age...

  4. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  5. Relationships between levels of motor coordination, attention and physical activity in children: The mediation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current findings suggest that physical activity of children with developmental difficulties may be limited by low level of motor coordination. Motor difficulties are often connected with children suffering from attention deficit disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out the level of physical activity (PA in older school-age children with motor difficulties (MD in comparison with children without MD and to reveal possible mediate impact on attention between the level of motor skills and PA in children of this age. METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups: 15 children with MD (age 13.7 ± 1.6 years and 27 children without MD (age 13.3 ± 1.4 years. Motor functions were assessed by means of test battery MABC-2, weekly physical activity by means of Actigraph accelerometer and attention by both d2 and numeric square tests. To estimate the mediation of the attention level we have used Baron's & Kenny's (1986 analysis. RESULTS: In most of the indicators of PA, children with MD reached lower value than those without MD. The differences of statistical significance were found in the number of steps per week and weekdays (d = 0.50 and 0.64 respectively and in PA of a very high intensity (d =2 .00 in boys with and without MD. In girls with MD we have found out significantly less time spent in vigorous intensity PA (d = 0.86. The study results support the hypothesis of developmental motor deficits to be a risk factor for PA in older school-age children. Significant mediation effect of concentration of attention in the relationship between the level of motor skills and PA was observed in three cases - in the relationship between gross motor skills on the one hand, and energy expenditure per week and weekdays, and vigorous intensity PA per week on the other. The amount of mediation effect of attention concentration ranged between 12-22%. CONCLUSION: The study has indicated that children's participation in PA can be

  6. Small molecule regulation of self-association and catalytic activity in a supramolecular coordination complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, C Michael; Stern, Charlotte L; Mirkin, Chad A

    2014-03-26

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of the first weak-link approach (WLA) supramolecular construct that employs the small molecule regulation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions for the in situ control of catalytic activity. A biaryl urea group, prone to self-aggregation, was functionalized with a phosphinoalkyl thioether (P,S) hemilabile moiety and incorporated into a homoligated Pt(II) tweezer WLA complex. This urea-containing construct, which has been characterized by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study, can be switched in situ from a rigid fully closed state to a flexible semiopen state via Cl(-) induced changes in the coordination mode at the Pt(II) structural node. FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy studies were used to demonstrate that while extensive urea self-association persists in the flexible semiopen complex, these interactions are deterred in the rigid, fully closed complex because of geometric and steric restraints. Consequently, the urea moieties in the fully closed complex are able to catalyze a Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl vinyl ketone to generate 2-acetyl-5-norbornene. The free urea ligand and the semiopen complex show no such activity. The successful incorporation and regulation of a hydrogen bond donating catalyst in a WLA construct open the doors to a vast and rapidly growing catalogue of allosteric catalysts for applications in the detection and amplification of organic analytes.

  7. Relationship between Coordination Structure and Biological Activity of Copper(Ⅱ) Nicotinate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; LI Qing-Lu; HUANG Zhi-Jian; LI Jian-Sheng; LI Ru

    2006-01-01

    The copper(Ⅱ) complexes of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (nicotinic acid) and pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid) were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectrum, powder X-ray diffraction and so on. The results show that under experimental conditions, the ligands of synthesized copper nicotinate and copper isonicotinate are coordinated simultaneity with copper(Ⅱ) via the nitrogen of pyridine group and an oxygen of carboxylic acid group to form bidentate chelates. The crystal of copper nicotinate with two six-membered chelate rings belongs to monoclinic system, while that of copper isonicotinate having two five-membered chelate rings is of triclinic system. The tests show that the biological activities, such as the improvement of feed utilization, growth, anti-oxidation ability of organism and disease-resistant power, are different when copper nicotinate, copper inicotinate, copper-lysine chelate, copper-methionine chelate and copper sulphate are added in pig's feed, respectively. Due to its higher biological activity, less pollution and lower toxicity,copper nicotinate has wide potential applications as a feed additive.

  8. Spectroscopic properties and the catalytic activity of new organo-lead supramolecular coordination polymer containing quinoxaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Abdou, Safaa N.

    2015-01-01

    The 3D-supramolecular coordination polymer (SCP) 3∞[ Cu2(CN)3(Me3Pb)(qox)], 1, as the first example of the CuCN SCP containing the (Me3Pb) fragment, was explored to investigate its catalytic and photo-catalytic activities. The structure of 1 contains two chemically identical but crystallographically different [Cu2(CN)3ṡMe3Pbṡqox]2 units with four Cu(I) sites assuming distorted TP-3 geometry. Two non-linear chains of equal abundance are formed producing corrugated parallel chains which are connected laterally by quinoxaline creating 2D-layers which are arranged parallel in an (AB⋯AB⋯AB)n fashion forming 3D-network. IR, mass, electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are also investigated. The SCP 1 is diamagnetic and exhibits good catalytic and photo-catalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The reaction is first order with respect to MB dye. The irradiation of the reaction with UV-light enhanced the rate of MB mineralization. The efficiency of recycled the 1 and the mechanism of degradation of MB dye were investigated.

  9. Coordinative modulation of human zinc transporter 2 gene expression through active and suppressive regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Liu, Ya-Chuan; Lin, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Zinc transporter 2 (ZnT2) is one of the cellular factors responsible for Zn homeostasis. Upon Zn overload, ZnT2 reduces cellular Zn by transporting it into excretory vesicles. We investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates human ZnT2 (hZnT2) gene expression. Zn induces hZnT2 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners. Overexpression of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) increases hZnT2 transcription, whereas depletion of MTF-1 reduces hZnT2 expression. There are five putative metal response elements (MREs) within 1kb upstream of the hZnT2 gene. A serial deletion of the hZnT2 promoter region (from 5' to 3') shows that the two MREs proximal to the gene are essential for Zn-induced promoter activity. Further mutation analysis concludes that the penultimate MRE (MREb) supports the metal-induced promoter activity. The hZnT2 promoter has also a zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) binding element. Mutation or deletion of this ZEB binding element elevates the basal and Zn-induced hZnT2 promoter activities. Knockdown of ZEB1 mRNA enhances the hZnT2 transcript level in HEK-293 cells. In MCF-7 (ZEB-deficient) cells, expression of ZEB proteins attenuates the Zn-induced hZnT2 expression. However, expressions of MTF-1 target genes such as human ZnT1 and metallothionein IIA were not affected. Our study shows the expression of the hZnT2 gene is coordinately regulated via active and suppressive modulators.

  10. Route planning method for multiple vehicles coordinated target assignment%多机协同与多目标分配任务规划方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏铁涛; 屈香菊

    2009-01-01

    多架飞机攻击多个目标区域是现代作战方式的重要特征,多机协同与多目标分配问题是提高团队作战效能的关键.针对该问题,综合考虑飞机能力差异、协同方式和任务环境的变化,提出多机协同目标分配的任务规划方法.建立了基于能力裕度评价的多机协同目标分配问题的数学模型.对多目标分配问题,通过约束飞机的能力裕度对分配方案进行筛选,保证在战场环境发生改变时任务兵力的完整性.仿真结果表明,采用这种方法得到的目标分配方案,适应任务目标突发性变化的能力更强.%Multiple vehicles coordinated target assignment is the key problem to improve the efficiency of team fighting in the mission of multiple vehicles attacking multiple target regions. A route planning method for this problem was presented with consideration of the differences in vehicle ability, cooperation mode and the abrupt change of the battle field situation. Based on the evaluation of vehicle residual ability, a mathematical model of multiple vehicles coordinated target assignment had been built. The target assignment schemes were chosen by constraints on the vehicle residual ability, then the integrity of the military strength was ensured. The final simulation results of this model show that a stronger adaptability for abrupt change of mission objective can be gained.

  11. Activities-specific balance confidence in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsagård, Ylva; Carling, Anna; Forsberg, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the validity of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Design. A multicentre, cross-sectional study. Setting. Six rural and urban Swedish sites, including specialized units at hospitals and primary care centers. Participants. A sample of 84 PwMS with subjective gait and balance impairment but still able to walk 100 m (comparable with EDSS 1-6). Outcome Measures. Timed Up and Go, Timed Up and Go(cog), 25-foot Timed Walk Test, Four Square Step Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Chair Stand Test, 12-item MS Walking Scale, self-reported falls, and use of assistive walking device were used for validation. Results. The concurrent convergent validity was moderate to good (0.50 to -0.75) with the highest correlation found for the 12-item MS Walking Scale. The ABC discriminated between multiple fallers and nonfallers but not between men and women. Ecological validity is suggested since ABC discriminated between users of assistive walking device and nonusers. The internal consistency was high at α = 0.95, and interitem correlations were between 0.30 and 0.83. Conclusion. This study supports the validity of the ABC for persons with mild-to-moderate MS. The participants lacked balance confidence in many everyday activities, likely restricting their participation in society.

  12. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-12

    Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E₂ production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker.

  13. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-01

    Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E2 production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker. PMID:28085116

  14. Joint Coordination and Muscle Activities of Ballet Dancers During Tiptoe Standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroko; Fujii, Keisuke; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate joint coordination of lower limbs in dancers during tiptoe standing and the relationship between joint coordination and muscle coactivation. Seven female ballet dancers performed tiptoe standing with six leg positions (fi e classical dance positions and one modern dance position) for 10 s. The kinematic data of the metatarsophalangeal (MP), ankle, knee, and hip joints was collected, and surface electromyography (EMG) of over 13 lower limb muscles was conducted. Principal component analysis was performed to determine joint coordination. MP-ankle and ankle-knee had in-phase coordination, whereas knee-hip showed anti-phase coordination in the sagittal plane. In addition, most EMG-EMG coherence around the MP and ankle joints was significant up to 50 Hz when these two joints swayed with in-phase. This suggests that different joint coordination patterns are associated with neural processing related to different muscle coactivation patterns. In conclusion, ballet dancers showed in-phase coordination from the MP to knee joints, which was associated with muscle coactivation to a higher frequency domain (up to 50 Hz) in comparison with anti-phase coordination.

  15. The European radioecology alliance: encouraging the coordination and integration of research activities in radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); European Radioecology Alliance Association, French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, 31 Avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland - RPII (Ireland); Gariel, Jean-Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Hardeman, Frank [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Howard, Brenda [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC, UK (United Kingdom); Lukashenko, Sergey [Kazakhstan Republic Institute of Nuclear Physics - NNCRK (Kazakhstan); Lund, Ingemar [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Sabatier, Laure [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Sachs, Susanne [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf - HZDR (Germany); Salomaa, Sisko [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Smith, James [University of Portsmouth - UoP (United Kingdom); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Tschiersch, Jochen [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Hinton, Thomas [Strategy for Allied Radioecology - STAR Coordinator, IRSN (France); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [COordination and iMplementation of a pan-European instrumenT for radioecology - COMET Coordinator, SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The European Radioecology Alliance was established in 2009 with a firm conviction from its eight founding European organizations that joining forces would enhance the competence of radioecology science in Europe. The main objective of the Radioecology Alliance is to progressively strengthen the coordination and integration of research in the field of radioecology at national, European and international level. The integration of the European radioecology community will be a key aspect facing the upcoming EURATOM Horizon 2020 framework programme. In 2012, the Radioecology Alliance was officially constituted as an Association, and in June 2013 grew from 8 to 14 members from 10 different countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Within the framework of the Radioecology Alliance, a Network of Excellence in Radioecology STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) was created in 2011 with financial support of the EC FP7. More recently, the project COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) has been also funded by the EC to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the radiation impact on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of the Research and Development activities in radioecology. The Radioecology Alliance, in close collaboration with STAR in the first phase, and more recently with COMET, has developed for the first time a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on Radioecology. The SRA identifies three challenges: (1) To predict human and wildlife exposure more robustly by quantifying the key processes that most influence radionuclide transfers; (2) To determine ecological consequences under realistic exposure conditions and (3) To improve human and environmental protection by integrating radioecology. Within these 3 challenges, 15 research lines have been identified. After a consultation process which included not only the scientific community

  16. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTION TO STOKES FLOW IN THE OBLATE SPHEROIDAL COORDINATES WITH APPLICATIONS TO MULTIPLES SPHEROID PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄宏; 严宗毅; 吴望一

    2002-01-01

    A new three-dimensional fundamental solution to the Stokes flow was proposedby transforming the solid harmonic functions in Lamb' s solution into expressions in terms ofthe oblate spheroidal coordinates. These fundamental solutions are advantageous in treatingflows past an arbitrary number of arbitrarily positioned and oriented oblate spheroids. Theleast squares technique was adopted herein so that the convergence difficulties oftenencountered in solving three-dimensional problems were completely avoided. The examplesdemonstrate that present approach is highly accurate, consistently stable andcomputationally efficient.The oblate spheroid may be used to model a variety of particle shapes between acircular disk and a sphere. For the first time, the effect of various geometric factors on theforces and torques exerted on two oblate spheroids were systematically studied by using theproposed fundamental solutions. The generality of this approach was illustrated by twoproblems of three spheroids.

  17. BH3 mimetics activate multiple pro-autophagic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, S A; Orhon, I; Morselli, E; Criollo, A; Shen, S; Mariño, G; BenYounes, A; Bénit, P; Rustin, P; Maiuri, M C; Kroemer, G

    2011-09-15

    The BH3 mimetic ABT737 induces autophagy by competitively disrupting the inhibitory interaction between the BH3 domain of Beclin 1 and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), thereby stimulating the Beclin 1-dependent allosteric activation of the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Here, we examined whether ABT737 stimulates other pro-autophagic signal-transduction pathways. ABT737 caused the activating phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and of the AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, the activating phosphorylation of several subunits of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) and the hyperphosphorylation of the IKK substrate IκB, inhibition of the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and consequent dephosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6 kinase. In addition, ABT737 treatment dephosphorylates (and hence likewise inhibits) p53, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Akt. All these effects were shared by ABT737 and another structurally unrelated BH3 mimetic, HA14-1. Functional experiments revealed that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IKK, Sirtuin and the p53-depleting ubiquitin ligase MDM2 prevented ABT737-induced autophagy. These results point to unexpected and pleiotropic pro-autophagic effects of BH3 mimetics involving the modulation of multiple signalling pathways.

  18. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  19. Active joint mechanism driven by multiple actuators made of flexible bags: a proposal of dual structural actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hitoshi; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Kataoka, Mokutaro; Inou, Norio

    2013-01-01

    An actuator is required to change its speed and force depending on the situation. Using multiple actuators for one driving axis is one of the possible solutions; however, there is an associated problem of output power matching. This study proposes a new active joint mechanism using multiple actuators. Because the actuator is made of a flexible bag, it does not interfere with other actuators when it is depressurized. The proposed joint achieved coordinated motion of multiple actuators. This report also discusses a new actuator which has dual cylindrical structure. The cylinders are composed of flexible bags with different diameters. The joint torque is estimated based on the following factors: empirical formula for the flexible actuator torque, geometric relationship between the joint and the actuator, and the principle of virtual work. The prototype joint mechanism achieves coordinated motion of multiple actuators for one axis. With this motion, small inner actuator contributes high speed motion, whereas large outer actuator generates high torque. The performance of the prototype joint is examined by speed and torque measurements. The joint showed about 30% efficiency at 2.0 Nm load torque under 0.15 MPa air input.

  20. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G.; Lorimer Moseley, G.; Wuisman, Paul I.J.M.; Beek, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. Design. In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and unpredi

  1. Perceived athletic competence and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder who are clinically referred, and control children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, Johannes J.; Stuive, Ilse; Herweijer, Hester; Holty, Lian; Oudenampsen, Chantal; Schoemaker, Marina M.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived athletic competence (PAC) and physical activity (PA) in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is still unclear. This study investigated differences in PAC and PA between, and within, a group of children with DCD that were clinically referred (n =

  2. Distributive Education--Fashion Merchandising Wardrobe Coordination. Kit No. 76. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Barbara

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on wardrobe coordination are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education (fashion merchandising). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  3. Effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and back muscle activity during walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Meijer, O.G.; Moseley, G.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Beek, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of experimentally induced pain and fear of pain on trunk coordination and erector spinae EMG activity during gait. DESIGN: In 12 healthy subjects, hypertonic saline (acute pain) and isotonic saline (fear of pain) were injected into erector spinae muscle, and unpredi

  4. EXEL; Experience for Children in Learning. Parent-Directed Activities to Develop: Oral Expression, Visual Discrimination, Auditory Discrimination, Motor Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Polly; Millman, Joan

    The activities collected in this handbook are planned for parents to use with their children in a learning experience. They can also be used in the classroom. Sections contain games designed to develop visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, motor coordination and oral expression. An objective is given for each game, and directions for…

  5. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 coordinates organ determinacy and axial polarity in Arabidopsis by directly activating ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous organ formation is a hallmark of plant development that requires organ-specific gene activity to establish determinacy and axial patterning, yet the molecular mechanisms that coordinate these events remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the organ-specific BTB-POZ domain proteins BL...

  6. Activation of endogenous neural stem cells for multiple sclerosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana eMichailidou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens, consist of immunomodulatory agents aiming to reduce the rate of relapses. However, these agents are usually insufficient to treat chronic neurological disability.A promising perspective for future therapy of MS is the regeneration of lesions with replacement of the damaged oligodendrocytes or neurons. Therapies targeting to the enhancement of endogenous remyelination, aim to promote the activation of either the parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells or the subventricular zone-derived neural stem cells (NSCs. Less studied but highly potent, is the strategy of neuronal regeneration with endogenous NSCs that although being linked to numerous limitations, is anticipated to ameliorate cognitive disability in MS. Focusing on the forebrain, this review highlights the role of NSCs in the regeneration of MS lesions.

  7. Mutant p53: multiple mechanisms define biologic activity in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of p53 as a tumor suppressor gene is evident through its pervasiveness in cancer biology. The p53 gene is the most commonly altered gene in human cancer; however, not all genetic alterations are biologically equivalent. The majority of p53 alterations involve missense mutations that result in the production of mutant p53 proteins. Such mutant p53 proteins lack normal p53 function and may acquire novel functions, often with deleterious effects. Here, we review characterized mechanisms of mutant p53 gain of function in multiple model systems. In addition, we review mutant p53 addiction as emerging evidence suggests that tumors may depend on sustained mutant p53 activity for continued growth. We also discuss the role of p53 in stromal elements and their contribution to tumor initiation and progression. Lastly, current genetic mouse models of mutant p53 are reviewed and their limitations discussed.

  8. Twist1 activity thresholds define multiple functions in limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawchuk, Dayana; Weiner, Shoshana J; Chen, You-Tzung; Lu, Benson C; Costantini, Frank; Behringer, Richard R; Laufer, Ed

    2010-11-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is essential for normal limb development. Twist1(-/-) embryos die at midgestation. However, studies on early limb buds found that Twist1(-/-) mutant limb mesenchyme has an impaired response to FGF signaling from the apical ectodermal ridge, which disrupts the feedback loop between the mesenchyme and AER, and reduces and shifts anteriorly Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity. We have combined Twist1 null, hypomorph and conditional alleles to generate a Twist1 allelic series that survives to birth. As Twist1 activity is reduced, limb skeletal defects progress from preaxial polydactyly to girdle reduction combined with hypoplasia, aplasia or mirror symmetry of all limb segments. With reduced Twist1 activity there is striking and progressive upregulation of ectopic Shh expression in the anterior of the limb, combined with an anterior shift in the posterior Shh domain, which is expressed at normal intensity, and loss of the posterior AER. Consequently limb outgrowth is initially impaired, before an ectopic anterior Shh domain expands the AER, promoting additional growth and repatterning. Reducing the dosage of FGF targets of the Etv gene family, which are known repressors of Shh expression in anterior limb mesenchyme, strongly enhances the anterior skeletal phenotype. Conversely this and other phenotypes are suppressed by reducing the dosage of the Twist1 antagonist Hand2. Our data support a model whereby multiple Twist1 activity thresholds contribute to early limb bud patterning, and suggest how particular combinations of skeletal defects result from differing amounts of Twist1 activity.

  9. Coordination chemistry and biological activity of 5'-OH modified quinoline-B12 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Karel; Brandl, Helmut; Spingler, Bernhard; Zelder, Felix

    2011-10-14

    The consequences of structural modifications at the 5'-OH ribofuranotide moiety of quinoline modified B12 derivatives are discussed in regard of the coordination chemistry, the electrochemical properties and the biological behaviour of the compound.

  10. Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.

  11. Enhanced Catalysis Activity in a Coordinatively Unsaturated Cobalt-MOF Generated via Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Yun; Yao, Ru-Xin; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2015-07-06

    Hydrothermal reaction of Co(NO3)2 and terphenyl-3,2",5",3'-tetracarboxyate (H4tpta) generated Co3(OH)2 chains based 3D coordination framework Co3(OH)2(tpta)(H2O)4 (1) that suffered from single-crystal-to-single-crystal dehydration by heating at 160 °C and was transformed into dehydrated Co3(OH)2(tpta) (1a). During the dehydration course, the local coordination environment of part of the Co atoms was transformed from saturated octahedron to coordinatively unsaturated tetrahedron. Heterogenous catalytic experiments on allylic oxidation of cyclohexene show that dehydrated 1a has 6 times enhanced catalytic activity than as-synthesized 1 by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) as oxidant. The activation energy for the oxidation of cylcohexene with 1a catalyst was 67.3 kJ/mol, far below the value with 1 catalysts, which clearly suggested that coordinatively unsaturated Co(II) sites in 1a have played a significant role in decreasing the activation energy. It is interestingly found that heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of cyclohexene in 1a not only gives the higher conversion of 73.6% but also shows very high selectivity toward 2-cyclohexene-1-one (ca. 64.9%), as evidenced in high turnover numbers (ca. 161) based on the open Co(II) sites of 1a catalyst. Further experiments with a radical trap indicate a radical chain mechanism. This work demonstrates that creativity of coordinatively unsaturated metal sites in MOFs could significantly enhance heterogeneous catalytic activity and selectivity.

  12. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  13. Toddlers actively reorganize their whole body coordination to maintain walking stability while carrying an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Hao; Miranda, Daniel L; Chistolini, Trevor L; Goldfield, Eugene C

    2016-10-01

    Balanced walking involves freely swinging the limbs like pendula. However, children immediately begin to carry objects as soon as they can walk. One possibility for this early skill development is that whole body coordination during walking may be re-organized into loosely coupled collections of body parts, allowing children to use their arms to perform one function, while the legs perform another. Therefore, this study examines: 1) how carrying an object affects the coordination of the arms and legs during walking, and 2) if carrying an object influences stride length and width. Ten healthy toddlers with 3-12 months of walking experience were recruited to walk barefoot while carrying or not carrying a small toy. Stride length, width, speed, and continuous relative phase (CRP) of the hips and of the shoulders were compared between carrying conditions. While both arms and legs demonstrated destabilization and stabilization throughout the gait cycle, the arms showed a reduction in intra-subject coordination variability in response to carrying an object. Carrying an object may modify the function of the arms from swinging for balance to maintaining hold of an object. The observed period-dependent changes of the inter-limb coordination of the hips and of the shoulders also support this interpretation. Overall, these findings support the view that whole-body coordination patterns may become partitioned in particular ways as a function of task requirements.

  14. Mechanisms for multiple activity modes of VTA dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eOster

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain ventral segmental area (VTA dopaminergic neurons send numerous projections to cortical and sub-cortical areas, and diffusely release dopamine (DA to their targets. DA neurons display a range of activity modes that vary in frequency and degree of burst firing. Importantly, DA neuronal bursting is associated with a significantly greater degree of DA release than an equivalent tonic activity pattern. Here, we introduce a single compartmental, conductance-based computational model for DA cell activity that captures the behavior of DA neuronal dynamics and examine the multiple factors that underlie DA firing modes: the strength of the SK conductance, the amount of drive, and GABA inhibition. Our results suggest that neurons with low SK conductance fire in a fast firing mode, are correlated with burst firing, and require higher levels of applied current before undergoing depolarization block. We go on to consider the role of GABAergic inhibition on an ensemble of dynamical classes of DA neurons and find that strong GABA inhibition suppresses burst firing. Our studies suggest differences in the distribution of the SK conductance and GABA inhibition levels may indicate subclasses of DA neurons within the VTA. We further identify, that by considering alternate potassium dynamics, the dynamics display burst patterns that terminate via depolarization block, akin to those observed in vivo in VTA DA neurons and in substantia nigra pars compacta DA cell preparations under apamin application. In addition, we consider the generation of transient burst firing events that are NMDA-initiated or elicited by a sudden decrease of GABA inhibition, that is, disinhibition.

  15. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  16. 3D Filament Network Segmentation with Multiple Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and microtubules. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we developed a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D TIRF Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

  17. A new insight into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimenko, Sergey V.; Bykov, Victor G.; Shestakov, Nikolay V.; Grib, Nikolay N.; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    This study provides new insights into the nature of seasonal variations in coordinate time series of GPS sites located near active faults and methods of their modeling. Monthly averaged coordinate time series were analyzed for several pairs of collocated GPS sites situated near the active fault intersection area, in close proximity to the central part of the northern boundary of the Amurian plate and the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault zone. It is concluded that the observed seasonal variations are best described by a breather function which is one of the solutions of the well-known sine-Gordon equation. The obtained results suggest that, in this case, the source of seasonal variations may be caused by the appearance of solitary strain waves in the fault intersection system, which may be qualitatively treated as standing waves of compression-extension of the geological medium. Based on statistical testing, the limits of applicability of the suggested model have been established.

  18. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL NETWORK FOR CURRICULUM COORDINATION IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION What Conditions Must Be Met... representative (SLR), who is appointed by the State director of vocational education. The SLR has...

  19. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF A Ca (II COORDINATION POLYMER BASED ON 3-AMINO-2-PYRAZINECARBOXYLIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XI-SHI TAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new Ca(II coordination polymer has been obtained by reaction of Ca(ClO42·H2O with 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by IR, 1HNMR, thermal analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. X-ray analysis reveals that each Ca(II center is seven-coordination with a N2O5 distorted pentagonal bipyramidal coordination environment. The Ca(II ions are linked through the O atoms of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligands to form 1D chain structure. And then a 3D network structure is constructed by hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking. The antitumor activity of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligand and its Ca(II coordination polymer against human intestinal adenocarcinoma HCT-8 cells, lung adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells line have been investigated.

  20. Development of a database for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis: Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Pavi, ???

    2003-04-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarized in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003.

  1. Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : the effects of functional movement activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, A; Vlaskamp, C; Reynders, K; Nakken, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of functional movement activities within the MOVE ( Mobility Opportunities Via Education) curriculum on the independence of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Subjects: Forty-four children with profound intellectual and multiple disabili

  2. Intermolecular C-H activation with an Ir-METAMORPhos piano-stool complex--multiple reaction steps at a reactive ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenhof, S; Lutz, M; van der Vlugt, J I; Reek, J N H

    2015-10-21

    Substrate activation by means of a reactive ligand is a topic of much interest. Herein we describe a stoichiometric anti-Markovnikov C-N bond formation involving ligand reactivity in multiple steps along the reaction coordinate, including ligand assisted substrate (de)protonation and C-N bond formation, as illustrated by a combined experimental, spectroscopic and computational study. This affords a highly unusual four-membered iridacycle bearing an exo-cyclic C=C double bond.

  3. The planning and organisation of action and activities of daily living in developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2005-01-01

    By the time typical children reach infant school they have in place key movement skills such as running, hopping, jumping, throwing, kicking and writing (Gallahue & Ozmun, 1995; Haywood & Getchell, 2001). While these skills will continue to be refined throughout childhood, they reveal that children possess sophisticated movement planning, organisation and execution skills even at this young age. In this chapter the potential cognitive explanations for developmental coordination disorder, a di...

  4. Efficient HOMO-LUMO separation by multiple resonance effect toward ultrapure blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ikuta, Toshiaki; Shiren, Kazushi; Nakajima, Kiichi; Nomura, Shintaro; Ni, Jingping

    2016-09-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) play an important role in the new generation of flat-panel displays. Conventional OLEDs employing fluorescent materials together with triplet-triplet annihilation suffer from a relatively low internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of 62.5%. On the other hand, the IQE of OLEDs employing phosphorescent or thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials can reach 100%. However, these materials exhibit very broad peaks with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 70-100 nm and cannot satisfy the color-purity requirements for displays. Therefore, the latest commercial OLED displays employ blue fluorescent materials with a relatively low IQE, and efficient blue emitters with a small FWHM are highly needed. In our manuscript, we present organic molecules that exhibit ultrapure blue fluorescence based on TADF. These molecules consist of three benzene rings connected by one boron and two nitrogen atoms, which establish a rigid polycyclic framework and significant localization of the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals by a multiple resonance effect. An OLED device based on the new emitter exhibits ultrapure blue emission at 467 nm with an FWHM of 28 nm, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.12, 0.13), and an IQE of 100%, which represent record-setting performance for blue OLED devices.

  5. Active Power and DC-link Voltage Coordinative Control for Cascaded DC-AC Converter with Bidirectional Power Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin;

    2015-01-01

    Two stage cascaded converters are widely used in DC/AC hybrid systems to achieve the bidirectional power transmission. The topology of dual active bridge cascaded with inverter (DABCI) is commonly used in this application. This paper proposes a coordinative control method for DABCI and it’s able...... to reduce the DC-link voltage fluctuation between the DAB and inverter, then reduce the stress on the switching devices, as well as improve the system dynamic performance. In the proposed control method, the DAB and inverter are coordinated to control the DC-link voltage and the power......, and this responsibility sharing control can effectively suppress the impact of the power variation on the DC-link voltage, without sacrificing stability. The proposed control method is also effective for DABCI in unidirectional power transmission. The effectiveness of the propose control has been validated by both...

  6. Multiple-source multiple-harmonic active vibration control of variable section cylindrical structures: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Chen, Xuefeng; Gao, Jiawei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2016-12-01

    Air vehicles, space vehicles and underwater vehicles, the cabins of which can be viewed as variable section cylindrical structures, have multiple rotational vibration sources (e.g., engines, propellers, compressors and motors), making the spectrum of noise multiple-harmonic. The suppression of such noise has been a focus of interests in the field of active vibration control (AVC). In this paper, a multiple-source multiple-harmonic (MSMH) active vibration suppression algorithm with feed-forward structure is proposed based on reference amplitude rectification and conjugate gradient method (CGM). An AVC simulation scheme called finite element model in-loop simulation (FEMILS) is also proposed for rapid algorithm verification. Numerical studies of AVC are conducted on a variable section cylindrical structure based on the proposed MSMH algorithm and FEMILS scheme. It can be seen from the numerical studies that: (1) the proposed MSMH algorithm can individually suppress each component of the multiple-harmonic noise with an unified and improved convergence rate; (2) the FEMILS scheme is convenient and straightforward for multiple-source simulations with an acceptable loop time. Moreover, the simulations have similar procedure to real-life control and can be easily extended to physical model platform.

  7. Coordination between the electrical activity of developing indirect flight muscles and the firing activity of a population of neurosecretory cells in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Satoshi; Nohara, Rika; Ichikawa, Toshio

    2006-05-01

    The developing indirect flight muscles of pharate moths are characterized by a rhythmic discharge of a long bout of flight-pattern-like muscle potentials in the absence of contractions. The electrical activity of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, was discernible as a cluster of many series of muscle potentials that last for several minutes on day 4 of the pupal period. The duration of the active phases and the period of rhythmic activity gradually increased to a peak value on day 7 or 8 and then declined until the end of the pupal period. Mean duration of the active phases (+/-SD) and the mean period of the rhythmic activity (+/-SD) at the peak were 38.7+/-8.7 min and 74.5+/-7.3 min, respectively. The rhythmic electrical activity of immature DLMs was closely coordinated with the rhythmic (bursting) activity of a population of neurosecretory cells that are known to produce pheromone-biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and its related peptides, which belong to the multifunctional peptide family, pyrokinin/PBAN. The DLMs always became active a few minutes after the neurosecretory cells, and the timing of onset of these two activities appeared to be strictly regulated by a neural mechanism. The implication of the coordinated activity for development and maturation of imaginal tissues, including the flight motor system, and possible functions of the neuropeptides in this development are discussed.

  8. Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with developmental coordination disorder: an investigation using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Matthew Y W; Cairney, John; Hay, John A; Faught, Brent E

    2013-11-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, pactivity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, pactivity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD.

  9. Diffusion of Active Particles Subject both to Additive and Multiplicative Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-Hua; YANG Ming; WU Da-Jin

    2011-01-01

    We consider a Langevin equation of active Brownian motion which contains a multiplicative as well as an additive noise term.We study the dependences of the effective diffusion coefficient Deff on both the additive and multiplicative noises.It is found that for fixed small additive noise intensity Deff varies non-monotonously with multiplicative noise intensity, with a minimum at a moderate value of multiplicative noise, and Deff increases monotonously, however, with the multiplicative noise intensity for relatively strong additive noise; for fixed multiplicative noise intensity Deff decreases with growing additive noise intensity until it approaches a constant.An explanation is also given of the different behavior of Deff as additive and multiplicative noises approach infinity,respectively.%@@ We consider a Langevin equation of active Brownian motion which contains a multiplicative as well as an additive noise term.We study the dependences of the effective diffusion coefficient Deff on both the additive and multiplicative noises.It is found that for fixed small additive noise intensity Deff varies non-monotonously with multiplicative noise intensity, with a minimum at a moderate value of multiplicative noise, and Deff increases monotonously, however, with the multiplicative noise intensity for relatively strong additive noise; for fixed multiplicative noise intensity Deff decreases with growing additive noise intensity until it approaches a constant.An explanation is also given of the different behavior of Deff as additive and multiplicative noises approach infinity, respectively.

  10. Dynamic Associations of Change in Physical Activity and Change in Cognitive Function: Coordinated Analyses of Four Longitudinal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Lindwall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a coordinated analyses approach to examine the association of physical activity and cognitive change in four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with physical activity included both as a fixed (between-person and time-varying (within-person predictor of four domains of cognitive function (reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge was used. Baseline physical activity predicted fluency, reasoning and memory in two studies. However, there was a consistent pattern of positive relationships between time-specific changes in physical activity and time-specific changes in cognition, controlling for expected linear trajectories over time, across all four studies. This pattern was most evident for the domains of reasoning and fluency.

  11. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  12. Coordination of tongue activity during swallowing in mouth-breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Klein, Sabine; Bleckmann, Annalen; Engelke, Wilfried

    2012-09-01

    Habitual mouth breathing is often accompanied by habitual anterior tongue thrust, instead of a lip closure, in order to create the anterior seal necessary for the initiation of physiological deglutition. We tested the null hypothesis of no significant influence of oral maneuver and the use of oral screens on tongue coordination and position during deglutition in 29 subjects (age = 6-16; mean = 9.69 years; 13/16 female/male) with habitual open-mouth posture using intraoral polysensography. The target parameters for swallowing were swallowing-associated nasal airflow interruption (NAI) and coordination of tongue-palate contact during NAI. Conventional myofunctional maneuvers could be facilitated and made more efficient, in terms of increasing the numbers of favorable early tongue-palate contacts typical of somatic swallowing, if accompanied by the application of an oral screen. Habitual open-mouth breathing does not necessarily coincide with distinctively pronounced proportions of late tongue-palate contact.

  13. Activation of endogenous neural stem cells for multiple sclerosis therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidou, Iliana; de Vries, Helga E.; Hol, Elly M.; van Strien, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens, consist of immunomodulatory agents aiming to reduce the rate of relapses. However, these agents are usually insufficient to treat chronic

  14. Activation of endogenous neural stem cells for multiple sclerosis therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidou, I.; de Vries, H.E.; Hol, E.M.; van Strien, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens, consist of immunomodulatory agents aiming to reduce the rate of relapses. However, these agents are usually insufficient to treat chronic

  15. Efficacy of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis patients with high disease activity: a Danish nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, A.B.; Koch-Henriksen, N.; Petersen, T.;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of natalizumab (Tysabri) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have included patients with moderate disease activity. We studied a patient population with high disease activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 234 consecutive, natalizumab-treated...

  16. Methylene bridge regulated geometrical preferences of ligands in cobalt(III) coordination chemistry and phenoxazinone synthase mimicking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Anangamohan; Shyamal, Milan; Saha, Amrita; Mandal, Tarun Kanti

    2014-04-14

    Two new azide bound cobalt(III) complexes, [Co(L(1))(N3)3] (fac-1) and [Co(L(2))(N3)3] (mer-2), where L(1) is bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and L(2) is (2-pyridylmethyl)(2-pyridylethyl)amine, derived from tridentate reduced Schiff-base ligands have been reported. Interestingly, a methylene bridge regulated preferential coordination mode of ligands is noticed in their crystal structures: it is found in a facial arrangement in fac-1 and has a meridional disposition in mer-2. Both complexes show phenoxazinone synthase-like activity and the role of the structural factor on the catalytic activity is also explored. Moreover, the easily reducible cobalt(III) center in mer-2 favors the oxidation of o-aminophenol. The ESI-MS positive spectra together with UV-vis spectroscopy clearly suggest the formation of a catalyst-substrate adduct by substitution of the coordinated azide ions in the catalytic cycle.

  17. Evidence of a central pattern generator regulating spermathecal muscle activity in Locusta migratoria and its coordination with oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosa; Lange, Angela B

    2011-03-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were conducted to determine the control of spermathecal contractions during oviposition of interrupted egg-laying locusts, Locusta migratoria. Following transection of the central nervous system below the metathoracic ganglion, rhythmic patterned bursting was detected by extracellular recordings of the nerve N2B2 that innervates the muscles of the spermatheca. Subsequent transections at more posterior regions of the ventral nerve cord revealed more robust rhythmic bursting in N2B2. This rhythmic bursting pattern was found to be coordinated with bursting in the ventral opener nerve (N2B1) that innervates the ventral opener muscle. This muscle controls the ventral ovipositor valves. Electromyographic recordings from the spermathecal muscle and ventral opener muscle confirmed a rhythmic bursting pattern resulting in an increase in muscle activity. Taken together, the results indicate that there is probably a central pattern generator (CPG), which is regulated by descending inhibition, that controls the spermathecal muscle activity. This CPG appears to be located within the VIIth and VIIIth abdominal ganglia, and was found to integrate with the CPG that regulates oviposition digging in locusts. These results provide further insight into the intricate coordination and control of reproductive tissues underlying reproductive behaviours in locusts.

  18. Fuzzy control coordination based hunting of multiple autonomous robots%基于模糊控制协调策略的多自主机器人围捕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑗; 焦继乐; 曹志强; 周超

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce communication and improve the adaptability to unknown environments of multi-robot system, a fuzzy control coordination based hunting approach of multiple autonomous robots was proposed. According to the local sensing information of target and the angle-minimal neighbor teammates, each predator robot chooses the proper one from L-fuzzy controller, R-fuzzy controller and M-fuzzy controller to control the angle between the teammates and itself. With the help of local sensing based target tracking, the predator robots keep a certain angle or move round obstacles properly to pursue the invader cooperatively. Experiments results show the validity of the proposed approach.%为了降低多机器入围捕中的通信量,提高多机器人系统对未知环境的适应性,提出了一种基于模糊控制协调策略的多自主机器入围捕方法.围捕机器人根据感知范围内同伴和目标的分布,从L模糊控制器、R模糊控制器和M模糊控制器中选取合适的一个用以控制和最邻角同伴之间的夹角,进而实现多机器人之间的局部协调,结合基于局部感知的目标跟踪,在围捕过程中保持一定夹角或者以较合适的方式绕过障碍物,完成对智能入侵者的围捕.实验结果验证了该方法的可行性.

