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Sample records for activation analysis techniques

  1. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  2. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  3. Multi-element study in aluminium by activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental activation analysis is a technique relatively quickly that help to know the elemental composition of materials. It is used mainly in the trace elements determination but in the case of major elements it is necessary to make some considerations as the different nuclear reactions carried out due to the neutron flux is a mixture of thermal and fast neutrons. This could be interpreted for the presence and or erroneous quantification about some elements. In this work, is described the way in which was analyzed a container piece with approximately a 85% of aluminium. The elements Zn, Mn, Sb, Ga, Cu, Cl and Sm were determined. (Author)

  4. Mathematical analysis techniques for modeling the space network activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Lisa M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to explore and identify mathematical analysis techniques, and in particular, the use of linear programming. This topic was then applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in order to understand the space network better. Finally, a small scale version of the system was modeled, variables were identified, data was gathered, and comparisons were made between actual and theoretical data.

  5. Application of thermal analysis techniques in activated carbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnals, G.L.; DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.; Brady, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used at the ISGS as an aid in the development and characterization of carbon adsorbents. Promising adsorbents from fly ash, tires, and Illinois coals have been produced for various applications. Process conditions determined in the preparation of gram quantities of carbons were used as guides in the preparation of larger samples. TG techniques developed to characterize the carbon adsorbents included the measurement of the kinetics of SO2 adsorption, the performance of rapid proximate analyses, and the determination of equilibrium methane adsorption capacities. Thermal regeneration of carbons was assessed by TG to predict the life cycle of carbon adsorbents in different applications. TPD was used to determine the nature of surface functional groups and their effect on a carbon's adsorption properties.

  6. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...... reference materials as well as fertilizer materials are compared by literature value and spectrophotometric measurements, respectively. In both cases good agreement is obtained....

  7. Technique for particle flow measuring in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is refered to the methods of measuring particle flow in nuclear-physical methods of substance composition monitoring. The purpose of the invention is to simplify the process of particle flux measurement and improve the accuracy of analysis. To do this, ''clean'' foil is located behind the monitor, when irradiating ''thin'' monitor, located in front of the sample, and measuring induced radioactivity of radionuclide, produced from the monitor basic element. The value oa particle flow is assessed according to activity of radionuclide nuclei, introduced from monitor into the foil, due to nuclear transformation energy. Monitor thickness should exceed the maximal path of radionuclide nuclei in monitor substance. 1 fig

  8. Teaching Tip: Using Activity Diagrams to Model Systems Analysis Techniques: Teaching What We Preach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lending, Diane; May, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Activity diagrams are used in Systems Analysis and Design classes as a visual tool to model the business processes of "as-is" and "to-be" systems. This paper presents the idea of using these same activity diagrams in the classroom to model the actual processes (practices and techniques) of Systems Analysis and Design. This tip…

  9. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  10. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed

  11. Nondestructive multielemental analysis of ancient roman pottery using photon activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several analytical methods were tested for the multiparameter-analysis of ancient roman pottery in order to elaborate a procedure for their identification. Main constituents, minor and trace-elements have been analyzed by high-energy photon activation analysis, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The environmental influence on the concentrations of the minor constituents and trace elements during deposition of the sherds in the soil has been examined. A comparison has been made between analysis data of ancient pottery obtained by photon activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. Tables are given on the time dependence of the trace elements. The numerical data are summarized in several diagrams. (T.G.)

  12. Twenty Five Years of Neutron Activation Analysis: A Personal Perspective on Utilization of the Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1970's there have been enormous changes in the methods, techniques and applications of neutron activation analysis. Having been a research scientist at the National Research Council of Canada and the McMaster Nuclear Reactor, as well as a professor for ten years at the University of Illinois and 15 years at the University of Texas, I have a unique perspective on the research performed by my many MS, PhD and even undergraduate students. Below is a personal perspective on the utilization of the neutron activation analysis. (author)

  13. Analysis of activity in open-source communities using social network analysis techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Torres, María del Rocío

    2014-01-01

    The success of an open-source software project is closely linked to the successful organization and development of the underlying virtual community. In particular, participation is the most important mechanism by which the development of the project is supported. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the online participation in virtual communities using social network analysis techniques in order to obtain the main patterns of behaviour of users within communities. Sev...

  14. Figure analysis: A teaching technique to promote visual literacy and active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based biology courses. An additional challenge is that visual literacy is often overlooked in undergraduate science education. To address both of these challenges, a technique called figure analysis was developed and implemented in three different levels of undergraduate biology courses. Here, students learn content while gaining practice in interpreting visual information by discussing figures with their peers. Student groups also make connections between new and previously learned concepts on their own while in class. The instructor summarizes the material for the class only after students grapple with it in small groups. Students reported a preference for learning by figure analysis over traditional lecture, and female students in particular reported increased confidence in their analytical abilities. There is not a technology requirement for this technique; therefore, it may be utilized both in classrooms and in nontraditional spaces. Additionally, the amount of preparation required is comparable to that of a traditional lecture. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):336-344, 2016.