  19. Mixed ligand coordination polymers with flexible bis-imidazole linker and angular sulfonyldibenzoate: Crystal structure, photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Rachuri, Yadagiri [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Parmar, Bhavesh [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Suresh, Eringathodi, E-mail: esuresh@csmcri.org [Analytical Discipline and Centralized Instrument Facility, CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR—Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat (India)

    2014-05-01

    Four ternary coordination polymers (CPs) namely, ([Ni(SDB)(BITMB)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (CP1), ([Cd(SDB)(BITMB) (H{sub 2}O)]·(THF)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (CP2), ([Zn{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(THF){sub 2}){sub n} (CP3) and ([Co{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(Dioxane){sub 3}){sub n} (CP4) composed of angular dicarboxylate SDB (4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoate) and N-donor BITMB (1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethyl benzene) have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and other physico-chemical techniques. CP1 possesses one-dimensional ribbon type metal–organic motifs glued together by H-bonds and π⋯π interactions, whereas CP2–CP4, exhibit non-interpenetrated sql networks supported by weak supramolecular interactions. Structural diversity of these CPs can be attributed to the coordination geometry adopted by the metal nodes, versatile coordination modes of SDB and conformational flexibility of BITMB. Solid state luminescence properties of CP1–CP4 were explored. Photocatalytic performance of all CPs for the decomposition of metanil yellow by dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of visible light was also investigated. 25–83% dye removal from aqueous solutions in the presence of CP1–CP4 was observed. - Graphical abstract: Four new ternary transition metal CPs have been hydrothermally prepared and their structural aspects as well as photocatalytic activity for decolourization of metanil yellow (MY) dye have been investigated. - Highlights: • Four ternary coordination polymers containing Ni, Cd, Zn and Co center are prepared. • Crystal structure and thermal stability of all four CPs has been described. • PL and diffuse reflectance spectra of synthesized CPs have also been examined. • Band gap values suggest semiconducting behavior of prepared CPs. • Photocatalytic activity of CPs for oxidative degradation of metanil yellow is studied.

  20. XPS-Characterization of Heterometallic Coordination Compounds with Optically Active Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Ávila-Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterometallic optical complexes [Cu2Co(S,S(+cpse3(H2O3]·4H2O (1 and [Cu2Ni(S,S(+cpse3(H2O3]·10H2O (2 were obtained from the mononuclear copper(II compound by the addition of nickel(II or cobalt(II chlorides, where (H2cpse is the acetyl amino alcohol derivative N-[2-hydroxy-1(R-methyl-2(R-phenylethyl]-N-methylglycine. In comparison with the homotrinuclear copper(II compound [Cu3(S,S(+cpse3(H2O3]·8H2O reported previously, the substitution of a copper(II atom by one cobalt(II ion gave place to a heterotrinuclear compound 1, which presents ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic behaviour. When substituting a copper(II by a nickel(II ion, the trinuclear compound 2 showed an antiferromagnetic coupling. The magnetic behaviour of the heterotrinuclear compounds is driven by the nature of the metal ion which was introduced in the copper(II triangular array. The ligand and its coordination compounds were characterized by IR, UV-Vis-NIR. Their chemical was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS.

  1. Rac1-Rab11-FIP3 regulatory hub coordinates vesicle traffic with actin remodeling and T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-Gonzalez, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; Danckaert, Anne; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The immunological synapse generation and function is the result of a T-cell polarization process that depends on the orchestrated action of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and of intracellular vesicle traffic. However, how these events are coordinated is ill defined. Since Rab and Rho families of GTPases control intracellular vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton reorganization, respectively, we investigated their possible interplay. We show here that a significant fraction of Rac1 is associated with Rab11-positive recycling endosomes. Moreover, the Rab11 effector FIP3 controls Rac1 intracellular localization and Rac1 targeting to the immunological synapse. FIP3 regulates, in a Rac1-dependent manner, key morphological events, like T-cell spreading and synapse symmetry. Finally, Rab11-/FIP3-mediated regulation is necessary for T-cell activation leading to cytokine production. Therefore, Rac1 endosomal traffic is key to regulate T-cell activation.

  2. Angiogenic activity of sesamin through the activation of multiple signal pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung-Hee [Vascular System Research Center and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Division of Food Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Joon [Center for Molecular Cancer Research, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Dai [Division of Food Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo [Division of Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jongseon; Ha, Kwon-Soo [Vascular System Research Center and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Geun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Myeong, E-mail: ymkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Vascular System Research Center and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    The natural product sesamin has been known to act as a potent antioxidant and prevent endothelial dysfunction. We here found that sesamin increased in vitro angiogenic processes, such as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, as well as neovascularization in an animal model. This compound elicited the activation of multiple angiogenic signal modulators, such as ERK, Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NO production, FAK, and p38 MAPK, but not Src. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin specifically inhibited sesamin-induced activation of the ERK and Akt/eNOS pathways. These inhibitors reduced angiogenic events, with high specificity for MEK/ERK-dependent cell proliferation and migration and PI3K/Akt-mediated tube formation. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK effectively inhibited sesamin-induced cell migration. The angiogenic activity of sesamin was not associated with VEGF expression. Furthermore, this compound did not induce vascular permeability and upregulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, which are hallmarks of vascular inflammation. These results suggest that sesamin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the activation of MEK/ERK-, PI3K/Akt/eNOS-, p125{sup FAK}-, and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways, without increasing vascular inflammation, and may be used for treating ischemic diseases and tissue regeneration.

  3. Multiple host kinases contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppenser, Bernhard; Kwon, Hyunwoo; Canadien, Veronica; Xu, Risheng; Devreotes, Peter N; Grinstein, Sergio; Brumell, John H

    2013-01-01

    SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4) P2/PI(3-5) P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.

  4. Multiple host kinases contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Roppenser

    Full Text Available SopB is a type 3 secreted effector with phosphatase activity that Salmonella employs to manipulate host cellular processes, allowing the bacteria to establish their intracellular niche. One important function of SopB is activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt/protein kinase B in the infected host cell. Here, we examine the mechanism of Akt activation by SopB during Salmonella infection. We show that SopB-mediated Akt activation is only partially sensitive to PI3-kinase inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin in HeLa cells, suggesting that Class I PI3-kinases play only a minor role in this process. However, depletion of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 by expression of the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase PTEN inhibits Akt activation during Salmonella invasion. Therefore, production of PI(3,4 P2/PI(3-5 P3 appears to be a necessary event for Akt activation by SopB and suggests that non-canonical kinases mediate production of these phosphoinositides during Salmonella infection. We report that Class II PI3-kinase beta isoform, IPMK and other kinases identified from a kinase screen all contribute to Akt activation during Salmonella infection. In addition, the kinases required for SopB-mediated activation of Akt vary depending on the type of infected host cell. Together, our data suggest that Salmonella has evolved to use a single effector, SopB, to manipulate a remarkably large repertoire of host kinases to activate Akt for the purpose of optimizing bacterial replication in its host.

  5. Concurrent inhibition of kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling: coordinated suppression of mast cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Beaven, Michael A; Iwaki, Shoko;

    2008-01-01

    be explained by its inhibition of Kit kinase activity, whereas the inhibitory effects on FcepsilonRI-dependent signaling were at the level of Btk activation. Because hypothemycin also significantly reduced the mouse passive cutaneous anaphylaxis response in vivo, these data provide proof of principle...

  6. Coordinate increase of telomerase activity and c-Myc expression in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xin Zhang; Yan-Hong Gu; Zhi-Quan Zhao; Shun-Fu Xu; Hong-Ji Zhang; Hong-Di Wang; Bo Hao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the telomerase activity and c-Myc expression in gastric diseases and to examine the relation between these values and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) as a risk factor for gastric cancer.METHODS: One hundred and seventy-one gastric samples were studied to detect telomerase activity using a telomerase polymerase chain reaction enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELTSA), and c-Myc expression using immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: The telomerase activity and c-Myc expression were higher in cancers (87.69% and 61.54%) than in noncancerous tissues. They were higher in chronic atrophic gastritis with severe intestinal metaplasia (52.38% and 47.62%) than in chronic atrophic gastritis with mild intestinal metaplasia (13.33% and 16.67%). Tn chronic atrophic gastritis with severe intestinal metaplasia, the telomerase activity and c-Myc expression were higher in cases with -H pylori infection (67.86% and 67.86%) than in those without infection (21.43%and 7.14%). c-Myc expression was higher in gastric cancer with H pylori infection (77.27%) than in that without infection (28.57%). The telomerase activity and c-Nyc expression were coordinately up-regulated in H pylori infected gastric cancer and chronic atrophic gastritis with severe intestinal metaplasia.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection may influence both telomerase activity and c-Myc expression in gastric diseases,especially in chronic atrophic gastritis.

  7. Coordinated Regulation of Tissue Type Plasminogen Activator and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 Gene Expression in Hypophysectomized Rat Ovaries During GnRHa-Induced Ovulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘以训; 刘奎; 彭晓蓉; T.Ny

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have demonstrated that both granulosa and theca-interstitial cells of hy-pophysectomized rat ovaries are capable of synthesizing tPA and PAI-1.Injection of a GnRH agonist canmarkedly induce these gene expressions in the ovary in a cell-specific and time-coordinated manner,so that asurge of tPA mRNA and its activity in both granulosa and theca-interstitial cells was obtained just prior toovulation.Theca-interstitial cells make PAI-1 become the most active in the ovary.Both the amount PAI-1mRNA and its activity in the cells reach the maximum level 6 h before the tPA peak.By contrast,granulosacells produce only a little amount of PAI-1 (most increase tPA activity),and both PAI-1 mRNA and activityin the cells reach the maximum after ovulation.The coordinated regulation of tPA and PAI-1 in the ovarymay fine-tune the peak of tPA activity which may be important for the regulation of the ovulatory process.The changes of tPA and PAI-1 in the ovarian cells of hypophysectomized rats during GnRHa-induced ovula-tion are similar to that in intact rats during hCG-induced ovulation,suggesting that the ovulatory process canbe modulated by different regulatory signals mediated by influencing the coordinated expression of both tPAand PAI-1.

  8. The loading of coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts on activated carbon fiber: a feasible strategy to obtain visible light active and highly efficient polyoxometalate based photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tingting; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Huili; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xia; Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang

    2015-02-01

    To enhance the photocatalytic properties of coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMs) in the visible light region, its nanobelts (CC/POMNBs) were loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) through a simple colloidal blending process. The resulting coordination complex modified polyoxometalate nanobelts loaded activated carbon fiber composite materials (CC/POMNBs/ACF) exhibited dramatic photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Optical and electrochemical methods illustrated the enhanced photocatalytic activity of CC/POMNBs/ACF, which originates from the high separation efficiency of the photogenerated electrons and holes on the interface of the CC/POMNBs and ACF, which results from the synergistic effects between them. In the composite material, the role of ACF could be described as a photosensitizer and a good electron transporter. Furthermore, the influence of the mass ratio between the CC/POMNBs and ACF on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting composite material was discussed, and an ideal value to obtain highly efficient photocatalysts was obtained. The results suggested that the loading of CC/POMNBs on the surface of ACF would be a feasible strategy to enhance their photocatalytic activity.

  9. Activation of multiple phoneme associates of graphemes in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Marielle

    2002-01-01

    One general issue in the domain of visual word recognition is to delineate the nature of readers' knowledge of the print-sound mapping. A more specific question is to determine whether multiple grapheme-phoneme associations are available and activated during the phonological transcoding of a letter string. Evidence for the activation of irregular associations during print-to-sound transcoding, independently from lexical influences, was assessed in a letter detection task by examining performance on target-absent pseudowords. We contrasted two types of pseudowords that could be considered homophone with a real word by application of either grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules or of multiple phonemic activation. Performance on both types of homophones was compared to nonhomophone control pseudowords, strictly equivalent in terms of orthographic similarity to the base words. The finding of a homophony disadvantage for the homophones by multiple activation was interpreted as evidence for multiple phonemic activation in the print-to-sound conversion system.

  10. Multiple nucleophilic elbows leading to multiple active sites in a single module esterase from Sorangium cellulosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D.B.R.K. Gupta; Madsen, Karina Marie; Panagiotou, Gianni;

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic residues in carbohydrate esterase enzyme families constitute a highly conserved triad: serine, histidine and aspartic acid. This catalytic triad is generally located in a very sharp turn of the protein backbone structure, called the nucleophilic elbow and identified by the consensus...... sequence GXSXG. An esterase from Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 that contains five nucleophilic elbows was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the function of each nucleophilic elbowed site was characterized. In order to elucidate the function of each nucleophilic elbow, site directed mutagenesis...... was used to generate variants with deactivated nucleophilic elbows and the functional promiscuity was analyzed. In silico analysis together with enzymological characterization interestingly showed that each nucleophilic elbow formed a local active site with varied substrate specificities and affinities...

  11. Active video gaming improves body coordination in survivors of childhood brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, M.; Sjölund, A.; Broeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether active video gaming (AVG) could bring about regular, enjoyable, physical exercise in children treated for brain tumours, what level of physical activity could be reached and if the children’s physical functioning improved. Methods: Thirteen children, aged 7–17 years...... compared to their healthy peers. Active video gaming (AVG), supported by Internet coaching, is a feasible home-based intervention in children treated for brain tumours, promoting enjoyable, regular physical exercise of moderate intensity. In this pilot study, AVG with Nintendo Wii improved Body......-blinded assessments of physical functioning were done, using the Bruininks–Osteretsky Test of Motor Performance, second edition, evaluating participants before and after the intervention period, as well as comparing the randomisation groups after the first period. Results: All patients completed the study. AVG...

  12. Coordinating Etk/Bmx activation and VEGF upregulation to promote cell survival and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Cindy H; Chen, Kai-Yun; Deng, Hong-Tao; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Hosoya, Ken-ichi; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Ann, David K

    2002-12-12

    Etk/Bmx, a member of the Tec family of non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is characterized by an N-terminal PH domain and has recently been shown to be involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, motility and apoptosis. Since VEGF and the activation of its signaling pathway have been implicated in modulating a variety of biological responses, we characterized the role of Etk-dependent signaling pathways involved in the upregulation of VEGF expression, and explored the functional implications of this enhancement in sustaining cell proliferation and survival. Using Northern and Western analyses, transient transfections, and pharmacological agents, we demonstrate that Etk activation alone is sufficient to transcriptionally induce VEGF expression, independent of the previously identified hypoxia response element (HRE), in both Pa-4 epithelial and TR-BBB endothelial cells under normoxia. In addition, Etk utilizes both MEK/ERK and PI3-K/Pak1 signaling pathways in concert to activate VEGF transcription. Functionally, Etk activation elicits a profound stimulatory effect on TR-BBB cell proliferation and formation of capillary-like networks in Matrigel containing reduced levels of growth factors. Finally, antisense oligonucleotides against either endogenous VEGF or Etk abrogate the proliferation of Etk-activated TR-BBB cells, and exogenous VEGF treatment stimulates endogenous Etk tyrosine phosphorylation in HUVECs. Taken together, these results indicate that VEGF is both an Etk downstream target gene and an Etk upstream activator, constituting a reciprocal Etk-VEGF autoregulatory loop. These findings, to our knowledge, are the first delineation of a network of positive feedforward signaling pathways that converge on the Etk-VEGF axis, causally associating Etk-mediation of VEGF induction with enhanced cellular processes in both epithelial and endothelial cells.

  13. Hedgehog signal activation coordinates proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yoshikazu [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Itoh, Tohru, E-mail: itohru@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Miyajima, Atsushi [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2009-09-10

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in development and homeostasis of various organs. In the adult liver, it regulates proliferation and/or viability of several types of cells, particularly under injured conditions, and is also implicated in stem/progenitor cell maintenance. However, the role of this signaling pathway during the normal developmental process of the liver remains elusive. Although Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm from which the liver derives, the expression disappears at the onset of the liver bud formation, and its possible recurrence at the later stages has not been investigated. Here we analyzed the activation and functional relevance of Hh signaling during the mouse fetal liver development. At E11.5, Shh and an activation marker gene for Hh signaling, Gli1, were expressed in Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts, the fetal liver progenitor cells, and the expression was rapidly decreased thereafter as the development proceeded. In the culture of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts isolated from the E11.5 liver, activation of Hh signaling stimulated their proliferation and this effect was cancelled by a chemical Hh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine. In contrast, hepatocyte differentiation of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts in vitro as manifested by the marker gene expression and acquisition of ammonia clearance activity was significantly inhibited by forced activation of Hh signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate the temporally restricted manner of Hh signal activation and its role in promoting the hepatoblast proliferation, and further suggest that the pathway needs to be shut off for the subsequent hepatic differentiation of hepatoblasts to proceed normally.

  14. Multiple forms of endopeptidase activity from jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M J; Storey, R D

    1990-01-01

    The cotyledons of 27 day post-germination jojoba seedlings (Simmondsia chinensis) contained five distinct endopeptidase activities separable by DEAE Bio-Gel and CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The endopeptidases were purified 108- to 266-fold and their individuality was confirmed by activity-specific assays in native acrylamide gels along with differences in their Mr and catalytic properties. The five endopeptidases, which showed activity on model substrates and protein, were named EP Ia, EP Ib, EP II, EP III and EP IV. EP Ia was a serine proteinase with a pH optimum of ca 8 and Mr of 58,000. EP Ib, II and III were discrete cysteine proteinases showing pH optima of ca 6.8, 6.0 and 5.4 and Mr of 41,000, 47,000 and 35,000 respectively. EP IV was an aspartic acid proteinase with a ca pH optimum of 3.5 and Mr of 33,000.

  15. TLR9-dependent recognition of MCMV by IPC and DC generates coordinated cytokine responses that activate antiviral NK cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Anne; French, Anthony R; Barchet, Winfried; Fischer, Jens A A; Dzionek, Andrzej; Pingel, Jeanette T; Orihuela, Michael M; Akira, Shizuo; Yokoyama, Wayne M; Colonna, Marco

    2004-07-01

    Natural interferon-producing cells (IPC) respond to viruses by secreting type I interferon (IFN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 mediates IPC recognition of some of these viruses in vitro. However, whether TLR9-induced activation of IPC is necessary for an effective antiviral response in vivo is not clear. Here, we demonstrate that IPC and dendritic cells (DC) recognize murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) through TLR9. TLR9-mediated cytokine secretion promotes viral clearance by NK cells that express the MCMV-specific receptor Ly49H. Although depletion of IPC leads to a drastic reduction of the IFN-alpha response, this allows other cell types to secrete IL-12, ensuring normal IFN-gamma and NK cell responses to MCMV. We conclude that the TLR9/MyD88 pathway mediates antiviral cytokine responses by IPC, DC, and possibly other cell types, which are coordinated to promote effective NK cell function and MCMV clearance.

  16. Fuzzy robust path tracking strategy of an active pelagic trawl system with coordinated ship and winch regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英龙; 周华; 赵勇刚; 侯交义

    2014-01-01

    A fuzzy robust path tracking strategy of an active pelagic trawl system with ship and winch regulation is proposed. First, nonlinear mathematic model of the pelagic trawl system was derived using Lagrange equation and further simplified as a low order model for the convenience of controller design. Then, an active path tracking strategy of pelagic trawl system was investigated to improve the catching efficiency of the target fish near the sea bottom. By means of the active tracking control, the pelagic trawl net can be positioned dynamically to follow a specified trajectory via the coordinated winch and ship regulation. In addition, considering the system nonlinearities, modeling uncertainties and the unknown exogenous disturbance of the trawl system model, a nonlinear robust H2/H∞controller based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model was presented, and the simulation comparison with linear robust H2/H∞controller and PID method was conducted for the validation of the nonlinear fuzzy robust controller. The nonlinear simulation results show that the average tracking error is 0.4 m for the fuzzy robust H2/H∞control and 125.8 m for the vertical and horizontal displacement, respectively, which is much smaller than linear H2/H∞ controller and the PID controller. The investigation results illustrate that the fuzzy robust controller is effective for the active path tracking control of the pelagic trawl system.

  17. Preliminary Evidence that Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna; Hu, Liang; Morris, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than nondiseased people. One method for increasing physical activity levels involves the identification of factors that correlate with physical activity and that are modifiable by a well designed intervention. This study examined two types of self-efficacy as cross-sectional and…

  18. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  19. The Long and the Short of It: Comments on Multiple Timescale Studies of Human Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Jay L.

    2001-01-01

    Comments on four articles in a special issue of the Journal of the Learning Sciences on methodology in learning sciences. Analyzes the articles within a general model seeking to analyze human activity across multiple time scales. (Author/MM)

  20. HYSCORE Analysis of the Effects of Substrates on Coordination of Water to the Active Site Iron in Tyrosine Hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, John; Eser, Bekir E; Mannikko, Donald; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2015-06-23

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is a mononuclear non-heme iron monooxygenase found in the central nervous system that catalyzes the hydroxylation of tyrosine to yield L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catalysis requires the binding of tyrosine, a tetrahydropterin, and O₂ at an active site that consists of a ferrous ion coordinated facially by the side chains of two histidines and a glutamate. We used nitric oxide as a surrogate for O₂ to poise the active site iron in an S = ³/₂ {FeNO}⁷ form that is amenable to electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The pulsed EPR method of hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy was then used to probe the ligands at the remaining labile coordination sites on iron. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine and nitric oxide, TyrH/NO/Tyr, orientation-selective HYSCORE studies provided evidence of the coordination of one H₂O molecule characterized by proton isotropic hyperfine couplings (A(iso) = 0.0 ± 0.3 MHz) and dipolar couplings (T = 4.4 and 4.5 ± 0.2 MHz). These data show complex HYSCORE cross peak contours that required the addition of a third coupled proton, characterized by an A(iso) of 2.0 MHz and a T of 3.8 MHz, to the analysis. This proton hyperfine coupling differed from those measured previously for H₂O bound to {FeNO}⁷ model complexes and was assigned to a hydroxide ligand. For the complex formed by the addition of tyrosine, 6-methyltetrahydropterin, and NO, TyrH/NO/Tyr/6-MPH₄, the HYSCORE cross peaks attributed to H₂O and OH⁻ for the TyrH/NO/Tyr complex were replaced by a cross peak due to a single proton characterized by an A(iso) of 0.0 MHz and a dipolar coupling (T = 3.8 MHz). This interaction was assigned to the N₅ proton of the reduced pterin.

  1. Twist1 activity thresholds define multiple functions in limb development

    OpenAIRE

    Krawchuk, Dayana; Weiner, Shoshana J; Chen, You-Tzung; Lu, Benson; Costantini, Frank; Behringer, Richard R.; Laufer, Ed

    2010-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is essential for normal limb development. Twist1−/− embryos die at midgestation. However, studies on early limb buds found that Twist1−/− mutant limb mesenchyme has an impaired response to FGF signaling from the apical ectodermal ridge, which disrupts the feedback loop between the mesenchyme and AER, and reduces and shifts anteriorly Shh expression in the zone of polarizing activity. We have combined Twist1 null, hypomorph and conditional...

  2. Activated mechanisms in proteins: a multiple-temperature activation-relaxation technique study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Rachid; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2001-03-01

    The low-temperature dynamics of proteins is controlled by a complex activated dynamics taking place over long time-scales compared with the period of thermal oscillations. In view of the range of relevant time scales, the numerical study of these processes remains a challenge and numerous methods have been introduced to address this problem. We introduce here a mixture of two algorithms, the activation-relaxation technique (ART)^1,2 coupled with the parallel tempering method, and use it to study the structure of the energy landscape around the native state of a 38-residue polypeptide. While ART samples rapidly the local energy landscape, the parallel tempering, which sets up exchanges of configuration between simultaneous runs at multiple temperatures, generates a very efficient sampling of energy basins separated by high barriers^(3). Results show the nature of the barriers and local minima surrounding the native state of this 38-residue peptide, modeled with off-lattice OPEP-like interactions^4. (1) G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, PRL 77, 4358 (1996) (2) N. Mousseau and G.T. Barkema, PRE 57, 2419 (1998) (3) E. Marinari and G. Parisi, Europhys. Lett., 19 (6), 451 (1992) (4) Ph. Derreumaux, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2301 (1999); PRB 85, 206 (2000)

  3. ACTIVE POWER LOSSES IN LONG LINES DURING COORDINATED, LIMITING AND MALFUNCTION BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimsky V.X.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Exact formulas for calculation of limiting values of transmitted capacity and efficiency of lines of a variable voltage with active loading on the reception end are resulted. Critical resistance and losses of capacity are determined depending on length Air-lines of an electricity transmission of a class of a voltage 500 … 750 kV. Emergency operation in the loaded electricity transmission is investigated.

  4. Comparing evaluation activities across multiple theories of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Lisa M

    2013-06-01

    This article compares and contrasts the evaluation activities described in Practical Participatory Evaluation (Cousins & Whitmore, 1998), Values-engaged Evaluation (Greene, 2005), and Emergent Realist Evaluation (Mark, Henry, & Julnes, 1998). Using the logic models developed to depict each of the three evaluation theories (Hansen, Alkin, & Wallace, 2013) as a starting point, both quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques are employed to discuss the similarities and differences across the practice prescriptions. The approaches are then described according to Miller's (2010) standards for empirical examinations of evaluation theory. Specifically, I offer speculation about their operational specificity and feasibility in practice. I argue that none of the models is completely specific, or wholly unique, and they all present challenges of adaptation into the field. However, the models each offer varying degrees of guidance and unique elements through their prescriptions.

  5. Coordinated Respiratory Motor Activity in Nerves Innervating the Upper Airway Muscles in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Satoshi; Nakayama, Kiyomi; Nakamura, Shiro; Mochizuki, Ayako; Iijima, Takehiko; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4) and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2). Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35. We recorded the efferent nerve activity in a branch of the cervical spinal nerve innervating the infrahyoid muscles (CN), the hypoglossal nerve (HGN), the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) with the phrenic nerve (PN). Inspiratory nerve discharges were observed in all these nerves under normocapnic conditions. The onset of inspiratory discharges in the CN and HGN was slightly prior to those in the SLN and RLN. When the CO2 concentration in the perfusate was increased from 5% to 8% to prepare for hypercapnic acidosis, the peak amplitudes of the inspiratory discharges in all the recorded nerves were increased. Moreover, hypercapnic acidosis induced pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, SLN, and RLN. The onset of pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, and SLN was prior to that of discharges in the RLN. These results suggest that the securing of the airway that occurs a certain time before dilation of the glottis may facilitate ventilation and improve hypercapnic acidosis.

  6. Coordinated Observations of X-ray and High-Resolution EUV Active Region Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sabrina; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The recently-launched High-resolution Coronal imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket provided the highest resolution images of coronal loops and other small-scale structures in the 193 Angstrom passband to date. With just 5 minutes of observations, the instrument recorded a variety of dynamic coronal events -- including even a small B-class flare. We will present our results comparing these extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations with X-ray imaging from Hinode/XRT as well as EUV AIA data to identify sources of hot plasma rooted in the photosphere and track their affect on the overall topology and dynamics of the active region.

  7. Evaluating Physical Activity Using Accelerometry in Children at Risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder in the Presence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerg, Sally; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Rempel, Lynn; Mahlberg, Nadilein; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is compromised in children and adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Approximately half of all children with DCD suffer from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); a cohort often considered more physically active than typically developing youth. Accelerometry is an effective method of assessing…

  8. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  9. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  10. Akt1 signaling coordinates BMP signaling and β-catenin activity to regulate second heart field progenitor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Hengwei; Tao, Lichan; Zhu, Jingai; Wang, Huijuan; Hemmings, Brian A; Yang, Zhongzhou

    2015-02-15

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors exhibit continued proliferation and delayed differentiation, which are modulated by FGF4/8/10, BMP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PTEN-Akt signaling regulates the stem cell/progenitor cell homeostasis in several systems, such as hematopoietic stem cells, intestinal stem cells and neural progenitor cells. To address whether PTEN-Akt signaling is involved in regulating cardiac progenitors, we deleted Pten in SHF progenitors. Deletion of Pten caused SHF expansion and increased the size of the SHF derivatives, the right ventricle and the outflow tract. Cell proliferation of cardiac progenitors was enhanced, whereas cardiac differentiation was unaffected by Pten deletion. Removal of Akt1 rescued the phenotype and early lethality of Pten deletion mice, suggesting that Akt1 was the key downstream target that was negatively regulated by PTEN in cardiac progenitors. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of FOXO by Akt1 suppressed the expression of the gene encoding the BMP ligand (BMP7), leading to dampened BMP signaling in the hearts of Pten deletion mice. Cardiac activation of Akt also increased the Ser552 phosphorylation of β-catenin, thus enhancing its activity. Reducing β-catenin levels could partially rescue heart defects of Pten deletion mice. We conclude that Akt signaling regulates the cell proliferation of SHF progenitors through coordination of BMP signaling and β-catenin activity.

  11. DMPD: Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12213596 Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regula...(.html) (.csml) Show Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3.... PubmedID 12213596 Title Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of

  12. An Expanded Theoretical Framework of Care Coordination Across Transitions in Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Laurel E; Castonguay, Denise; Keenan, Carolyn B; Hermann, Cherice

    2016-01-01

    For many patients, high-quality, patient-centered, and cost-effective health care requires coordination among multiple clinicians and settings. Ensuring optimal care coordination requires a clear understanding of how clinician activities and continuity during transitions affect patient-centeredness and quality outcomes. This article describes an expanded theoretical framework to better understand care coordination. The framework provides clear articulation of concepts. Examples are provided of ways to measure the concepts.

  13. Block coordination copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  14. Block coordination copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  15. Neural signatures of social conformity: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yi; Feng, Chunliang

    2016-12-01

    People often align their behaviors with group opinions, known as social conformity. Many neuroscience studies have explored the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social conformity. Here we employed a coordinate-based meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of social conformity with the purpose to reveal the convergence of the underlying neural architecture. We identified a convergence of reported activation foci in regions associated with normative decision-making, including ventral striatum (VS), dorsal posterior medial frontal cortex (dorsal pMFC), and anterior insula (AI). Specifically, consistent deactivation of VS and activation of dorsal pMFC and AI are identified when people's responses deviate from group opinions. In addition, the deviation-related responses in dorsal pMFC predict people's conforming behavioral adjustments. These are consistent with current models that disagreement with others might evoke "error" signals, cognitive imbalance, and/or aversive feelings, which are plausibly detected in these brain regions as control signals to facilitate subsequent conforming behaviors. Finally, group opinions result in altered neural correlates of valuation, manifested as stronger responses of VS to stimuli endorsed than disliked by others.

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  17. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  18. From Single Motor Unit Activity to Multiple Grip Forces: Mini‐review of Multi‐digit Grasping1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Sara A.; Santello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This paper is a mini review of kinetic and kinematic evidence on the control of the hand with emphasis on grasping. It is not meant to be an exhaustive review, rather it summarizes current research examining the mechanisms through which specific patterns of coordination are elicited and observed during reach to grasp movements and static grasping. These coordination patterns include the spatial and temporal covariation of the rotation at multiple joints during reach to grasp movements. A basic coordination between grip forces produced by multiple digits also occurs during whole hand grasping such that normal forces tend to be produced in a synchronous fashion across pairs of digits. Finally, we address current research that suggests that motor unit synchrony across hand muscles and muscle compartments might be one of the neural mechanisms underlying the control of grasping. PMID:18414593

  19. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  20. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  1. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  2. THE EFFECT OF STANUM (IV AND GERMANІUM (IV COORDINATION COMPOUNDS ON Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465 PEPTIDASES ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidialkova N. А.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to investigate the influence of stanum (IV and germanium (IV coordination compounds on peptidases 1 and 2 of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465 activity. The study of coordination compounds effect on peptidase activity was carried out by complexes with the enzymes incubation and residual activity to the collagen, elastin and fibrin determination. It was revealed the regularity in the influence of different structure complex compounds on peptidases of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465 activity. The stanum (IV complexes with salicyloylhydrazones of aromatic aldehydes increase collagenase and elastase activities. Substituents replacement in aldehyde fragment of stanum (IV with isonicotinoylhydrazones of aromatic aldehydes complexes by the less polar ones contributed to increase of elastase activity of both enzymes while an absence of substituents enables to increase peptidase 2 fibrinolytic activity. The complexes of germanіum (IV with isonicotinoylhydrazone of salicylic aldehyde which contain Zn and Co, increased collagenase activity of the peptidase 1 as well as elastase and fibrinolytic activities of the peptidase 2. In general, all tested complexes may be considered as peptidase effectors of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis ІМV В-7465. A difference of complexes effect on activities of the both enzymes is due to the characteristics of the structure of coordination compounds.

  3. Poisson Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  4. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    to coordinate relatively elaborate agreements due to the strength of its coordination as far as professional or technical and political activities (excepting the ILO budget) are concerned. In other more clear-cut or 'simple' policy areas such as the ILO budget, the EU coordination is weak: this contrast...

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Antitumor Activity of Mixed Ligand Coordination Compound of Copper with Norfloxacin and 1, 10-Phen, [Cu (NFLX)(phen)(H2O)] NO3 ·3H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ping WANG; Li Cheng YAN; Long Guan ZHU

    2003-01-01

    The mixed ligand coordination compound of copper with norfloxacin (NFLX) and 1, 10-phen has been synthesized and characterized by means of X-ray single crystal diffraction. The structure features of the coordination compound are described. Antibacterial activities of the coordination compound have been tested against different microorganisms. The antitumor activities of the coordination compound on leukemia HL-60 cell line and liver cancer BEL-7402 cell line have been measured, respectively. The results indicated that the coordination compound has strong inhibitory effect on HL-60 and BEL-7402 cell lines.

  6. COORDINATING SUPPLY CHAIN INVENTORIES IN MULTI-ECHELON NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAM SUNDAR K,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is the management of dependencies between activities. The purpose of coordination is to achieve collectively goals that individual actors cannot meet. Coordination within a supply chain is strategic responses to the problems that arise from inter – organizational dependencies within the chain. Given the increasing importance of inventory management and cost reduction to be gained through supply chain coordination, the challenge to an organization is how to select the appropriate coordination mechanism to benefit all the players of a supply chain.The present study proposes a model to study and analyze the benefit of coordinating supply chaininventories through the use of common replenishment time periods. It investigates the coordination of orderquantities amongst the players in a three level supply chain with a centralized decision process. The first level ofsupply chain consists of multiple buyers, the second level of a single manufacturer, and the third level consistsof multiple suppliers. Each supplier supplies one or more items required in the manufacture of the productproduced. When players in the supply chain agree to coordinate, it is possible to have some of the playersbenefiting more than others in the chain. Under the proposed strategy, the manufacturer specifies commonreplenishment periods and requires all buyers to replenish only at those time periods. To effect the coordinationmanufacturer offers a price discount to entice the buyers to accept this strategy. The model developed in thiswork guarantees that the local costs for the players either remain the same as before coordination, or decrease asa result of coordination. A mathematical model is developed, and numerical study is conducted to evaluate thebenefit of the proposed coordinated theory.

  7. How do persons with chronic low back pain speed up and slow down? Trunk-pelvis coordination and lumbar erector spinae activity during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Meijer, Onno G.; Beek, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    In healthy walking, the timing between trunk and pelvic rotations, as well as erector spinae (ES) activity varies systematically with walking velocity, whereas a comparable velocity-dependent adaptation of trunk-pelvis coordination is often reduced or absent in persons with low back pain (LBP). Base

  8. Changes in brain activation during the acquisition of a multifrequency bimanual coordination task: from the cognitive stage to advanced levels of automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttemans, Veerle; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2005-04-27

    Little is known about activation changes reflecting overlearning, i.e., extensive motor training beyond asymptotic performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to trace the neural shifts from an initial to a skilled (learning) and finally overlearned stage (automatization). Scanning occurred before training (PRE) and after 1 (MID) and 2 weeks (POST) of intensive practice on a new bimanual coordination task (>10,500 cycles). Kinematics revealed major improvements between PRE and MID sessions, whereas MID to POST session performance leveled off, indicative of learning and automatization, respectively. Imaging findings showed that activation decreased in bilateral opercular areas, bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the right ventral premotor and supramarginal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate sulcus during the learning stage and in the supplementary motor area during the automatization stage. These changes are hypothesized to reflect decreases in attention-demanding sensory processing, as well as suppression of preferred coordination tendencies as a prelude to acquiring new coordination modes. Conversely, learning-related increases were observed in the primary motor cortex (M1), posterior cingulate zone (PCZ), putamen, and right anterior cerebellum. Importantly, both M1 and PCZ activation decreased again to initial level (PRE) during automated performance (POST). Only the putamen and anterior cerebellum remained more activated across both learning and automatization stages, supporting their crucial role in long-term motor memory formation for coordination tasks.

  9. A systematic review of instruments for assessment of capacity in activities of daily living in children with developmental co-ordination disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, B W; van Netten, J J; Otten, E; Postema, K; Geuze, R H; Schoemaker, M M

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL). Assessment of their capacity in ADL is essential for diagnosis and intervention, in order to limit the daily consequences of the disorder. The aim of this study is to systema

  10. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social part

  11. A role based coordination model in agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-ying; YOU Jin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Coordination technology addresses the construction of open, flexible systems from active and independent software agents in concurrent and distributed systems. In most open distributed applications, multiple agents need interaction and communication to achieve their overall goal. Coordination technologies for the Internet typically are concerned with enabling interaction among agents and helping them cooperate with each other.At the same time, access control should also be considered to constrain interaction to make it harmless. Access control should be regarded as the security counterpart of coordination. At present, the combination of coordination and access control remains an open problem. Thus, we propose a role based coordination model with policy enforcement in agent application systems. In this model, coordination is combined with access control so as to fully characterize the interactions in agent systems. A set of agents interacting with each other for a common global system task constitutes a coordination group. Role based access control is applied in this model to prevent unauthorized accesses. Coordination policy is enforced in a distributed manner so that the model can be applied to the open distributed systems such as Intemet. An Internet online auction system is presented as a case study to illustrate the proposed coordination model and finally the performance analysis of the model is introduced.

  12. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis with multiple aneurysms and active bleeding: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Young; Kim Jae Woon; Jang, Jae Cheon [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A 52-year-old woman visited our institution with upper abdominal pain which had lasted for the past two days. Laboratory tests revealed mild leukocytosis, decreased serum hemoglobin, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. CT scans showed multiple ill-defined, hypodense lesions in the peripheral areas of both hepatic lobes and active bleeding with a subcapsular hematoma in the right hepatic lobe. Angiography also showed active bleeding in the right hepatic lobe with multiple aneurysms, so a transarterial coil embolization was performed to stop the bleeding. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed several moving flat flukes in the common bile duct, which were pathologically confirmed as Fasciola hepatica.

  13. Differences in movement-related cortical activation patterns underlying motor performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangelinan, Melissa M; Hatfield, Bradley D; Clark, Jane E

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral deficits in visuomotor planning and control exhibited by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been extensively reported. Although these functional impairments are thought to result from "atypical brain development," very few studies to date have identified potential neurological mechanisms. To address this knowledge gap, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 6- to 12-yr-old children with and without DCD (n = 14 and 20, respectively) during the performance of a visuomotor drawing task. With respect to motor performance, typically developing (TD) children exhibited age-related improvements in key aspects of motor planning and control. Although some children with DCD performed outside this TD landscape (i.e., age-related changes within the TD group), the group developmental trajectory of the children with DCD was similar to that of the TD children. Despite overall similarities in performance, engagement of cortical resources in the children with DCD was markedly different from that in their TD counterparts. While the patterns of activation are stable in TD children across the age range, the young children with DCD exhibited less engagement of motor cortical brain areas and the older children with DCD exhibited greater engagement of motor cortical brain areas than their TD peers. These results suggest that older children with DCD may employ a compensatory strategy in which increased engagement of relevant motor resources allows these children to perform comparably to their TD peers. Moreover, the magnitude of activation was related to several kinematic measures, particularly in children with DCD, suggesting that greater engagement in motor resources may underlie better behavioral performance.

  14. Modifications of laccase activities of copper efflux oxidase, CueO by synergistic mutations in the first and second coordination spheres of the type I copper center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kunishige; Kogi, Hiroki; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2013-02-15

    The redox potential of type I copper in the Escherichia coli multicopper oxidase CueO was shifted in the positive or negative direction as a result of the single, double, and triple mutations in the first and second coordination spheres: the formation of the NH···S(-)(Cys500 ligand) hydrogen bond, the breakdown of the NH(His443 ligand)···O(-)(Asp439) hydrogen bond, and the substitution of the Met510 ligand for the non-coordinating Leu or coordinating Gln. Laccase activities of CueO were maximally enhanced 140-fold by virtue of the synergistic effect of mild mutations at and at around the ligand groups to type I copper.

  15. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Antitumor Activity of a Ca(II Coordination Polymer Based on 1,6-Naphthalenedisulfonate and 4,4′-Bipyridyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Ca(II coordination polymer, [CaL(4,4′-bipyridyl(H2O4]n (L = 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonate, was synthesized by reaction of calcium perchlorate with 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and 4,4′-bipyridyl in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, molar conductivity and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray crystallography reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer belongs to the orthorhombic system, with space group P212121. The geometry of the Ca(II ion is a distorted CaNO6 pengonal bipyramid, arising from its coordination by four water molecules, one nitrogen atom of 4,4′-bipyridyl molecule, and two oxygen atoms from two L ligands. The complex molecules form a helical chain by self-assembly. The antitumor activity of 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and the Ca(II coordination polymer against human hepatoma smmc-7721 cell line and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer inhibits cell growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line with IC50 value of 27 μg/mL, and is more resistive to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line as compared to 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt.

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Introduction Underground installation of the initial CMS detector is almost complete. During this CMS week the detector will reach the minimum necessary condition allowing closure for beam. Configuration for pixel, BCM and endcap ECAL installation will then follow, with the installation of one or both endcap ECAL beingdependent on the actual date when beams may be expected through point 5. As we approach the culmination of 9 years of assembly at Cessy, it is appropriate to pay tribute once again to the continuing dedication and flexibility of all the CERN, collaboration and contractor teams working at point 5, including recently our colleagues from AT/VAC. There is every indication that the legacy of their hard work will be a superb scientific instrument. Safety The final burst of assembly activity in the UXC before closing for beam will involve the familiar worksite risks of heavy manipulation, restricted workspaces, multiple activity and work at height, now amplified by the presence of the very fragile be...

  17. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang;

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  18. Activities of daily living and lesion position among multiple sclerosis patients by Bayes network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Pan; Hongtao Lu; Qi Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a highly sensitive approach for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, and T2-weighted images can reveal lesions in the cerebral white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord. However, the lesions have a poor correlation with measurable clinical disability. In this study, we performed a large-scale epidemiological survey of 238 patients with multiple sclerosis in eleven districts by network member hospitals in Shanghai, China within 1 year. The involved patients were scanned for position and size of lesions by MRI. Results showed that lesions in the cerebrum, spinal cord, or supratentorial position had an impact on the activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis patients, as assessed by the Bayes network. On the other hand, brainstem lesions were very unlikely to influence the activities of daily living, and were not associated with the position of lesion, patient's gender, and patient's living place.

  19. Active Learning and Threshold Concepts in Multiple Testing That Can Further Develop Student Critical Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Desley

    2015-01-01

    Two practical activities are described, which aim to support critical thinking about statistics as they concern multiple outcomes testing. Formulae are presented in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, which are used to calculate the inflation of error associated with the quantity of tests performed. This is followed by a decision-making exercise, where…

  20. Effects of Multiple Intelligences Activities on Writing Skill Development in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Zennure Elgün; Ünal, Ismail Dogan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the effects of multiple intelligences activities versus traditional method on English writing development of the sixth grade students in Turkey. A quasi-experimental research method with a pre-test post-test design was applied. The participants were 50 sixth grade students at a state school in Ardahan in Turkey. The…

  1. Peptidylarginine deiminase activity in postmortem white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Schaaf, M; Teelken, A

    1999-01-01

    The myelin sheath in multiple sclerosis (MS) appears to contain a higher proportion of the citrullinated isoform of myelin basic protein MBP-C8. In vitro, MBP-associated arginine is deiminated to citrulline by the enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD). We investigated PAD activity in white matter

  2. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 modulates neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Noorbakhsh (Farshid); K. Tsutsui (Kazuyoshi); N. Vergnolle (Nathalie); L.A. Boven (Leonie); S.F. Shariat (Shahrokh); M. Vodjgani (Mohammed); K.G. Warren (Kenneth); P. Andrade-Gordon (Patricia); N.K. Hollenberg (Norman); C. Power (Christopher)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are widely recognized for their modulatory properties of inflammation and neurodegeneration. We investigated the role of PAR2 in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in humans and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. PA

  3. Does a physiotherapy programme of gross motor training influence motor function and activities of daily living in children presenting with developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonill S. Maharaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD lack motor coordination and have difficulty performing motor skills and activities of daily living. Research shows these children do not outgrow their motor difficulties and without intervention do not improve. Physiotherapy is relevant for these children, but due to limited clinical protocols for DCD the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a gross motor training programme for 6–12-year-old children with DCD.Methods: This randomised pre-test, post-test study recruited 64 children with scores of 15th percentile or below using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. The children were divided equally into an intervention group receiving 8 weeks of gross motor training for core stability, strengthening exercises, balance and coordination with task-specific activities for 30 min per week, while the control group continued with general therapy and activities of daily living. The M-ABC and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ were used to assess each child before and after 8 weeks.Results: Sixty children completed the study, with 43 males and 17 females (mean age 10.02 years, SD = 2.10. There were no adverse reactions to the programme and M-ABC scores for the intervention programme improved by 6.46%, ball skills (3.54% and balance (4.80% compared with the control (0.17% and (0.15%, respectively. There were significant (p < 0.05 improvements in DCDQ scores, but teachers allocated lower scores than parents.Conclusion: This study supports 8 weeks of gross motor training which can be a beneficial intervention for physiotherapists to improve gross motor function for DCD.Keywords: Developmental, co-ordination, skills, motor

  4. Dynamic activity of NF-κB in multiple trauma patients and protective effects of ulinastain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the dynamic activity of NF-κB at the early stage of injury in multiple trauma patients and the protective effects of ulinastain. Methods: From January 2008 to May 2010, patients with multiple traumas admitted to our emergency department were enrolled in this study. Their age varied from 20-55 years. All enrolled patients were assigned randomly into control group (26 cases of multiple injury without ulinastain treatment, ulinastain group (25 cases of multiple injury with ulinastain treatment, and mild injury group (20 cases for basic control. The inclusion criteria for mild injury group were AIS-2005≤3, single wound, previously healthy inhospital patients without the history of surgical intervention. In addition to routine treatment, patients in ulinastain group were intravenously injected 200 000 IU of ulinastain dissolved in 100 ml of normal saline within 12 hours after injury and subsequently injected at the interval of every 8 hours for 7 days. NF-κB activity in monocytes and the level of TNF? IL-1, IL? in serum on admission (day 0, day 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 were measured. Data were compared and analyzed between different groups. Results: NF-κB activity in monocytes and TNF? IL-1 and IL? of these patients reached peak levels at 24 hour after trauma, with gradual decrease to normal at 72 hour after trauma. NF-κB activity and levels of TNF? IL-1 and IL? were lower in ulinastain group than control one, without any significant difference between the two groups. The mean duration for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome was 7 d?.1 d and 10 d?.5 d in ulinastain group and control group respectively, and showed a significant difference. Conclusions: NF-κB activity in monocytes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in multiply injured patients increased transiently at the early stage of trauma. Ulinastain may shorten the duration of systemic inflammatory

  5. Cooperative and Competitive Coordination in Swarm Robotic Search for Multiple Targets%群机器人多目标搜索中的合作协同和竞争协同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云正; 薛颂东; 曾建潮

    2015-01-01

    群机器人进行多目标搜索时,通过任务分工形成多个子群,各子群分别针对一个意向目标协同搜索,故围绕子群协同中存在的合作关系和竞争关系提出控制策略。为进行合作协同,建立子群发言人的动态遴选机制,不同子群的发言人进行通信,交换所属各子群的最优信息,引导本子群的搜索行为;为进行竞争协同,引入承包机制,按子群的优势地位高低决定是承包还是放弃对某些目标的搜索。两类协同控制的仿真结果表明,合作协同扩大了机器人的感知范围,竞争协同降低了空间冲突机率。二者综合作用,明显提高了群机器人的搜索效率。%The swarm robots should be divided into some sub-swarms through task allocation when searching for multiple targets so as that each sub-swarm can work together on a desired target. For this end, a strategy of control is proposed which apply to cooperation relationship and competition relationship between some sub-swarms. To coordinate cooperatively, a spokesperson for each sub-swarm is required to elect in a self-organization fashion. On behalf of its sub-swarm, it commu-nicate with spokespersons of other sub-swarms, exchanging the respective local best information with these spokespersons each other, guiding its sub-swarm to search a target. For coordinating competitively, a mechanism of contract is proposed. These advantage sub-swarms contract with targets. On the contrast, those disadvantage sub-swarms abandon searching these targets. In a word, we design a control algorithm for the two kinds of coordination at coarse granularity level. Simulation results show that, coordinating cooperatively expand robots’ sense range. Coordinating competitively resolve space conflicts. Coordinating which occur between sub-swarms at coarse granularity level and in sub-swarm frame at fine granularity level, promote search efficiency to more high obviously than the

  6. A comparison of multiple sclerosis clinical disease activity between patients treated with natalizumab and fingolimod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Magyari, Melinda; Sellebjerg, Finn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Natalizumab and fingolimod were approved for treatment of active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Denmark in 2006 and 2011, respectively. There have been no randomized head-to-head studies comparing the two drugs. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy...... of natalizumab and fingolimod. METHODS: Data on all Danish RRMS patients who started their first second-line treatment with natalizumab or fingolimod from July 2011 to March 2015 were prospectively recorded in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Treatment Register. The two treatment arms were 1:1 propensity score...

  7. ACTIVE CONTROL OF A FLEXIBLE CANTILEVER PLATE WITH MULTIPLE TIME DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longxiang Chen; Ji Pan; Guoping Cai

    2008-01-01

    Active control of a flexible cantilever plate with multiple time delays is investigated using the discrete optimal control method.A controller with multiple time delays is presented.In this controller,time delay effect is incorporated in the mathematical model of the dynamic system throughout the control design and no approximations and assumptions are made in the controller derivation,so the system stability is easily guaranteed.Furthermore,this controller is available for both small time delays and large time delays.The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed controller are verified through numerical simulations in the end of this paper.

  8. Cellulase occurs in multiple active forms in ripe avocado fruit mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, A K; Kalaitzis, P

    1992-02-01

    The existence of multiple forms of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) cellulase in crude protein extracts of ripe avocado fruit is reported. Cellulase was separated into at least 11 multiple forms by native isoelectric focusing in the pH range between 4 and 7 and visualized by both activity staining using Congo red and immunostaining. The enzyme components were acidic proteins with isoelectric points in the range of pH 5.10 to 6.80, the predominant forms having isoelectric points of 5.60, 5.80, 5.95, and 6.20. All 11 forms were immunologically related with molecular masses of 54 kilodaltons.

  9. Tumor-Specific Multiple Stimuli-Activated Dendrimeric Nanoassemblies with Metabolic Blockade Surmount Chemotherapy Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yachao; Xu, Xianghui; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Yunkun; Zhang, Zhijun; Gu, Zhongwei

    2017-01-24

    Chemotherapy resistance remains a serious impediment to successful antitumor therapy around the world. However, existing chemotherapeutic approaches are difficult to cope with the notorious multidrug resistance in clinical treatment. Herein, we developed tumor-specific multiple stimuli-activated dendrimeric nanoassemblies with a metabolic blockade to completely combat both physiological barriers and cellular factors of multidrug resistance. With a sophisticated molecular and supramolecular engineering, this type of tumor-specific multiple stimuli-activated nanoassembly based on dendrimeric prodrugs can hierarchically break through the sequential physiological barriers of drug resistance, including stealthy dendritic PEGylated corona to optimize blood transportation, robust nanostructures for efficient tumor passive targeting and accumulation, enzyme-activated tumor microenvironment targeted to deepen tumor penetration and facilitate cellular uptake, cytoplasmic redox-sensitive disintegration for sufficient release of encapsulated agents, and lysosome acid-triggered nucleus delivery of antitumor drugs. In the meantime, we proposed a versatile tactic of a tumor-specific metabolism blockade for provoking several pathways (ATP restriction, apoptotic activation, and anti-apoptotic inhibition) to restrain multiple cellular factors of drug resistance. The highly efficient antitumor activity to drug-resistant MCF-7R tumor in vitro and in vivo supports this design and strongly defeats both physiological barriers and cellular factors of chemotherapy resistance. This work sets up an innovative dendrimeric nanosystem to surmount multidrug resistance, contributing to the development of a comprehensive nanoparticulate strategy for future clinical applications.

  10. Semi-active control of a cable-stayed bridge under multiple-support excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代泽兵; 黄金枝; 王红霞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-active strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. In this control strategy, Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are proposed as control devices, a LQG-clipped-optimal control algorithm is employed. An active control strategy, shown in previous researches to perform well at controlling the benchmark bridge when uniform earthquake motion was assumed, is also used in this study to control this benchmark bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. The performance of active control system is compared to that of the presented semi-active control strategy. Because the MR fluid damper is a controllable energy- dissipation device that cannot add mechanical energy to the structural system, the proposed control strategy is fail-safe in that bounded-input, bounded-output stability of the controlled structure is guaranteed. The numerical results demonstrated that the performance of the presented control design is nearly the same as that of the active control system; and that the MR dampers can effectively be used to control seismically excited cable-stayed bridges with multiple-support excitations.

  11. Programme news: agencies report on their activities in nutrition. How is interagency coordination in countries actually meant to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination representatives have been urged to establish thematic groups to facilitate interagency coordination in their countries. By 1996, there were only six countries--Angola, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, and North Korea--that had not yet established such groups. In addition to information exchange and networking, thematic groups have focused on joint programming, development of sector plans, and resource mobilization. Four clusters of themes exist: food security and agriculture, health and population, poverty, and HIV. Remaining is a need to operationalize technical strategies and agency agendas, translate cross-sectoral priorities into sectoral priorities, and evaluate ongoing programs.

  12. B═B and B≡E (E = N and o) multiple bonds in the coordination sphere of late transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Johannes; Braunschweig, Holger; Sen, Sakya S

    2014-01-21

    Because of their unusual structural and bonding motifs, multiply bonded boron compounds are fundamentally important to chemists, leading to enormous research interest. To access these compounds, researchers have introduced sterically demanding ligands that provide kinetic as well as electronic stability. A conceptually different approach to the synthesis of such compounds involves the use of an electron-rich, coordinatively unsaturated transition metal fragment. To isolate the plethora of borane, boryl, and borylene complexes, chemists have also used the coordination sphere of transition metals to stabilize reactive motifs in these molecules. In this Account, we summarize our results showing that increasingly synthetically challenging targets such as iminoboryl (B≡N), oxoboryl (B≡O), and diborene (B═B) fragments can be stabilized in the coordination sphere of late transition metals. This journey began with the isolation of two new iminoboryl ligands trans-[(Cy3P)2(Br)M(B≡N(SiMe3))] (M = Pd, Pt) attached to palladium and platinum fragments. The synthesis involved oxidative addition of the B-Br bond in (Me3Si)2N═BBr2 to [M(PCy3)2] (M = Pt, Pd) and the subsequent elimination of Me3SiBr at room temperature. Variation of the metal, the metal-bound coligands, and the substituent at the nitrogen atom afforded a series of analogous iminoboryl complexes. Following the same synthetic strategy, we also synthesized the first oxoboryl complex trans-[(Cy3P)2BrPt(BO)]. The labile bromide ligand adjacent to platinum makes the complex a viable candidate for further substitution reactions, which led to a number of new oxoboryl complexes. In addition to allowing us to isolate these fundamental compounds, the synthetic strategy is very convenient and minimizes byproducts. We also discuss the reaction chemistry of these types of compounds. In addition to facilitating the isolation of compounds with B≡E (E = N, O) triple bonds, the platinum fragment can also stabilize a

  13. Cytotoxic activity, X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic characterization of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) coordination compounds with 2-substituted benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guadarrama, Obdulia; López-Sandoval, Horacio; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Höpfl, Herbert; Barba-Behrens, Noráh

    2009-09-01

    Herein we present the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of coordination compounds of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) with 2-methylbenzimidazole (2mbz), 2-phenylbenzimidazole (2phbz), 2-chlorobenzimidazole (2cbz), 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (2cmbz) and 2-guanidinobenzimidazole (2gbz). Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated using human cancer cell lines, PC3 (prostate), MCF-7 (breast), HCT-15 (colon), HeLa (cervic-uterine), SKLU-1 (lung) and U373 (glioblastoma), showing that the zinc(II) and copper(II) compounds [Zn(2mbz)(2)Cl(2)].0.5H(2)O, [Zn(2cmbz)(2)Cl(2)].EtOH, [Cu(2cmbz)Br(2)].0.7H(2)O and [Cu(2gbz)Br(2)] had significant cytotoxic activity. The isostructural cobalt(II) complexes showed not significant activity. The cytotoxic activity is related to the presence of halides in the coordination sphere of the metal ion. Recuperation experiments with HeLa cells, showed that the cells recuperated after removing the copper(II) compounds and, on the contrary, the cells treated with the zinc(II) compounds did not. These results indicate that the mode of action of the coordination compounds is different.

  14. Temporal coordination of olfactory cortex sharp-wave activity with up- and downstates in the orbitofrontal cortex during slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisawa, Naomi; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kensaku

    2017-01-01

    During slow-wave sleep, interareal communications via coordinated, slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave (SPW) activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC SPWs in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and downstates of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the downstate in the OFC, the OC also exhibited downstate with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of SPW generation. OC SPWs occurred during two distinct phases of the upstate of the OFC: early-phase SPWs occurred at the start of upstate shortly after the down-to-up transition in the OFC, whereas late-phase SPWs were generated at the end of upstate shortly before the up-to-down transition. Such temporal coordination between neocortical up- and downstates and olfactory system SPWs was observed between the prefrontal cortex areas (OFC and medial prefrontal cortex) and the OC areas (anterior piriform cortex and posterior piriform cortex). These results suggest that during slow-wave sleep, OC and OFC areas communicate preferentially in specific time windows shortly after the down-to-up transition and shortly before the up-to-down transition.

  15. Glatiramer acetate antibodies, gene expression and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn Thorup; Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Krakauer, M;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glatiramer acetate (GA) treatment suppresses disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunological response to treatment may differ in patients who are stable on GA therapy and patients with breakthrough disease activity, but the results of previous studies are inconsistent....... Objectives: We studied the immunological response to GA and its relationship with disease activity. Methods: Anti-GA antibodies in plasma and the expression of genes encoding cytokines and T-cell-polarizing transcription factors in blood cells were analysed by flow cytometric bead array and polymerase chain...

  16. Mathematical modeling and modification of an activated sludge benchmark process evaluated by multiple performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wenliang; Yao, Chonghua [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Lu, Xiwu [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2014-08-15

    Optimal modification of an activated sludge process (ASP) evaluated by multiple performance criteria was studied. A benchmark process in BSM1 was taken as a target process. Four indexes of percentage of effluent violation (PEV), energy consumption (OCI), total volume of tanks (TV) and total suspended solid in tank5 (TSSa5), were criteria and eleven process parameters were decision variables, making up the multiple criteria optimization model, which was solved by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) in MATLAB. Pareto solutions were obtained; one solution (opt1) was selected based on the authors' decision for a further analysis. Results show that the process with opt1 strategy exhibits much better performance of PEV and OCI than with the default, being improved by 74.17% and 9.97% specifically under dry influent and without control. These results indicated that the multiple criterion optimization method is very useful for modification of an ASP.

  17. Dynamic activity of NF-κ B in multiple trauma patients and protective effects of ulinastain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WANG Hu; LI Neng-ping; GU Yong-feng; YANG Xin; LU Xiao-bing; CONG Jian-nong; LING Yun; TANG Jiang-an; YUAN Xiao-yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the dynamic activity of NF-κ B at the early stage of injury in multiple trauma patients and the protective effects of ulinastain.Methods:From January 2008 to May 2010,patients with multiple traumas admitted to our emergency department were enrolled in this study.Their age varied from 20-55 years.All enrolled patients were assigned randomly into control group (26 cases of multiple injury without ulinastain treatment),ulinastain group (25 cases of multiple injury with ulinastain treatment),and mild injury group (20 cases) for basic control.The inclusion criteria for mild injury group were AIS-2005 ≤ 3,single wound,previously healthy inhospital patients without the history of surgical intervention.In addition to routine treatment,patients in ulinastain group were intravenously injected 200 000 IU of ulinastain dissolved in 100 ml of normal saline within 12hours after injury and subsequently injected at the interval of every 8 hours for 7 days.NF- κ B activity in monocytes and the level of TNF- α,IL-1,IL-6 in serum on admission (day 0),day 1,2,3,4,and 7 were measured.Data were compared and analyzed between different groups.Results:NF-κB activity in monocytes and TNF- αIL-1 and IL-6 of these patients reached peak levels at 24hour after trauma,with gradual decrease to normal at 72hour after trauma.NF-κ B activity and levels of TNF- a,IL-l and IL-6 were lower in ulinastain group than control one,without any significant difference between the two groups.The mean duration for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome was 7 d±3.1 d and 10 d±3.5 d in ulinastain group and control group respectively,and showed a significant difference.Conclusions:NF-κB activity in monocytes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in multiply injured patients increased transiently at the early stage of trauma.Ulinastain may shorten the duration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction

  18. Synthesis, Coordination Chemistry, and Cooperative Activation of H2 with Ruthenium Complexes of ProtonResponsive METAMORPhos Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G. Terrade; M. Lutz; J.I. van der Vlugt; J.N.H. Reek

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic scope of proton-responsive sulfonamidophosphorus (METAMORPhos) ligands is expanded and design principles for the selective formation of particular tautomers, ion pairs, or double condensation products are elucidated. These systems have been introduced in the coordination sphere of Ru f

  19. Synthesis, coordination chemistry, and cooperative activation of H 2 with ruthenium complexes of proton-responsive METAMORPhos ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terrade, Frédéric G.; Lutz, Martin; Van Der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Reek, Joost N H

    2014-01-01

    The synthetic scope of proton-responsive sulfonamidophosphorus (METAMORPhos) ligands is expanded and design principles for the selective formation of particular tautomers, ion pairs, or double condensation products are elucidated. These systems have been introduced in the coordination sphere of Ru f

  20. Overcoming the Limitations of C-H Activation with Strongly Coordinating N-Heterocycles by Cobalt Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Lorion, Mélanie M; Ackermann, Lutz

    2016-08-22

    Strongly coordinating nitrogen heterocycles, including pyrimidines, oxazolines, pyrazoles, and pyridines, were fully tolerated in cobalt-catalyzed C-H amidations by imidate assistance. Structurally complex quinazolines are thus accessible in a step-economic manner. Our findings also establish the relative powers of directing groups in cobalt(III)-catalyzed C-H functionalization for the first time.

  1. The coating of conducting copolymer on coordination polymer nanorod: A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst for H2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuan; Mei, Ming-liang; Xu, Xin-xin; Wang, Lin-shan

    2016-06-01

    A visible light active p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized successfully through in-situ chemical oxidation copolymerization of aniline (ANI) and diphenylamine-4-sulfonate (DPAS) with the existence of coordination polymer nanorod (CPNR) under initiation of ammonium persulfate (APS). Compared with neat coordination polymer nanorod, the resulted p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits higher H2 generationrate under visible light irradiation. In this heterojunction photocatalyst, as a p-type semiconductor possessing suitable energy levels with coordination polymer nanorod, poly-(aniline-co-N-(4-sulfophenyl)-aniline) (PAPSA) forms p-n heterojunction with n-type coordination polymer nanorod, the inner electric field of p-n heterojunction accelerates the separation of electrons and holes, which enhances H2 production performance. Furthermore, the influence of concentration ratio between DPAS and ANI on photocatalytic property of the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst was discussed and a reasonable condition to fabricate photocatalyst with high H2 generationrate had been obtained. During photocatalytic water splitting H2 generation, the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst exhibited outstanding stability.

  2. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  3. Attributions and self-efficacy for physical activity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, D; Spink, K; Andersen, M; Knox, K

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy is an important predictor of health-related physical activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). While past experiences are believed to influence efficacy beliefs, the explanations individuals provide for these experiences also may be critical. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that perceived success or failure to accumulate 150 min of physical activity in the previous week would moderate the relationship between the attributional dimension of stability and self-efficacy to exercise in the future. Forty-two adults with MS participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Participants completed questions assessing physical activity, perceived outcome for meeting the recommended level of endurance activity, attributions for the outcome, and exercise self-efficacy. Results from hierarchical multiple regression revealed a significant main effect for perceived outcome predicting self-efficacy that was qualified by a significant interaction. The final model, which included perceived outcome, stability, and the interaction term, predicted 37% of the variance in exercise self-efficacy, F (3, 38) = 7.27, p = .001. Our findings suggest that the best prediction of self-efficacy in the MS population may include the interaction of specific attributional dimensions with success/failure at meeting the recommended physical activity dose. Attributions may be another target for interventions aimed at increasing the physical activity in MS.

  4. Dynamical Behaviors of Multiple Equilibria in Competitive Neural Networks With Discontinuous Nonmonotonic Piecewise Linear Activation Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibria for competitive neural networks. First, a general class of discontinuous nonmonotonic piecewise linear activation functions is introduced for competitive neural networks. Then based on the fixed point theorem and theory of strict diagonal dominance matrix, it is shown that under some conditions, such n -neuron competitive neural networks can have 5(n) equilibria, among which 3(n) equilibria are locally stable and the others are unstable. More importantly, it is revealed that the neural networks with the discontinuous activation functions introduced in this paper can have both more total equilibria and locally stable equilibria than the ones with other activation functions, such as the continuous Mexican-hat-type activation function and discontinuous two-level activation function. Furthermore, the 3(n) locally stable equilibria given in this paper are located in not only saturated regions, but also unsaturated regions, which is different from the existing results on multistability of neural networks with multiple level activation functions. A simulation example is provided to illustrate and validate the theoretical findings.

  5. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  6. Generalization of an Active Electronic Notebook for Teaching Multiple Programming Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Torabzadeh-Tari, Mohsen; Fritzson, Peter; Pop, Adrian; Sjölund, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a generalization of the active electronic notebook, OMNotebook, for handling multiple programming languages for educational purposes. OMNotebook can be an alternative or complementary tool to the traditional teaching method with lecturing and reading textbooks. Experience shows that using such an electronic book will lead to more engagement from the students. OMNotebook can contain technical computations and text, as well as graphics. Hence it is a suitable tool for t...

  7. Outcome expectations and physical activity in persons with longstanding multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janet D; Stuifbergen, Alexa K

    2014-06-01

    Research suggests that persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are much less physically active than the general population and that increased physical activity in persons with MS is associated with numerous benefits such as improvements in fatigue, mobility, and quality of life (). Potentially modifiable theory-based determinants of physical activity behavior need to be identified so that researchers may study their effectiveness in randomized clinical trials and clinicians may integrate them into practice to promote physical activity in this population. The purpose of this study was to explore the multidimensional (physical, social, and self-evaluative) outcome expectations for physical activity among persons with longstanding MS. A sample of 369 participants diagnosed with MS for more than 15 years completed surveys to measure multidimensional outcome expectations for exercise, MS functional limitations, and physical activity using two different instruments: one measuring physical activity engagement and the other measuring physical activity capability. Results indicated that MS functional limitation was the strongest predictor of both physical activity engagement and physical activity capability. Physical and social outcome expectations contributed to the model explaining 12% of the variation in physical activity engagement, whereas none of the outcome expectancy dimensions (physical, social, or self-evaluative) contributed to the model explaining variation in physical activity capability. Although analyses of cross-sectional data do not infer causation, these findings suggest that positive physical and social outcome expectations for physical activity are associated with engagement in physical activity as well as being potential sources of motivation for increasing physical activity behavior in individuals living with longstanding MS.

  8. Centrally patterned rhythmic activity integrated by a peripheral circuit linking multiple oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellies, John; Kueh, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The central pattern generator for heartbeat in the medicinal leech, Hirudo generates rhythmic activity conveyed by heart excitor motor neurons in segments 3-18 to coordinate the bilateral tubular hearts and side vessels. We focus on behavior and the influence of previously un-described peripheral nerve circuitry. Extracellular recordings from the valve junction (VJ) where afferent vessels join the heart tube were combined with optical recording of contractions. Action potential bursts at VJs occurred in advance of heart tube and afferent vessel contractions. Transections of nerves were performed to reduce the output of the central pattern generator reaching the heart tube. Muscle contractions persisted but with a less regular rhythm despite normal central pattern generator rhythmicity. With no connections between the central pattern generator and heart tube, a much slower rhythm became manifest. Heart excitor neuron recordings showed that peripheral activity might contribute to the disruption of centrally entrained contractions. In the model presented, peripheral activity would normally modify the activity actually reaching the muscle. We also propose that the fundamental efferent unit is not a single heart excitor neuron, but rather is a functionally defined unit of about three adjacent motor neurons and the peripheral assembly of coupled peripheral oscillators.

  9. Differences in movement-related cortical activation patterns underlying motor performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral deficits in visuomotor planning and control exhibited by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been extensively reported. Although these functional impairments are thought to result from “atypical brain development,” very few studies to date have identified potential neurological mechanisms. To address this knowledge gap, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 6- to 12-yr-old children with and without DCD (n = 14 and 20, respectively) during the perfo...

  10. Validation for global solar wind prediction using Ulysses comparison: Multiple coronal and heliospheric models installed at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; MacNeice, P. J.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Jackson, B.; Yu, H.-S.; Riley, P.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    The prediction of the background global solar wind is a necessary part of space weather forecasting. Several coronal and heliospheric models have been installed and/or recently upgraded at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), including the Wang-Sheely-Arge (WSA)-Enlil model, MHD-Around-a-Sphere (MAS)-Enlil model, Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), and heliospheric tomography using interplanetary scintillation data. Ulysses recorded the last fast latitudinal scan from southern to northern poles in 2007. By comparing the modeling results with Ulysses observations over seven Carrington rotations, we have extended our third-party validation from the previous near-Earth solar wind to middle to high latitudes, in the same late declining phase of solar cycle 23. Besides visual comparison, we have quantitatively assessed the models' capabilities in reproducing the time series, statistics, and latitudinal variations of solar wind parameters for a specific range of model parameter settings, inputs, and grid configurations available at CCMC. The WSA-Enlil model results vary with three different magnetogram inputs. The MAS-Enlil model captures the solar wind parameters well, despite its underestimation of the speed at middle to high latitudes. The new version of SWMF misses many solar wind variations probably because it uses lower grid resolution than other models. The interplanetary scintillation-tomography cannot capture the latitudinal variations of solar wind well yet. Because the model performance varies with parameter settings which are optimized for different epochs or flow states, the performance metric study provided here can serve as a template that researchers can use to validate the models for the time periods and conditions of interest to them.

  11. CD4 T cell activation and disease activity at onset of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Fenst, C;

    2004-01-01

    severity. In contrast, the percentage of CD25+ CD4 T cells in cerebrospinal fluid correlated negatively with the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of myelin basic protein and the presence of IgG oligoclonal bands. These results suggest that distinct systemic and intrathecal T cell activation states...

  12. International Assistance for Low-Emission Development Planning: Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) Inventory of Activities and Tools--Preliminary Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S.; Benioff, R.

    2011-05-01

    The Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN) is a voluntary network of international practitioners supporting low-emission planning in developing countries. The network seeks to improve quality of support through sharing project information, tools, best practices and lessons, and by fostering harmonized assistance. CLEAN has developed an inventory to track and analyze international technical support and tools for low-carbon planning activities in developing countries. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the inventory to help identify trends in assistance activities and tools available to support developing countries with low-emission planning.

  13. Silver-free activation of ligated gold(I) chlorides: the use of [Me3NB12Cl11]- as a weakly coordinating anion in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Michael; Huber, Florian; Bolli, Christoph; Jenne, Carsten; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2015-01-12

    Phosphane and N-heterocyclic carbene ligated gold(I) chlorides can be effectively activated by Na[Me3NB12Cl11] (1) under silver-free conditions. This activation method with a weakly coordinating closo-dodecaborate anion was shown to be suitable for a large variety of reactions known to be catalyzed by homogeneous gold species, ranging from carbocyclizations to heterocyclizations. Additionally, the capability of 1 in a previously unknown conversion of 5-silyloxy-1,6-allenynes was demonstrated.

  14. Ebselen protects against behavioral and biochemical toxicities induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rats: correlations between motor coordination, reactive species levels, and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Jesse, Cristiano R; Luchese, Cristiane

    2014-12-01

    The protective effect of ebselen was investigated against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced behavioral and biochemical toxicities in rats. Ebselen (10 or 25 mg/kg, intragastrically) was administered to rats 30 min before 3-NP (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) once a day for a period of 4 days. Locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight gain were determined. The striatal content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), and protein carbonyl as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities was determined 24 h after the last dose of 3-NP. Na(+)/ K(+)-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and δ-aminolevulinic dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities were also determined. The results demonstrated that ebselen at a dose of 25 mg/kg, but not at 10 mg/kg, protected against (1) a decrease in locomotor activity, motor coordination impairment, and body weight loss; (2) striatal oxidative damage, which was characterized by an increase in ROS levels, protein carbonyl content, and GR activity, an inhibition of CAT and GPx activities, and a decrease in GSH levels; and (3) an inhibition of SDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities, induced by 3-NP. GST activity and AA levels were not modified by ebselen or 3-NP. Ebselen was not effective against the inhibition of δ-ALA-D activity induced by 3-NP. The results revealed a significant correlation between SDH activity and ROS levels, and SDH activity and latency to fall (rotarod test). The present study highlighted the protective effect of ebselen against 3-NP-induced toxicity in rats.

  15. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lucy; Kolind, Shannon; Brazier, Alix; Leite, Maria Isabel; Brooks, Jonathan; Traboulsee, Anthony; Jenkinson, Mark; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Palace, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system are a common feature of both neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Despite this similarity, it is evident clinically that the accumulation of disability in patients with neuromyelitis optica is relapse related and that a progressive phase is very uncommon. This poses the question whether there is any pathological evidence of disease activity or neurodegeneration in neuromyelitis optica between relapses. To investigate this we conducted a longitudinal advanced MRI study of the brain and spinal cord in neuromyelitis optica patients, comparing to patients with multiple sclerosis and controls. We found both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of diffusely distributed neurodegenerative surrogates in the multiple sclerosis group (including thalamic atrophy, cervical cord atrophy and progressive widespread diffusion and myelin water imaging abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter) but not in those with neuromyelitis optica, where localised abnormalities in the optic radiations of those with severe visual impairment were noted. In addition, between relapses, there were no new silent brain lesions in the neuromyelitis optica group. These findings indicate that global central nervous system neurodegeneration is not a feature of neuromyelitis optica. The work also questions the theory that neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is a chronic sequela to prior inflammatory and demyelinating pathology, as this has not been found to be the case in neuromyelitis optica where the lesions are often more destructive.

  16. Imaging Surrogates of Disease Activity in Neuromyelitis Optica Allow Distinction from Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Matthews

    Full Text Available Inflammatory demyelinating lesions of the central nervous system are a common feature of both neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Despite this similarity, it is evident clinically that the accumulation of disability in patients with neuromyelitis optica is relapse related and that a progressive phase is very uncommon. This poses the question whether there is any pathological evidence of disease activity or neurodegeneration in neuromyelitis optica between relapses. To investigate this we conducted a longitudinal advanced MRI study of the brain and spinal cord in neuromyelitis optica patients, comparing to patients with multiple sclerosis and controls. We found both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of diffusely distributed neurodegenerative surrogates in the multiple sclerosis group (including thalamic atrophy, cervical cord atrophy and progressive widespread diffusion and myelin water imaging abnormalities in the normal appearing white matter but not in those with neuromyelitis optica, where localised abnormalities in the optic radiations of those with severe visual impairment were noted. In addition, between relapses, there were no new silent brain lesions in the neuromyelitis optica group. These findings indicate that global central nervous system neurodegeneration is not a feature of neuromyelitis optica. The work also questions the theory that neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis is a chronic sequela to prior inflammatory and demyelinating pathology, as this has not been found to be the case in neuromyelitis optica where the lesions are often more destructive.