  15. Figure analysis: A teaching technique to promote visual literacy and active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based biology courses. An additional challenge is that visual literacy is often overlooked in undergraduate science education. To address both of these challenges, a technique called figure analysis was developed and implemented in three different levels of undergraduate biology courses. Here, students learn content while gaining practice in interpreting visual information by discussing figures with their peers. Student groups also make connections between new and previously learned concepts on their own while in class. The instructor summarizes the material for the class only after students grapple with it in small groups. Students reported a preference for learning by figure analysis over traditional lecture, and female students in particular reported increased confidence in their analytical abilities. There is not a technology requirement for this technique; therefore, it may be utilized both in classrooms and in nontraditional spaces. Additionally, the amount of preparation required is comparable to that of a traditional lecture. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):336-344, 2016. PMID:26891952

  16. Multi-element study of Rutile sands using the Non Destructive Technique of Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the method is to analyze qualitative and quantitative elements Ti, Al, Cr, Fe, and Zr in Rutile sands. By this analytical technique, the sample does not require a previous preparation and is then irradiated with a thermal neutron flux in the TRIGA-1 Salazar Reactor. The sample is then counted in a gamma spectrometer fitted with a High-purity detector which make possible the simultaneous determination of the elements in the qualitative and quantitative forms. The elements analyzed in Rutile sands were Ti, Mn, Al, Hf, Dy, Au, W, La, Eu, Ca, Cr, Sc, No and Fe. Nuclear Activation Analysis is a wide used technique for the analysis of trace elements in pure materials or with several major elements. (Author)

  17. Communication Analysis modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    España, Sergio; Pastor, Óscar; Ruiz, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates several modelling techniques proposed by Communication Analysis; namely Communicative Event Diagram, Message Structures and Event Specification Templates. The Communicative Event Diagram is a business process modelling technique that adopts a communicational perspective by focusing on communicative interactions when describing the organizational work practice, instead of focusing on physical activities1; at this abstraction level, we refer to business activities as communicative events. Message Structures is a technique based on structured text that allows specifying the messages associated to communicative events. Event Specification Templates are a means to organise the requirements concerning a communicative event. This report can be useful to analysts and business process modellers in general, since, according to our industrial experience, it is possible to apply many Communication Analysis concepts, guidelines and criteria to other business process modelling notation...

  18. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70Zn and 68Zn or 64Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  19. Figure Analysis: A Teaching Technique to Promote Visual Literacy and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based…

  20. Using ACTH Challenges to Validate Techniques for Adrenocortical Activity Analysis in Various African Wildlife Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Armstrong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring adrenocortical activity using fecal hormonal analysis can provide information on how environmental changes are affecting non-domestic species health and success in the field; however, this noninvasive method needs proper validation to ensure that analysis reflects true physiological events. Our objectives were to use adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH challenges as a physiological validation method to test the suitability of a new corticosterone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to accurately assess the adrenocortical activity using fecal samples in four African wildlife species-the black rhinoceros (rhino; Diceros bicornis, African elephant (Loxodonta africana, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and African lion (Panthera leo krugeri. In the rhino and elephant, fecal Glucocorticoid metabolites (GC surged 75 and 51 h post-ACTH injection, respectively. In the chimpanzee, fecal GC metabolites peaked at 29 h post-injection. And the lion had a peak of fecal GC at 24 h post-ACTH. This study determined that adrenocortical activity was reflected in concentrations of fecal GC metabolites suggesting that this corticosterone EIA is an effective technique for the monitoring stress in four African species.

  1. Neutron activation analysis technique for the investigation of environmental contamination with 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron activation technique is described which does not require specialized apparatus or immediate access to irradiation facilities, but is sufficiently sensitive to measure 129I at the levels encountered around the BNFL nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in west Cumbria, UK. The method allows analysis of a wide range of media and is therefore well suited to environmental investigations. One such application is described in which the deposition pattern of 129I in west Cumbria has been measured, and hence the importance of transfer from sea as a route of terrestrial contamination has been assessed. The current program of research is also described briefly. This involves measurement of 129I in a range of media important in the human food chain and aims to elucidate transfer mechanisms. 4 references, 2 figures

  2. Analysis of voltage modulation based active damping techniques for small DC-link drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2015-01-01

    . Therefore, active damping techniques are usually needed in order to stabilize the system. This paper firstly describes the essential idea of active damping methods from energy flow point of view. Then a new method named as “virtual positive impedance” method is introduced to ensure the dc-link stability...

  3. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  4. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm3 and 15×15×15 cm3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed

  5. Prompt gamma-ray activation technique for in-situ analysis of mercury pollution in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial and mining pollutants discharged into water are in general distributed homogeneously and we investigated a prompt neutron activation technique for the in-situ analysis, to start with of Hg content in water. The laboratory test employed a 252 Cf neutron source (of ∼ 3 x 106 n/s fluence) submerged in a test tank of water of ∼ 500 litres, and to monitor the gamma-ray emission a 4 x 4 NaI (Tl) detector system was employed. In 3000 is time interval trials, for a 46 ppm contamination level of Hg, we observed an excess of counts of ∼ 9.2 σ significance in the energy range of 4000-6500 keV, which can be attributed to the presence of mercury. This test system for a 10 hour monitoring can provide a minimum detectable sensitivity at 4.78 ppm. In the future experiments, we propose to replace the NaI(Tl) detector by a HPGe detector to facilitate simultaneous analyses of pollutants such as cadmium, chlorine, chromium etc for detection at few tenths to tens of ppm levels or better. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  7. Experimental and Automated Analysis Techniques for High-resolution Electrical Mapping of Small Intestine Slow Wave Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Angeli, Timothy R.; O'Grady, Gregory; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Jonathan C Erickson; Du, Peng; Pullan, Andrew J; Bissett, Ian P.; Cheng, Leo K

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Small intestine motility is governed by an electrical slow wave activity, and abnormal slow wave events have been associated with intestinal dysmotility. High-resolution (HR) techniques are necessary to analyze slow wave propagation, but progress has been limited by few available electrode options and laborious manual analysis. This study presents novel methods for in vivo HR mapping of small intestine slow wave activity. Methods Recordings were obtained from along the porcine...