  17. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tallner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  18. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-07-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  19. Strong effect of copper(II) coordination on antiproliferative activity of thiosemicarbazone-piperazine and thiosemicarbazone-morpholine hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Felix; Dömötör, Orsolya; Chugunova, Anastasia; Nagy, Nóra V; Filipović, Lana; Radulović, Siniša; Enyedy, Éva A; Arion, Vladimir B

    2015-05-21

    In this study, 2-formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and three different heterocyclic pharmacophores were combined to prepare thiosemicarbazone–piperazine mPip-FTSC (HL1) and mPip-dm-FTSC (HL2), thiosemicarbazone–morpholine Morph-FTSC (HL3) and Morph-dm-FTSC (HL4), thiosemicarbazone–methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate hybrids mPyrr-FTSC (HL5) and mPyrr-dm-FTSC (HL6) as well as their copper(II) complexes [CuCl(mPipH-FTSC-H)]Cl (1 + H)Cl, [CuCl(mPipH-dm-FTSC-H)]Cl (2 + H)Cl, [CuCl(Morph-FTSC-H)] (3), [CuCl(Morph-dm-FTSC-H)] (4), [CuCl(mPyrr-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (5) and [CuCl(mPyrr-dm-FTSC-H)(H2O)] (6). The substances were characterized by elemental analysis, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (HL1–HL6), ESI mass spectrometry, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction (1–5). All compounds were prepared in an effort to generate potential antitumor agents with an improved therapeutic index. In addition, the effect of structural alterations with organic hybrids on aqueous solubility and copper(II) coordination ability was investigated. Complexation of ligands HL2 and HL4 with copper(II) was studied in aqueous solution by pH-potentiometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and EPR spectroscopy. Proton dissociation processes of HL2 and HL4 were also characterized in detail and microscopic constants for the Z/E isomers were determined. While the hybrids HL5, HL6 and their copper(II) complexes 5 and 6 proved to be insoluble in aqueous solution, precluding antiproliferative activity studies, the thiosemicarbazone–piperazine and thiosemicarbazone–morpholine hybrids HL1–HL4, as well as copper(II) complexes 1–4 were soluble in water enabling cytotoxicity assays. Interestingly, the metal-free hybrids showed very low or even a lack of cytotoxicity (IC50 values > 300 μM) in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and A549 (alveolar basal adenocarcinoma), whereas their copper(II) complexes were cytotoxic showing IC50 values from 25.5 to 65.1

  20. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    2010-01-01

    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  1. 微网多级多重保护协调配置与实现%Coordinated Configuration and Implementation of Multilevel and Multiple Protections for Microgrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓虹; 杨秀; 刘舒; 张美霞; 刘方; 郭鹏超

    2014-01-01

    分布式微源的接入使微网形成了多端电源的复杂拓扑结构,对微网保护提出了更高的要求。相较于微网的规划和经济运行管理,微网保护的研究相对薄弱,缺乏完整的面向实际工程应用的保护配置方案。比较分析了目前各类研究涉及的微网保护技术的优劣,建立了典型微网模型,并基于统一的微网并/孤网保护协同策略,提出了三级三重保护配置方案,涵盖了系统级保护、微网级保护和设备级保护的主、备保护设置、时限配合和保护区域划分。通过PSCAD仿真验证了不同故障类型、不同运行状态下保护方案的可行性。%Grid-connection of distributed micro sources makes the microgrid becoming a complex topological structure with multi-sources, so it makes a higher demand on microgrid protection. Different from the planning and economic operation and management of microgrid, the research on microgrid protection is relatively insufficient, and a whole and practical engineering oriented protection configuration scheme for microgrid is still scant of. The advantages and disadvantages of microgrid protection techniques relevant to various kinds of researches are compared and analyzed, and a typical microgrid model is established. Based on unified coordinated protection strategy for grid-connected microgrid and islanded microgrid, a three-level and triple protection configuration scheme, which covers the configuration of main protection and backup protection, the time-limit matching and the division of protected zone in system protection level, microgrid protection level and equipment protection level, is proposed. The feasibility of the protection scheme for 10kV typical microgrid under different types of faults and different operating states is validated by PSCAD based simulation.

  2. Coordination in assembly systems under multiple payment contracts%基于多重结算方式的装配系统协同问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关旭; 马士华; 应丹丰

    2011-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty in assembly system, manufacturer always likes to implement a delay payment on his suppliers in purpose of mitigating the risk of late delivery caused by any supplier. However, suppliers prefer the on-time payment. Both two payments contracts are well used in practical applications whereas rarely emerged in academic research. And in this paper, we investigate how these two payment contracts affect suppliers' and manufacturer' s decisions, as well as the overall performance of supply chain when the production lead time of suppliers are assumed to be stochastic. By analy ing a decentralized system with two suppliers and one manufacturer when both suppliers have a particular stochastic component' s production time, we not only find out the optimal production reserve time for suppliers and optimal buffer time for manufacturer under two payment contracts, respectively. More important, the proper choices of payment contract for manufacturer and supplier under a certain condition are presented. Also, by comparing the supply chain performances between centralized and decentralized system, we also got the conditions under which coordination is achieved while participation constraints meet.%鉴于装配系统中存在的众多不确定因素,制造商往往采取延迟付款(货齐付款)的方式来降低供应商供货不同步的风险,而供应商则倾向于采用及时付款(货到付款).本文以装配系统为研究对象,分别针对延迟付款和及时付款方式建立了两供应商对单制造商的准时供货模型,考虑当每个零部件的供货提前期均不确定时,供应商和制造商应该如何进行相应的生产和要货时间决策.研究结果不仅找到了供应链双方在不同博弈模式下的最优选择,更给出各自在一定条件下的最优结算方式选择.最后通过对比两种结算方式对于供应链整体绩效的影响,提出在不同模式下实现供应链协同运作的必要条件.

  3. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  4. Endogenous and recombinant type I interferons and disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Sellebjerg

    Full Text Available Although treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS with the type I interferon (IFN IFN-β lowers disease activity, the role of endogenous type I IFN in MS remains controversial. We studied CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell subsets, monocytes and dendritic cells by flow cytometry and analysed the relationship with endogenous type I IFN-like activity, the effect of IFN-β therapy, and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI disease activity in MS patients. Endogenous type I IFN activity was associated with decreased expression of the integrin subunit CD49d (VLA-4 on CD4+CD26(high T cells (Th1 helper cells, and this effect was associated with less MRI disease activity. IFN-β therapy reduced CD49d expression on CD4+CD26(high T cells, and the percentage of CD4+CD26(high T cells that were CD49d(high correlated with clinical and MRI disease activity in patients treated with IFN-β. Treatment with IFN-β also increased the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing CD71 and HLA-DR (activated T cells, and this was associated with an increased risk of clinical disease activity. In contrast, induction of CD71 and HLA-DR was not observed in untreated MS patients with evidence of endogenous type IFN I activity. In conclusion, the effects of IFN-β treatment and endogenous type I IFN activity on VLA-4 expression are similar and associated with control of disease activity. However, immune-activating effects of treatment with IFN-β may counteract the beneficial effects of treatment and cause an insufficient response to therapy.

  5. Multiple Behavior Change in Diet and Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H.G.; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T.; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C.; Epstein, Leonard H.; DeMott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. Methods To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit/vegetable intakes, high sedentary leisure time and low physical activity to one of four treatments: increase fruit/vegetable and physical activity; decrease fat and sedentary leisure; decrease fat and increase physical activity; increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided three weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up they were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the four diet and activity behaviors at end of treatment and five month follow-up. Results Of those randomized, 200 (98%) completed follow-up. The increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure treatment improved more than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Specifically, fruit/vegetables increased from 1.2 servings/day to 5.5; sedentary leisure decreased from 219.2 minutes/day to 89.3; saturated fat decreased from 12.0% of calories consumed to 9.5%. Differences between treatment groups were maintained through follow-up. Traditional dieting (decrease fat and increase physical activity) improved less than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Conclusions Remote coaching supported by mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes. PMID:22636824

  6. Estimation of the Performance of Multiple Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures for Detecting Shielded HEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-10-01

    A comprehensive modeling study has been carried out to evaluate the utility of multiple active neutron interrogation signatures for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). The modeling effort focused on varying HEU masses from 1 kg to 20 kg; varying types of shields including wood, steel, cement, polyethylene, and borated polyethylene; varying depths of the HEU in the shields, and varying engineered shields immediately surrounding the HEU including steel, tungsten, and cadmium. Neutron and gamma-ray signatures were the focus of the study and false negative detection probabilities versus measurement time were used as a performance metric. To facilitate comparisons among different approaches an automated method was developed to generate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different sets of model variables for multiple background count rate conditions. This paper summarizes results or the analysis, including laboratory benchmark comparisons between simulations and experiments. The important impact engineered shields can play towards degrading detectability and methods for mitigating this will be discussed.

  7. Spectroelectrochemical studies of nuclease-active zinc(II) coordination compounds from the ligands Hpyramol and Hpyrimol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozalp-Yaman, Seniz, E-mail: seniz@atilim.edu.t [Atilim University, Engineering Faculty, Chemistry Group, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Hoog, Paul de; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Casellas, Helene [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Golobic, Amalija; Kozlevcar, Bojan [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, P.O. Box 537, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gamez, Patrick; Reedijk, Jan [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-12-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of four zinc(II) coordination compounds from the ligands 4-methyl-2-(2-pyridylmethyl)aminophenol (Hpyramol) and 4-methyl-2-(2-pyridylmethylene)aminophenol (Hpyrimol) with chloride or acetate as counter-ions has been studied by in situ spectroelectrochemistry in dimethylformamide (DMF). Low-temperature EPR studies of electrolyte solutions of all zinc compounds indicate the presence of a phenoxyl radical with a g-value in the range 2.070-2.099, which is illustrative for an electron delocalization over the metal centre. The final product of this oxidative process is shown to be a benzoquinone methide derivative.

  8. Coordination geometries of Zn(II) and Cd(II) in phosphotriesterase: Influence of water molecules in the active site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krauss, M; Olsen, Lars; Antony, J;

    2002-01-01

    to the Od1 of the carboxylate of the first-shell aspartate designated M 1, but the energy difference between Cd1Zn2 and the lowest energy Zn1Cd2 structure is only about 2 kcal/mol and decreasing with the addition of water molecules. The Zn1Cd2 arrangement is found experimentally....... performed to analyze the experimentally determined chemical shifts at 212 and 116 ppm, respectively, for the CdCd enzyme. The calculated isotropic shieldings correlate with the coordination number of the metal ions, indicating that the CdCd enzyme has one more ligand at the high shift site than at the low...

  9. Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase (IDO Expression and Activity in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Mancuso

    Full Text Available Interferon gamma (IFN-γ production induces the transcription of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO resulting in the reduction of T-cell activation and proliferation through the depletion of tryptophan and the elicitation of Treg lymphocytes. IDO was shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; we investigated whether changes in IDO gene expression and activity could be indicative of onset of relapse in multiple sclerosis (MS patients.IDO and interferon-γ (IFN-γ gene expression, serum IDO activity (Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio and serum neopterin concentration--a protein released by macrophages upon IFN-γ stimulation--were measured in 51 individuals: 36 relapsing remitting (RR-MS patients (21 in acute phase--AMS, 15 in stable phase--SMS and 15 healthy controls (HC. PBMCs samples in AMS patients were collected before (BT-AMS and during glucocorticoids-based therapy (DT-AMS.IDO expression was increased and IFN-γ was decreased (p<0.001 in BT-AMS compared to SMS patients. Glucocorticoids-induced disease remission resulted in a significant reduction of IDO and IFN-γ gene expression, IDO catalytic activity (p<0.001. Serum neopterin concentration followed the same trend as IDO expression and activity.Measurement of IDO gene expression and activity in blood could be a useful marker to monitor the clinical course of RR-MS. Therapeutic interventions modulating IDO activity may be beneficial in MS.

  10. Endogenous and recombinant type I interferons and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Krakauer, Martin; Limborg, Signe;

    2012-01-01

    with endogenous type I IFN-like activity, the effect of IFN-ß therapy, and clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease activity in MS patients. Endogenous type I IFN activity was associated with decreased expression of the integrin subunit CD49d (VLA-4) on CD4+CD26(high) T cells (Th1 helper cells......Although treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) with the type I interferon (IFN) IFN-ß lowers disease activity, the role of endogenous type I IFN in MS remains controversial. We studied CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell subsets, monocytes and dendritic cells by flow cytometry and analysed the relationship...... the percentage of CD4+ T cells expressing CD71 and HLA-DR (activated T cells), and this was associated with an increased risk of clinical disease activity. In contrast, induction of CD71 and HLA-DR was not observed in untreated MS patients with evidence of endogenous type IFN I activity. In conclusion...

  11. Coordination Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Cuff, Paul; Cover, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We develop elements of a theory of cooperation and coordination in networks. Rather than considering a communication network as a means of distributing information, or of reconstructing random processes at remote nodes, we ask what dependence can be established among the nodes given the communication constraints. Specifically, in a network with communication rates between the nodes, we ask what is the set of all achievable joint distributions p(x1, ..., xm) of actions at the nodes on the network. Several networks are solved, including arbitrarily large cascade networks. Distributed cooperation can be the solution to many problems such as distributed games, distributed control, and establishing mutual information bounds on the influence of one part of a physical system on another.

  12. Effects of an aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata Mart on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice and as antioxidant in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A P dos S; Cerqueira, G S; Nunes, L C C; de Freitas, R M

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) of Orbignya phalerata were assessed in vitro as well as its effect on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice. AE does not possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays; it also did not present scavenger activity in vitro. Following oral administration, AE (1, 2 and 3 g/kg) did not significantly change the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to 24 h after administration and did not alter the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata widely used in Brazilian flok medicine.

  13. Computational evaluation of sub-nanometer cluster activity of singly exposed copper atom with various coordinative environment in catalytic CO2 transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ramasamy; Thamaraichelvan, Arunachalam; Ganesan, Tharumeya Kuppusamy; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian

    2017-02-01

    Metal cluster, at sub-nanometer level has a unique property in the activation of small molecules, in contrast to that of bulk surface. In the present work, singly exposed active site of copper metal cluster at sub-nanometer level was designed to arrive at the energy minimised configurations, binding energy, electrostatic potential map, frontier molecular orbitals and partial density of states. The ab initio molecular dynamics was carried out to probe the catalytic nature of the cluster. Further, the stability of the metal cluster and its catalytic activity in the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO were evaluated by means of computational hydrogen electrode via calculation of the free energy profile using DFT/B3LYP level of theory in vacuum. The activity of the cluster is ascertained from the fact that the copper atom, present in a two coordinative environment, performs a more selective conversion of CO2 to CO at an applied potential of -0.35 V which is comparatively lower than that of higher coordinative sites. The present study helps to design any sub-nano level metal catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to various value added chemicals.

  14. Novel Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes coordinated by 2-arylaminomethyl-1H-benzimidazole: Molecular structures, spectral, DFT studies and evaluation of biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, Nour T.; Abo El-Ghar, Maha F.; Mansour, Ahmed M.

    2013-03-01

    [NiL1,2Cl2(OH2)3]·zH2O and [ZnL1,2(CH3CO2)2] (L1 = (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-N-phenyl amine, z = 0 and L2 = 2-[(1H-Benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester, z = 1) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The central Ni(II) ion is coordinated by only the pyridine-type nitrogen (Npy) of benzimidazole ring, three water molecules and two chlorido ligands forming a distorted octahedral geometry. Five coordinated zinc complexes were obtained, where the coordination sphere of zinc ion is made up of secondary amino group (NHsec), Npy and two acetate groups, one acts as a unidentate and the other as a bidentate. A theoretical DFT/UB3LYP method combined with LANL2DZ basis set shows that all the metal-ligand bonds are of the L → M type. Electronic structures have been calculated using TD-DFT method. The antibacterial activity of NiL2 complexes decreases by the introduction of COOCH3 group in the ortho-position of the aniline moiety.

  15. Copper(II) coordination polymers: tunable structures and a different activation effect of hydrogen peroxide for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wu, Dongqing; Zhao, Bei; Han, Xiao; Wu, Jie; Hou, Hongwei; Fan, Yaoting

    2015-01-21

    By tuning the synthesis conditions, based on a conformation-sensitive ligand, 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazole-1-methylene)-2,3,5,6-tetramethyl benzene (btmx) and Cu(NO3)2·3H2O/CuCl2·2H2O, we have obtained three Cu(ii) coordination polymers with diverse structures, namely, {[Cu(btmx)2(H2O)]·2NO3}n (), {[Cu(btmx)2(Cl)2]·5H2O}n () and [Cu(btmx)(Cl)2]n (). Complex exhibits a novel 2D → 3D interpenetrating structure with a point symbol of 6(3). Complex features an irregular 2D grid with (4(4)·6(2)) topology. The structure of complex is a 1D double chain structure. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and TG curves of these complexes are also presented and discussed. Moreover, under visible light, the coordination polymers , , and display a different activation effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange (MO), which indicates that the coordination polymers may have bright prospects in the field of photocatalytic degradation of dyes.

  16. Bridged bis(beta-cyclodextrin)s possessing coordinated metal center(s) and their inclusion complexation behavior with model substrates: enhanced molecular binding ability by multiple recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Chen, Y; Li, L; Zhang, H Y; Liu, S X; Guan, X D

    2001-12-14

    To investigate quantitatively the cooperative binding ability of several beta-cyclodextrin oligomers bearing single or multiligated metal center(s), the inclusion complexation behavior of four bis(beta-cyclodextrin)s (2-5) linked by 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxy tethers and their copper(II) complexes (6-9) with representative dye guests, i.e., methyl orange (MO), acridine red (AR), rhodamine B (RhB), ammonium 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS), and sodium 6-(p-toludino)-2-naphthalenesulfonate (TNS), have been examined in aqueous solution at 25 degrees C by means of UV-vis, circular dichroism, fluorescence, and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained indicate that bis(beta-cyclodextrin)s 2-5 can associate with one or three copper(II) ion(s) producing 2:1 or 2:3 bis(beta-cyclodextrin)-copper(II) complexes. These metal-ligated oligo(beta-cyclodextrin)s can bind two model substrates to form intramolecular 2:2 host-guest inclusion complexes and thus significantly enhance the original binding abilities of parent beta-cyclodextrin and bis(beta-cyclodextrin) toward model substrates through the cooperative binding of two guest molecules by four tethered cyclodextrin moieties, as well as the additional binding effect supplied by ligated metal center(s). Host 6 showed the highest enhancement of the stability constant, up to 38.3 times for ANS as compared with parent beta-cyclodextrin. The molecular binding mode and stability constant of substrates by bridged bis- and oligo(beta-cyclodextrin)s 2-9 are discussed from the viewpoint of the size/shape-fit interaction and molecular multiple recognition between host and guest.

  17. Evaluation of multiple-frequency, active and passive acoustics as surrogates for bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Pachman, Gregory; Lorang, Mark; Tonolla, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The use of multiple-frequency, active acoustics through deployment of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) shows potential for estimating bedload in selected grain size categories. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the University of Montana (UM), evaluated the use of multiple-frequency, active and passive acoustics as surrogates for bedload transport during a pilot study on the Kootenai River, Idaho, May 17-18, 2012. Four ADCPs with frequencies ranging from 600 to 2000 kHz were used to measure apparent moving bed velocities at 20 stations across the river in conjunction with physical bedload samples. Additionally, UM scientists measured the sound frequencies of moving particles with two hydrophones, considered passive acoustics, along longitudinal transects in the study reach. Some patterns emerged in the preliminary analysis which show promise for future studies. Statistically significant relations were successfully developed between apparent moving bed velocities measured by ADCPs with frequencies 1000 and 1200 kHz and bedload in 0.5 to 2.0 mm grain size categories. The 600 kHz ADCP seemed somewhat sensitive to the movement of gravel bedload in the size range 8.0 to 31.5 mm, but the relation was not statistically significant. The passive hydrophone surveys corroborated the sample results and could be used to map spatial variability in bedload transport and to select a measurement cross-section with moving bedload for active acoustic surveys and physical samples.

  18. Intractable and highly active relapsing multiple sclerosis – role of alemtuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubey D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Divyanshu Dubey,1 Christopher A Cano,1 Olaf Stuve1–3 1Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 2Neurology Section, VA North Texas Health Care System, Medical Service, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany Abstract: Alemtuzumab is a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody that was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the management of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. It has been utilized for the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, bone marrow and renal transplantation, or graft versus host disease. Because of its immunomodulatory properties, it was brought into clinical development in MS. One Phase II (CAMMS223 and two Phase III clinical trials (CARE-MSI and -II have evaluated the safety and efficacy of alemtuzumab in patients with relapsing–remitting MS. Even though its efficacy profile and long-lasting effect have attracted much interest among physicians and patients, it has significant potential adverse effects that may limit its use to patients with active disease. Here, we review the history of drug development of alemtuzumab. Furthermore, we outline the postulated mechanisms of action, clinical evidence, and safety of alemtuzumab for its use as a disease-modifying agent in active and highly active MS. Keywords: alemtuzumab, multiple sclerosis, monoclonal antibody, CD52, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

  19. Surface modification of Cobalt ferrite nano-hollowspheres for inherent multiple photoluminescence and enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Souvanik; Mandal, Dipika; Mandal, Kalyan

    2017-03-01

    Nano-hollow spheres (NHSs) are the new drift in magnetic nanostructures as they provide more surface area at nano length scale with enhanced magnetic properties compared to their nanoparticle counterpart. Here we reported the synthesis of biocompatible CoFe2O4 NHSs of diameter around 250 nm and emergence of intrinsic multiple photoluminescence from blue, green to red on modifying their surface with small organic ligands like tartrate. The surface modified NHSs also showed notable photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of environmentally malefic dyes like Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B. The surface modified NHSs are found to exhibit superior magnetic properties.

  20. Biological Activity of Lenalidomide and Its Underlying Therapeutic Effects in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martiniani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lenalidomide is a synthetic compound derived by modifying the chemical structure of thalidomide. It belongs to the second generation of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs and possesses pleiotropic properties. Even if lenalidomide has been shown to be active in the treatment of several hematologic malignancies, this review article is mostly focalized on its mode of action in multiple myeloma. The present paper is about the direct and indirect antitumor effects of lenalidomide on malignant plasmacells, bone marrow microenvironment, bone resorption and host’s immune response. The molecular mechanisms and targets of lenalidomide remain largely unknown, but recent evidence shows cereblon (CRBN as a possible mediator of its therapeutical effects.

  1. Subcutaneous administration of alemtuzumab in patients with highly active multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Jai S; Foo, Farng; Cook, Perry; Khan, Omar

    2012-08-01

    Alemtuzumab is an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody with remarkable efficacy in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). In clinical trials and off-label use in MS, alemtuzumab has been administered intravenously (IV). Alemtuzumab is approved for chronic lymphoid leukemia as IV. Oncology guidelines recommend alemtuzumab subcutaneous (SC) over IV. There is no report of alemtuzumab SC in MS. We report two patients with highly active relapsing MS who were treated with SC alemtuzumab, had significant improvement and tolerated SC alemtuzumab well without the typical infusion-associated adverse events. SC alemtuzumab in MS warrants further studies as this may enhance patient convenience and minimize infusion-associated adverse events.

  2. Coordination of International Standards with Implementation of the IECRE Conformity Assessment System to Provide Multiple Certification Offerings for PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, George; Haring, Adrian; Spooner, Ted; Ball, Greg; Kurtz, Sarah; Heinze, Matthias; Yamamichi, Masaaki; Eguchi, Yoshihito; Ramu, Govind

    2016-11-21

    To help address the industry's needs for assuring the value and reducing the risk of investments in PV power plants; the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has established a new conformity assessment system for renewable energy (IECRE). There are presently important efforts underway to define the requirements for various types of PV system certificates, and publication of the international standards upon which these certifications will be based. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the interrelationship of these activities and the timing for initiation of IECRE PV system certifications.

  3. A 30 Myr record of retrograde metamorphism and multiple generations of monazite and garnet in western MA revealed by coordinated LASS and EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, E. M.; Burton, Z. F. M.; Rubel, J. N.; Snoeyenbos, D. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Garnet-kyanite-cordierite pelitic schists with relict phosphatic garnets thought to record ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (e.g., Snoeyenbos and Koziol, 2008) crop out along the western margin of the Goshen Dome in western Massachusetts. These schists contain monazite inclusions within Grt, Ky, Crd, Bt, Pl, Qz, and Chl. Compositional maps via EPMA-WDS show overgrowths on each monazite grain, indicating that each grain records multiple metamorphic events. We analyzed monazite in situ using laser-ablation split-stream (LASS) ICPMS to correlate the geochemical and age domains and to reconstruct the polyphase metamorphic history. We used WDS compositional maps of Y and Th, and ICPMS Gd/Yb ratios and U/Pb ages to define the timing of major garnet growth and breakdown processes, and melting and/or fluid-rich metamorphism. For example, decreasing Gd/Yb and high Y concentrations are consistent with garnet breakdown; highly variable Gd/Yb indicate melting and/or fluid-rich metamorphism (e.g., Stearns et al., 2013). The following cumulative histories are interpreted from two samples (B and G). In both samples, decreasing Gd/Yb in monazite suggest garnet breakdown from c. 398 to 387 Ma. Data from sample B (n = 644 analyses) indicate two additional phases of garnet growth: 382 to 377 Ma and 375 to 369 Ma (see figure). Data from sample G (n = 231 analyses) also indicate two additional phases of garnet growth: 387 to 381 Ma and 379 to 369 Ma. The final garnet growth event affecting both samples is marked by the most variable Gd/Yb ratios in monazite from all petrographic contexts and is consistent with melting or a fluid-rich metamorphic event. These data are most consistent with metamorphism during emplacement to crustal levels in the early Acadian, and a substantial overprint during the regional thermal maximum. This complex record can only be unraveled by collecting geochronologic and geochemical data in situ to preserve the petrographic context of each grain, thus

  4. Evidence of impaired brain activity balance after passive sensorimotor stimulation in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Petsas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Examination of sensorimotor activation alone in multiple sclerosis (MS patients may not yield a comprehensive view of cerebral response to task stimulation. Additional information may be obtained by examining the negative BOLD response (deactivation. Aim of this work was to characterize activation and deactivation patterns during passive hand movements in MS patients. METHODS: 13 relapsing remitting-MS patients (RRMS, 18 secondary progressive-MS patients (SPMS and 15 healthy controls (HC underwent an fMRI study during passive right-hand movements. Activation and deactivation contrasts in the three groups were entered into ANOVA, age and gender corrected. Post-hoc analysis was performed with one-sample and two-sample t-tests. For each patient we obtained lesion volume (LV from both T1- and T2-weighted images. RESULTS: Activations showed a progressive extension to the ipsilateral brain hemisphere according to the group and the clinical form (HCactivation in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex was significantly correlated with that of deactivation in the DMN in HC and RRMS, but not in SPMS. Both increased activation and decreased deactivation patterns correlated with LV. CONCLUSION: In RRMS patients, increased cortical activation was associated with increased deactivation of the posterior cortex suggesting a greater resting-state activity in the DMN, probably aimed at facilitating sensorimotor circuit engagement during task performance. In SPMS the coupling between increased sensorimotor activation/increased DMN deactivation was not observed suggesting disorganization between anticorrelated functional networks as a consequence of a higher

  5. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors of mouse lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb is one of the major active compounds in Hemsleyadine tablets which have been used for clinical treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis and acute tonsilitis. However, its action mechanism has not been completely understood. This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of CuIIb and its underlying mechanism in mitogen-activated lymphocytes isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes. The results showed that CuIIb inhibited the proliferation of concanavalin A (Con A-activated lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CuIIb treatment arrested their cell cycle in S and G2/M phases probably due to the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and the modulation of p27(Kip1 and cyclin levels. Moreover, the surface expression of activation markers CD69 and CD25 on Con A-activated CD3(+ T lymphocytes was suppressed by CuIIb treatment. Both Con A- and phorbol ester plus ionomycin-induced expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 proteins was attenuated upon exposure to CuIIb. Mechanistically, CuIIb treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and Erk1/2 but not p38 in Con A-activated lymphocytes. Although CuIIb unexpectedly enhanced the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB (p65, it blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65. In support of this, CuIIb significantly decreased the mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α, two target genes of NF-κB, in Con A-activated lymphocytes. In addition, CuIIb downregulated Con A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cell apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that CuIIb exhibits its anti-inflammatory activity through modulating multiple cellular behaviors and signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of the adaptive immune response.

  6. Secreted phospholipase A2 activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankenhorn Elizabeth P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased interest in the contribution of the innate immune system to multiple sclerosis (MS, including the activity of acute inflammatory mediators. The purpose of this study was to test the involvement of systemic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 enzymes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an MS model, and to determine if enzyme activity is elevated in MS patients. Methods A non-invasive urinary assay was developed in order to monitor enzymatically active sPLA2 levels in Dark Agouti rats after induction of EAE. Some Rats were treated with nonapeptide CHEC-9, an uncompetitive sPLA2 enzyme inhibitor, during the initial rise in urinary enzyme levels. Body weight and clinical EAE score were measured for 18 days post immunization (PI, after which the rats were sacrificed for H&E and myelin staining, and for ED-1 immunocytochemistry, the latter to quantify macrophages and activated microglia. The urinary sPLA2 assay was also applied to un-timed samples collected from a cross section of 44 MS patients and 14 healthy controls. Results Mean levels of enzymatically active sPLA2 in the urine increased following immunization and peaked between days 8–10 PI which was just prior to the onset of EAE symptoms. At this time, a transient attenuation of activity was detected in the urine of CHEC-9 treated rats consistent with the activity-dependent properties of the inhibitor. The peptide also reduced or abolished EAE symptoms compared to vehicle-injected controls. Histopathological changes in the spinal cords of the EAE rats correlated generally with clinical score including a significant reduction in ED-1+ cells after peptide treatment. Multiple Sclerosis patients also showed elevations in sPLA2 enzyme activity. Mean levels of sPLA2 were increased 6-fold in the urine of patients with active disease and 4-fold for patients in remission, regardless of immunomodulating therapy. Conclusion The results suggest that s

  7. Mechanistic Investigation into Olefin Epoxidation with H2O2 Catalyzed by Aqua‐Coordinated Sandwich‐Type Polyoxometalates: Role of the Noble Metal and Active Oxygen Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Chenggang; Liu, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aqua‐coordinated sandwich‐type polyoxometalates (POMs), {[WZnTM2(H2O)2](ZnW9O34)2}n− (TM=RhIII, PdII, and PtII), catalyze olefin epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide and have been well established, and they present an advance toward the utilization of olefins. To elucidate the epoxidation mechanism, we systematically performed density functional calculations. The reaction proceeds through a two‐step mechanism: activation of H2O2 and oxygen transfer. The aqua‐coordinated complexes show two distinct H2O2 activation pathways: “two‐step” and “concerted”. The concerted processes are more facile and proceed with similar and rate‐determining energy barriers at the Rh‐, Pd‐, and Pt‐containing transition states, which agrees well with the experimental results. Next, the resulting TM−OH−(μ‐OOH) intermediate transfers an O atom to olefin to form an epoxide. The higher reactivity of the Rh‐containing POM is attributed to more interactions between the Rh and hydroperoxo unit. We also calculated all active oxygen positions to locate the most favorable pathway. The higher reactivity of the two‐metal‐bonded oxygen position is predominantly ascribed to its lower stereoscopic hindrance. Furthermore, the presence of one and two explicit water solvent molecules significantly reduces the energy barriers, making these sandwich POMs very efficient for the olefin epoxidation with H2O2. PMID:27777840

  8. Pinatubo Emulation in Multiple Models (POEMs): planned co-ordinated experiments for the SPARC Stratospheric Sulphur and it's Role in Climate initiative (SSiRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Graham; Lee, Lindsay A.; Carslaw, Ken S.; Toohey, Matthew; Aquila, Valentina; Timmreck, Claudia; English, Jason M.; Neely, Ryan R., III

    2014-05-01

    The World Climate Research Program's SPARC initiative has a new international activity "Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate" (SSiRC) to better understand changes in stratospheric aerosol and precursor gaseous sulphur species. A powerful new technique to quantify and attribute sources of uncertainty in complex global models is described by Lee et al. (2011). This involves "conditioning" a Gaussian emulator to replicate (gridbox by gridbox) the results from an ensemble of runs with the full complex 3D model. Once trained on the ensemble, a Monte Carlo simulation with the fast emulator can be carried out for a full variance-based sensitivity analysis. For example, Carslaw et al., (2013, Nature) used the approach to quantify the uncertainty in indirect aerosol forcing from a 3D global chemistry-aerosol-microphysics model, decomposing the variance attributed to 28 uncertain emissions-types/processes-parameters/model-structures. One component of SSiRC involves an intercomparison of a new generation of Earth System Models that simulate the stratospheric aerosol layer interactively. Following the kick-off meeting for SSiRC in October 2013, one component of the SSiRC activity will be for each model to run "perturbed physics ensembles" (PPEs) of the Pinatubo eruption across several uncertain parameters. The Gaussian emulation approach will the be carried out on each model to characterise and intercompare the magnitude and uncertainty of simulated climate effects. In this poster presentation we will present the overall plan for this "POEMS" analysis including the outcome of an expert elicitation to finalise which uncertain parameters are to be varied and their uncertainty ranges.

  9. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5. Discussion This is the first trial to

  10. Multiple attractors in the response of a flexible rotor in active magnetic bearings with geometric coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inayat-Hussain, J I [School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: jawaid.inayat-hussain@eng.monash.edu.my

    2008-02-15

    Numerical results on the response of a flexible rotor supported by nonlinear active magnetic bearings are presented. Nonlinearity arising from the magnetic actuator forces that are nonlinear functions of the coil current and the air gap between the rotor and the stator, and from the geometric coupling of the magnetic actuators is incorporated into the mathematical model of the flexible rotor - active magnetic bearing system. For relatively large values of the geometric coupling parameter, the response of the rotor with the variation of the speed parameter within the range 0.05 {<=}{omega} {<=} 5.0 displayed a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena including sub-synchronous vibrations of periods -2, -3, -6, -9, and -17, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Numerical results also reveal the occurrence of bi-stable operation within certain ranges of the speed parameter where multiple attractors may co-exist at the same speed parameter value depending on the operating speed of the rotor.

  11. Evaluation of the multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment method using activities as stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Edward J; Wells, Nikki J; Swanger-Gagné, Michelle S; Carr, James E; Kunz, Gina M; Taylor, Ashley M

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the accuracy of the multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) preference assessment for identifying preferred common classroom activities as reinforcers with children with behavioral disorders. The accuracy of predictions from the MSWO regarding high, medium, and low stimulus preference was tested by providing contingent access to activities for completing math problems within an independent seatwork format. Overall, there was an interaction effect between preference ranking (high, medium, or low) and number of problems completed. The results confirm and extend previous findings regarding the accuracy of predictions with the MSWO. The findings also reveal, however, some individual differences that may account for instances in which student behavior did not conform to predictions of stimulus preference assessments.

  12. Dynamic synchronization and chaos in an associative neural network with multiple active memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffone, Antonino; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2003-09-01

    Associative memory dynamics in neural networks are generally based on attractors. Retrieval based on fixed-point attractors works if only one memory pattern is retrieved at the time, but cannot enable the simultaneous retrieval of more than one pattern. Stable phase-locking of periodic oscillations or limit cycle attractors leads to incorrect feature bindings if the simultaneously retrieved patterns share some of their features. We investigate retrieval dynamics of multiple active patterns in a network of chaotic model neurons. Several memory patterns are kept simultaneously active and separated from each other by a dynamic itinerant synchronization between neurons. Neurons representing shared features alternate their synchronization between patterns, thus multiplexing their binding relationships. Our model includes a mechanism for self-organized readout or decoding of memory pattern coherence in terms of short-term potentiation and short-term depression of synaptic weights.

  13. Toward a theory of coordinating: Creating coordinating mechanisms in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzabkowski, P; Le, J. K.; Feldman, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a practice perspective to study coordinating as dynamic activities that are continuously created and modified in order to enact organizational relationships and activities. It is based on the case of Servico, an organization undergoing a major restructuring of its value chain in response to a change in government regulation. In our case, the actors iterate between the abstract concept of a coordinating mechanism referred to as end-to-end management and its performance in pract...

  14. Persistent activation of microglia and NADPH oxidase [corrected] drive hippocampal dysfunction in experimental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, Massimiliano; de Iure, Antonio; Giampà, Carmela; Chiasserini, Davide; Tozzi, Alessandro; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Tantucci, Michela; Durante, Valentina; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Mancini, Andrea; Costa, Cinzia; Sarchielli, Paola; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Calabresi, Paolo

    2016-02-18

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Unfortunately, the synaptic and molecular mechanisms underlying MS-associated cognitive dysfunction are largely unknown. We explored the presence and the underlying mechanism of cognitive and synaptic hippocampal dysfunction during the remission phase of experimental MS. Experiments were performed in a chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, after the resolution of motor deficits. Immunohistochemistry and patch-clamp recordings were performed in the CA1 hippocampal area. The hole-board was utilized as cognitive/behavioural test. In the remission phase of experimental MS, hippocampal microglial cells showed signs of activation, CA1 hippocampal synapses presented an impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and an alteration of spatial tests became evident. The activation of hippocampal microglia mediated synaptic and cognitive/behavioural alterations during EAE. Specifically, LTP blockade was found to be caused by the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. We suggest that in the remission phase of experimental MS microglia remains activated, causing synaptic dysfunctions mediated by NADPH oxidase. Inhibition of microglial activation and NADPH oxidase may represent a promising strategy to prevent neuroplasticity impairment associated with active neuro-inflammation, with the aim to improve cognition and counteract MS disease progression.

  15. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for recovering multiple nutrients for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Wang, Qilin; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-04-15

    Waste activated sludge is a valuable resource containing multiple nutrients, but is currently treated and disposed of as an important source of pollution. In this work, waste activated sludge after ultrasound pretreatment was reused as multiple nutrients for biofuel production. The nutrients trapped in sludge floc were transferred into liquid medium by ultrasonic disintegration during first 30 min, while further increase of pretreatment time only resulted in slight increase of nutrients release. Hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 from glucose significantly increased with the concentration of ultrasonic sludge, and reached maximum yield of 1.97 mol H2/mol glucose at sludge concentration of 7.75 g volatile suspended solids/l. Without addition of any other chemicals, waste molasses rich in carbohydrate was efficiently turned into hydrogen with yield of 189.34 ml H2/g total sugar by E. harbinense B49 using ultrasonic sludge as nutrients. The results also showed that hydrogen production using pretreated sludge as multiple nutrients was higher than those using standard nutrients. Acetic acid produced by E. harbinense B49 together with the residual nutrients in the liquid medium were further converted into hydrogen (271.36 ml H2/g total sugar) by Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 through photo fermentation, while ethanol was the sole end product with yield of 220.26 mg/g total sugar. Thus, pretreated sludge was an efficient nutrients source for biofuel production, which could replace the standard nutrients. This research provided a novel strategy to achieve environmental friendly sludge disposal and simultaneous efficient biofuel recovery from organic waste.

  16. Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA. The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation was determined in rats in a two-formulation, two-period, and two-sequence crossover experimental design. Following single and multiple intravenous administrations, a series of blood samples was collected by using an automated blood sampler and drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The 90% CI of the difference between the two intravenous formulations was contained within 80–125% of the geometric mean of pharmacokinetic parameters for AS and DHA in all animals dosed. Hematological effects were studied on days 1 and 3 after the final dosing, and a rapidly reversible hematological toxicity (significant reductions in reticulocyte levels was seen in the peripheral blood of the rats treated with each formulation. The results showed that bioequivalence with the parent compound and active metabolite was fulfilled in the 82.3–117.7% ranges of all parameters (AUC0–t, Cmax, concentration average and degree of fluctuation in the two-period and two-sequence crossover studies following single and repeated intravenous injections. For the metabolite, the equivalence was satisfied in most pharmacokinetic parameters tested due to the variability in the hydrolysis rate of AS to DHA. The WRAIR formulation of AS was considered to be bioequivalent to the Chinese formulation at steady-state according to the total drug exposure, in terms of both parent drug and active metabolite, rapidly reversal in reticulocyte decline, and extension of single and multiple administrations. Therefore, the parent drug and active metabolites should play similar important roles in the determination of efficacy and safety of the drug.

  17. Stat1 activation attenuates IL-6 induced Stat3 activity but does not alter apoptosis sensitivity in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimberg Lina Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is at present an incurable malignancy, characterized by apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Interferon (IFN treatment sensitizes MM cells to Fas-induced apoptosis and is associated with an increased activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat1. The role of Stat1 in MM has not been elucidated, but Stat1 has in several studies been ascribed a pro-apoptotic role. Conversely, IL-6 induction of Stat3 is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in MM. Methods To delineate the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated sensitization to apoptosis, sub-lines of the U-266-1970 MM cell line with a stable expression of the active mutant Stat1C were utilized. The influence of Stat1C constitutive transcriptional activation on endogenous Stat3 expression and activation, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. To determine whether Stat1 alone would be an important determinant in sensitizing MM cells to apoptosis, the U-266-1970-Stat1C cell line and control cells were exposed to high throughput compound screening (HTS. Results To explore the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization of MM, we established sublines of the MM cell line U-266-1970 constitutively expressing the active mutant Stat1C. We found that constitutive nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Stat1 was associated with an attenuation of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation and up-regulation of mRNA for the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family genes Harakiri, the short form of Mcl-1 and Noxa. However, Stat1 activation alone was not sufficient to sensitize cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screening of > 3000 compounds including bortezomib, dexamethasone, etoposide, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, geldanamycin (17-AAG, doxorubicin and thalidomide, we found that the drug response and IC50 in cells constitutively expressing active Stat1 was mainly unaltered. Conclusion We conclude that Stat1 alters IL-6

  18. Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Shao-Bo; Liu, Yun-Guo; Gu, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Wang, Xin; Liu, Shao-Heng; Jiang, Lu-Hua

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing interest of the scientific community on production of activated carbon using biochar as potential sustainable precursors pyrolyzed from biomass wastes. Physical activation and chemical activation are the main methods applied in the activation process. These methods could have significantly beneficial effects on biochar chemical/physical properties, which make it suitable for multiple applications including water pollution treatment, CO2 capture, and energy storage. The feedstock with different compositions, pyrolysis conditions and activation parameters of biochar have significant influences on the properties of resultant activated carbon. Compared with traditional activated carbon, activated biochar appears to be a new potential cost-effective and environmentally-friendly carbon materials with great application prospect in many fields. This review not only summarizes information from the current analysis of activated biochar and their multiple applications for further optimization and understanding, but also offers new directions for development of activated biochar.

  19. A redox-active porous coordination network film based on a Ru complex as a building block on an ITO electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Takuya; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Mutoh, Yuichiro; Haga, Masa-Aki

    2013-12-01

    The combination of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and layer-by-layer (LbL) growth methods for the construction of a surface porous film has the potential to incorporate a wide range of chemical functionalities on a solid surface. A novel redox-active Ru complex with 2,6-bis(N-pyridylbenzimidazolyl)-pyridine ligands (Ru complex 1), in which four peripheral pyridine groups act as coordination sites, was used as a building block for a porous coordination network film. By using (4-pyridyl)phenylphosphonic acid as a SAM primer layer on an ITO surface, the Ru complex 1 was immobilized by the successive reaction of PdCl2 on the ITO electrode in the LbL growth method. Multilayer growth was monitored by UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry, in which the linear increases of both absorbance and the peak current were observed. This result indicated that the regular accumulation of Ru complex 1 onto the ITO surface took place. The permselectivity of the present porous coordination network structure was examined using redox-active molecular probes with different sizes and charges such as ferrocene, trimethylaminomethylferrocene, the Os bis(2,6-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)-pyridine) complex, and tetrathiofulvarene (TTF). With the Os complex and cationic ferrocene, only the catalytic peak was observed as a prewave of the adsorbed Ru(II/III) peak at +0.73 V. On the other hand, the oxidation peak of ferrocene was observed around 0 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc even for nine-layered films in addition to the adsorbed Ru(II/III) peak. From these results, not only molecular size but also electrostatic interaction plays an important role in the permeation into the Ru complex 1 porous network film.

  20. Universal mechatronics coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Patrick F.

    1999-11-01

    Mechatronic systems incorporate multiple actuators and sensor which must be properly coordinated to achieve the desired system functionality. Many mechatronic systems are designed as one-of-a-kind custom projects without consideration for facilitating future system or alterations and extensions to the current syste. Thus, subsequent changes to the system are slow, different, and costly. It has become apparent that manufacturing processes, and thus the mechatronics which embody them, need to be agile in order to more quickly and easily respond to changing customer demands or market pressures. To achieve agility, both the hardware and software of the system need to be designed such that the creation of new system and the alteration and extension of current system is fast and easy. This paper describes the design of a Universal Mechatronics Coordinator (UMC) which facilitates agile setup and changeover of coordination software for mechatronic systems. The UMC is capable of sequencing continuous and discrete actions that are programmed as stimulus-response pairs, as state machines, or a combination of the two. It facilitates the modular, reusable programing of continuous actions such as servo control algorithms, data collection code, and safety checking routines; and discrete actions such as reporting achieved states, and turning on/off binary devices. The UMC has been applied to the control of a z- theta assembly robot for the Minifactory project and is applicable to a spectrum of widely differing mechatronic systems.

  1. Multiple γ-secretase product peptides are coordinately increased in concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of a subpopulation of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata Saori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcadeinα (Alcα is a neuronal membrane protein that colocalizes with the Alzheimer's amyloid-β precursor protein (APP. Successive cleavage of APP by β- and γ-secretases generates the aggregatable amyloid-β peptide (Aβ, while cleavage of APP or Alcα by α- and γ-secretases generates non-aggregatable p3 or p3-Alcα peptides. Aβ and p3-Alcα can be recovered from human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. We have previously reported alternative processing of APP and Alcα in the CSF of some patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD (SAD. Results Using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA system that detects total p3-Alcα, we determined levels of total p3-Alcα in CSF from subjects in one of four diagnostic categories (elderly controls, MCI, SAD, or other neurological disease derived from three independent cohorts. Levels of Aβ40 correlated with levels of total p3-Alcα in all cohorts. Conclusions We confirm that Aβ40 is the most abundant Aβ species, and we propose a model in which CSF p3-Alcα can serve as a either (1 a nonaggregatable surrogate marker for γ-secretase activity; (2 as a marker for clearance of transmembrane domain peptides derived from integral protein catabolism; or (3 both. We propose the specification of an MCI/SAD endophenotype characterized by co-elevation of levels of both CSF p3-Alcα and Aβ40, and we propose that subjects in this category might be especially responsive to therapeutics aimed at modulation of γ-secretase function and/or transmembrane domain peptide clearance. These peptides may also be used to monitor the efficacy of therapeutics that target these steps in Aβ metabolism

  2. Promoting physical activity participation among people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities : An overview of practice-based knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, Leentje; Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Promoting physical activity participation as part of the support of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is important for the functioning of people with PIMD and their participation in daily activities. However, people with PIMD hardly participate in physical activ

  3. Multiple implantation and multiple annealing of phosphorus doped germanium to achieve n-type activation near the theoretical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehwan; Bedell, Stephen W.; Sadana, Devendra K.

    2012-09-01

    Full activation of n-type dopant in germanium (Ge) reaching to its solid solubility has never been achieved by using ion implantation doping technique. This is because implantation of dopants always leaves defects such as vacancy and interstitials in the Ge crystal. While implantation-induced defects are electrically neutral for the most of semiconductor materials, they are electrically positive for Ge resulting in compensation of n-type dopants. In this Letter, we verified that 5 × 1019 P/cm3 is the maximum active concentration, which can be fully activated in germanium "without leaving implantation damage" per implantation/annealing cycle. The repetition of implantation and annealing of phosphorous (P) with the concentration of 5 × 1019 cm-3 leads to the activation of 1 × 1020 P/cm3 close to its solid solubility limit of 2 × 1020 P/cm3.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II Coordination Compounds with Nitrogen, Oxygen Containing Schiff Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. RAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of complexes of the type [M(EHPQH2X2] where M = Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II, EHPQH=2-ethyl, [3(hydroxypropyl]-3, 1 4H quinazoline -4-hydrazone, X= Cl-, Br-, I- and No-3 -. The geometry of the complexes have been elucidated in the light of molar mass, elemental analysis, IR, electronic Spectra, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility. The measured molar conductance value indicates that the complexes are nonelectrolytic in nature. The above observation indicates that Schiff bases EHPQH behave as bidentate ligand and coordination proposes through azomethine N and oxygen atom of alcoholic group of ligand. The remaining coordination sites are satisfied by negative ion such as Ci-, Br-, I- and NB-. The geometry of the Co(II and Ni(II were proposed to be octahedral in geometry whereas Cu(II complexes were proposed to be distorted octahedral. The Schiff bases and its complexes have been evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The complexes show enhanced antibacterial activity than ligand.

  5. Coordination behavior of new bis Schiff base ligand derived from 2-furan carboxaldehyde and propane-1,3-diamine. Spectroscopic, thermal, anticancer and antibacterial activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G; Zayed, Ehab M; Hindy, Ahmed M M

    2015-06-15

    Novel bis Schiff base ligand, [N1,N3-bis(furan-2-ylmethylene)propane-1,3-diamine], was prepared by the condensation of furan-2-carboxaldehyde with propane-1,3-diamine. Its conformational changes on complexation with transition metal ions [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III)] have been studied on the basis of elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, spectral (infrared, (1)H NMR, electronic), magnetic and thermogravimetric studies. The conductance data of the complexes revealed their electrolytic nature suggesting them as 1:2 (for bivalent metal ions) and 1:3 (for Fe(III) ion) electrolytes. The complexes were found to have octahedral geometry based on magnetic moment and solid reflectance measurements. Thermal analysis data revealed the decomposition of the complexes in successive steps with the removal of anions, coordinated water and bis Schiff base ligand. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated using Coats-Redfern equation. The Anticancer screening studies were performed on human colorectal cancer (HCT), hepatic cancer (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. The antimicrobial activity of all the compounds was studied against Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) and Gram positive (Bacillus vulgaris and Staphylococcus pyogones) bacteria. It was observed that the coordination of metal ion has a pronounced effect on the microbial activities of the bis Schiff base ligand. All the metal complexes have shown higher antimicrobial effect than the free bis Schiff base ligand.

  6. Coordination polymers of Fe(iii) and Al(iii) ions with TCA ligand: distinctive fluorescence, CO2 uptake, redox-activity and oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Barun; Sappati, Subrahmanyam; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2016-04-28

    Fe and Al belong to different groups in the periodic table, one from the p-block and the other from the d-block. In spite of their different groups, they have the similarity of exhibiting a stable 3+ oxidation state. Here we have prepared Fe(iii) and Al(iii) based coordination polymers in the form of metal-organic gels with the 4,4',4''-tricarboxyltriphenylamine (TCA) ligand, namely Fe-TCA and Al-TCA, and evaluated some important physicochemical properties. Specifically, the electrical conductivity, redox-activity, porosity, and electrocatalytic activity (oxygen evolution reaction) of the Fe-TCA system were noted to be remarkably higher than those of the Al-TCA system. As for the photophysical properties, almost complete quenching of the fluorescence originating from TCA was observed in case of the Fe-TCA system, whereas for the Al-TCA system a significant retention of fluorescence with red-shifted emission was observed. Quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to unravel the origin of such discriminative behaviour of these coordination polymer systems.

  7. Oral activity of a nature-derived cyclic peptide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thell, Kathrin; Hellinger, Roland; Sahin, Emine; Michenthaler, Paul; Gold-Binder, Markus; Haider, Thomas; Kuttke, Mario; Liutkevičiūtė, Zita; Göransson, Ulf; Gründemann, Carsten; Schabbauer, Gernot; Gruber, Christian W

    2016-04-12

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. It is characterized by auto-reactive T cells that induce demyelination and neuronal degradation. Treatment options are still limited and several MS medications need to be administered by parenteral application but are modestly effective. Oral active drugs such as fingolimod have been weighed down by safety concerns. Consequently, there is a demand for novel, especially orally active therapeutics. Nature offers an abundance of compounds for drug discovery. Recently, the circular plant peptide kalata B1 was shown to silence T-cell proliferation in vitro in an IL-2-dependent mechanism. Owing to this promising effect, we aimed to determine in vivo activity of the cyclotide [T20K]kalata B1 using the MS mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Treatment of mice with the cyclotide resulted in a significant delay and diminished symptoms of EAE by oral administration. Cyclotide application substantially impeded disease progression and did not exhibit adverse effects. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-2, distinguish the cyclotide from other marketed drugs. Considering their stable structural topology and oral activity, cyclotides are candidates as peptide therapeutics for pharmaceutical drug development for treatment of T-cell-mediated disorders.

  8. Activated microglia mediate axoglial disruption that contributes to axonal injury in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Owain W; Rundle, Jon L; Garg, Anurag; Komada, Masayuki; Brophy, Peter J; Reynolds, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The complex manifestations of chronic multiple sclerosis (MS)are due in part to widespread axonal abnormalities that affect lesional and nonlesional areas in the central nervous system. We describe an association between microglial activation and axon/oligodendrocyte pathology at nodal and paranodal domains in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of MS cases and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The extent of paranodal axoglial (neurofascin-155(+)/Caspr1(+)) disruption correlated with local microglial inflammation and axonal injury (expression of nonphosphorylated neurofilaments) in MS NAWM. These changes were independent of demyelinating lesions and did not correlate with the density of infiltrating lymphocytes. Similar axoglial alterations were seen in the subcortical white matter of Parkinson disease cases and in preclinical EAE, at a time point when there is microglial activation before the infiltration of immune cells. Disruption of the axoglial unit in adjuvant-immunized animals was reversible and coincided with the resolution of microglial inflammation; paranodal damage and microglial inflammation persisted in chronic EAE. Axoglial integrity could be preserved by the administration of minocycline, which inhibited microglial activation, in actively immunized animals. These data indicate that, in MS NAWM, permanent disruption to axoglial domains in an environment of microglial inflammation is an early indicator of axonal injury that likely affects nerve conduction and may contribute to physiologic dysfunction.

  9. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Klaren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV, normalized WM volume (NWMV, and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was significantly associated with NGMV (pr=0.370, p<0.05, NWMV (pr=0.433, p<0.01, hippocampus (pr=0.499, p<0.01, thalamus (pr=0.380, p<0.05, caudate (pr=0.539, p<0.01, putamen (pr=0.369, p<0.05, and pallidum (pr=0.498, p<0.01 volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS.

  10. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sen; Jiang, Xinnong; Gewinner, Christina A; Asara, John M; Simon, Nicholas I; Cai, Changmeng; Cantley, Lewis C; Balk, Steven P

    2013-05-28

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX (bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome X) is abundant in various cell types and activated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase Src, but its substrates are unknown. Positional scanning peptide library screening revealed a marked preference for a priming phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) in the -1 position, indicating that BMX substrates may include multiple tyrosine kinases that are fully activated by pYpY sites in the kinase domain. BMX phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr⁵⁷⁷ subsequent to its Src-mediated phosphorylation at Tyr⁵⁷⁶. Loss of BMX by RNA interference or by genetic deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) markedly impaired FAK activity. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the kinase domain at Tyr¹¹⁸⁹ and Tyr¹¹⁹⁰, as well as Tyr¹¹⁸⁵, and downstream phosphorylation of the kinase AKT at Thr³⁰⁸ were similarly impaired by BMX deficiency. However, insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser⁴⁷³ was not impaired in Bmx knockout MEFs or liver tissue from Bmx knockout mice, which also showed increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, possibly because of decreased abundance of the phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase). Thus, by identifying the pYpY motif as a substrate for BMX, our findings suggest that BMX functions as a central regulator among multiple signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine kinases.

  11. Multiple, but Concerted Cellular Activities of the Human Protein Hap46/BAG-1M and Isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Gehring

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The closely related human and murine proteins Hap46/BAG-1M and BAG-1, respectively, were discovered more than a decade ago by molecular cloning techniques. These and the larger isoform Hap50/BAG-1L, as well as shorter isoforms, have the ability to interact with a seemingly unlimited array of proteins of completely unrelated structures. This problem was partially resolved when it was realized that molecular chaperones of the hsp70 heat shock protein family are major primary association partners, binding being mediated by the carboxy terminal BAG-domain and the ATP-binding domain of hsp70 chaperones. The latter, in turn, can associate with an almost unlimited variety of proteins through their substrate-binding domains, so that ternary complexes may result. The protein folding activity of hsp70 chaperones is affected by interactions with Hap46/BAG-1M or isoforms. However, there also exist several proteins which bind to Hap46/BAG-1M and isoforms independent of hsp70 mediation. Moreover, Hap46/BAG-1M and Hap50/BAG-1L, but not the shorter isoforms, can bind to DNA in a sequence-independent manner by making use of positively charged regions close to their amino terminal ends. This is the molecular basis for their effects on transcription which are of major physiological relevance, as discussed here in terms of a model. The related proteins Hap50/BAG-1L and Hap46/BAG-1M may thus serve as molecular links between such diverse bioactivities as regulation of gene expression and protein quality control. These activities are coordinated and synergize in helping cells to cope with conditions of external stress. Moreover, they recently became markers for the aggressiveness of several cancer types.

  12. Nanorods of a new metal-biomolecule coordination polymer showing novel bidirectional electrocatalytic activity and excellent performance in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-05-15

    Metal organic coordination polymers (CPs), as most attractive multifunctional materials, have been studied extensively in many fields. However, metal-biomolecule CPs and CPs' electrochemical properties and applications were studied much less. We focus on this topic aiming at electrochemical biosensors with excellent performance and high biocompatibility. A new nanoscaled metal-biomolecule CP, Mn-tyr, containing manganese and tyrosine, was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by various techniques, including XRD, TEM, EDS, EDX mapping, elemental analysis, XPS, and IR. Electrode modified with Mn-tyr showed novel bidirectional electrocatalytic ability toward both reduction and oxidation of H2O2, which might be due to Mn. With the assistance of CNTs, the sensing performance of Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE was improved to a much higher level, with high sensitivity of 543 mA mol(-1) L cm(-2) in linear range of 1.00×10(-6)-1.02×10(-4) mol L(-1), and detection limit of 3.8×10(-7) mol L(-1). Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE also showed fast response, high selectivity, high steadiness and reproducibility. The excellent performance implies that the metal-biomolecule CPs are promising candidates for using in enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing.

  13. Akt Phosphorylation and PI (3, 4, 5) P3 Binding Coordinately Inhibit the Tumor Suppressive Activity of Merlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Johnson KC, Eckman MS, & Jacks T (2002) Merlin phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 2 and effects of phosphorylation on merlin localization. J...J. L., Johnson, K. C., Eckman , M. S. & Jacks, T. Merlin phosphorylation by p21-activated kinase 2 and effects of phosphorylation on merlin

  14. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods.

  15. Written justifications to multiple-choice concept questions during active learning in class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koretsky, Milo D.; Brooks, Bill J.; Higgins, Adam Z.

    2016-07-01

    Increasingly, instructors of large, introductory STEM courses are having students actively engage during class by answering multiple-choice concept questions individually and in groups. This study investigates the use of a technology-based tool that allows students to answer such questions during class. The tool also allows the instructor to prompt students to provide written responses to justify the selection of the multiple-choice answer that they have chosen. We hypothesize that prompting students to explain and elaborate on their answer choices leads to greater focus and use of normative scientific reasoning processes, and will allow them to answer questions correctly more often. The study contains two parts. First, a crossover quasi-experimental design is employed to determine the influence of asking students to individually provide written explanations (treatment condition) of their answer choices to 39 concept questions as compared to students who do not. Second, we analyze a subset of the questions to see whether students identify the salient concepts and use appropriate reasoning in their explanations. Results show that soliciting written explanations can have a significant influence on answer choice and, when it does, that influence is usually positive. However, students are not always able to articulate the correct reason for their answer.

  16. The Albano multiple-maar center (Rome, Italy): an active volcanic area since 70 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, C.; Gaeta, M.; Karner, D. B.; Marra, F.; Renne, P. R.; Scarlato, P.; Taddeucci, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Albano multiple-maar center hosted the most recent activity of the Alban Hills Volcanic District. The determination of its petrochemical characteristics and its geochronology is therefore of great importance in order to evaluate the status of this volcanic area and to assess the possible volcanic hazard for Rome. Despite the detailed 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic history of the products of its activity, relatively poor information on the stratigraphy and the petrology of this volcanic center exists. In order to develop a detailed chronostratigraphy, petrology, and a more thorough knowledge of the eruptive mechanisms that characterized the recent activity of the Albano center, a joint research project is being conducted by scientists from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, the University of California at Berkeley, and the Berkeley Geochronology Center. Here we have studied the most complete stratigraphic section located within the northern crater rim of Albano, where most of the products are exposed. We have investigated proximal and distal outcrops, in order to correlate them to the units identified in the northern crater rim section. We will present our recently acquired geochronologic and petrochemical data, which indicates magma chamber recharge associated with this <70 ka volcanism.

  17. Coordinated Volt/Var Control in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations Based on Joint Active and Reactive Powers Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouzar Samimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant control schemes in optimal operation of distribution networks is Volt/Var control (VVC. Owing to the radial structure of distribution systems and distribution lines with a small X/R ratio, the active power scheduling affects the VVC issue. A Distribution System Operator (DSO procures its active and reactive power requirements from Distributed Generations (DGs along with the wholesale electricity market. This paper proposes a new operational scheduling method based on a joint day-ahead active/reactive power market at the distribution level. To this end, based on the capability curve, a generic reactive power cost model for DGs is developed. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model presented in this paper motivates DGs to actively participate not only in the energy markets, but also in the VVC scheme through a competitive market. The proposed method which will be performed in an offline manner aims to optimally determine (i the scheduled active and reactive power values of generation units; (ii reactive power values of switched capacitor banks; and (iii tap positions of transformers for the next day. The joint active/reactive power dispatch model for daily VVC is modeled in GAMS and solved with the DICOPT solver. Finally, the plausibility of the proposed scheduling framework is examined on a typical 22-bus distribution test network over a 24-h period.

  18. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by Ganoderma formosanum stimulate macrophage activation via multiple pattern-recognition receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungus of Ganoderma is a traditional medicine in Asia with a variety of pharmacological functions including anti-cancer activities. We have purified an extracellular heteropolysaccharide fraction, PS-F2, from the submerged mycelia culture of G. formosanum and shown that PS-F2 exhibits immunostimulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of immunostimulation by PS-F2. Results PS-F2-stimulated TNF-α production in macrophages was significantly reduced in the presence of blocking antibodies for Dectin-1 and complement receptor 3 (CR3, laminarin, or piceatannol (a spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, suggesting that PS-F2 recognition by macrophages is mediated by Dectin-1 and CR3 receptors. In addition, the stimulatory effect of PS-F2 was attenuated in the bone marrow-derived macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. PS-F2 stimulation triggered the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK, p38, and ERK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which all played essential roles in activating TNF-α expression. Conclusions Our results indicate that the extracellular polysaccharides produced by G. formosanum stimulate macrophages via the engagement of multiple pattern-recognition receptors including Dectin-1, CR3 and TLR4, resulting in the activation of Syk, JNK, p38, ERK, and NK-κB and the production of TNF-α.

  19. Profiling of multiple signal pathway activities by multiplexing antibody and GFP-based translocation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ulla; Fog, Jacob; Loechel, Frosty; Praestegaard, Morten

    2008-08-01

    Multiplexing of GFP based and immunofluorescence translocation assays enables easy acquisition of multiple readouts from the same cell in a single assay run. Immunofluorescence assays monitor translocation, phosphorylation, and up/down regulation of endogenous proteins. GFP-based assays monitor translocation of stably expressed GFP-fusion proteins. Such assays may be multiplexed along (vertical), across (horizontal), and between (branch) signal pathways. Examples of these strategies are presented: 1) The MK2-GFP assay monitors translocation of MK2-GFP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to stimulation of the p38 pathway. By applying different immunofluorescent assays to the MK2 assay, a multiplexed HCA system is created for deconvolution of p38 pathway activation including assay readouts for MK2, p38, NFkappaB, and c-Jun. 2) A method for evaluating GPCR activation and internalization in a single assay run has been established by multiplexing GFP-based internalization assays with immunofluorescence assays for downstream transducers of GPCR activity: pCREB (cAMP sensor), NFATc1 (Ca(2+) sensor), and ERK (G-protein activation). Activation of the AT1 receptor is given as an example. 3) Cell toxicity readouts can be linked to primary readouts of interest via acquisition of secondary parameters describing cellular morphology. This approach is used to flag cytotoxic compounds and deselect false positives. The ATF6 Redistribution assay is provided as an example. These multiplex strategies provide a unique opportunity to enhance HCA data quality and save time during drug discovery. From a single assay run, several assay readouts are obtained that help the user to deconvolute the mode of action of test compounds.

  20. Motor coordination: a local hub for coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-03-31

    A local interneuron of a crayfish central pattern generator serves as a hub that integrates ascending and descending coordinating information and passes it on to a local oscillatory microcircuit to coordinate a series of segmental appendages known as swimmerets.

  1. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliffe, Julie M; Cole, Michael D; Wieschaus, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications. PMID:17519021

  2. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Michael D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications.

  3. Coordinate regulation of fibronectin matrix assembly by the plasminogen activator system and vitronectin in human osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKeown-Longo Paula J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasminogen activators are known to play a key role in the remodeling of bone matrix which occurs during tumor progression, bone metastasis and bone growth. Dysfunctional remodeling of bone matrix gives rise to the osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions seen in association with metastatic cancers. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these lesions are not well understood. Studies were undertaken to address the role of the plasminogen activator system in the regulation of fibronectin matrix assembly in the osteoblast-like cell line, MG-63. Results Treatment of MG-63 cells with P25, a peptide ligand for uPAR, resulted in an increase in assembly of fibronectin matrix which was associated with an increase in the number of activated β1 integrins on the cell surface. Overexpression of uPAR in MG-63 cells increased the effect of P25 on fibronectin matrix assembly and β1 integrin activation. P25 had no effect on uPAR null fibroblasts, confirming a role for uPAR in this process. The addition of plasminogen activator inhibitor Type I (PAI-1 to cells increased the P25-induced fibronectin polymerization, as well as the number of activated integrins. This positive regulation of PAI-1 on fibronectin assembly was independent of PAI-1's anti-proteinase activity, but acted through PAI-1 binding to the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin. Conclusion These results indicate that vitronectin modulates fibronectin matrix assembly in osteosarcoma cells through a novel mechanism involving cross-talk through the plasminogen activator system.

  4. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2010-01-01

    Overview Once again, the bulk of this article reviews the intense activity of a recently completed shutdown, which, although quite unforeseeable until a few weeks before it started, proved by its success that our often advertised capability to conduct major maintenance within a two month period is real. Although safely completed, on-time to remarkable precision, the activity was not without incident, and highlighted our dependence on many experienced, specialist teams and their precise choreography. Even after the yoke was safely closed, magnet re-commissioning and beampipe pumpdown showed new and thought-provoking behaviour. The struggle to maintain adequate technical resources will be a pre-occupation over the coming months, in parallel with the start of truly sustained operation, for which various procedures are still being put in place. Planning for future shutdowns must now become a high priority, with many working groups and task forces already in existence to prepare infrastructure improvements and to...

  5. Graphene oxide coated coordination polymer nanobelt composite material: a new type of visible light active and highly efficient photocatalyst for Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gui-Mei; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Xin-Xin; Fu, Yan-Hong

    2015-06-28

    A visible light active photocatalyst was synthesized successfully by coating graphene oxide (GO) on a coordination polymer nanobelt (CPNB) using a simple colloidal blending process. Compared with neat CPNB, the resulting graphene oxide coated coordination polymer nanobelt composite material (GO/CPNB) exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency in the reduction of K2Cr2O7 under visible light irradiation. In the composite material, GO performs two functions. Firstly, it cuts down the band gap (E(g)) of the photocatalyst and extends its photoresponse region from the ultraviolet to visible light region. Secondly, GO exhibits excellent electron transportation ability that impedes its recombination with holes, and this can enhance photocatalytic efficiency. For GO, on its surface, the number of functional groups has a great influence on the photocatalytic performance of the resulting GO/CPNB composite material and an ideal GO"coater" to obtain a highly efficient GO/CPNB photocatalyst has been obtained. As a photocatalyst that may be used in the treatment of Cr(VI) in wastewater, GO/CPNB exhibited outstanding stability during the reduction of this pollutant.

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Shutdown critical path: progress and prospects The 2008-09 CMS shutdown is proceeding as intended.  The first two phases, in which the dominant activity (besides heavy logistics) was maintenance and repair of the barrel muon and alignment systems on all wheels and disks (but particularly YB0), have been finished successfully and on time. The yoke wheels at both ends are once again closed over the vactank. Phase 3 is in full swing and has reached maximum complexity, with work-intensity and associated risks similar those encountered in summer 2008. The status going into this CMS week is that the forward pixel tracker at the +z end (FPIX+) has been extracted and transported for maintenance, while the installation of preshower ES+, taking place in parallel, has reached the stage where the active “dee” elements are installed and the drum structures have just been moved back along the beampipe and re-mated to the electromagnetic endcaps. The phase 3 activity requires the large &l...

  7. THE COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF COBALT (II, III WITH DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID DERIVATIVES — MODIFICATORS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1–(12, and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13–(18 have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was shown that cobalt (II, Ш compounds influence differently on the activity of enzymes tested, exerted both inhibitory and stimulatory action. It gives a possibility to expect that manifestation of activity by complex molecule depends on ligand and anion presence — Cl–, Br– or NCS–. The high activating action of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides (1–(12 on elastase and fibrinolytic activity of peptidases compared to tris(4-morpholinecarbodithioatocobalt(ІІІ (14 and products of its interaction with halogens (15–(17, causes inhibitory effect that is probably due to presence of a weekly S–N link, which is easy subjected to homolytic breaking. The studies of influences of cobalt(II complexes on activity of C. аlbidus and E. еrubescens ?-Lrhamnosidases showed, that majority of compounds inhibits of its activity, at that the most inhibitory effect exerts to C. аlbidus enzyme.To sum up, it is possible to state that character of influence of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides, and also cobalt(II, Ш complexes with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid varies depending on both strain producer and enzyme tested. The difference in complex effects on enzymes tested are due to peculiarities of building and functional groups of their active centers, which are also responsible for binding with modificators.

  8. The impact of mitoxantrone on neurological disability in active multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesaroš Šarlota

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several in vivo and in vitro studies showed that mitoxantrone (MTX, a novel anthracendione antineoplastic agent, had an immunomodulatory effect that suppressed humoral immunity, reduced T-cell numbers, lessened helper activity, enhanced suppressor function and had some positive effect on acute and chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats. Up to now, several trials of therapy with MTX have been performed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. MTX has been recently shown to reduce disease activity, as expressed by reducing relapse rate and decreasing new, active MRI lesions, in a selected group of patients with active relapsing-remitting (RR MS. Furthermore, more recently, it has been demonstrated that MTX reduce neurological disability in secondary progressive MS. We designed the open-label clinical trial involving 35 MS patients with active disease in order to evaluate the long-term clinical effects of 6-months MTX treatment during a follow-up period of 20-46 months (mean, 30 months. The study comprised 35 patients, who met the Poser criteria for clinically definite MS. All patients were clinically treated at the Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, during the period from March 1996 to August 2000. The neurological disability state was evaluated at the entry, every month until completion of the therapy and every six months until August 2000, by means of Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score. All patients had active MS. The criteria for disease activity were: 1 at least 2 relapses within the previous 2 years, or 2 progression of at least 1.0 point on EDSS scale during the same period. The included patients did not receive immunosuppressive therapy six months prior to the entry. The patients were assigned to receive MTX 20 mg intravenously (iv per month and methylprednisolone 1g iv per month, over six months. The clinical characteristics and demographic data of patients included in the study

  9. Resveratrol as a novel agent for treatment of multiple myeloma with matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-yan SUN; Yu HU; Tao GUO; Hua-fang WANG; Xiao-ping ZHANG; Wen-juan HE; Hao TAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine the in vitro antitumor activity of resveratrol against multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines (RPMI 8226, U266, and KM3), and the mechanisms involved. Methods: The growth inhibition of resveratrol was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effect of resveratrol on the apoptosis was investigated by combined annexin V-propidium iodide staining. The effect of resveratrol on the invasion through Matrigel matrix was detected by transwell invasion analyses. The activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 proteins were determined by gelatin zymography analysis. The expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and Bax protein were detected using Western blotting analysis. Results: Resveratrol inhibited proliferation of MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Incubation of MM cells with resveratrol resulted in apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol down-regulated the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and XIAP and up-regulated the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited invasion of RPMI 8226, U266, and KM3 cells with IC50 values of 64±8 μmol/L, 93±11 μmol/L, and 153±11 μmol/L, respectively. Resveratrol inhibited the constitutive expression of MMP-2 and -9 proteins of MM cells and suppressed its gelatinolytic activity. Conclusion: Resveratrol inhibits the proliferation of MM cells by inducing apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol also inhibits MM cell invasion. The inhibition of invasion may be associated with the attenuation of the enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and -9.

  10. An Optimization Approach Based on Multiple Time-Step Coordination for Decision Making of Unit Restoration%一种机组恢复决策的多时段协调优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾雪平; 刘文轩; 王佳裕; 贾京华

    2016-01-01

    为加快大停电后电网的恢复速度,在制定机组恢复方案时,应合理安排机组的启动顺序使尽可能多的火电机组实现热态启动。通过分析恢复过程中机组的串并行恢复机制,并考虑机组热启动时限对恢复顺序的影响,提出一种机组恢复决策的多时段协调优化方法。该方法采用分时段建模、多时段协调优化的全局优化策略,以热启动机组的总容量和恢复过程中机组的总发电量分别作为上、下层目标函数,建立了分时段的双层优化模型;采用基于状态优选的多种群遗传算法进行求解,实现了机组恢复决策的全局优化。通过合理控制各时段保留的方案数,既可保证方案的多样性,有效防止求解陷入局部最优,又可确保各时段的状态数有可控的上限,使计算量控制在可接受的范围内。新英格兰10机39节点系统和河北南网实际系统的算例结果验证了所提多时段协调优化方法的有效性。%To accelerate the restoration speed of a power system after a blackout, it is necessary to restore as many thermal units as possible within their hot-start intervals by determining a reasonable unit restoration sequence. By analyzing the serial and parallel restoration patterns of units and considering the effects of the hot-start interval on the restoration sequence, a multiple time-step coordinative optimization approach for decision making of the unit restoration sequences is proposed in the paper. Adopting the global optimization strategy based on multiple time-step modeling and coordinative optimization, a bi-level optimization model based on time-step is established, in which the total capacity of the hot-started units and the total units’ MWh output in the overall process are treated as the upper-level and the lower-level objective functions respectively. The multiple population genetic algorithm ( MPGA ) based on optimal choice of states is

  11. Coordinate activation of Shh and PI3K signaling in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma: new therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbin, Mariella Gruber; Dabral, Sukriti K; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Kung, Andrew L; Pak, Ekaterina; Chung, Jarom; Theisen, Matthew A; Sun, Yanping; Franchetti, Yoko; Sun, Yu; Shulman, David S; Redjal, Navid; Tabak, Barbara; Beroukhim, Rameen; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jean; Dorsch, Marion; Buonamici, Silvia; Ligon, Keith L; Kelleher, Joseph F; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-11-01

    In glioblastoma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is frequently activated by loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). However, it is not known whether inhibiting PI3K represents a selective and effective approach for treatment. We interrogated large databases and found that sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling is activated in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. We demonstrate that the SHH and PI3K pathways synergize to promote tumor growth and viability in human PTEN-deficient glioblastomas. A combination of PI3K and SHH signaling inhibitors not only suppressed the activation of both pathways but also abrogated S6 kinase (S6K) signaling. Accordingly, targeting both pathways simultaneously resulted in mitotic catastrophe and tumor apoptosis and markedly reduced the growth of PTEN-deficient glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. The drugs tested here appear to be safe in humans; therefore, this combination may provide a new targeted treatment for glioblastoma.

  12. Cucurbitacin B exerts anti-cancer activities in human multiple myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo by modulating multiple cellular pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Zhong, Yueling; Zeng, Ting; Wei, Rong; Wu, Zhongjun; Xiao, Cui; Cao, Xiaohua; Li, Minhui; Li, Limei; Han, Bin; Yu, Xiaoping; Li, Hua; Zou, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a triterpenoid compound isolated from the stems of Cucumis melo, has long been used to treat hepatitis and hepatoma in China. Although its remarkable anti-cancer activities have been reported, the mechanism by which it achieves this therapeutic activity remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which CuB inhibits cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that CuB is a novel inhibitor of Aurora A in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, arresting cells in the G2/M phase. CuB also inhibited IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, synergistically increasing the anti-tumor activity of Adriamycin in vitro. CuB induced dephosphorylation of cofilin, resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-8. CuB inhibited MM tumor growth in a murine MM model, without host toxicity. In conclusion, these results indicate that CuB interferes with multiple cellular pathways in MM cells. CuB thus represents a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of MM. PMID:27418139

  13. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Zeuner and A. Ball

    2013-01-01

    LS1 overview In general the LS1 project is progressing well and the workflow is holding to the original December 2012 schedule within two–three weeks, acceptable at this stage, with about 400 work packages already completed. In particular, the critical logistic configuration planned for summer 2013, giving simultaneous access to both ends of the vacuum tank interior and the exterior, plus the YE1 nose zones, was achieved significantly before the deadline at the end of June. The safety awareness of all those working on the CMS detector is currently very satisfactory and the general atmosphere at Point 5 is good, despite many concurrent activities and inevitable last minute adjustments to the day-to-day planning. LS1 services infrastructure work The “once-in-ten years” maintenance of the water-cooling infrastructure has been completed successfully by EN department teams; underground circuits were available again from 12 June. In the shadow of this activity, consolidation and m...