  8. Fluorous-assisted metal chelate affinity extraction technique for analysis of protein kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Tadashi; Kiyokawa, Ena; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Imakyure, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a fluorous affinity-based extraction method for measurement of protein kinase activity. In this method, a fluorescent peptide substrate was phosphorylated by a protein kinase, and the obtained phosphopeptide was selectively captured with Fe(III)-immobilized perfluoroalkyliminodiacetic acid reagent via a metal chelate affinity technique. Next, the captured phosphopeptide was selectively extracted into a fluorous solvent mixture, tetradecafluorohexane and 1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluoro-1-n-octanol (3:1, v/v), using the specificity of fluorous affinity (fluorophilicity). In contrast, the remained substrate peptide in the aqueous (non-fluorous) phase was easily measured fluorimetrically. Finally, the enzyme activity could be assayed by measuring the decrease in fluorescence. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by applying the method for measurement of the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) using its substrate peptide (kemptide) pre-labeled with carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA).

  9. Substoichiometric radiochemical separation and their application to neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemistry is the chemistry of substances which are detected by their nuclear radiations. The first radiochemical separation was used by Marie and Pierre Curie. The present paper discusses the concept of purity and the importance of various radiochemical separation methods such as precipitation, volatilization, high vacuum distillation, ring oven technique, ion exchange, solvent extraction, etc. NAA can be carried out by comparator or absolute method. Comparator method can be performed by radiochemical or instrumental technique. Radiochemical separation for NAA requires that the final product must be in well-defined chemical form, so as to obtain correct chemical yield. The chemical yield determination is time-consuming and important, especially when the product of activation has a short half-life. Ruzika and Star/proposed a substoichiometric procedure which uses subequivalent amount of the reagent corresponding to the amount of carrier added. If the carrier and reagent added to the sample and standard are the same, and the same fraction is isolated free from other activation products, the chemical yield determination is not required. The process becomes quantitative and time saving. The present paper discusses some new, rapid and selective method developed for the substoichiometric radiochemical separation and estimation of some elements

  10. Trace element analysis of human head hair by neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    28 elements in reference hair sample (HH-1) and 44 hair samples of Seoul, Korea have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical results of reference sample agreed well with those of the IAEA report within 10% deviation except those of some elements. For the 44 hair samples of Seoul, the range of content of each element is fallen in +-3σ from his mean value if rejecting one or two of the highest data. (author)

  11. Application of the k0 parametric neutron activation technique in the industrial reforestation soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work identifies and establishes the concentration of some minerals nutrients in Mata Atlantica and Vale do Aco Eucalyptus (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) soils. The k0 method of analysis with neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence were used. Reference material were used to check the accuracy of the analytical results. The k0 method is being introduced in CDTN using the CDTN/CNEN-B H IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I reactor. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  12. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goddard, Braden [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, EC-JRC-IPSC

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  13. Normal coordinate analysis and fungicidal activity study on anilazine and its related compound using spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeja Mol, Gilbert Pushpam; Arul Dhas, Deva Dhas; Hubert Joe, Isaac; Balachandran, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of anilazine have been recorded in the range 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-3500 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometrical parameters of the compound were calculated using B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The distribution of the vibrational bands were carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA). The 1H and 13C nuclear spectra have been recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were also calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 190-900 nm and the electronic properties were determined by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Anilazine was screened for its antifungal activity. Molecular docking studies are conducted to predict its fungicidal activity.

  14. A comparative analysis between active and passive techniques for underwater 3D reconstruction of close-range objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms. PMID:23966193

  15. A Comparative Analysis between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3D Reconstruction of Close-Range Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Muzzupappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms.

  16. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  17. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. Objectives The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs. Materials and Methods We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Results Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. Conclusion As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be

  18. Neutron activation analysis techniques for identifying elemental status in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain tissue (hippocampus and cerebral cortex) from Alzheimer's disease and control individuals sampled from Eastern Canada and the United Kingdom were analyzed for Ag, Al, As, B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn. Neutron activation analysis (thermal and prompt gamma-ray) methods were used. Very highly significant differences (S**: probability less than 0.005) for both study areas were shown between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control (C) individuals: AD>C for Al, Br, Ca and S, and AD< C for Se, V and Zn. Aluminium content of brain tissue ranged form 3.605 to 21.738 μg/g d.w. (AD) and 0.379 to 4.768 μg/g d.w. (C). No statistical evidence of aluminium accumulation with age was noted. Possible zinc deficiency (especially for hippocampal tissue), was observed with zinc ranges of 31.42 to 57.91 μg/g d.w. (AD) and 37.31 to 87.10 μg/g d.w. (C), for Alzheimer's disease patients. (author)

  19. Studies on environmental pollution in Bangladesh using reactor based neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the environmental degradation, the concentration of heavy metal such as chromium (Cr) in soil samples at various depths of existing tannery area of Hazaribagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh and the proposed tannery industrial area at Tatuljhora, Savar Dhaka, Bangladesh were analyzed by reactor based Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method. Arsenic levels in water, soil and herbal at different locations of Sonargaon Upzilla in Narayanganj district, Bangladesh were determined by the same method. The Cr-content at different depths of Hazaribagh area was found in the range of 38 to 33,500 ppm. Higher accumulations were observed in top soil that is above the US permissible level (20 to 85 ppm) except only one sample. The Cr-concentration in soils of Tatuljhora was in the range of 50.9 to 93.6 ppm, which is within the range of chromium background levels reported in worldwide (7 to 221 ppm). Arsenic detected in soil was in the range of 2.06-11.35 ppm. Few water samples contain arsenic above permissible level (0.05 ppm). Surprisingly, arsenic was also found considerably high in some herbals. The arsenic was not found in some herbal corresponding to the water samples where arsenic was not detected. Therefore, some Ayurvedic herbal medicine may be contaminated when they will be prepared with arsenic rich herbs. (author)

  20. A comparative analysis of printing techniques by using an active concentric ring electrode for bioelectrical recording

    OpenAIRE

    García Breijo, Eduardo; Prats Boluda, Gema; Lidon-Roger, Jose V.; Ye Lin, Yiyao; Garcia Casado, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to present a comparison between three types of manufacturing techniques, namely, screen-printed, inkjet and gravure, using different types of inks, for the implementation of concentric ring electrodes which permit estimation of Laplacian potential on the body surface. Design/methodology/approach Flexible concentric ring electrodes not only present lower skin electrode contact impedance and lower baseline wander than rigid electrodes but are also less sens...

  1. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide 110Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide 199Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide 69mZn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide 66Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used, various geological

  2. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)

  3. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  4. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Cole, Edward I. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1086 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increased leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].

  5. Methodological aspects and development of techniques for neutron activation analysis of microcomponents in materials of geologic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the activation analysis methodology applied to geological samples activated in nuclear reactors were studied, and techniques were developed for the determination of various elements in different types of matrixes, using gamma spectrometry for the measurement of the products. The consideration of the methodological aspects includes the study of the working conditions, the preparation of samples and standards, irradiations, treatment of the irradiated material, radiochemical separation and measurement. Experiments were carried out on reproducibility and errors in relation to the behaviour of the measurement equipment and that of the methods of area calculation (total area, Covell and Wasson), as well as on the effects of geometry variations on the results of the measurements, the RA-3 reactors's flux variations, and the homogeneity of the samples and standards. Also studied were: the selection of the conditions of determination, including the irradiation and decay times; the irradiation with thermal and epithermal neutrons; the measurement with the use of absorbers, and the resolution of complex peaks. Both non-destructive and radiochemical separation techniques were developed for the analysis of 5 types of geological materials. These methods were applied to the following determinations: a) In, Cd, Mn, Ga and Co in blende; b) La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in fluorites; c) La, Ca, Eu, Tb, Yb, Se and Th in barites and celestites; d) Cu and Zn in soils. The spectral interferences or those due to nuclear reactions were studied and evaluated by mathematical calculation. (M.E.L.)

  6. Seismically active area monitoring by robust TIR satellite techniques: a sensitivity analysis on low magnitude earthquakes in Greece and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Corrado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Space-time TIR anomalies, observed from months to weeks before earthquake occurrence, have been suggested by several authors as pre-seismic signals. Up to now, such a claimed connection of TIR emission with seismic activity has been considered with some caution by scientific community mainly for the insufficiency of the validation data-sets and the scarce importance attached by those authors to other causes (e.g. meteorological that, rather than seismic activity, could be responsible for the observed TIR signal fluctuations. A robust satellite data analysis technique (RAT has been recently proposed which, thanks to a well-founded definition of TIR anomaly, seems to be able to identify anomalous space-time TIR signal transients even in very variable observational (satellite view angle, land topography and coverage, etc. and natural (e.g. meteorological conditions. Its possible application to satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions has been already tested in the case of several earthquakes (Irpinia: 23 November 1980, Athens: 7 September 1999, Izmit: 17 August 1999 of magnitude higher than 5.5 by using a validation/confutation approach, devoted to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in the presence/absence of seismic activity. In these cases, a magnitude threshold (generally M In this work, 9 medium-low magnitude (4b The analysis, which was performed using 8 years of Meteosat TIR observations, demonstrated that anomalous TIR transients can be observed even in the presence of medium-low magnitude earthquakes (4b<5.5. As far as the research (just started of possible correlation among TIR anomalies and earthquake occurrence is concerned, such a result suggests that: a in order to identify seismically unperturbed periods for confutation purposes, a magnitude threshold (at least lower than 4 should be used; b the proposed validation/confutation approach should be applied in low-seismicity areas in order to find

  7. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  8. A Comparative Analysis between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3D Reconstruction of Close-Range Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor v...

  9. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  10. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food scientists use standards and calibrations to relate the concentration of a compound of interest to the instrumental response. The techniques used include classical, single point, and inverse calibrations, as well as standard addition and internal standards. Several fundamental criteria -- sel...