  14. Effects of supported metallocene catalyst active center multiplicity on antioxidant-stabilized ethylene homo- and copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad

    2014-10-09

    © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. A silica-supported bis(n-butylcyclopentadienyl) zirconium dichloride [( n BuCp)2ZrCl2] catalyst was synthesized. This was used to prepare an ethylene homopolymer and an ethylene-1-hexene copolymer. The active center multiplicity of this catalyst was modeled by deconvoluting the copolymer molecular mass distribution and chemical composition distribution. Five different active site types were predicted, which matched the successive self-nucleation and annealing temperature peaks. The thermo-oxidative melt stability, with and without Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168, of the above polyethylenes was investigated using nonisothermal differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) experiments at 150 °C. This is a temperature that ensures complete melting of the samples and avoids the diffusivity of oxygen to interfere into polyethylene crystallinity and its thermo-oxidative melt degradation. The oxidation parameters such as onset oxidation temperature, induction period, protection factor, and S-factor were determined by combining theoretical modeling with the DSC experiments. Subsequently, these findings were discussed considering catalyst active center multiplicity and polymer microstructure, particularly average ethylene sequence length. Several insightful results, which have not been reported earlier in the literature, were obtained. The antioxidant effect, for each polymer, varied as (Irganox + Irgafos) ≈ Irganox > Irgafos > Neat polymer. The as-synthesized homopolymer turned out to be almost twice as stable as the corresponding copolymer. The antioxidant(s) in the copolymer showed higher antioxidant effectiveness (AEX) than those in the homopolymer. Irganox exhibited more AEX than Irgafos. To the best of our knowledge, such findings have not been reported earlier in the literature. However, mixed with Irganox or Irgafos, their melt oxidation stability was comparable. The homopolymer, as per the calculated S-factor, showed Irganox

  15. Activation of Blood CD3+CD56+CD8+ T Cells during Pregnancy and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, Clara; Fernández-Paredes, Lidia; Tejera-Alhambra, Marta; Alonso, Bárbara; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    A striking common feature of most autoimmune diseases is their female predominance, with at least twice as common among women than men in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), the prevailing MS clinical form with onset at childbearing age. This fact, together with the protective effect on disease activity during pregnancy, when there are many biological changes including high levels of estrogens and progesterone, puts sex hormones under the spotlight. The role of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in MS disease beginning and course is still to be elucidated. The uterine NK (uNK) cells are the most predominant immune population in early pregnancy, and the number and function of uNK cells infiltrating the endometrium are sex-hormones’ dependent. However, there is controversy on the role of estrogen or progesterone on circulating NK (CD56dim and CD56bright) and NKT cells’ subsets. Here, we show a significantly increased activation of CD3+CD56+CD8+ cells in pregnant MS women (MSP) compared with non-pregnant MS women (NPMS) (p pregnancy. Further studies on specific CD8+ NKT cells function and their role in pregnancy beneficial effects on MS are warranted to move forward more effective MS treatments. PMID:28280497

  16. Multiple unit activity recorded longitudinally in rats from pubescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmo, H P; Malmo, R B

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal multiple unit activity (MUA) recordings of excellent quality over time periods as long as 26 months are described. The validity of the method was demonstrated by showing persistence of specific and idiosyncratic MUA responses to controlled sensory stimulation over these long time periods. This longitudinal MUA method was used to study level of localization neuronal activity as a function of aging. In agreement with deoxyglucose data from Sokoloff's laboratory, we found significant age-related declines in inferior and superior colliculi. In addition, our results showed the advantage of a longitudinal method over a cross-sectional one in following progressive changes into old age. The further declines in midbrain MUA level (though not in forebrain level) from middle age to old age that we observed were highly significant. The deoxyglucose method, on the other hand, had failed to show this kind of progression in those midbrain sites, probably because of a survival effect, a common sampling artifact in cross-sectional studies of aging.

  17. Augmented expression of urokinase plasminogen activator and extracellular matrix proteins associates with multiple myeloma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rehan; Gupta, Nidhi; Kumar, Raman; Sharma, Manoj; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Alpana

    2014-06-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) represents a B cell malignancy, characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells. Interactions between tumor cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) are of importance for tumor invasion and metastasis. Protein levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and fibulin 1, nidogen and laminin in plasma and serum respectively and mRNA levels of these molecules in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined in 80 subjects by using ELISA and quantitative PCR and data was analyzed with severity of disease. Pearson correlation was determined to observe interrelationship between different molecules. A statistical significant increase for ECM proteins (laminin, nidogen and fibulin 1) and uPA at circulatory level as well as at mRNA level was observed compared to healthy controls. The levels of these molecules in serum might be utilized as a marker of active disease. Significant positive correlation of all ECM proteins with uPA was found and data also correlates with severity of disease. Strong association found between ECM proteins and uPA in this study supports that there might be interplay between these molecules which can be targeted. This study on these molecules may help to gain insight into processes of growth, spread, and clinical behavior of MM.

  18. Predictability of Operant Behavior of Rats by Prefrontal Multiple Unit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sei-Etsu; Akema, Tatsuo; Izaki, Yoshinori

    To investigate the possibility of a brain computer interface (BCI) constructed using activities of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we analyzed PFC multiple unit activities (MUAs) during a delayed reinforcement (DRF) lever press task in rats. In the DRF task, each trial consisted of two lever press responses (R1, R2): R1 as the trial initiation, R2 as a pre-conditioned response to a stimulus (buzzer) for a reward. Between R1 and the buzzer, rats were required to inhibit the lever press (waiting phase). The trial was evaluated as incorrect if rats pressed the lever during the waiting phase. Results show that the mean firing rate (MFR) was significantly lower around the time of R1 compared with the pre-trial time in correct trials, although no significant changes were found in incorrect trials. From a neuroengineering perspective, the MFR of each single trial was calculated. Most correct trials showed decreasing MFR around the time of R1. The PFC MUA might be useful for BCI.

  19. QSAR modeling of antimalarial activity of urea derivatives using genetic algorithm–multiple linear regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Beheshti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR was performed to analyze antimalarial activities of 68 urea derivatives using multiple linear regressions (MLR. QSAR analyses were performed on the available 68 IC50 oral data based on theoretical molecular descriptors. A suitable set of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structures of compounds, such as constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical descriptors. The important descriptors were selected with the aid of the genetic algorithm (GA method. The obtained model was validated using leave-one-out (LOO cross-validation; external test set and Y-randomization test. The root mean square errors (RMSE of the training set, and the test set for GA–MLR model were calculated to be 0.314 and 0.486, the square of correlation coefficients (R2 were obtained 0.801 and 0.803, respectively. Results showed that the predictive ability of the model was satisfactory, and it can be used for designing similar group of antimalarial compounds.

  20. Online multiple intelligence teaching tools (On-MITT) for enhancing interpersonal teaching activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Siti Nurul Mahfuzah; Salam, Sazilah; Bakar, Norasiken; Sui, Linda Khoo Mei

    2014-07-01

    The theories of Multiple Intelligence (MI) used in this paper apply to students with interpersonal intelligence who is encouraged to work together in cooperative groups where interpersonal interaction is practiced. In this context, students used their knowledge and skills to help the group or partner to complete the tasks given. Students can interact with each other as they learn and the process of learning requires their verbal and non-verbal communication skills, co-operation and empathy in the group. Meanwhile educators can incorporate cooperative learning in groups in the classroom. On-MITT provides various tools to facilitate lecturers in preparing e-content that applies interpersonal intelligence. With minimal knowledge of Information and Technology (IT) skills, educators can produce creative and interesting teaching activities and teaching materials. The objective of this paper is to develop On-MITT prototype for interpersonal teaching activities. This paper addressed initial prototype of this study. An evaluation of On-MITT has been completed by 20 lecturers of Malaysian Polytechnics. Motivation Survey Questionnaire is used as the instrument to measure four motivation variables: ease of use, enjoyment, usefulness and self-confidence. Based on the findings, the On-MITT can facilitate educators to prepare teaching materials that are compatible for interpersonal learner.

  1. NLRP3 activation and mitosis are mutually exclusive events coordinated by NEK7, a new inflammasome component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hexin; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Zhan, Xiaoming; Tang, Miao; Fina, Maggy; Su, Lijing; Pratt, David; Bu, Chun Hui; Hildebrand, Sara; Lyon, Stephen; Scott, Lindsay; Quan, Jiexia; Sun, Qihua; Russell, Jamie; Arnett, Stephanie; Jurek, Peter; Chen, Ding; Kravchenko, Vladimir V; Mathison, John C; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Monson, Nancy L; Ulevitch, Richard J; Beutler, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to microbes and danger signals by processing and activating proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. We found here that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was restricted to interphase of the cell cycle by NEK7, a serine-threonine kinase previously linked to mitosis. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome required NEK7, which bound to the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP3 in a kinase-independent manner downstream of the induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). This interaction was necessary for the formation of a complex containing NLRP3 and the adaptor ASC, oligomerization of ASC and activation of caspase-1. NEK7 promoted the NLRP3-dependent cellular inflammatory response to intraperitoneal challenge with monosodium urate and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in mice. Our findings suggest that NEK7 serves as a cellular switch that enforces mutual exclusivity of the inflammasome response and cell division.

  2. Toward Interagency Coordination FY '75 Federal Research and Development Activities Pertaining to Early Childhood. Fifth Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Thomas W.; Mann, Ada Jo

    This report provides an overview of the federally-funded early childhood research activities of fiscal year 1975. In order to assess the directions in which federal research programs are moving, ongoing research projects are analyzed both within individual agencies and within the federal government as a whole. The first chapter reviews the…

  3. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  4. COCO: Conversion of Celestial Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The COCO program converts star coordinates from one system to another. Both the improved IAU system, post-1976, and the old pre-1976 system are supported. COCO can perform accurate transformations between multiple coordinate systems. COCO's user-interface is spartan but efficient and the program offers control over report resolution. All input is free-format, and defaults are provided where this is meaningful. COCO uses SLALIB (ascl:1403.025) and is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  5. Coordination Chemistry of Polyaromatic Thiosemicarbazones 2: Synthesis and Biological Activity of Zinc, Cobalt, and Copper Complexes of 1-(Naphthalene-2-ylethanone Thiosemicarbazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre LeBlanc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel thiosemicarbazone from 2-acetonaphthone (represented as acnTSC has been synthesized and its basic coordination chemistry with zinc(II, cobalt(II, and copper(II explored. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques and are best formulated as [M(acnTSC2Cl2] with the metal likely in an octahedral environment. The anticancer activity of the complexes was determined against a panel of human colon cancer cells (HCT-116 and Caco-2. The compounds bind to DNA via an intercalative mode with binding constants of 9.7×104 M-1, 1.8×105 M-1, and 9.5×104 M-1 for the zinc, cobalt, and copper complexes, respectively.

  6. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Although the incident on 19th September brought an untimely, temporary close to the exciting and successful commissioning of CMS with beam, activity at point 5 resumed with barely reduced intensity once underground access was restored. The preliminary steps were to re-fill the beamipe to atmospheric pressure with pure neon gas, to de-classify the cavern for radiological risks and to get agreement for formally deferring screening and tracing of material extracted from UXC. As planned, attention was then focused on completing commissioning of the solenoid, whose progression towards nominal 3.8 Tesla operating field had been interrupted a few shifts from its conclusion. Additional mechanical restraints and shielding structures needed to be installed to control the effects of field escaping from the return yoke and finding other pathways between the magnet poles. Certain pumps, sensors, lights and cameras, absent during the extensive “MTCC” surface testing in 2006, needed to be protected, w...

  7. Effectiveness of rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis relapse on fatigue, self-efficacy and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Una; Raspopovic, Emilija Dubljanin; Ilic, Nela; Vujadinovic, Sanja Tomanovic; Soldatovic, Ivan; Drulovic, Jelena

    2016-09-01

    Relapse of disease is one of the most prominent characteristics of multiple sclerosis. Effectiveness of rehabilitation programmes on fatigue, self-efficacy (SE) and physical activity (PA) has not been investigated so far in context of relapse. The aim of our study was to examine if rehabilitation programme in addition to high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) during relapse of disease can influence fatigue, SE and PA more than corticosteroid therapy alone. Patients were randomized in control group receiving only HDMP and experimental group which was in addition included in rehabilitation programme. Outcome measures used were Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Multiple Sclerosis Self- Efficacy scale (MSSES), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), completed on baseline, 1 and 3 months later. There was no significant change in FSS in both time points, despite different trend seen between groups. The mean MSSES for function and control improved significantly in treatment group after 1 month (807.1 ± 96.8, p = 0.005; 665.3 ± 145.1, p = 0.05) and 3 months (820 ± 83.5, p = 0.004; 720.0 ± 198.2, p = 0.016.) compared to baseline values. The mean GLTEQ score was significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control at both follow-up time points (45.7 ± 7.6, p < 0.001; 34.3 ± 22.4, p < 0.01). Rehabilitation started along with corticosteroid treatment induced significant improvement in PA compared to HDMP therapy alone. It also influenced noticeable changes in self-efficacy, but effect on fatigue was insufficient.

  8. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYLETHANONE N(4-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii GRAUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenylethanone N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells was determined. It was established that the substitution of hydrogen atom with methyl group in the azomethinic fragment leads to the growth of antitumor activity.SINTEZA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTITUMORALĂ A COMPUŞILOR COMPLECŞI AI CUPRULUI, NICHELULUI ŞI COBALTULUI CU N(4-ALIL-3-TIOSEMICARBAZONA 1-(2-HIDROXIFENILETANONEILucrarea conţine descrierea sintezei N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonei 1-(2-hidroxifeniletanonei (H2L şi a şase compuşi coordinativi ai cuprului, nichelului şi cobaltului cu acest ligand. Structura tiosemicarbazonei H2L a fost stabilită în baza datelor spectroscopiei RMN 1H şi 13C. Compuşi coordinativi au fost studiaţi cu ajutorul analizei elementale, analizei gravimetrice a conţinutului de apă, conductivitaţii molare şi magnetochimiei. Pentru H2L a fost determinată activitatea antitumorală faţă de celulele leucemiei umane HL-60 şi ale cancerului cervical HeLa. S-a stabilit că înlocuirea atomului de hidrogen cu o grupare metil în fragmentul azomethinic conduce la creşterea activitaţii antitumorale.

  9. Vertebrate Ctr1 coordinates morphogenesis and progenitor cell fate and regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Haremaki, Tomomi; Fraser, Stuart T.; Kuo, Yien-Ming; Baron, Margaret H.; Weinstein, Daniel C.

    2007-01-01

    Embryogenesis involves two distinct processes. On the one hand, cells must specialize, acquiring fates appropriate to their positions (differentiation); on the other hand, they must physically construct the embryo through coordinated mechanical activity (morphogenesis). In early vertebrate development, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) regulates multiple embryonic events, including germ layer differentiation and morphogenesis; the cellular components that direct FGF signaling to evoke these diff...

  10. Involvement of multiple elements in FXR-mediated transcriptional activation of FGF19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hata, Tatsuya; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2012-10-01

    The intestinal endocrine hormone human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is involved in the regulation of not only hepatic bile acid metabolism but also carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In the present study, bile acid/farnesoid X receptor (FXR) responsiveness in the FGF19 promoter region was investigated by a reporter assay using the human colon carcinoma cell line LS174T. The assay revealed the presence of bile acid/FXR-responsive elements in the 5'-flanking region up to 8.8 kb of FGF19. Deletion analysis indicated that regions from -1866 to -1833, from -1427 to -1353, and from -75 to +262 were involved in FXR responsiveness. Four, four, and two consecutive half-sites of nuclear receptors were observed in the three regions, respectively. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer binding in these three regions. EMSA and reporter assays using mutated constructs indicated that the nuclear receptor IR1, ER2, and DR8 motifs in the 5'-flanking region were involved in FXR responsiveness of FGF19. Lithocholic acid (LCA) (10 μM), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) (10 μM), or GW4064 (0.1 μM) treatment increased reporter activity in a construct including the three motifs under FXR-expressing conditions whereas LCA and not CDCA or GW4064 treatment increased the reporter activity under pregnane X receptor (PXR)-expressing conditions. These results suggest that FGF19 is transcriptionally activated through multiple FXR-responsive elements in the promoter region.

  11. Assessment of multiple hormone activities of a UV-filter (octocrylene) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuya Y; Ma, Xiaoyan Y; Wang, Xiaochang C; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2016-09-01

    In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to a UV-filter-octocrylene (OCT) with elevated concentrations for 28 d. The total body accumulation of OCT in zebrafish was found to reach 2321.01 ("L" level), 31,234.80 ("M" level), and 70,593.38 ng g(-1) ("H" level) when the average OCT exposure concentration was controlled at 28.61, 505.62, and 1248.70 μg L(-1), respectively. Gross and histological observations as well as RT-qPCR analysis were conducted to determine the effects of OCT accumulation on zebrafish. After exposure, the gonad-somatic index and percentage of vitellogenic oocytes were found to increase significantly in the ovaries of female zebrafish at the H accumulation level. Significant up-regulation of esr1 and cyp19b were observed in the gonads, as well as vtg1 in the livers for both female and male zebrafish. At M and H accumulation levels, apparent down-regulation of ar was observed in the ovaries and testis of the female and male zebrafish, respectively. Although the extent of the effects on zebrafish differed at different accumulation levels, the induction of vtg1 and histological changes in the ovaries are indications of estrogenic activity and the inhibition of esr1 and ar showed antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity, respectively. Thus, as OCT could easily accumulate in aquatic life such as zebrafish, one of its most of concern hazards would be the disturbance of the histological development and its multiple hormonal activities.

  12. Coordination of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscle activity as a function of wrist joint angle during two-digit grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie A; Bobich, Lisa R; Santello, Marco

    2010-04-26

    Fingertip forces result from the activation of muscles that cross the wrist and muscles whose origins and insertions reside within the hand (extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles, respectively). Thus, tasks that involve changes in wrist angle affect the moment arm and length, hence the force-producing capabilities, of extrinsic muscles only. If a grasping task requires the exertion of constant fingertip forces, the Central Nervous System (CNS) may respond to changes in wrist angle by modulating the neural drive to extrinsic or intrinsic muscles only or by co-activating both sets of muscles. To distinguish between these scenarios, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the thumb and index finger as a function of wrist angle during a two-digit object hold task. We hypothesized that changes in wrist angle would elicit EMG amplitude modulation of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. In one experimental condition we asked subjects to exert the same digit forces at each wrist angle, whereas in a second condition subjects could choose digit forces for holding the object. EMG activity was significantly modulated in both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a function of wrist angle (both p<0.05) but only for the constant force condition. Furthermore, EMG modulation resulted from uniform scaling of EMG amplitude across all muscles. We conclude that the CNS controlled both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a muscle synergy. These findings are discussed within the theoretical frameworks of synergies and common neural input across motor nuclei of hand muscles.

  13. Understanding Emergent Dynamics: Using a Collective Activity Coordinate of a Neural Network to Recognize Time-Varying Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfield, John J

    2015-10-01

    In higher animals, complex and robust behaviors are produced by the microscopic details of large structured ensembles of neurons. I describe how the emergent computational dynamics of a biologically based neural network generates a robust natural solution to the problem of categorizing time-varying stimulus patterns such as spoken words or animal stereotypical behaviors. The recognition of these patterns is made difficult by their substantial variation in cadence and duration. The neural circuit behaviors used are similar to those associated with brain neural integrators. In the larger context described here, this kind of circuit becomes a building block of an entirely different computational algorithm for solving complex problems. While the network behavior is simulated in detail, a collective view is essential to understanding the results. A closed equation of motion for the collective variable describes an algorithm that quantitatively accounts for many aspects of the emergent network computation. The feedback connections and ongoing activity in the network shape the collective dynamics onto a reduced dimensionality manifold of activity space, which defines the algorithm and computation actually performed. The external inputs are weak and are not the dominant drivers of network activity.

  14. TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Greenfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, and stimulated linear (M1-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63

  15. Work Coordination Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas, Silvino; Bui, Tung; Bui, Bach; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie; Kim, Rachel; Allen, Christopher; Luong, Ivy; Chang, George; Sadaqathulla, Syed

    2009-01-01

    The Work Coordination Engine (WCE) is a Java application integrated into the Service Management Database (SMDB), which coordinates the dispatching and monitoring of a work order system. WCE de-queues work orders from SMDB and orchestrates the dispatching of work to a registered set of software worker applications distributed over a set of local, or remote, heterogeneous computing systems. WCE monitors the execution of work orders once dispatched, and accepts the results of the work order by storing to the SMDB persistent store. The software leverages the use of a relational database, Java Messaging System (JMS), and Web Services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) technologies to implement an efficient work-order dispatching mechanism capable of coordinating the work of multiple computer servers on various platforms working concurrently on different, or similar, types of data or algorithmic processing. Existing (legacy) applications can be wrapped with a proxy object so that no changes to the application are needed to make them available for integration into the work order system as "workers." WCE automatically reschedules work orders that fail to be executed by one server to a different server if available. From initiation to completion, the system manages the execution state of work orders and workers via a well-defined set of events, states, and actions. It allows for configurable work-order execution timeouts by work-order type. This innovation eliminates a current processing bottleneck by providing a highly scalable, distributed work-order system used to quickly generate products needed by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to support space flight operations. WCE is driven by asynchronous messages delivered via JMS indicating the availability of new work or workers. It runs completely unattended in support of the lights-out operations concept in the DSN.

  16. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball and W. Zeuner

    2013-01-01

    For the reporting period, the CMS common systems and infrastructure worked well, without failures that caused significant data losses. One more disconnection of the magnet cold box occurred in the shadow of interruptions in data taking, caused by a series of technical faults. The recognition during 2012 that re-connection can only safely be done at around 2 T implies a minimum magnet recovery time of 12 hours and raises serious concerns about the number of ramping cycles of the magnet these incidents cause. This has triggered studies of how to make the cryo-system of the magnet more robust against failures. The proton-proton run ended just before the end-of-year CERN closure, during which CASTOR was installed on the negative end of CMS and both ZDC calorimeters were installed in TAN absorbers the LHC tunnel, in preparation for the heavy-ion run. The installation of CASTOR was an excellent “engineering test” of procedures for working in an activated environment. Despite some technical pr...

  17. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    The 2008-9 CMS shutdown has reached its final phase. The yoke is closed again and the HFs are being prepared for lifting to beam height. Assuming no last minute problems occur, the detector will be ready for magnetic field tests by the end of June. The commitment of all the teams involved has ensured that an ambitious programme of work, including several tasks unforeseen in November 08, is nevertheless concluding on-time and successfully. All efforts are now being made to be ready for the CRAFT09 exercise. The way to proceed after CRAFT will depend on the LHC re-start schedule (to be clarified around the end of June). Options will be discussed during this CMS week. Shutdown 2008-9 Sub-Detectors As a reminder, the major shutdown activities on the detector components are listed below; details on each point can be found elsewhere in this bulletin. •    Installation and check-out of the Preshower detector on both endcaps •    Mainten...

  18. TECHNICAL COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Austin Ball

    Summary of progress since last CMS week. Ten years of construction work have been completed. CMS is closed, in very close to the ideal low luminosity configuration, and performed well in the first tests with LHC beam. Behind this encouraging news is the story of a summer of intense commitment by many teams (from the collaboration and 3 CERN departments) working together, against the clock and despite many minor setbacks, to ensure that the experiment was ready to play a leading role in the excitement of September 10. Following beampipe bakeout and refill with pure neon, a magnificent effort by the ECAL group and the pt 5 technical crew made it possible to install and commission all 4 ECAL endcap Dees before the end of August. In the shadow of this activity, the barrel and forward pixel trackers and part of the beam monitoring were installed within the vac tank. The pt 5 technical teams then succeeded in safely removing the 20t installation tables and their support blocks from beneath the already installed ...

  19. Kölliker–Fuse neurons send collateral projections to multiple hypoxia-activated and nonactivated structures in rat brainstem and spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hui; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2012-10-01

    The Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KFN) in dorsolateral pons has been implicated in many physiological functions via its extensive efferent connections. Here, we combine iontophoretic anterograde tracing with posthypoxia c-Fos immunohistology to map KFN axonal terminations among hypoxia-activated/nonactivated brain stem and spinal structures in rats. Using a set of stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria to align visualized axons across multiple coronal brain sections, we were able to unequivocally trace axonal trajectories over a long rostrocaudal distance perpendicular to the coronal plane. Structures that were both richly innervated by KFN axonal projections and immunopositive to c-Fos included KFN (contralateral side), ventrolateral pontine area, areas ventral to rostral compact/subcompact ambiguus nucleus, caudal (lateral) ambiguus nucleus, nucleus retroambiguus, and commissural–medial subdivisions of solitary tract nucleus. The intertrigeminal nucleus, facial and hypoglossal nuclei, retrotrapezoid nucleus, parafacial region and spinal cord segment 5 were also richly innervated by KFN axonal projections but were only weakly (or not) immunopositive to c-Fos. The most striking finding was that some descending axons from KFN sent out branches to innervate multiple (up to seven) pontomedullary target structures including facial nucleus, trigeminal sensory nucleus, and various parts of ambiguus nucleus and its surrounding areas. The extensive axonal fan-out from single KFN neurons to multiple brainstem and spinal cord structures("one-to-many relationship"’) provides anatomical evidence that KFN may coordinate diverse physiological functions including hypoxic and hypercapnic respiratory responses, respiratory pattern generation and motor output,diving reflex, modulation of upper airways patency,coughing and vomiting abdominal expiratory reflex, as well as cardiovascular regulation and cardiorespiratory coupling.

  20. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tajima, Shigeru [Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko [Influenza and Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan); Aida, Yoko, E-mail: aida@riken.jp [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC{sub 50} values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  1. Enrichment of Conserved Synaptic Activity-Responsive Element in Neuronal Genes Predicts a Coordinated Response of MEF2, CREB and SRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tornos, Fernanda M.; San Aniceto, Iñigo; Cubelos, Beatriz; Nieto, Marta

    2013-01-01

    A unique synaptic activity-responsive element (SARE) sequence, composed of the consensus binding sites for SRF, MEF2 and CREB, is necessary for control of transcriptional upregulation of the Arc gene in response to synaptic activity. We hypothesize that this sequence is a broad mechanism that regulates gene expression in response to synaptic activation and during plasticity; and that analysis of SARE-containing genes could identify molecular mechanisms involved in brain disorders. To search for conserved SARE sequences in the mammalian genome, we used the SynoR in silico tool, and found the SARE cluster predominantly in the regulatory regions of genes expressed specifically in the nervous system; most were related to neural development and homeostatic maintenance. Two of these SARE sequences were tested in luciferase assays and proved to promote transcription in response to neuronal activation. Supporting the predictive capacity of our candidate list, up-regulation of several SARE containing genes in response to neuronal activity was validated using external data and also experimentally using primary cortical neurons and quantitative real time RT-PCR. The list of SARE-containing genes includes several linked to mental retardation and cognitive disorders, and is significantly enriched in genes that encode mRNA targeted by FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein). Our study thus supports the idea that SARE sequences are relevant transcriptional regulatory elements that participate in plasticity. In addition, it offers a comprehensive view of how activity-responsive transcription factors coordinate their actions and increase the selectivity of their targets. Our data suggest that analysis of SARE-containing genes will reveal yet-undescribed pathways of synaptic plasticity and additional candidate genes disrupted in mental disease. PMID:23382855

  2. Enrichment of conserved synaptic activity-responsive element in neuronal genes predicts a coordinated response of MEF2, CREB and SRF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Rodríguez-Tornos

    Full Text Available A unique synaptic activity-responsive element (SARE sequence, composed of the consensus binding sites for SRF, MEF2 and CREB, is necessary for control of transcriptional upregulation of the Arc gene in response to synaptic activity. We hypothesize that this sequence is a broad mechanism that regulates gene expression in response to synaptic activation and during plasticity; and that analysis of SARE-containing genes could identify molecular mechanisms involved in brain disorders. To search for conserved SARE sequences in the mammalian genome, we used the SynoR in silico tool, and found the SARE cluster predominantly in the regulatory regions of genes expressed specifically in the nervous system; most were related to neural development and homeostatic maintenance. Two of these SARE sequences were tested in luciferase assays and proved to promote transcription in response to neuronal activation. Supporting the predictive capacity of our candidate list, up-regulation of several SARE containing genes in response to neuronal activity was validated using external data and also experimentally using primary cortical neurons and quantitative real time RT-PCR. The list of SARE-containing genes includes several linked to mental retardation and cognitive disorders, and is significantly enriched in genes that encode mRNA targeted by FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein. Our study thus supports the idea that SARE sequences are relevant transcriptional regulatory elements that participate in plasticity. In addition, it offers a comprehensive view of how activity-responsive transcription factors coordinate their actions and increase the selectivity of their targets. Our data suggest that analysis of SARE-containing genes will reveal yet-undescribed pathways of synaptic plasticity and additional candidate genes disrupted in mental disease.

  3. Identification of Flap Motion Parameters for Vibration Reduction in Helicopter Rotors with Multiple Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğbreve;ur Dalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active control method utilizing the multiple trailing edge flap configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control is presented. A comprehensive model for rotor blade with active trailing edge flaps is used to calculate the vibration characteristics, natural frequencies and mode shapes of any complex composite helicopter rotor blade. A computer program is developed to calculate the system response, rotor blade root forces and moments under aerodynamic forcing conditions. Rotor blade system response is calculated using the proposed solution method and the developed program depending on any structural and aerodynamic properties of rotor blades, structural properties of trailing edge flaps and properties of trailing edge flap actuator inputs. Rotor blade loads are determined first on a nominal rotor blade without multiple active trailing edge flaps and then the effects of the active flap motions on the existing rotor blade loads are investigated. Multiple active trailing edge flaps are controlled by using open loop controllers to identify the effects of the actuator signal output properties such as frequency, amplitude and phase on the system response. Effects of using multiple trailing edge flaps on controlling rotor blade vibrations are investigated and some design criteria are determined for the design of trailing edge flap controller that will provide actuator signal outputs to minimize the rotor blade root loads. It is calculated that using the developed active trailing edge rotor blade model, helicopter rotor blade vibrations can be reduced up to 36% of the nominal rotor blade vibrations.

  4. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eHanif

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of RuII(arene complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well with cellular accumulation. The most lipophilic compound bearing a biphenyl moiety and a cyclohexylidene-protected carbohydrate is the most cytotoxic with unprecedented IC50 values for the compound class in three human cancer cell lines. This compound shows reactivity to the DNA model nucleobase 9-ethylguanine, but does not alter the secondary structure of plasmid DNA indicating that other biological targets are responsible for its cytotoxic effect.

  5. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    The isolated spinal cord of the newborn rat contains networks that are able to create a patterned motor output resembling normal locomotor movements. In this study, we sought to localize the regions of primary importance for rhythm and pattern generation using specific mechanical lesions. We used...... ventral root recordings to monitor neuronal activity and tested the ability of various isolated parts of the caudal thoraciclumbar cord to generate rhythmic bursting in a combination of 5-HT and NMDA. In addition, pathways mediating left/right and rostrocaudal burst alternation were localized. We found...... decreased in the caudal direction, but the rhythm-generating network was found to be distributed over the entire lumbar region and to extend into the caudal thoracic region. The pathways mediating left/ right alternation exist primarily in the ventral commissure. As with the rhythmogenic ability...

  6. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Book

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  7. Evolution of High Cellulolytic Activity in Symbiotic Streptomyces through Selection of Expanded Gene Content and Coordinated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Adam J; Lewin, Gina R; McDonald, Bradon R; Takasuka, Taichi E; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Doering, Drew T; Suh, Steven; Raffa, Kenneth F; Fox, Brian G; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of cellulose degradation was a defining event in the history of life. Without efficient decomposition and recycling, dead plant biomass would quickly accumulate and become inaccessible to terrestrial food webs and the global carbon cycle. On land, the primary drivers of plant biomass deconstruction are fungi and bacteria in the soil or associated with herbivorous eukaryotes. While the ecological importance of plant-decomposing microbes is well established, little is known about the distribution or evolution of cellulolytic activity in any bacterial genus. Here we show that in Streptomyces, a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces, key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrate that cellulolytic strains express a suite of multi-domain CAZy enzymes that are coregulated by the CebR transcriptional regulator. Using targeted gene deletions, we verify the importance of a highly expressed cellulase (GH6 family cellobiohydrolase) and the CebR transcriptional repressor to the cellulolytic phenotype. Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces, including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. Our results suggest that host-associated niches have selected some symbiotic Streptomyces for increased cellulose degrading activity and that symbiotic bacteria are a rich biochemical and enzymatic resource for biotechnology.

  8. Limitations of Radar Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Lusanna, Luca; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a radar coordinate system about the world line of an observer is discussed. Radar coordinates for a hyperbolic observer as well as a uniformly rotating observer are described in detail. The utility of the notion of radar distance and the admissibility of radar coordinates are investigated. Our results provide a critical assessment of the physical significance of radar coordinates.

  9. Disease Activity and Conversion into Multiple Sclerosis after Optic Neuritis Is Treated with Erythropoietin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt-Wolfram Sühs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cerebral lesion load by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study on erythropoietin in clinically isolated optic neuritis (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00355095 were analyzed. Therefore, patients with acute optic neuritis were assigned to receive either 33,000 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin (IV daily for three days, or a placebo, as an add-on to methylprednisolone. Of 35 patients, we investigated changes in cerebral lesion load in MRIs obtained at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 16. In 5 of the 35 patients, we found conversion into multiple sclerosis (MS based on MRI progression only. These five patients had received the placebo. Another five patients showed MRI progression together with relapses. Three of these patients had received erythropoietin, and two the placebo. Yet, analyzing the change in absolute numbers of periventricular, juxtacortical, and infratentorial lesions including gadolinium-enhancing lesions, there were no significant differences between the groups. Although effective in terms of retinal nerve fiber layer protection, erythropoietin treatment of acute isolated optic neuritis did not influence further evolution of MRI lesions in the brain when comparing absolute numbers. However, early conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to MS assessed by MRI activity seemed to occur more frequently in the placebo-treated group.

  10. Disease Activity and Conversion into Multiple Sclerosis after Optic Neuritis Is Treated with Erythropoietin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sühs, Kurt-Wolfram; Papanagiotou, Panagiotis; Hein, Katharina; Pul, Refik; Scholz, Kerstin; Heesen, Christoph; Diem, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Changes in cerebral lesion load by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II study on erythropoietin in clinically isolated optic neuritis (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00355095) were analyzed. Therefore, patients with acute optic neuritis were assigned to receive either 33,000 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin (IV) daily for three days, or a placebo, as an add-on to methylprednisolone. Of 35 patients, we investigated changes in cerebral lesion load in MRIs obtained at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 16. In 5 of the 35 patients, we found conversion into multiple sclerosis (MS) based on MRI progression only. These five patients had received the placebo. Another five patients showed MRI progression together with relapses. Three of these patients had received erythropoietin, and two the placebo. Yet, analyzing the change in absolute numbers of periventricular, juxtacortical, and infratentorial lesions including gadolinium-enhancing lesions, there were no significant differences between the groups. Although effective in terms of retinal nerve fiber layer protection, erythropoietin treatment of acute isolated optic neuritis did not influence further evolution of MRI lesions in the brain when comparing absolute numbers. However, early conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to MS assessed by MRI activity seemed to occur more frequently in the placebo-treated group. PMID:27706045

  11. Multiple dynamo modes as a mechanism for long-term solar activity variations

    CERN Document Server

    Käpylä, Maarit J; Olspert, Nigul; Brandenburg, Axel; Warnecke, Jörn; Karak, Bidya B; Pelt, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Solar magnetic activity shows both smooth secular changes, such as the Grand Modern Maximum, and quite abrupt drops that are denoted as Grand Minima. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of convection drivendynamos offer one way of examining the mechanisms behind these events. In this work, we analyze a solution of a solar-like DNS that has been evolved for roughly 80 magnetic cycles of 5.4 years, during which epochs of irregular behavior are detected. The emphasis of our analysis is to find physical causes for such behavior. The DNS employed is a semi-global (wedge) magnetoconvection model. For data analysis we use Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) and phase dispersion (D^2) methods. A special property of the DNS is the existence of multiple dynamo modes at different depths and latitudes. The dominant mode is solar-like. This mode is accompanied by a higher frequency mode near the surface and a low-frequency mode in the bottom of the convection zone. The overall behavior of the dynamo solution is ve...

  12. Multiple contexts of exposure: Activity spaces, residential neighborhoods, and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gregory; Denney, Justin T; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2015-12-01

    Although health researchers have made progress in detecting place effects on health, existing work has largely focused on the local residential neighborhood and has lacked a temporal dimension. Little research has integrated both time and space to understand how exposure to multiple contexts - where adults live, work, shop, worship, and seek healthcare - influence and shape health and well-being. This study uses novel longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to delve deeper into the relationship between context and health by considering residential and activity space neighborhoods weighted by the amount of time spent in these contexts. Results from multilevel cross-classified logistic models indicate that contextual exposure to disadvantage, residential or non-residential, is independently associated with a higher likelihood of reporting poor or fair health. We also find support for a contextual incongruence hypothesis. For example, adults living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poor or fair health when they spend time in more advantaged neighborhoods than in more disadvantaged ones, while residents of more advantaged neighborhoods report worse health when they spend time in more disadvantaged areas. Our results suggest that certain types of place-based cumulative exposures are associated with a sense of relative neighborhood deprivation that potentially manifests in worse health ratings.

  13. Mediators of Physical Activity on Neurocognitive Function: A Review at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea M. Stillman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is known to maintain and improve neurocognitive health. However, there is still a poor understanding of the mechanisms by which PA exerts its effects on the brain and cognition in humans. Many of the most widely discussed mechanisms of PA are molecular and cellular and arise from animal models. While information about basic cellular and molecular mechanisms is an important foundation from which to build our understanding of how PA promotes cognitive health in humans, there are other pathways that could play a role in this relationship. For example, PA-induced changes to cellular and molecular pathways likely initiate changes to macroscopic properties of the brain and/or to behavior that in turn influence cognition. The present review uses a more macroscopic lens to identify potential brain and behavioral/socioemotional mediators of the association between PA and cognitive function. We first summarize what is known regarding cellular and molecular mechanisms, and then devote the remainder of the review to discussing evidence for brain systems and behavioral/socioemotional pathways by which PA influences cognition. It is our hope that discussing mechanisms at multiple levels of analysis will stimulate the field to examine both brain and behavioral mediators. Doing so is important, as it could lead to a more complete characterization of the processes by which PA influences neurocognitive function, as well as a greater variety of targets for modifying neurocognitive function in clinical contexts.

  14. Factorial combinations of protein interactions generate a multiplicity of florigen activation complexes in wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengxia; Lin, Huiqiong; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is a central component of a mobile flowering signal (florigen) that is transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Two FT monomers and two DNA-binding bZIP transcription factors interact with a dimeric 14-3-3 protein bridge to form a hexameric protein complex. This complex, designated as the 'florigen activation complex' (FAC), plays a critical role in flowering. The wheat homologue of FT, designated FT1 (= VRN3), activates expression of VRN1 in the leaves and the SAM, promoting flowering under inductive long days. In this study, we show that FT1, other FT-like proteins, and different FD-like proteins, can interact with multiple wheat and barley 14-3-3 proteins. We also identify the critical amino acid residues in FT1 and FD-like proteins required for their interactions, and demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins are necessary bridges to mediate the FT1-TaFDL2 interaction. Using in vivo bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) assays, we demonstrate that the interaction between FT1 and 14-3-3 occurs in the cytoplasm, and that this complex is then translocated to the nucleus, where it interacts with TaFDL2 to form a FAC. We also demonstrate that a FAC including FT1, TaFDL2 and Ta14-3-3C can bind to the VRN1 promoter in vitro. Finally, we show that relative transcript levels of FD-like and 14-3-3 genes vary among tissues and developmental stages. Since FD-like proteins determine the DNA specificity of the FACs, variation in FD-like gene expression can result in spatial and temporal modulation of the effects of mobile FT-like signals.

  15. Amino acid sequence and crystal structure of BaP1, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom that exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandra; Shannon, John D.; Valente, Richard H.; Rucavado, Alexandra; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Kamiguti, Aura S.; Theakston, R. David G.; Fox, Jay W.; Gutiérrez, José María; Arni, Raghuvir K.