  11. Determination of Methylmercury Traces in Biological Matrix: Chemical Extraction and Nuclear Quantification with the Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury is present in the environment as a result of the human and natural activities.The total amount of Hg present in the biosphere has been incremented three times since the industrial era, and now it is affecting in a global sense all the ecosystem.One of the main entrance of Hg in the human diet is the consumption of fish and other marine creatures.Most of the ingested Hg is mono methylmercury (MeHg), which is one of the most toxic forms in which this element could be found because it crosses membranes.Since the toxicity levels are low, the determination of concentrations of total Hg and Me Hg require very careful sampling, sample conditioning and analytical procedures to prevent either losses or contamination, or the degradation of the Hg species.In this work, we implemented a chemical Me Hg extraction procedure, using a ionic exchange resin, with three different types of fish tissue: muscle, liver and hepato pancreas.After Me Hg extraction, the determination and quantification was made by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, by measuring the 197 Au, y el 203 Tl deexcitation s, created through the radioactive decay of the isotopes 197 Hg y 203 Hg.The influence of several parameters on the overall extraction process, such as velocity of passage through the ionic exchange column and the acid concentration used in the extraction was evaluated.Regarding the INAA determinations, a choice was made for the irradiation, decay and counting times, neutron and gamma doses, and the counting geometry The detection limit found for this technique (dry weight) is 140 pg MeHg/g. The Hg contents of the muscle samples were measured with the 279 keV emission of the product of the 202 Hg(n,g)203 Hg reaction, with a recovery of (100 ± 13)%. Liver and Hepato pancreas samples were measured with the 77 keV gamma emission of the 197 Hg, checking this result with the 67 y 69 keV X emissions from the same isotope.The liver samples needed an extra vacuum filtering process during

  12. Model building techniques for analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Howard P.; McDaniel, Karen Lynn; Keener, Donald; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Henry, Ronald C.; Brooks, Sean; Martin, Wilbur D.

    2009-09-01

    The practice of mechanical engineering for product development has evolved into a complex activity that requires a team of specialists for success. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has product engineers, mechanical designers, design engineers, manufacturing engineers, mechanical analysts and experimentalists, qualification engineers, and others that contribute through product realization teams to develop new mechanical hardware. The goal of SNL's Design Group is to change product development by enabling design teams to collaborate within a virtual model-based environment whereby analysis is used to guide design decisions. Computer-aided design (CAD) models using PTC's Pro/ENGINEER software tools are heavily relied upon in the product definition stage of parts and assemblies at SNL. The three-dimensional CAD solid model acts as the design solid model that is filled with all of the detailed design definition needed to manufacture the parts. Analysis is an important part of the product development process. The CAD design solid model (DSM) is the foundation for the creation of the analysis solid model (ASM). Creating an ASM from the DSM currently is a time-consuming effort; the turnaround time for results of a design needs to be decreased to have an impact on the overall product development. This effort can be decreased immensely through simple Pro/ENGINEER modeling techniques that summarize to the method features are created in a part model. This document contains recommended modeling techniques that increase the efficiency of the creation of the ASM from the DSM.

  13. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyvenko, O F [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buonassisi, T [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Istratov, A A [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weber, E R [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kittler, M [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Seifert, W [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2002-12-09

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  14. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    CERN Document Server

    Vyvenko, O F; Istratov, A A; Weber, E R; Kittler, M; Seifert, W

    2002-01-01

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence (mu-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  15. Improved techniques in data analysis and interpretation of potential fields: examples of application in volcanic and seismically active areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Florio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Geopotential data may be interpreted by many different techniques, depending on the nature of the mathematical equations correlating specific unknown ground parameters to the measured data set. The investigation based on the study of the gravity and magnetic anomaly fields represents one of the most important geophysical approaches in the earth sciences. It has now evolved aimed both at improving of known methods and testing other new and reliable techniques. This paper outlines a general framework for several applications of recent techniques in the study of the potential methods for the earth sciences. Most of them are here described and significant case histories are shown to illustrate their reliability on active seismic and volcanic areas.

  16. Two non-destructive neutron inspection techniques: prompt gamma-ray activation analysis and cold neutron tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Baechler, Sébastien; Dousse, Jean-Claude; Jolie, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Deux techniques d’inspection non-destructives utilisant des faisceaux de neutrons froids ont été développées à la source de neutrons SINQ de l’Institut Paul Scherrer : (1) l’analyse par activation neutronique prompte (PGAA) et (2) la tomographie neutronique. L’analyse par PGA (Prompt Gamma-ray Activation) est une méthode nucléaire qui permet de déterminer la concentration d’éléments présents dans un échantillon. Cette technique consiste à détecter les rayons gamma prompts émis par l’échantill...

  17. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  18. Kinetic activation-relaxation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2011-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).