    2003-01-01

    BaP1 is a 22.7-kD P-I-type zinc-dependent metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper, a medically relevant species in Central America. This enzyme exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities, including hemorrhage, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, blistering, and edema. BaP1 is a single chain of 202 amino acids that shows highest sequence identity with metalloproteinases isolated from the venoms of snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. It has six Cys residues involved in three disulfide bridges (Cys 117–Cys 197, Cys 159–Cys 181, Cys 157–Cys 164). It has the consensus sequence H142E143XXH146XXGXXH152, as well as the sequence C164I165M166, which characterize the “metzincin” superfamily of metalloproteinases. The active-site cleft separates a major subdomain (residues 1–152), comprising four α-helices and a five-stranded β-sheet, from the minor subdomain, which is formed by a single α-helix and several loops. The catalytic zinc ion is coordinated by the Nɛ2 nitrogen atoms of His 142, His 146, and His 152, in addition to a solvent water molecule, which in turn is bound to Glu 143. Several conserved residues contribute to the formation of the hydrophobic pocket, and Met 166 serves as a hydrophobic base for the active-site groups. Sequence and structural comparisons of hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic P-I metalloproteinases from snake venoms revealed differences in several regions. In particular, the loop comprising residues 153 to 176 has marked structural differences between metalloproteinases with very different hemorrhagic activities. Because this region lies in close proximity to the active-site microenvironment, it may influence the interaction of these enzymes with physiologically relevant substrates in the extracellular matrix. PMID:14500885

  16. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal act...

  17. Influence of Fatigue on Hand Muscle Coordination and EMG-EMG Coherence During Three-Digit Grasping

    OpenAIRE

    Danna-Dos Santos, Alessander; Poston, Brach; Jesunathadas, Mark; Bobich, Lisa R.; Hamm, Thomas M.; Santello, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Fingertip force control requires fine coordination of multiple hand muscles within and across the digits. While the modulation of neural drive to hand muscles as a function of force has been extensively studied, much less is known about the effects of fatigue on the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles. We asked eight subjects to perform a fatiguing contraction by gripping a manipulandum with thumb, index, and middle fingers while matching an isometric target force (40% maximal ...

  18. New bimetallic dicyanidoargentate(I)-based coordination compounds: Synthesis, characterization, biological activities and DNA-BSA binding affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Nesrin; Aydın, Ali; Karadağ, Ahmet; Yanar, Yusuf; Maaşoğlu, Yelis; Şahin, Ertan; Tekin, Şaban

    2017-02-01

    Four compounds -two (2 and 3) completely new- of composition [Ni(edbea)Ag3(CN)5] (1), [Cu(edbea)Ag2(CN)4]·H2O (2), [Cd(edbea)Ag3(CN)5]·H2O (3) and [Cd(edbea)2] [Ag(CN)2]2·H2O (4) {edbea; 2,2‧-(ethylenedioxy)bis (ethylamine)}, were synthesized and characterized using elemental, FT-IR, X-Ray (4), thermal, variable temperature magnetic measurement (1 and 2) and biological techniques. The DNA/BSA binding affinities of 2 and 3 were evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometric titrations, ethidium bromide exchange experiments and electrophoretic mobility measurements. Compounds 1 and 4 have previously been characterized and shown to reduce the proliferation and migration of tumor cells. For the sake of clarity, 1 precise mechanism of action on microbial organisms and temperature magnetic measurement were determined. The crystallographic analyses showed that 4 was built up of [Cd(edbea)2]II cations and [Ag2(CN)4]II anions. Complexes demonstrated a remarkable antibacterial (1-4), antifungal (1-4) and antiproliferative activities (2 and 3) to ten human bacterial pathogens, four plant pathogenic fungi or three tumor cells (HeLa, HT29, and C6), respectively. Therefore, our results strongly confirm that cell proliferation, cell morphology, Bcl-2, P53 changes and apoptosis can be related to the pharmacological effects of the complexes as suitable candidate for clinical trials.

  19. Design of heterogeneous catalysts via multiple active site positioning in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaud, Véronique; Davis, Mark E

    2003-08-06

    Catalytic materials bearing multiple sulfonic acid functional groups and positioned at varying distances from one another on the surface of mesoporous solids are prepared to explore the effects that the spatial arrangement of active sites have on catalytic activity and selectivity. A series of organosiloxane precursors containing either disulfide or sulfonate ester functionalities (synthons of the eventual sulfonic acid groups) are synthesized. From these molecular precursors, a variety of organic-inorganic hybrid, mesostructured SBA-15 silica materials are prepared using a postsynthetic grafting procedure that leads to disulfide and sulfonate ester modified silicas: [Si]CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)SS-pyridyl, 2.SBA, [Si]CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)SSCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)[Si], 3.SBA, [Si]CH(2)CH(2)(C(6)H(4))(SO(2))OCH(2)CH(3), 4.SBA, and [Si]CH(2)CH(2)(C(6)H(4))(SO(2))OC(6)H(4)O(SO(2))(C(6)H(4))CH(2)CH(2)[Si], 6.SBA ([Si] = (tbd1;SiO)(x)()(RO)(3)(-)(x)()Si, where x = 1, 2). By subsequent chemical derivatization of the grafted species, thiol and sulfonic acid modified silicas are obtained. The materials are characterized by a variety of spectroscopic ((13)C and (29)Si CP MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction) and quantitative (TGA/DTA, elemental analysis, acid capacity titration) techniques. In all cases, the organic fragment of the precursor molecule is grafted onto the solid without measurable decomposition, and the precursors are, in general, attached to the surface of the mesoporous oxide by multiple siloxane bridges. The disulfide species 2.SBA and 3.SBA are reduced to the corresponding thiols 7.SBA and 8.SBA, respectively, and 4.SBA and 6.SBA are transformed to the aryl sulfonic acids 11.SBA and 12.SBA, respectively. 7.SBA and 8.SBA differ only in terms of the level of control of the spatial arrangement of the thiol groups. Both 7.SBA and 8.SBA are further modified by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to produce the alkyl sulfonic acid modified materials 9.SBA and 10.SBA, respectively. The performances

  20. The nature of caregiving in children of a parent with multiple sclerosis from multiple sources and the associations between caregiving activities and youth adjustment overtime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakenham, Kenneth I; Cox, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored youth caregiving for a parent with multiple sclerosis (MS) from multiple perspectives, and examined associations between caregiving and child negative (behavioural emotional difficulties, somatisation) and positive (life satisfaction, positive affect, prosocial behaviour) adjustment outcomes overtime. A total of 88 families participated; 85 parents with MS, 55 partners and 130 children completed questionnaires at Time 1. Child caregiving was assessed by the Youth Activities of Caregiving Scale (YACS). Child and parent questionnaire data were collected at Time 1 and child data were collected 12 months later (Time 2). Factor analysis of the child and parent YACS data replicated the four factors (instrumental, social-emotional, personal-intimate, domestic-household care), all of which were psychometrically sound. The YACS factors were related to parental illness and caregiving context variables that reflected increased caregiving demands. The Time 1 instrumental and social-emotional care domains were associated with poorer Time 2 adjustment, whereas personal-intimate was related to better adjustment and domestic-household care was unrelated to adjustment. Children and their parents exhibited highest agreement on personal-intimate, instrumental and total caregiving, and least on domestic-household and social-emotional care. Findings delineate the key dimensions of young caregiving in MS and the differential links between caregiving activities and youth adjustment.

  1. Legitimating New Forms of Organizing and New International Activities in the Eyes of Multiple Stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    by its multiple stakeholders; and (2) what legitimation strategies it developed and adopted to legitimate itself in the eyes of its multiple stakeholders. Theoretically, the paper is grounded within legitimation theory. The empirical context is defined by a new, international NGO entering an established...

  2. Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts on Multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Reduced Oxygen Conditions Using Intracellular and Axenic Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva D. Bhatter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Test the activity of selected medicinal plant extracts on multiplication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under reduced oxygen concentration which represents nonreplicating conditions. Material and Methods. Acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the plants Acorus calamus L. (rhizome, Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf, Piper nigrum L. (seed, and Pueraria tuberosa DC. (tuber were tested on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv intracellularly using an epithelial cell (A549 infection model. The extracts found to be active intracellularly were further studied axenically under reducing oxygen concentrations. Results and Conclusions. Intracellular multiplication was inhibited ≥60% by five of the twelve extracts. Amongst these 5 extracts, in axenic culture, P. nigrum (acetone was active under aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic conditions indicating presence of multiple components acting at different levels and P. tuberosa (aqueous showed bactericidal activity under microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions implying the influence of anaerobiosis on its efficacy. P. nigrum (aqueous and A. calamus (aqueous and ethanol extracts were not active under axenic conditions but only inhibited intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, suggesting activation of host defense mechanisms to mediate bacterial killing rather than direct bactericidal activity.

  3. Scorpionate-type coordination in MFU-4l metal-organic frameworks: small-molecule binding and activation upon the thermally activated formation of open metal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenko, Dmytro; Grzywa, Maciej; Jelic, Jelena; Reuter, Karsten; Volkmer, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Postsynthetic metal and ligand exchange is a versatile approach towards functionalized MFU-4l frameworks. Upon thermal treatment of MFU-4l formates, coordinatively strongly unsaturated metal centers, such as zinc(II) hydride or copper(I) species, are generated selectively. Cu(I)-MFU-4l prepared in this way was stable under ambient conditions and showed fully reversible chemisorption of small molecules, such as O2, N2, and H2, with corresponding isosteric heats of adsorption of 53, 42, and 32 kJ mol(-1), respectively, as determined by gas-sorption measurements and confirmed by DFT calculations. Moreover, Cu(I)-MFU-4l formed stable complexes with C2H4 and CO. These complexes were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The demonstrated hydride transfer to electrophiles and strong binding of small gas molecules suggests these novel, yet robust, metal-organic frameworks with open metal sites as promising catalytic materials comprising earth-abundant metal elements.

  4. Activation of the carbon-fluorine bonds in coordination compounds; Activacion de enlaces carbon-fluor en compuestos de coordinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Activation of the carbon-fluorine bond is of upmost importance in several chemical processes. In search of synthetic alternatives to promote C-F bond cleavage in arylic systems, several square planar palladium and platinum compounds bearing fluorothiolates and fluorophosphines have been studied. In this paper molecular structures are shown for the following compounds trans-((SC{sub 6}F{sub 5})(P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}))(Pd({mu}-SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pd(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5})(P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}H{sub 5})), cis ((SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}) P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) Pt({mu}-SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}) P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}H{sub 5})), trans Pd ({mu}-SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5})(P(C{sub 6}F{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2})), Pt (SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} (C{sub 6}F{sub 5}SC{sub 6}F{sub 4} P(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}))((SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt ({mu}-(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup 2-} , (SC{sub 6}HF{sub 4}){sub 2} Pt({mu}-SC{sub 6}HF{sub 4}){sub 2} Pt(SC{sub 6}HF{sub 4}){sub 2}){sup 2-} and ((SC{sub 6}F{sub 4}CF{sub 3}-4){sub 2} Pt (SC{sub 6}F{sub 4}CF{sub 3}-4){sub 2}){sup 2-} . (Author)

  5. A Coordination Chemistry Approach for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Coexistence of Metal and Ligand Redox Activities in a One-Dimensional Metal-Organic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaihua; Yang, Hao; Li, Fengcai; Cheng, Fangyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate herein the use of a one-dimensional metal-organic material as a new type of electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in place of the classic porous three-dimensional materials, which are subject to the size of the channel for lithium-ion diffusion and blocking of the windows of the framework by organic solvents during the charging and discharging processes. Introducing a one-dimensional coordination compound can keep organic active substances insoluble in the electrolyte during the charging and discharging processes, providing a facile and general new system for further studies. The results show that both the aromatic ligand and the metal center can participate in lithium storage simultaneously, illustrating a new energy storage mechanism that has been well-characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the fact that the one-dimensional chains are linked by weak hydrogen bonds rather than strong π-π stacking interactions or covalent bonds is beneficial for the release of capacity entirely without the negative effect of burying the active sites.

  6. Probing S4 and S5 segment proximity in mammalian hyperpolarization-activated HCN channels by disulfide bridging and Cd2+ coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Damian C; Turbendian, Harma K; Valley, Matthew T; Zhou, Lei; Riley, John H; Siegelbaum, Steven A; Tibbs, Gareth R

    2009-06-01

    We explored the structural basis of voltage sensing in the HCN1 hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel by examining the relative orientation of the voltage sensor and pore domains. The opening of channels engineered to contain single cysteine residues at the extracellular ends of the voltage-sensing S4 (V246C) and pore-forming S5 (C303) domains is inhibited by formation of disulfide or cysteine:Cd(2+) bonds. As Cd(2+) coordination is promoted by depolarization, the S4-S5 interaction occurs preferentially in the closed state. The failure of oxidation to catalyze dimer formation, as assayed by Western blotting, indicates the V246C:C303 interaction occurs within a subunit. Intriguingly, a similar interaction has been observed in depolarization-activated Shaker voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels at depolarized potentials but such an intrasubunit interaction is inconsistent with the X-ray crystal structure of Kv1.2, wherein S4 approaches S5 of an adjacent subunit. These findings suggest channels of opposite voltage-sensing polarity adopt a conserved S4-S5 orientation in the depolarized state that is distinct from that trapped upon crystallization.

  7. Dealing with negative stereotypes in sports: the role of cognitive anxiety when multiple identities are activated in sensorimotor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J; Martiny-Huenger, Torsten; Froehlich, Laura; Harter, Anna Lena; Roth, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Based on research on stereotype threat and multiple identities, this work explores the beneficial effects of activating a positive social identity when a negative identity is salient on women's performance in sports. Further, in line with research on the effects of anxiety in sports, we investigate whether the activation of a positive social identity buffers performance from cognitive anxiety associated with a negative stereotype. Two experiments tested these predictions in field settings. Experiment 1 (N = 83) shows that the simultaneous activation of a positive (i.e., member of a soccer team) and a negative social identity (i.e., woman) led to better performance than the activation of only a negative social identity for female soccer players. Experiment 2 (N = 46) demonstrates that identity condition moderated the effect of cognitive anxiety on performance for female basketball players. Results are discussed concerning multiple identities' potential for dealing with stressful situations.

  8. Cost Allocation as a Coordination Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that cost allocation can endogenously arise as a coordination mechanism in a decentralized firm.This result is derived in a setting with multiple (internally supplied) resources shared by multiple users, which constitutes a departure from previous literature.While standard cost allo

  9. Motor activation in people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: research in daily practice in residential facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The total study aims at generating knowledge about the best way to motor activate persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) in residential facilities. The purpose of the current poster presentation is to present the results of the first step executed in this project an

  10. Inhibition of host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation decreases new world alphavirus multiplication in infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Kelsey; Amaya, Moushimi [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Mueller, Claudius [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Roberts, Brian [Leidos Health Life Sciences, 5202 Presidents Court, Suite 110, Frederick, MD (United States); Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Bailey, Charles [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States); Petricoin, Emanuel [Center for Applied Proteomics and Personalized Medicine, George Mason University, 10900 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA (United States); Narayanan, Aarthi, E-mail: anaraya1@gmu.edu [National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, 10650 Pyramid Place, Manassas, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    New World alphaviruses belonging to the family Togaviridae are classified as emerging infectious agents and Category B select agents. Our study is focused on the role of the host extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the infectious process of New World alphaviruses. Infection of human cells by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) results in the activation of the ERK-signaling cascade. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by the small molecule inhibitor Ag-126 results in inhibition of viral multiplication. Ag-126-mediated inhibition of VEEV was due to potential effects on early and late stages of the infectious process. While expression of viral proteins was down-regulated in Ag-126 treated cells, we did not observe any influence of Ag-126 on the nuclear distribution of capsid. Finally, Ag-126 exerted a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect on New World alphavirus multiplication, thus indicating that the host kinase, ERK, is a broad-spectrum candidate for development of novel therapeutics against New World alphaviruses. - Highlights: • VEEV infection activated multiple components of the ERK signaling cascade. • Inhibition of ERK activation using Ag-126 inhibited VEEV multiplication. • Activation of ERK by Ceramide C6 increased infectious titers of TC-83. • Ag-126 inhibited virulent strains of all New World alphaviruses. • Ag-126 treatment increased percent survival of infected cells.

  11. A Formative Evaluation of Customized Pamphlets to Promote Physical Activity and Symptom Self-Management in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Bethoux, Francois; Mai, Kimloan; Marcus, Bess

    2014-01-01

    Inactivity is a prevalent problem in the population affected with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, there is a need to develop and test physical activity (PA) interventions that can be widely disseminated. We conducted a formative evaluation as part of a randomized controlled trial of a pamphlet-based PA intervention among 30 women with MS. Pamphlets…

  12. Segmenting multiple overlapping objects via a hybrid active contour model incorporating shape priors: applications to digital pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-03-01

    Active contours and active shape models (ASM) have been widely employed in image segmentation. A major limitation of active contours, however, is in their (a) inability to resolve boundaries of intersecting objects and to (b) handle occlusion. Multiple overlapping objects are typically segmented out as a single object. On the other hand, ASMs are limited by point correspondence issues since object landmarks need to be identified across multiple objects for initial object alignment. ASMs are also are constrained in that they can usually only segment a single object in an image. In this paper, we present a novel synergistic boundary and region-based active contour model that incorporates shape priors in a level set formulation. We demonstrate an application of these synergistic active contour models using multiple level sets to segment nuclear and glandular structures on digitized histopathology images of breast and prostate biopsy specimens. Unlike previous related approaches, our model is able to resolve object overlap and separate occluded boundaries of multiple objects simultaneously. The energy functional of the active contour is comprised of three terms. The first term comprises the prior shape term, modeled on the object of interest, thereby constraining the deformation achievable by the active contour. The second term, a boundary based term detects object boundaries from image gradients. The third term drives the shape prior and the contour towards the object boundary based on region statistics. The results of qualitative and quantitative evaluation on 100 prostate and 14 breast cancer histology images for the task of detecting and segmenting nuclei, lymphocytes, and glands reveals that the model easily outperforms two state of the art segmentation schemes (Geodesic Active Contour (GAC) and Roussons shape based model) and resolves up to 92% of overlapping/occluded lymphocytes and nuclei on prostate and breast cancer histology images.

  13. A Multiple-plane Approach to Measure the Structural Properties of Functionally Active Regions in the Human Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; King, Anthony P.; Angstadt, Mike; Dennis, Michael J.; Xie, Hong; Welsh, Robert C.; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Liberzon, Israel

    2009-01-01

    Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide the means of studying both the structural and the functional properties of various brain regions, allowing us to address the relationship between the structural changes in human brain regions and the activity of these regions. However, analytical approaches combining functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) information are still far from optimal. In order to improve the accuracy of measurement of structural properties in active regions, the current study tested a new analytical approach that repeated a surface-based analysis at multiple planes crossing different depths of cortex. Twelve subjects underwent a fear conditioning study. During these tasks, fMRI and sMRI scans were acquired. The fMRI images were carefully registered to the sMRI images with an additional correction for cortical borders. The fMRI images were then analyzed with the new multiple-plane surface-based approach as compared to the volume-based approach, and the cortical thickness and volume of an active region were measured. The results suggested (1) using an additional correction for cortical borders and an intermediate template image produced an acceptable registration of fMRI and sMRI images; (2) surface-based analysis at multiple depths of cortex revealed more activity than the same analysis at any single depth; (3) projection of active surface vertices in a ribbon fashion improved active volume estimates; and (4) correction with gray matter segmentation removed non-cortical regions from the volumetric measurement of active regions. In conclusion, the new multiple-plane surface-based analysis approaches produce improved measurement of cortical thickness and volume of active brain regions. These results support the use of novel approaches for combined analysis of functional and structural neuroimaging. PMID:19922802

  14. Retinol induces morphological alterations and proliferative focus formation through free radicalmediated activation of multiple signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Pens GELAIN; Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt PASQUALI; Fernanda Freitas CAREGNATO; Mauro Antonio Alves CASTRO; José Claudio Fonseca MOREIRA

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Toxicity of retinol (vitamin A)has been previously associated with apoptosis and/or cell malignant transformation.Thus,we investigated the pathways involved in the induction of proliferation,deformation and proliferative focus formation by retinol in cultured Sertoli cells of rats.Methods:Sertoli cells were isolated from immature rats and cultured.The cells were subjected to a 24-h treatment with different concentrations of retinol.Parameters of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were analyzed.The effects of the p38 inhibitor SB203580(10 μmol/L),the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L),the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L),the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L)the pan-PKC inhibitor G(O)6983 (10 μmol/L)and the PKA inhibitor H89 (1 μmol/L)on morphological and proliferative/transformationassociated modifications were studied.Results:Retinol (7 and 14 μmol/L)significantly increases the reactive species production in Sertoli cells,inhibition of p38,JNK,ERK1/2,Akt,and PKA suppressed retinol-induced[3H]dT incorporation into the cells,while PKC inhibition had no effect.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition also blocked retinol-induced proliferative focus formation in the cells,while Akt and JNK inhibition partially decreased focus formation.ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition hindered transformation-associated deformation in retinol-treated cells,while other treatments had no effect.Conclusion:Our results suggest that activation of multiple kinases is responsible for morphological and proliferative changes associated to malignancy development in Sertoli cells by retinol at the concentrations higher than physiological level.

  15. Hypovitaminosis D association with disease activity in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jefferson; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Talim, Natália; Vidaletti, Tamara; de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Gomes, Irenio

    2016-04-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) onset is believed to result from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. A prevailing theory addresses the influence of hypovitaminosis D in the development of MS. This research aimed to study the association between vitamin D serum levels and MS, as a prognostic and risk factor for the development and progression of the disease. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n=67), according to the revised McDonald criteria (2010), accompanied in three MS centers in different Brazilian states. A control group consisted of healthy volunteers (n=61). Blood collections were carried out in late summer and late winter. This seems to be the first study of this kind in Latin America. The vitamin D serum levels for MS patients (29.63±8.08) in summer were similar to the controls (29.71±8.28); however, in winter they were lower than the healthy individuals (24.05±7.47 vs 26.56±8.01). No significant difference between the three cities was observed. No association was noted between vitamin D serum levels and gender, race and age, nor correlation of these levels with the EDSS or disease duration. In contrast, a significant association was seen between deficient vitamin D serum levels in late winter with disease activity, characterized by the onset of relapses (19.73±5.69 vs 25.30±6.22) or Gd+ lesions (17.22±3.11 vs 22.79±7.22).

  16. Multi-objective Coordinated Control of Reactive Compensation Devices Among Multiple Substations%多站点无功补偿装置的多目标协调控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董萍; 徐良德; 刘明波

    2014-01-01

    Being different from the separate compensation control mode used widely in 500 kV transformer substations currently, the multi-objective reactive power coordination control model was presented in this paper to overcome the drawback that reactive power compensation devices lack in coordination and have high active power loss. In this model, the minimum bus voltage deviation and total loss of reactive power compensation devices were taken as objective functions by bringing the lower-voltage reactors and capacitors into the SVC control system and considering the reactive power compensation devices interaction between different transformer substations. Due to the different sensitivity of control variables in control model and lack of the local search ability, control variables are divided into sensitive variables and non-sensitive variables, and then, the improved NSGA-II algorithm with secondary search ability was used to search the Pareto optimal solution set. Two substations in large power grid with strong voltage coupling were coordinated in different load level, the results obtained by proposed NSGA-II algorithm can provide a variety of optimal control strategies. Compared to the conventional NSGA-II algorithm and normal boundary intersection method, the improved NSGA-II algorithm has better convergence curve and distribution of the Pareto solution sets.%针对目前500 kV变电站中无功补偿装置所采用的单独补偿控制方式,提出一种多目标协调控制方式来克服无功补偿装置缺乏协调且损耗较大的不足。该方法将变电站内低容/低抗装置纳入SVC的控制体系,并考虑站与站之间无功补偿装置的相互影响,以节点电压偏差和无功补偿装置总损耗最小为目标建立多目标无功协调控制模型。根据无功协调控制中变量敏感度不同、局部搜索能力不足的特点,将控制变量划分为敏感变量和非敏感变量,采用具有二级搜索的改进NSGA-II算法

  17. Coordinate induction of hepatic fatty acyl-CoA oxidase and P4504A1 in rat after activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) by sulphur-substituted fatty acid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoz, A; Vaagenes, H; Aarsaether, N; Hvattum, E; Skorve, J; Göttlicher, M; Lillehaug, J R; Gibson, G G; Gustafsson, J A; Hood, S

    1994-09-01

    1. In the liver of rat fed a single dose of 3-thia fatty acids, 3-dithiahexadecanedioic acid (3-thiadicarboxylic acid) and tetradecylthioacetic acid, steady-state levels of P4504A1 and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs increased in parallel. The increases were significant 8 h after administration, reaching a maximum after 12 h and decreased from 12 to 24 h after administration. 2. The corresponding enzyme activities of P4504A1 and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase were also induced in a parallel manner by the 3-thia fatty acids. The enzyme activities were significantly increased 12 h after administration and increased further after 24 h. This may reflect a possible effect of the 3-thia fatty acids not only on mRNA levels, but also on the translation and degradation rate of the two enzymes. 3. Repeated administration of 3-thia fatty acids resulted in an increase of the specific P4504A1 protein accompanied with an increased lauric acid hydroxylase activity. The correlation between induction of P4504A1 and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase mRNAs and their enzyme activities may reflect a coordinated rather than a causative induction mechanism, and that these genes respond to a common signal. This suggests that the increased P450 activity may not be responsible or be a prerequisite for fatty acyl-CoA oxidase induction. 4. Since the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a role in mediating the induction of fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, we analysed the activation of PPAR by fatty acids and sulphur-substituted analogues utilizing a chimera between the N-terminal and DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor and the putative ligand-binding domain of PPAR. Arachidonic acid activated this chimeric receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Inhibitors of P450 did not affect the activation of PPAR by arachidonic acid. Furthermore, dicarboxylic acids including 1,12-dodecanedioic acid or 1,16-hexadecanedioic acid only weakly activated the chimera. 3-Thidicarboxylic acid, however, was a

  18. Managing multiple activities for specific themes in the efl classroom (prek-grade 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes M. Terry

    2009-01-01

    The theory of Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner is enlightening and extremely useful in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) classroom. For starters it helps the teacher in understanding the individual differences found in the classroom and to comprehend how students go about learning. Multiple intelligences are not always taken into account even though they are very observable in children, since they are still so innocent and honest in their learning process. The purpose of this ar...

  19. 34 CFR 303.23 - Service coordination (case management).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service coordination (case management). 303.23 Section... Service coordination (case management). (a) General. (1) As used in this part, except in § 303.12(d)(11), service coordination means the activities carried out by a service coordinator to assist and enable...

  20. The coordination of research and innovation activities relative to an emergent technology: the case of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles; La coordination des activites de recherche et d'innovation dans les phases d'emergence: le cas des batteries pour vehicules electriques et hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrue, Ph.

    2000-05-23

    In this thesis, we try to provide elements of a non-deterministic view of the coordination of research activities in the phase of emergence. Firstly, we try to identify the variables that determinate the strength and the characteristics of the imperative of coordination in this very preliminary period of an innovation process. Secondly, we try to evaluate the institutional arrangements that can effectively sustain the coordination of the activities of the various interdependent actors more or less involved in the innovation process. The basic idea of the thesis is that technological innovations do not originate as isolated according to a hypothetical underlying 'nature of the technology', especially when they are controversial and subject to great uncertainties as is the case with regard to batteries for Electric and hybrid Vehicles (EVs). Innovations appear to be generated by means of the interactions of a number of organizations belonging to different 'spheres' (different industries, scientific disciplines, public institutions, etc.). In order to validate a new area of opportunity which is still very uncertain at this preliminary stage, the competences and interests of these different organizations must be coordinated. Because of the complex mix of economic and technological barriers faced by the actors taking part in this innovation process, the area of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is the 'perfect laboratory' to investigate the institutional arrangements that can sustain the coordination of research and innovation activities relating to an emerging technology. The empirical and theoretical investigations are mainly focused on pre-competitive research consortia such as the United-States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). This case study is conducted through in-depth interviews with key-actors of the area of batteries and electric vehicles. We also use the results of an on-line experts opinions survey we performed

  1. A PCP Pincer Ligand for Coordination Polymers with Versatile Chemical Reactivity: Selective Activation of CO2 Gas over CO Gas in the Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junpeng; Waggoner, Nolan W; Dunning, Samuel G; Steiner, Alexander; Lynch, Vincent M; Humphrey, Simon M

    2016-09-26

    A tetra(carboxylated) PCP pincer ligand has been synthesized as a building block for porous coordination polymers (PCPs). The air- and moisture-stable PCP metalloligands are rigid tetratopic linkers that are geometrically akin to ligands used in the synthesis of robust metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, the design principle is demonstrated by cyclometalation with Pd(II) Cl and subsequent use of the metalloligand to prepare a crystalline 3D MOF by direct reaction with Co(II) ions and structural resolution by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Pd-Cl groups inside the pores are accessible to post-synthetic modifications that facilitate chemical reactions previously unobserved in MOFs: a Pd-CH3 activated material undergoes rapid insertion of CO2 gas to give Pd-OC(O)CH3 at 1 atm and 298 K. However, since the material is highly selective for the adsorption of CO2 over CO, a Pd-N3 modified version resists CO insertion under the same conditions.

  2. Molecular structure, Normal Coordinate Analysis, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Natural Bond Orbital, TD-DFT calculations and biological activity analysis of antioxidant drug 7-hydroxycoumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, S.; Sylvestre, S.; Jayarajan, D.; Amalanathan, M.; Oudayakumar, K.; Gnanapoongothai, T.; Jayavarthanan, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report harmonic vibrational frequencies, molecular structure, NBO and HOMO, LUMO analysis of Umbelliferone also known as 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC). The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by computation (monomer and dimmer) shows good agreement with experimental XRD data. Harmonic frequencies of 7HC were determined and analyzed by DFT utilizing 6-311+G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). The change in electron density (ED) in the σ* and π* antibonding orbitals and stabilization energies E(2) have been calculated by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis to give clear evidence of stabilization originating in the hyperconjugation of hydrogen-bonded interaction. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincides with the experimental spectra. Microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis.

  3. Tris(bipyridineMetal(II-Templated Assemblies of 3D Alkali-Ruthenium Oxalate Coordination Frameworks: Crystal Structures, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity in Water Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Dikhtiarenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of 3D oxalate-bridged ruthenium-based coordination polymers with the formula of {[ZII(bpy3][MIRu(C2O43]}n (ZII = Zn2+ (1, Cu2+ (3, 4, Ru2+ (5, 6, Os2+ (7, 8; MI = Li+, Na+; bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine and {[ZnII(bpy3](H2O[LiRu(C2O43]}n (2 has been synthesized at room temperature through a self-assembly reaction in aqueous media and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, infrared and diffuse reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The crystal structures of all compounds comprise chiral 3D honeycomb-like polymeric nets of the srs-type, which possess triangular anionic cages where [ZII(bpy3]2+ cationic templates are selectively embedded. Structural analysis reveals that the electronic configuration of the cationic guests is affected by electrostatic interaction with the anionic framework. Moreover, the MLCT bands gaps values for 1–8 can be tuned in a rational way by judicious choice of [ZII(bpy3]2+ guests. The 3D host-guest polymeric architectures can be used as self-supported heterogeneous photocatalysts for the reductive splitting of water, exhibiting photocatalytic activity for the evolution of H2 under UV light irradiation.

  4. Photocatalytic activity of transition-metal-ion-doped coordination polymer (CP): photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via doping of transition metal ions into the framework of CPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Xin; Cui, Zhong-Ping; Gao, Xin; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2014-06-21

    To improve photocatalytic activity of a coordination polymer (CP) in the visible light region, five different transition metal ions (Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Ru(3+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) were introduced into its framework through an ion-exchange process. Among all the resulting transition metal ion doped coordination polymers (TMI/CPs), the one doped with Fe(3+) took on the most excellent photocatalytic activity and the highest quantum yields in the visible light region, decomposing 94% Rhodamine B (RhB) in 8 hours. It can be attributed to the doping of Fe(3+), which reduced the band gap (Eg) of the original CP, facilitating photocatalysis of the obtained polymer. Compared with the coordination polymer with Fe(3+) as a dopant, products doped with other metal ions presented weaker photocatalytic activities in the visible light region, while under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, they showed favorable photocatalytic properties. The results suggest that to dope transition metal ions into the framework of CPs would be an ideal option for enhancing the photocatalytic activity of coordination polymers.

  5. Effects of physical activity on functional and cardio respiratory capacity in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Pantea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory, demyelinising disease of the central nervous system which accounts for functional impairment and lasting disability in young adults. It occurs as a result of some combination of genetic susceptibility, deregulation of the immune system and environmental factors such as infectious and possibly other factors like vascular problems. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate if an intensive short-term inpatient rehabilitation program is able to improve clinical and functional outcome in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods: 15 patients with multiple sclerosis (mean age 37.06±9.66 years were assigned to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score. All patients were included in an intensive short-term rehabilitation program (strength and cardio respiratory exercises. Subjects attended 60-min sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Ruffier-Dickson and Hettinger tests were performed. The patients were assessed before and after this physical intervention. Results: From the total 25 patients 50% were with remitting multiple sclerosis, 30% with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 20% with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. The EDSS score was improved in 70% of studied cases. All subjects recorded a better cardio respiratory performance evaluated by Ruffier-Dickson test. Hettinger assessment recorded after 12 weeks an improvement of 80% in the functional state. Conclusions: Strength (or resistance training and cardio respiratory (or endurance training are two basic physical exercises widely used in neurological rehabilitation. Application of an intensive rehabilitation program determines increasing of functional and cardio respiratory capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  6. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  7. Residue Phe112 of the Human-Type Corrinoid Adenosyltransferase (PduO) Enzyme of Lactobacillus reuteri Is Critical to the Formation of the Four-Coordinate Co(II) Corrinoid Substrate and to the Activity of the Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Paola E.; St. Maurice, Martin; Rayment, Ivan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; UW

    2009-06-08

    ATP:Corrinoid adenosyltransferases (ACAs) catalyze the transfer of the adenosyl moiety from ATP to cob(I)alamin via a four-coordinate cob(II)alamin intermediate. At present, it is unknown how ACAs promote the formation of the four-coordinate corrinoid species needed for activity. The published high-resolution crystal structure of the ACA from Lactobacillus reuteri (LrPduO) in complex with ATP and cob(II)alamin shows that the environment around the alpha face of the corrin ring consists of bulky hydrophobic residues. To understand how these residues promote the generation of the four-coordinate cob(II)alamin, variants of the human-type ACA enzyme from L. reuteri (LrPduO) were kinetically and structurally characterized. These studies revealed that residue Phe112 is critical in the displacement of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) from its coordination bond with the Co ion of the ring, resulting in the formation of the four-coordinate species. An F112A substitution resulted in a 80% drop in the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The explanation for this loss of activity was obtained from the crystal structure of the mutant protein, which showed cob(II)alamin bound in the active site with DMB coordinated to the cobalt ion. The crystal structure of an LrPduO(F112H) variant showed a DMB-off/His-on interaction between the corrinoid and the enzyme, whose catalytic efficiency was 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the wild-type protein. The analysis of the kinetic parameters of LrPduO(F112H) suggests that the F112H substitution negatively impacts product release. Substitutions of other hydrophobic residues in the Cbl binding pocket did not result in significant defects in catalytic efficiency in vitro; however, none of the variant enzymes analyzed in this work supported AdoCbl biosynthesis in vivo.

  8. Tuning the Stability of Organic Active Materials for Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries via Reversible, Electrochemically Mediated Li + Coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carino, Emily V.; Staszak-Jirkovsky, Jakub; Assary, Rajeev S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Markovic, Nenad M.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2016-03-24

    We describe an electrochemically mediated interaction between Li+ and a promising active material for nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFBs), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-1,1,4,4-tetramethylnaphthalene (TDT), and the impact of this structural interaction on material stability during voltammetric cycling. TDT could be an advantageous organic positive electrolyte material for nonaqueous RFBs due to its high oxidation potential, 4.21 V vs Li/Li+, and solubility of at least 1.0 M in select electrolytes. Although results from voltammetry suggest TDT displays Nernstian reversibility in many nonaqueous electrolyte solutions, bulk electrolysis reveals significant degradation in all electrolytes studied, the extent of which depends on the electrolyte solution composition. Results of subtractively normalized in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS) confirm that TDT undergoes reversible structural changes during cyclic voltammetry in propylene carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxyethane solutions containing Li+ electrolytes, but irreversible degradation occurs when tetrabutylammonium (TBA+) replaces Li+ as the electrolyte cation in these solutions. By combining the results from SNIFTIRS experiments with calculations from density functional theory, solution-phase active species structure and potential-dependent interactions can be determined. We find that Li+ coordinates to the Lewis basic methoxy groups of neutral TDT and, upon electrochemical oxidation, this complex dissociates into the radical cation TDT•+ and Li+. The improved cycling stability in the presence of Li+ relative to TBA+ suggests that the structural interaction reported herein may be advantageous to the design of energy storage materials based on organic molecules.

  9. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  10. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  11. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  12. Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, improves experimental colitis in mice with multiple targets against activated T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xing-Xin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Yan-Hong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-09-15

    In the present paper, we aimed to examine the novel effects of cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, on murine experimental colitis. Cerebroside D significantly reduced the weight loss, mortality rate and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of colitis induced by dexran sulfate sodium. This compound also decreased the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β in intestinal tissue of mice with experimental colitis in a concentration-dependent manner, accompanied with markedly increased serum level of IL-10. Cerebroside D inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T cells activated by concanavalin A or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies. The compound did not show an effect on naive lymphocytes but prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. Moreover, the treatment of cerebroside D led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspase 3, 9, 12 and PARP. These results showed multiple effects of cerebroside D against activated T cells for a novel approach to treatment of colonic inflammation. Highlights: ► Cerebroside D, a glycoceramide compound, alleviated DSS induced colitis. ► The mechanism of the compound involved multiple effects against activated T cells. ► It regulated cytokine profiles in mice with experimental colitis. ► It prevented T cells from entering S and G2/M phases during activation. ► It led to apoptosis of activated T cells with the cleavage of caspases and PARP.

  13. Passive activities : The effectiveness of multisensory environments on the level of activity of individuals with profound multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaskamp, C; de Geeter, KI; Huijsmans, LM; Smit, IH

    2003-01-01

    Background The use of multisensory environments (MSEs) is perceived to be important for individuals with profound and multiple disabilities, although there is limited research on the efficacy of the procedures. After a search of the literature, numerous positive outcomes of MSEs were described. Our

  14. A library of synthetic transcription activator-like effector-activated promoters for coordinated orthogonal gene expression in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Kathleen; Schäfer, Petra; Weber, Ernst; Grützner, Ramona; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Tissier, Alain

    2015-05-01

    A library of synthetic promoters containing the binding site of a single designer transcription activator-like effector (dTALE) was constructed. The promoters contain a constant sequence, consisting of an 18-base long dTALE-binding site and a TATA box, flanked by degenerate sequences of 49 bases downstream and 19 bases upstream. Forty-three of these promoters were sequenced and tested in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana using a GUS reporter gene. The strength of expression of the promoters ranged from around 5% to almost 100% of the viral 35S promoter activity. We then demonstrated the utility of these promoters for metabolic engineering by transiently expressing three genes for the production of a plant diterpenoid in N. benthamiana. The simplicity of the promoter structure shows great promise for the development of genetic circuits, with wide potential applications in plant synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

  15. Early Parallel Activation of Semantics and Phonology in Picture Naming: Evidence from a Multiple Linear Regression MEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    The time course of brain activation during word production has become an area of increasingly intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. The predominant view has been that semantic and phonological processes are activated sequentially, at about 150 and 200-400 ms after picture onset. Although evidence from prior studies has been interpreted as supporting this view, these studies were arguably not ideally suited to detect early brain activation of semantic and phonological processes. We here used a multiple linear regression approach to magnetoencephalography (MEG) analysis of picture naming in order to investigate early effects of variables specifically related to visual, semantic, and phonological processing. This was combined with distributed minimum-norm source estimation and region-of-interest analysis. Brain activation associated with visual image complexity appeared in occipital cortex at about 100 ms after picture presentation onset. At about 150 ms, semantic variables became physiologically manifest in left frontotemporal regions. In the same latency range, we found an effect of phonological variables in the left middle temporal gyrus. Our results demonstrate that multiple linear regression analysis is sensitive to early effects of multiple psycholinguistic variables in picture naming. Crucially, our results suggest that access to phonological information might begin in parallel with semantic processing around 150 ms after picture onset.

  16. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... active during multiple pregnancy is important for your health, but you may need to avoid strenuous exercise. Try low-impact exercise, such as swimming, prenatal yoga, and walking. You should aim for 30 minutes ...

  17. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 interacts with and activates TGFβ-activated kinase 1 tyrosine phosphorylation and NFκB signaling in multiple myeloma and bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Salazar

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. In the United States alone, 1 in 4 deaths is due to cancer and for 2013 a total of 1,660,290 new cancer cases and 580,350 cancer-related deaths are projected. Comprehensive profiling of multiple cancer genomes has revealed a highly complex genetic landscape in which a large number of altered genes, varying from tumor to tumor, impact core biological pathways and processes. This has implications for therapeutic targeting of signaling networks in the development of treatments for specific cancers. The NFκB transcription factor is constitutively active in a number of hematologic and solid tumors, and many signaling pathways implicated in cancer are likely connected to NFκB activation. A critical mediator of NFκB activity is TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1. Here, we identify TAK1 as a novel interacting protein and target of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 tyrosine kinase activity. We further demonstrate that activating mutations in FGFR3 associated with both multiple myeloma and bladder cancer can modulate expression of genes that regulate NFκB signaling, and promote both NFκB transcriptional activity and cell adhesion in a manner dependent on TAK1 expression in both cancer cell types. Our findings suggest TAK1 as a potential therapeutic target for FGFR3-associated cancers, and other malignancies in which TAK1 contributes to constitutive NFκB activation.

  18. Synthesis Characterization and Biological Activities of Coordination Compounds of 4-Hydroxy-3-nitro-2H-chromen-2-one and Its Aminoethanoic Acid and Pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic Acid Mixed Ligand Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkunmi, Ezekiel; Obuotor, Efere; Olawuni, Idowu; Isabirye, David; Jordaan, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Coordination compounds of 4-hydroxy-3-nitro-2H-chromen-2-one and their mixed ligand complexes with aminoethanoic acid and pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid were synthesized by the reaction of Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts in molar ratio 1 : 2 for the coumarin complexes and 1 : 1 : 1 for the mixed ligand complexes, in basic media. The compounds formed were characterized using infrared, Uv-vis spectrophotometric analyses, mass spectrometry, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and EDX analyses. It was concluded that 4-hydroxy-3-nitro-2H-chromen-2-one coordinated as a monobasic ligand for all the complexes; it also coordinated via the carbonyl moiety in the case of the Cu(II) mixed ligand complexes. Similarly it was proposed that the amino acids also coordinated in a bidentate fashion via their amino nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen atoms. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The complexes exhibited marginal antimicrobial activity but good cytotoxic activity. PMID:28270743

  19. Cross-behavior associations and multiple health behavior change: A longitudinal study on physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Küper, Carina; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the interrelation of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. The influence of stage congruence between physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake on multiple behavior change was also investigated. Health behaviors, social-cognitions, and stages of change were assessed in 2693 adults at two points in time. Physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed 4 weeks after the baseline. Social-cognitions, stages as well as stage transitions across behavior domains were positively interrelated. Stage congruence was not related to changes in physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Physical activity and nutrition appear to facilitate rather than hinder each other. Having intentions to change both behaviors simultaneously does not seem to overburden individuals.

  20. CCR5 delta32, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Madsen, Hans O; Jensen, Claus V

    2000-01-01

    Chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) appear to be crucial in leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis (MS). CCR5 delta32, a truncated allele of the CC chemokine receptor CCR5 gene encoding a non-functional receptor, did not confer protection from MS. CCR5...

  1. Single agent lenalidomide activity in multiple myeloma relapse evidenced uniquely by CT/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gozzetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A71 year old female with multiple myeloma presented with back pain seven year after autologous stem cell transplant. Skeletal bone survey and magnetic resonance imaging did not show a relapse that was evidenced by CT/PET. Lenalidomide as single agent induced a complete disappearance of the lesions 6 months later at CT/PET

  2. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Gappmaier, Eduard; Coote, Susan

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 2.5 million people worldwide are living with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this disease may be increasing in prevalence. MS is a disease of the central nervous system that is associated with heterogeneous symptoms and functional consequences, and the current first-line disease-modifying therapies often become ineffective later in the…

  3. Sudden cardiac death in multiple sclerosis caused by active demyelination of the medulla oblongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Kusters, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is not uncommon in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is related to the involvement of the vegetative areas of cardiac innervations in the medulla oblongata. It has been suggested that this may contribute to the occurrence of sudden death in MS. In this case report, we

  4. Biological markers in multiple sclerosis related to disease activity and progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Ziekteactiviteit bij multiple sclerose meten in lichaamsvloeistoffen MJ Eikelenboom Multipele sclerose (MS) is een chronische aandoening van het centraal zenuwstelsel. Bij mensen met MS ontstaan er ontstekingen in de hersenen en het ruggenmerg, waardoor de zenuwen niet meer goed werken. Het verst

  5. Bioanalytical characterisation of multiple endocrine- and dioxin-like activities in sediments from reference and impacted small rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinani, Said, E-mail: said@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchonnet, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.bouchonnet@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Creusot, Nicolas [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bourcier, Sophie [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Balaguer, Patrick [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U896, Montpellier, F-34298 (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Ait-Aissa, Selim, E-mail: selim.ait-aissa@ineris.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive evaluation of organic contamination was performed in sediments sampled in two reference and three impacted small streams where endocrine disruptive (ED) effects in fish have been evidenced. The approach combined quantitative chemical analyses of more than 50 ED chemicals (EDCs) and a battery of in vitro bioassays allowing the quantification of receptor-mediated activities, namely estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), dioxin (AhR) and pregnane X (PXR) receptors. At the most impacted sites, chemical analyses showed the presence of natural estrogens, organochlorine pesticides, parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs), bisphenol A and alkylphenols, while synthetic steroids, myco-estrogens and phyto-estrogens were not detected. Determination of toxic-equivalent amounts showed that 28-96% of estrogenic activities in bioassays (0.2-6.3 ng/g 17beta-estradiol equivalents) were explained by 17beta-estradiol and estrone. PAHs were major contributors (20-60%) to the total dioxin-like activities. Interestingly, high PXR and (anti)AR activities were detected; however, the targeted analysed compounds could not explain the measured biological activities. This study highlighted the presence of multiple organic EDCs in French river sediments subjected to mixed diffuse pollution, and argues for the need to further identify AR and PXR active compounds in the aquatic environment. - Multiple endocrine disrupting chemicals (ER, AR, AhR and PXR ligands) are detected in French river sediments using a panel of in vitro bioassays and analytical methods.

  6. Autonomous and coordinated control of active power in standalone microgrid%独立微电网有功功率自主与协调控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春凤; 杨仁刚; 井天军

    2014-01-01

    Usually, a microgrid is connected to a power grid as a complement that enhances the flexibility and safety of a system. However, in some cases, for example grid faults, remote rural areas, or islands away from the continent, the microgrid has to operate independently. Because of a large number of power electronic components in the microgrid, the fluctuant distributed generation, and the bidirectional power flow, the unified coordination control of the units in each case is very important for the security and stability in the operation of each standalone microgrid. Aiming at the standalone microgrid, an autonomous and coordinated control method is designed in the paper. The primary adjustment is an independent local control strategy that allows each DG unit to operate autonomously. Also, for reliability reasons, communication is avoided in the primary adjustment, similar to the conventional grid control. Hence, it is based only on local measurements, being conceived as a local control strategy. With respect to the primary adjustment, in islanded mode, the DG units need to dispatch their power to enable power sharing and voltage control, thereby ensuring a stable microgrid operation. According to the voltage and active power control curve in autonomous control, the primary adjustment is completed by wind unit controller, solar unit controller, and energy storage controller. For the fast response of energy storage devices and large random fluctuations of intermittently distributed generations in the standalone microgrid without any continuous power supply, the voltage-frequency control method is adopted in energy storage devices to allocate automatically and absorb the transient imbalance power of the system during real time operating. Meanwhile, the PQ control method is adopted in intermittently distributed generations. The secondary adjustment is completed by the microgrid controller. According to the upper and lower limits of voltage and current of energy storage

  7. Quantifying coordination between the head and the trunk during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    This study developed unique measures of coordination between the head and the trunk during the combined tasks of locomotion and gaze fixation of visual targets. These measures will be used to determine the effects of long-duration space flight on sensorimotor function. This will enable evaluation of the efficacy of countermeasures and postflight rehabilitation programs. Indices were proposed as composite measures reflecting the functional aspects of the control system involved in gaze fixation during locomotion. The stiffness index (Nm/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular motion. The viscosity index (Nm-sec/deg) was calculated as the ratio between the change in the magnitude of the net relative moments to the change in magnitude of the relative angular velocity. These coordination measures were used to evaluate the normal dynamic pattern of coordination between the head and the trunk with respect to the events occurring in a gait cycle. The indices were evaluated for three discrete speeds of locomotion for the same gaze fixation task and for three discrete gaze fixation tasks at the same speed of locomotion. The indices were found to be repeatable measures reflecting inter-segmental coordination strategies while performing an activity of daily living. These indices showed that the coordination of the head with respect to the trunk was significantly different between the events of heel strike and swing phases during the gait cycle. These indices showed no significant differences between the different gaze fixation tasks. The speed of locomotion had a significant effect on the magnitude of these indices. The results indicate that the CNS dynamically modulates head motion with respect to the trunk dependent on the events occurring during the gait cycle. This modulation is appropriate for stabilizing gaze during locomotion. The results support the hypothesis

  8. Unveiling the AGN activity in multiple SMBH systems: the remarkable case of SDSS J0959+1259

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, A.; Magna Team

    2016-06-01

    In this talk we will present results from the MAGNA (Multiple AGN Activity) project focused on the detection and study of multiple supermassive BH systems. We aim at studying the physical properties of multiple AGN candidates in interacting/disturbed systems from both an observational and a theoretical point of view. The final goal is to understand the possible mechanisms that could relate the triggering of AGN activity with the different stages of galaxies mergers. The MAGNA project includes the study of several samples of dual AGN, extracted from different wavebands, supplied by an extensive set of multiwavelength observations granted to our team by MUSE, XMM, VLA as well as available in archives. This strategy allowed us to identify a galaxy compact group (CG SDSS J0959+1259) that appears exceptional having a high concentration of nuclear activity. We present here the multi-wavelength study of this CG through XMM, SDSS and BUSCA data. The XMM analysis extends and modifies the previous identification of the members of this group, which is composed of 3 Compton thin AGN, 2 LINERs and 3 star forming region.

  9. Assemblies of a new flexible multicarboxylate ligand and d10 metal centers toward the construction of homochiral helical coordination polymers: structures, luminescence, and NLO-active properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Shuangquan; Su, Yang; Li, Yizhi; Ni, Zhaoping; Meng, Qingjin

    2006-01-01

    Hydro(solvo)thermal reactions between a new flexible multicarboxylate ligand of 2,2',3,3'-oxydiphthalic acid (2,2',3,3'-H(4)ODPA) and M(NO(3))(2).xH(2)O (M = Zn, x = 6; M = Cd, x = 4) in the presence of 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy) afford two novel homochiral helical coordination polymers [[Zn(2)(2,2',3,3'-ODPA)(bpy)(H(2)O)(3)].(H(2)O)(2) for 1 and [Cd(2)(2,2',3,3'-ODPA)(bpy)(H(2)O)(3)].(H(2)O)(2) for 2]. Though having almost the same chemical formula, they have different space groups (P2(1)2(1)2(1) for 1 and P2(1) for 2) and different bridging modes of the 2,2',3,3'-ODPA ligand. Two kinds of homochiral helices (right-handed) are found in both 1 and 2, each of which discriminates only one kind of crystallographical nonequivalent metal atom. 1 has a 2D metal-organic framework and can be seen as the unity of two parallel homochiral Zn1 and Zn2 helices, in which the nodes are etheric oxygen atoms. In contrast, 2 has a 3D metal-organic framework and consists of two partially overlapped homochiral Cd1 and Cd2 helices in the two dimensions. Moreover, metal-ODPA helices give a 2D chiral herringbone structural motif in both 1 and 2 in the two dimensions, which are further strengthened by the second ligand of bpy. Bulk materials for 1 and 2 all have good second-harmonic generation activity, approximately 1 and 0.8 times that of urea.

  10. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in interlimb coordination of coupled arm movements in the parasagittal plane: II. Postural activities and coupling coordination during cyclic flexion-extension arm movements, ISO- and ANTI-directionally coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Fausto G; Esposti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    When coupling cyclic adduction-abduction movements of the arms in the transverse (horizontal) plane, isodirectional (ISO) coupling is less stable than antidirectional (ANTI) coupling. We proposed that such deficiency stems from the disturbing action that anticipatory postural adjustments exert on ISO coupling. To ascertain if postural adjustments differentiate ISO versus ANTI coupling coordination in other types of cyclic arm movements, we examined flexion-extension oscillations in the parasagittal plane. Oscillations of the right arm alone elicited cyclic Postural Adjustments (PAs) in the left Anterior Deltoid and Posterior Deltoid, which replicated the excitation-inhibition pattern of the prime movers right Anterior Deltoid, right Posterior Deltoid. Cyclic PAs also developed symmetrically in Erector Spinae (RES and LES) and in phase opposition in Ischiocruralis (RIC and LIC), so as to discharge to the ground both an anteroposterior force, Fy, and a moment about the vertical axis, Tz. Oscillations of both arms in ISO coupling induced symmetric PAs in both ES and IC muscles, thus generating a large Fy but no Tz. In ANTI coupling, PAs in RES and LES remained symmetric but smaller in size, while PAs in RIC and LIC were large and opposite in phase, resulting in a large Tz and small Fy. Altogether, PAs would thus favour ISO and hamper ANTI parasagittal movements because (1) in the motor pathways to the prime movers of either arm, a convergence would occur between the voluntary commands and the commands for PAs linked to the movement of the other arm, the two commands having the same sign (excitatory or inhibitory) during ISO and an opposite sign during ANTI; (2) the postural effort of trunk and leg muscles would be higher for generating Tz in ANTI than Fy in ISO. These predictions fit with the finding that coupling stability was lower in ANTI than in ISO, i.e., opposite to horizontal movements. In conclusion, in both parasagittal and horizontal arm movements, the less

  11. Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Konke, Linn Andersson; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  12. Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor in vitro and in vivo through multiple aspects against activated T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Li-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Hai-Liang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Tao, Fei-Fei; Ge, Hui-Ming; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com; Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored its potential molecular mechanism. Resveratrol had a wide spectrum of healthy beneficial effects with multiple targets. Interestingly, its tetramer, vaticaffinol, exerted more intensive immunosuppressive activity than resveratrol. Vaticaffinol significantly inhibited T cells proliferation activated by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also induced Con A-activated T cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, this compound prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. In addition, vaticaffinol inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways in Con A-activated T cells. Furthermore, vaticaffinol significantly ameliorated ear swelling in a mouse model of picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in vivo. In most of the aforementioned experiments, however, resveratrol had only slight effects on the inhibition of T lymphocytes compared with vaticaffinol. Taken together, our findings suggest that vaticaffinol exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol both in vitro and in vivo by affecting multiple targets against activated T cells. - Graphical abstract: Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, exerts more intensive immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol does in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism may involve multiple effects against activated T cells: regulation of signalings involved in cell proliferation, G0/G1 arrest of T cells, as well as an apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells. Highlights: ► Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more potent activity than its precursor. ► It inhibited T cells proliferation and prevented them from entering

  13. MANAGING MULTIPLE ACTIVITIES FOR SPECIFIC THEMES IN THE EFL CLASSROOM (PREK-GRADE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes M. Terry

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The theory of Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner is enlightening and extremely useful in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language classroom. For starters it helps the teacher in understanding the individual differences found in the classroom and to comprehend how students go about learning. Multiple intelligences are not always taken into account even though they are very observable in children, since they are still so innocent and honest in their learning process. The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of approaching the individuals encountered in our classroom, giving them the equal opportunity of learning another language and above all making our classes fun and resourceful so that these young learners are motivated for a lifetime.

  14. Analysis and Active Damping of Multiple High Frequency Resonances in DFIG System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    As the wind power generation develops, the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power system are more and more likely to operate in the emerging weak network rather than the conventional stiff network. Due to the comparatively large impedance of the weak network than the stiff grid......, the DFIG system may be subject to the resonances due to the impedance interaction between the DFIG system and the weak network. Especially, when connected to a series π sections weak network, the Multiple High Frequency Resonances (MHFR) may occur and require careful studies. The impedance modeling...... of the DFIG system and the series π sections weak network is firstly demonstrated in this paper. Then, due to the multiple magnitude peaks of the series π sections of the weak network, the MHFR will be produced and can be theoretically explained based on the impedance modeling results. For the purpose...

  15. Active Multiple Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Graphene Sheets Resonators in Mid-Infrared Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiple plasmon-induced transparency (PIT device operated in the mid-infrared region has been proposed. The designed model is comprised of one graphene ribbon as main waveguide and two narrow graphene sheets resonators. The phase coupling between two graphene resonators has been investigated. The multimode PIT resonances have been found in both cases and can be dynamically tuned via varying the chemical potential of graphene resonators without optimizing its geometric parameters. In addition, this structure can get multiple PIT effect by equipping extra two sheets on the symmetric positions of graphene waveguide. The simulation results based on finite element method (FEM are in good agreement with the resonance theory. This work may pave new way for graphene-based thermal plasmonic devices applications.

  16. Effect of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) crude extract and chromatographic fractions on multiple activities in a cultured cardiomyocyte assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S R; Carey, R A; Crofoot, K M; Proteau, P J; Filtz, T M

    2006-11-01

    Extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha) have become popular herbal supplements for their well-recognized cardiotonic effects. Many commercial preparations have been used successfully in the treatment of congestive heart failure, although the active principles within these extracts have yet to be conclusively identified. Several hawthorn preparations were studied and found to have negative chronotropic effects in a cultured neonatal murine cardiomyocyte assay using unpaced cells. As compared to conventional cardiac drugs (i.e., epinephrine, milrinone, ouabain, or propranolol), hawthorn extract has a unique activity profile. Hawthorn extract appears to be anti-arrhythmic and capable of inducing rhythmicity in quiescent cardiomyocytes. Hawthorn extract does not cause beta-adrenergic receptor blockade at concentrations which cause negative chronotropic effects. Commercial hawthorn preparations, extracts prepared from dried leaves and those made from dried berries have similar chronotropic activities. When crude extracts are separated using size-exclusion chromatography, several fractions retain multiple cardiac activities. Assays with chromatographic fractions reveal that multiple dissimilar cardioactive components may exist within the extract, making the identification of individual active constituents more challenging.

  17. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    This report summarizes EMaCC activities for fiscal year 1990 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the department. The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further the effective use of materials expertise within the department. (JL)

  18. Activity and multiple forms of peroxidase in Zea mays and Medicago sativa treated and non-treated with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.

    1978-02-11

    The influence of lead on peroxidase was studied in young plants of Zee mays and Medicago sativa grown in solutions of Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The content of nitrate in the control- and the lead-solutions was equalized by NaNO/sub 3/. In the patterns of the multiple forms in roots and leaves of Zea and Medicago qualitatively no, or respectively negligible, change between control and lead-treated plants takes place. The temperature during the lead-treatment does not effect the numbers and the positions of bands. The bands' activity of peroxidase in lead-treated plants differs clearly from untreated plants, resulting in a different activity of the whole enzyme. In the roots and in the leaves of Zea as well as in the leaves of Medicago the relative activity of the peroxidase in lead-treated plants is raised. In the roots of Medicago the relative activity decreased slightly.

  19. Multiple hormonal activities of UV filters and comparison of in vivo and in vitro estrogenic activity of ethyl-4-aminobenzoate in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Petra Y; Fent, Karl

    2006-10-12

    UV filters have been detected in surface water, wastewater and fish, and some of them are estrogenic in fish. At present, little is known about their additional hormonal activities in different hormonal receptor systems despite their increasing use and environmental persistence. Besides estrogenic activity, UV filters may have additional activities, both agonistic and antagonistic in aquatic organisms. In our study, we investigate a series of UV filters for multiple hormonal activities in vitro in human receptor systems and evaluate the predictive value of these findings for the activity in fish in vitro and in vivo. First we systematically analysed the estrogenic, antiestrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic activity of 18 UV filters and one metabolite in vitro at non-cytotoxic concentrations with recombinant yeast systems carrying either a human estrogen (hERalpha) or androgen receptor (hAR). All 19 compounds elicited hormonal activities, surprisingly most of them multiple activities. We found 10 UV-filters having agonistic effects towards the hERalpha. Surprisingly, we identified for the first time six UV filters with androgenic activities and many of them having pronounced antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. As much as 17 compounds inhibited 4,5-dihydrotestosterone activity in the hAR assay, while 14 compounds inhibited estradiol activity in the hERalpha assay, indicating antiandrogenic and antiestrogenic activity, respectively. In particular, the antiandrogenic activities of phenyl- and benzyl salicylate, benzophenone-1 and -2, and of 4-hydroxybenzophenone were higher than that of flutamide, a known hAR antagonist. In a second series of experiments, we investigated the predictive power of the hERalpha assay for aquatic organisms by further investigating the estrogenic UV filter ethyl 4-aminobenzoate (Et-PABA) in vitro and in vivo in fish. Et-PABA showed estrogenic activity in a recombinant yeast system carrying the rainbow trout estrogen receptor

  20. Reaction Coordinates and Mechanistic Hypothesis Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Baron

    2016-05-27

    Reaction coordinates are integral to several classic rate theories that can (a) predict kinetic trends across conditions and homologous reactions, (b) extract activation parameters with a clear physical interpretation from experimental rates, and (c) enable efficient calculations of free energy barriers and rates. New trajectory-based rare events methods can provide rates directly from dynamical trajectories without a reaction coordinate. Trajectory-based frameworks can also generate ideal (but abstract) reaction coordinates such as committors and eigenfunctions of the master equation. However, rates and mechanistic insights obtained from trajectory-based methods and abstract coordinates are not readily generalized across simulation conditions or reaction families. We discuss methods for identifying physically meaningful reaction coordinates, including committor analysis, variational transition state theory, Kramers-Langer-Berezhkovskii-Szabo theory, and statistical inference methods that can use path sampling data to screen, mix, and optimize thousands of trial coordinates. Special focus is given to likelihood maximization and inertial likelihood maximization approaches.

  1. Reaction Coordinates and Mechanistic Hypothesis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Baron

    2016-05-01

    Reaction coordinates are integral to several classic rate theories that can (a) predict kinetic trends across conditions and homologous reactions, (b) extract activation parameters with a clear physical interpretation from experimental rates, and (c) enable efficient calculations of free energy barriers and rates. New trajectory-based rare events methods can provide rates directly from dynamical trajectories without a reaction coordinate. Trajectory-based frameworks can also generate ideal (but abstract) reaction coordinates such as committors and eigenfunctions of the master equation. However, rates and mechanistic insights obtained from trajectory-based methods and abstract coordinates are not readily generalized across simulation conditions or reaction families. We discuss methods for identifying physically meaningful reaction coordinates, including committor analysis, variational transition state theory, Kramers-Langer-Berezhkovskii-Szabo theory, and statistical inference methods that can use path sampling data to screen, mix, and optimize thousands of trial coordinates. Special focus is given to likelihood maximization and inertial likelihood maximization approaches.

  2. CACM: A New Coordination Model in Mobile Agent-Based Information Retrieval Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGXinhuai; ZHANGYaying; YAOYinxiong; YOUJinyuan

    2005-01-01

    In mobile agent systems, an application may be composed of several mobile agents that cooperatively perform a task. Multiple mobile agents need to communicate and interact with each other to accomplish their cooperative goal. Coordination model aims to provide solutions to interactions between concurrent activities, hiding the computing details and focusing on interaction between activities. A Context-aware coordination model (CACM), which combines mobility and coordination, is proposed for mobile agent applications, i.e. in mobile agent based information retrieval applications. The context-aware coordination model transfers interactions between agents from globally coupling interactions to locally uncoupling tuple space interactions. In addition, programmable tuple space is adopted to solve the problems of context-aware coordination introduced by mobility and data heterogeneity in mobile agent systems. Furthermore, environment specific and application specific coordination policy can be integrated into the programmable tuple space for customized requirements. Finally an application sample system-information retrieval in mobile agent applications is carried out to test the performance of the proposed model.

  3. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Iwasaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity.

  4. Enhanced time overcurrent coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, Arturo Conde; Martinez, Ernesto Vazquez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Apdo. Postal 114-F, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, we recommend a new coordination system for time overcurrent relays. The purpose of the coordination process is to find a time element function that allows it to operate using a constant back-up time delay, for any fault current. In this article, we describe the implementation and coordination results of time overcurrent relays, fuses and reclosers. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory test situation using signals of a power electrical system physics simulator. (author)

  5. Application coordination in pervasive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majuntke, Verena Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive applications are designed to support users in their daily life. For this purpose, applications interact with their environment, i.e. their context. They are able to adapt themselves to context changes or to explicitly change the context via actuators. If multiple applications are executed in the same context, interferences are likely to occur. To manage interferences, a coordination framework is presented in this thesis. Interferences are detected using a context model and information about applications' interaction with the context. The resolution of interference is achieved through

  6. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  7. Choice set formation with multiple flexible activities under space-time constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    In classical time geography, an individual travel path is composed of a chain of visits, with each visit being a flexible activity between two fixed activities at two known stations. In reality, individuals tend to carry out trips with much variation and complexity, with multipurpose trips being a p

  8. Decision-Making Styles of Active-Duty Police Officers: A Multiple-Case Occupational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Patrick Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the decision-making styles of active-duty police officers or what the consequences of not understanding those decision-making styles may be. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics and decision-making profiles of active-duty police officers, as well as any relationships that may exist among these variables,…

  9. The levels of English teachers at primary schools to employ materials and activities based on multiple intelligences theory (Malatya sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat ŞAD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the levels of English teachers to employ materials and activities based on multiple intelligences theory by some variables. The population comprises 176 English teachers from 80 primary schools in Malatya city center during 2006-2007. The participants are 102 English teachers from 32 primary schools chosen randomly. A scale developed by the researcher was used as the medium. The data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOVA, and LSD analysis. Results showed English teachers utilize multiple-intelligences theory at moderate level and cannot devote balanced importance to intelligence types. Moreover no significant difference was observed in terms of gender, the program of graduation, and seniority, while there was a significant difference in terms of type of school in favor of private schools.

  10. Multiple bases of human intelligence revealed by cortical thickness and neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu Yong; Shamosh, Noah A; Cho, Sun Hee; DeYoung, Colin G; Lee, Min Joo; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sun I; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Kyungjin; Gray, Jeremy R; Lee, Kun Ho

    2008-10-08

    We hypothesized that individual differences in intelligence (Spearman's g) are supported by multiple brain regions, and in particular that fluid (gF) and crystallized (gC) components of intelligence are related to brain function and structure with a distinct profile of association across brain regions. In 225 healthy young adults scanned with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging sequences, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on the basis of a correlation between g and either brain structure or brain function. In these ROIs, gC was more strongly related to structure (cortical thickness) than function, whereas gF was more strongly related to function (blood oxygenation level-dependent signal during reasoning) than structure. We further validated this finding by generating a neurometric prediction model of intelligence quotient (IQ) that explained 50% of variance in IQ in an independent sample. The data compel a nuanced view of the neurobiology of intelligence, providing the most persuasive evidence to date for theories emphasizing multiple distributed brain regions differing in function.

  11. Feedback-related brain activity predicts learning from feedback in multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Benjamin; Steinhauser, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Different event-related potentials (ERPs) have been shown to correlate with learning from feedback in decision-making tasks and with learning in explicit memory tasks. In the present study, we investigated which ERPs predict learning from corrective feedback in a multiple-choice test, which combines elements from both paradigms. Participants worked through sets of multiple-choice items of a Swahili-German vocabulary task. Whereas the initial presentation of an item required the participants to guess the answer, corrective feedback could be used to learn the correct response. Initial analyses revealed that corrective feedback elicited components related to reinforcement learning (FRN), as well as to explicit memory processing (P300) and attention (early frontal positivity). However, only the P300 and early frontal positivity were positively correlated with successful learning from corrective feedback, whereas the FRN was even larger when learning failed. These results suggest that learning from corrective feedback crucially relies on explicit memory processing and attentional orienting to corrective feedback, rather than on reinforcement learning.

  12. Modulation of anticipatory postural activity for multiple conditions of a whole-body pointing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolambiya, A; Chiovetto, E; Pozzo, T; Thomas, E

    2012-05-17

    This is a study on associated postural activities during the anticipatory segments of a multijoint movement. Several previous studies have shown that they are task dependant. The previous studies, however, have mostly been limited in demonstrating the presence of modulation for one task condition, that is, one aspect such as the distance of the target or the direction of reaching. Real-life activities like whole-body pointing, however, can vary in several ways. How specific is the adaptation of the postural activities for the diverse possibilities of a whole-body pointing task? We used a classification paradigm to answer this question. We examined the anticipatory postural electromyograms for four different types of whole-body pointing tasks. The presence of task-dependent modulations in these signals was probed by performing four-way classification tests using a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM was able to achieve significantly higher than chance performance in correctly predicting the movements at hand (Chance performance 25%). Using only anticipatory postural muscle activity, the correct movement at hand was predicted with a mean rate of 62%. Because this is 37% above chance performance, it suggests the presence of postural modulation for diverse conditions. The anticipatory activities consisted of both activations and deactivations. Movement prediction with the use of the activating muscles was significantly better than that obtained with the deactivating muscles. This suggests that more specific modulations for the movement at hand take place through activation, whereas the deactivation is more general. The study introduces a new method for investigating adaptations in motor control. It also sheds new light on the quantity and quality of information available in the feedforward segments of a voluntary multijoint motor activity.

  13. Insights into mechanism of glucokinase activation: observation of multiple distinct protein conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shenping; Ammirati, Mark J; Song, Xi; Knafels, John D; Zhang, Jeff; Greasley, Samantha E; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Qiu, Xiayang

    2012-04-20

    Human glucokinase (GK) is a principal regulating sensor of plasma glucose levels. Mutations that inactivate GK are linked to diabetes, and mutations that activate it are associated with hypoglycemia. Unique kinetic properties equip GK for its regulatory role: although it has weak basal affinity for glucose, positive cooperativity in its binding of glucose causes a rapid increase in catalytic activity when plasma glucose concentrations rise above euglycemic levels. In clinical trials, small molecule GK activators (GKAs) have been efficacious in lowering plasma glucose and enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but they carry a risk of overly activating GK and causing hypoglycemia. The theoretical models proposed to date attribute the positive cooperativity of GK to the existence of distinct protein conformations that interconvert slowly and exhibit different affinities for glucose. Here we report the respective crystal structures of the catalytic complex of GK and of a GK-glucose complex in a wide open conformation. To assess conformations of GK in solution, we also carried out small angle x-ray scattering experiments. The results showed that glucose dose-dependently converts GK from an apo conformation to an active open conformation. Compared with wild type GK, activating mutants required notably lower concentrations of glucose to be converted to the active open conformation. GKAs decreased the level of glucose required for GK activation, and different compounds demonstrated distinct activation profiles. These results lead us to propose a modified mnemonic model to explain cooperativity in GK. Our findings may offer new approaches for designing GKAs with reduced hypoglycemic risk.

  14. Niclosamide, an old antihelminthic agent, demonstrates antitumor activity by blocking multiple signaling pathways of cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xuan Pan; Ke Ding; Cheng-Yan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Niclosamide,an oral antihelminthic drug,has been used to treat tapeworm infection for about 50 years.Niclosamide is also used as a molluscicide for water treatment in schistosomiasis control programs.Recently,several groups have independently discovered that niclosamide is also active against cancer cells,but its precise mechanism of antitumor action is not fully understood.Evidence supports that niclosamide targets multiple signaling pathways (NF-κB,Wnt/β-catenin,Notch,ROS,mTORC1,and Stat3),most of which are closely involved with cancer stem cells.The exciting advances in elucidating the antitumor activity and the molecular targets of this drug will be discussed.A method for synthesizing a phosphate pro-drug of niclosamide is provided.Given its potential antitumor activity,clinical trials for niclosamide and its derivatives are warranted for cancer treatment.

  15. Ponatinib (AP24534), a multitargeted pan-FGFR inhibitor with activity in multiple FGFR-amplified or mutated cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgit, Joseph M; Wong, Matthew J; Moran, Lauren; Wardwell, Scott; Mohemmad, Qurish K; Narasimhan, Narayana I; Shakespeare, William C; Wang, Frank; Clackson, Tim; Rivera, Victor M

    2012-03-01

    Members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family of kinases (FGFR1-4) are dysregulated in multiple cancers. Ponatinib (AP24534) is an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor being explored in a pivotal phase II trial in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia due to its potent activity against BCR-ABL. Ponatinib has also been shown to inhibit the in vitro kinase activity of all four FGFRs, prompting us to examine its potential as an FGFR inhibitor. In Ba/F3 cells engineered to express activated FGFR1-4, ponatinib potently inhibited FGFR-mediated signaling and viability with IC(50) values FGFR-mediated signaling with IC(50) values FGFR1-4 inhibition can be sustained in patients. These results show that ponatinib is a potent pan-FGFR inhibitor and provide strong rationale for its evaluation in patients with FGFR-driven cancers.

  16. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  17. Leisure time activities of Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The results represented the range and heterogeneity of leisure activities amongst the MS patients. Considering participation in spiritual/religious and social activities as leisure time undertaking might reflect cultural diversity in the perception and use of time for recreation. For mental health promotion purposes, paying special attention to the types of activities that people of different socio-cultural background choose for their refreshment could help health care providers in giving tailored advice for patients with MS and other chronic debilitating disease.

  18. Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Shane M

    2014-01-01

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few {\\mu}Eh or less) with M = 128 in both cases, which is in contrast to conventional ab initio density matrix renormalization group.

  19. Multifunctionality in bimetallic Ln(III)[W(V)(CN)8]3- (Ln = Gd, Nd) coordination helices: optical activity, luminescence, and magnetic coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorazy, Szymon; Nakabayashi, Koji; Arczynski, Mirosław; Pełka, Robert; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2014-06-02

    Two chiral luminescent derivatives of pyridine bis(oxazoline) (Pybox), (SS/RR)-iPr-Pybox (2,6-bis[4-isopropyl-2-oxazolin-2-yl]pyridine) and (SRSR/RSRS)-Ind-Pybox (2,6-bis[8H-indeno[1,2-d]oxazolin-2-yl]pyridine), have been combined with lanthanide ions (Gd(3+), Nd(3+)) and octacyanotungstate(V) metalloligand to afford a remarkable series of eight bimetallic CN(-)-bridged coordination chains: {[Ln(III)(SS/RR-iPr-Pybox)(dmf)4]3[W(V)(CN)8]3}n ⋅dmf⋅4 H2O (Ln = Gd, 1-SS and 1-RR; Ln = Nd, 2-SS and 2-RR) and {[Ln(III)(SRSR/RSRS-Ind-Pybox)(dmf)4][W(V)(CN)8]}n⋅5 MeCN⋅4 MeOH (Ln = Gd, 3-SRSR and 3-RSRS; Ln = Nd, 4-SRSR and 4-RSRS). These materials display enantiopure structural helicity, which results in strong optical activity in the range 200-450 nm, as confirmed by natural circular dichroism (NCD) spectra and the corresponding UV/Vis absorption spectra. Under irradiation with UV light, the Gd(III)-W(V) chains show dominant ligand-based red phosphorescence, with λmax ≈660 nm for 1-(SS/RR) and 680 nm for 3-(SRSR/RSRS). The Nd(III)-W(V) chains, 2-(SS/RR) and 4-(SRSR/RSRS), exhibit near-infrared luminescence with sharp lines at 986, 1066, and 1340 nm derived from intra-f (4)F3/2 → (4)I9/2,11/2,13/2 transitions of the Nd(III) centers. This emission is realized through efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer from the Pybox derivative to the lanthanide ion. Due to the presence of paramagnetic lanthanide(III) and [W(V)(CN)8](3-) moieties connected by cyanide bridges, 1-(SS/RR) and 3-(SRSR/RSRS) are ferrimagnetic spin chains originating from antiferromagnetic coupling between Gd(III) (SGd = 7/2) and W(V) (SW = 1/2) centers with J1-(SS) = -0.96(1) cm(-1), J1-(RR) =-0.95(1) cm(-1), J3-(SRSR) = -0.91(1) cm(-1), and J3-(RSRS) =-0.94(1) cm(-1). 2-(SS/RR) and 4-(SRSR/RSRS) display ferromagnetic coupling within their Nd(III)-NC-W(V) linkages.

  20. Epigenetic Activity of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonists Increases the Anticancer Effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Multiple Myeloma Cells.

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    Nassera Aouali

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications play a major role in the development of multiple myeloma. We have previously reported that the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO enhances, in-vitro, the cytotoxic effect of the Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi, valproic acid (VPA, on multiple myeloma cells. Here, we described the development of a new multiple myeloma mouse model using MOLP8 cells, in order to evaluate the effect of VPA/PIO combination on the progression of myeloma cells, by analyzing the proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. We showed that VPA/PIO delays the progression of the disease and the invasion of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that VPA/PIO increases the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and induces the acetylation of Histone 3 (H3. Furthermore, we provided evidence that PPARγ agonist is able to enhance the action of other HDACi such as Vorinostat or Mocetinostat. Using PPARγ antagonist or siPPARγ, we strongly suggest that, as described during adipogenesis, PIO behaves as an epigenetic regulator by improving the activity of HDACi. This study highlights the therapeutic benefit of PIO/VPA combination, compared to VPA treatment as a single-arm therapy on multiple myeloma and further highlights that such combination may constitute a new promising treatment strategy which should be supported by clinical trials.