  19. Elemental activation analysis with decay and prompt gamma ray techniques, using isotopic neutron sources and a nuclear research reactor. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based techniques in geology and mineral prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is to review the research activities carried out through the IAEA research Project 1697/RB ''Elemental activation analysis with decay and prompt gamma ray techniques, using isotopic neutron sources and the nuclear research reactor. The programme of work includes: a) Development of decay and prompt gamma ray activation techniques for mineral exploration. b) Development of epithermal NAA in addition to thermal NAA especially for gold ore. c) Development of non-destructive insitu elemental analysis with decay and prompt gamma ray techniques using isotopic neutron sources. A joint programme has been established with the Egyptian Geological Surrey and Mining Authority for using nuclear techniques in evaluating gold prospects of several ancient gold mines and investigating several tin-tantalum deposits, which were discovered over the last few years. Two sources of neutrons were used for irradiation, one of the dry channels of the two megawatts research reactor, ET-RR-1 for laboratory studies, and a Pu-Be neutron source in paraffin assembly for possible insitu work

  20. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  1. Quality control of baby food products on the basis of results obtained using the instrumental neutron-activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to use the instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental composition of some kind of imported baby food products (BFP) and to compare the results with the permissible contents. The nuclear reactor WWR-SM of INP has been used to develop INAA to study the mineral composition of some children's food products. The concentration of 26 trace elements, including Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. was found. The comparison of the results with regulation contents and the daily data on food needs have shown that the investigated group of BFP does not meet the requirements for all trace and macro elements composition. (authors)

  2. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation. PMID:27044293

  3. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  4. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  5. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba; Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu

    2012-05-01

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  6. Investigation of the cyclic techniques in neutron activation analysis on Da Lat research reactor for determination of short-lived radionuclides in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of the sensitivity and precision of Cyclic, Pseudocyclic and Cumulative (Replicate) techniques in neutron activation analysis (NAA) on Dalat research reactor were investigated for the determination of short-lived radionuclides. This research focused on determination of 77mSe (T1/2 = 17.4 seconds) in biological materials as a case in point. The result shows that an improvement of detection limits of approximately 2 times in the 3rd cycle to 4th cycle was obtained by using Cyclic NAA, Pseudocyclic NAA and Cumulative NAA in comparison with conventional NAA. The lower detection limits of approximately 3 times can be obtained by a combination of 3 subsamples in Cumulative NAA and 3 cycles in PCNAA. The precision of the techniques is typically within 2-5% from 2nd to 3rd cycles and afterward. In general, the precision and confidence in representative of the analysis result of Cumulative NAA are better than others. However, the utilization of Cyclic NAA is the most useful as regards analysis time. With reference to analytical sensitivity, Cumulative NAA in combination with CNAA or PCNAA will provide a lowest detection limit, and thereby suiting for determining short-lived radionuclides in biological materials with very low concentration levels. (author)

  7. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona Salih Mohammed; Mohamed Fahad Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Hassan Subki Khalid; Abelkhalig Muddathir Mahmoud; Wadah Jamal Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. Results:The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. Conclusions:The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The

  8. BIOMECHANICS AND HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN RABBIT FLEXOR TENDONS REPAIRED USING THREE SUTURE TECHNIQUES (FOUR AND SIX STRANDS) WITH EARLY ACTIVE MOBILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Arenhart, Rodrigo; Silveira, Daniela; Ávila, Aluísio Otávio Vargas; Berral, Francisco José; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo César Faiad; Lech, Osvandré Luís Canfield; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Analyzing suture time, biomechanics (deformity between the stumps) and the histology of three groups of tendinous surgical repair: Brazil-2 (4-strands) which the end knot (core) is located outside the tendon, Indiana (4-strands) and Tsai (6-strands) with sutures technique which the end knot (core) is inner of the tendon, associated with early active mobilization. Methods: The right calcaneal tendons (plantar flexor of the hind paw) of 36 rabbits of the New Zealand breed (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the analysis. This sample presents similar size to human flexor tendon that has approximately 4.5 mm (varying from 2mm). The selected sample showed the same mass (2.5 to 3kg) and were male or female adults (from 8 ½ months). For the flexor tendons of the hind paws, sterile and driven techniques were used in accordance to the Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CETEA) of the University of the State of Santa Catarina (UDESC), municipality of Lages, in Brazil (protocol # 1.33.09). Results: In the biomechanical analysis (deformity) carried out between tendinous stumps, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01). There was no statistical difference in relation to surgical time in all three suture techniques with a mean of 6.0 minutes for Tsai (6- strands), 5.7 minutes for Indiana (4-strands) and 5.6 minutes for Brazil (4-strands) (p>0.01). With the early active mobility, there was qualitative and quantitative evidence of thickening of collagen in 38.9% on the 15th day and in 66.7% on the 30th day, making the biological tissue stronger and more resistant (p=0.095). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no histological difference between the results achieved with an inside or outside end knot with respect to the repaired tendon and the number of strands did not affect healing, vascularization or sliding of the tendon in the osteofibrous tunnel, which are associated with early active mobility, with the repair techniques

  9. Estimation of Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K in major food components using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements: Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K were determined in major food components such as cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. The trace elements in food samples were determined using neutron activation analysis technique which involves instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Whereas, the trace elements Th, Cs, K and Sr, are important in radiation protection; Fe and Zn are of importance in nutrition studies and Ca and I have dual importance, both in nutrition and radiation protection. The results of analysis show that among the food materials, higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Sr, K, Fe, Zn and Co were found in cereals and pulses. In case of Ca, the milk appears to be the main contributor towards its dietary intake. The estimated concentrations of the trace elements in food components can be employed in determining the daily dietary intake of these elements which in turn can be used for their biokinetic studies. (author)

  10. Active learning techniques for librarians practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A practical work outlining the theory and practice of using active learning techniques in library settings. It explains the theory of active learning and argues for its importance in our teaching and is illustrated using a large number of examples of techniques that can be easily transferred and used in teaching library and information skills to a range of learners within all library sectors. These practical examples recognise that for most of us involved in teaching library and information skills the one off session is the norm, so we need techniques that allow us to quickly grab and hold our

  11. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  12. Algorithms Design Techniques and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alsuwaiyel, M H

    1999-01-01

    Problem solving is an essential part of every scientific discipline. It has two components: (1) problem identification and formulation, and (2) solution of the formulated problem. One can solve a problem on its own using ad hoc techniques or follow those techniques that have produced efficient solutions to similar problems. This requires the understanding of various algorithm design techniques, how and when to use them to formulate solutions and the context appropriate for each of them. This book advocates the study of algorithm design techniques by presenting most of the useful algorithm desi

  13. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyuz, Sevim, E-mail: s.akyuz@iku.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Letters Faculty, Istanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Campus, Bakirkoy 34156, Istanbul (Turkey); Akyuz, Tanil [Physics Department, Science and Letters Faculty, Istanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Campus, Bakirkoy 34156, Istanbul (Turkey); Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 702132, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu [Department of Restoration and Conservation of Artefacts, Letters Faculty, Istanbul University, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INAA was performed to determine elemental compositions of ancient glass fragments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic, coloring/discoloring elements and impurities have been determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA discriminated the glasses depending on their chronological order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  14. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)–Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry. - Highlights: ► INAA was performed to determine elemental compositions of ancient glass fragments. ► Basic, coloring/discoloring elements and impurities have been determined. ► PCA discriminated the glasses depending on their chronological order. ► The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  15. Spatial and temporal mapping of 10B distrubtion in vivo using nuclear reactor-based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and image reconstruction techniques. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involved the development of a method for in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the investigation of Boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee. The overall objective of this work was a robust approach for rapid screening of new 10B-labelled compounds to determine their suitability for use in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis via Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). For BNCS it is essential to obtain a compound showing high uptake levels in the synovium and long residence time in the joints. Previously the in vivo uptake behavior of potential compounds was evaluated in the arthritic knee joints of rabbits via extensive dissection studies. These studies are very labor-intensive and involve sacrificing large numbers of animals. An in vivo 10B screening approach was developed to provide initial evaluation of potential compounds. Only those compounds showing positive uptake and retention characteristics will be evaluated further via dissection studies. No further studies will be performed with compounds showing rapid clearance and/or low synovial uptake. Two approaches to in vivo screening were investigated using both simulation methods and experimentation. Both make use of neutron beams generated at the MIT Research Reactor. The first, Transmission Computed Tomography (TCT) was developed and tested but was eventually rejected due to very limited spatial resolution using existing reactor beams. The second, in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (IVPGNAA) was much more promising. IVPGNAA was developed using computer simulation and physical measurement coupled with image reconstruction techniques. The method was tested in arthritic New Zealand rabbits previously injected intra-articularly with three boron labeled compounds and shown to be effective in providing information regarding uptake level and residence time of 10B in the joint

  16. Radio-analysis. Definitions and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the different steps of the radio-labelling of a molecule for two purposes: the radio-immuno-analysis and the auto-radiography: 1 - definitions, radiations and radioprotection: activity of a radioactive source; half-life; radioactivity (alpha-, beta- and gamma radioactivity, internal conversion); radioprotection (irradiation, contamination); 2 - radionuclides used in medical biology and obtention of labelled molecules: gamma emitters (125I, 57Co); beta emitters; obtention of labelled molecules (general principles, high specific activity and choice of the tracer, molecule to be labelled); main labelling techniques (iodation, tritium); purification of the labelled compound (dialysis, gel-filtering or molecular exclusion chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography); quality estimation of the labelled compound (labelling efficiency calculation, immuno-reactivity conservation, stability and preservation). (J.S.)

  17. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  18. Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences. Proceedings of the Symposium on Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held at Amsterdam. 8-12 May 1967. The meeting was attended by 190 participants from 26 Member States and 3 international organizations. These are the third IAEA Symposium Proceedings to have nuclear activation analysis as their main theme, the preceding ones being Radioactivation Analysis, Butterworth and Co. Ltd, London (1960) and Radiochemical Methods of Analysis, IAEA, Vienna (1965). Contents: Introductory lecture (1 paper); Physical techniques (6 papers); Chemical techniques (6 papers); Analytical reference materials (1 paper); Comparison of activation analysis with other methods of trace analysis (4 papers); Plant and animal studies (7 papers); Medical sciences (19 papers); Public health and forensic science (6 papers). Each paper is in its original language (43 English, 5 French, 1 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  19. PGNAA 方法学的发展与现状%Development and Status of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Technique Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴华; 孙洪超; 姚永刚; 肖才锦; 张贵英; 金象春; 华龙; 周四春

    2014-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) is one of the nonde‐structive and On‐line measurement of nuclear analytical methods ,There are more than 30 PGNAA laboratories which are established based on the research reactor currently . The basic principle and the application field of three kinds of analytical method of PGNAA were introduced ,such as the relative comparison method、calibration method、k0‐factor method .T he short life nuclides is proposed using the beam chopper technique in order to improve the measurement accuracy . T he internal standard method w as proposed for that large sample neutron measurement that brings self absorption and gamma‐ray self shielding effect .The PGNAA system was introduced at CARR .It pro‐vides methodology reference to establish the prompt gamma activation analysis on the base of CARR for our country .%瞬发伽马中子活化分析(PGNAA)为非破坏性、在线测量的核分析方法。目前国际上有30多座研究堆建立了PGNAA实验室。本文介绍了三种定量瞬发伽马活化分析方法:相对法、校准曲线法、k0因子法,阐述了基本原理及其应用领域,以及针对短寿命核素高精度测量的束流斩波器技术,针对大样品测量带来的中子自吸收和伽马自屏蔽效应的内标法。此外还简介了基于CARR堆的热中子瞬发伽马活化分析装置进展情况,对国内的PGNAA问题进行了探讨。

  20. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  1. Innovative Techniques Simplify Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the early years of development, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers encountered challenges related to components in the space shuttle main engine. To assess the problems, they evaluated the effects of vibration and oscillation. To enhance the method of vibration signal analysis, Marshall awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to AI Signal Research, Inc. (ASRI), in Huntsville, Alabama. ASRI developed a software package called PC-SIGNAL that NASA now employs on a daily basis, and in 2009, the PKP-Module won Marshall s Software of the Year award. The technology is also used in many industries: aircraft and helicopter, rocket engine manufacturing, transportation, and nuclear power."

  2. Active Correlation Technique: Status and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, Yury

    2015-01-01

    During the recent years, at the FLNR a successful cycle of experiments has been accomplished on the synthesis of the superheavy elements with Z=112 to Z=118 using 48Ca ion beam. From the viewpoint of the detection of rare decays and background suppression, this success was achieved due to the application of a new radical technique, the method of active correlations. The method employs search in a real time mode for a pointer to a probable correlation like recoil alpha for switching the beam off. In the case of detection in the same detector strip an additional alpha decay event, of beam OFF time interval is prolonged automatically

  3. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  4. Poof Analysis: A technique for Concept Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Alan

    1985-01-01

    We report the discovery of an unexpected connection between the invention of the concept of uniform convergence and the occurs check in the unification algorithm. This discovery suggests the invention of further interesting concepts in analysis and a technique for automated concept formation. Part of this technique has been implemented.The discovery arose as part of an attempt to understand the role of proof analysis in mathematical reasoning, so as to incorporate it into a computer program. ...

  5. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  6. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  7. Techniques for sensitivity analysis of SYVAC results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analysis techniques may be required to examine the sensitivity of SYVAC model predictions to the input parameter values, the subjective probability distributions assigned to the input parameters and to the relationship between dose and the probability of fatal cancers plus serious hereditary disease in the first two generations of offspring of a member of the critical group. This report mainly considers techniques for determining the sensitivity of dose and risk to the variable input parameters. The performance of a sensitivity analysis technique may be improved by decomposing the model and data into subsets for analysis, making use of existing information on sensitivity and concentrating sampling in regions the parameter space that generates high doses or risks. A number of sensitivity analysis techniques are reviewed for their application to the SYVAC model including four techniques tested in an earlier study by CAP Scientific for the SYVAC project. This report recommends the development now of a method for evaluating the derivative of dose and parameter value and extending the Kruskal-Wallis technique to test for interactions between parameters. It is also recommended that the sensitivity of the output of each sub-model of SYVAC to input parameter values should be examined. (author)

  8. Analysis of neutron flux distribution using the Monte Carlo method for the feasibility study of the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis technique at the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Bruno T.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: brunoteixeiraguerra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departmento de Energia Nuclear; Soares, Alexandre L.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IPR-R1 is a reactor type TRIGA, Mark-I model, manufactured by the General Atomic Company and installed at Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN), Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is a light water moderated and cooled, graphite-reflected, open-pool type research reactor and operates at 100 kW. It presents low power, low pressure, for application in research, training and radioisotopes production. The fuel is an alloy of zirconium hydride and uranium enriched at 20% in {sup 235}U. The implementation of the PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) using this research reactor will significantly increase in number of chemical elements analysed and the kind of matrices. A project is underway in order to implement this technique at CDTN. The objective of this study was to contribute in feasibility analysis of implementing this technique. For this purpose, MCNP is being used. Some variance reduction tools in the methodology, that has been already developed, was introduced for calculating of the neutron flux in the neutron extractor inclined. The objective was to reduce the code error and thereby increasing the reliability of the results. With the implementation of the variance reduction tools, the results of the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes presented a significant improvement in both calculations. (author)

  9. Analysis and comparation of animation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Joštová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the analysis and comparison of animation techniques. In the theoretical part of the thesis I define key terms, the historical development and the basic principles of animation techniques. In the practical part I describe the comparison between classic and digital types of animation. Based on this research I chose the most suitable animations that are further used to verify my hypothesis. The provided hypothesis is the order of based on how demanding it is in terms of...

  10. Analysis of obsidians by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the characterization of obsydian samples from different mineral sites in Mexico, undertaken by an Ion Beam Analysis: PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). As part of an intensive investigation of obsidian in Mesoamerica by anthropologists from Mexico National Institute of Anthropology and History, 818 samples were collected from different volcanic sources in central Mexico for the purpose of establishing a data bank of element concentrations of each source. Part of this collection was analyzed by Neutron activation analysis and most of the important elements concentrations reported. In this work, a non-destructive IBA technique (PIXE) are used to analyze obsydian samples. The application of this technique were carried out at laboratories of the ININ Nuclear Center facilities. The samples consisted of of obsydians from ten different volcanic sources. This pieces were mounted on a sample holder designed for the purpose of exposing each sample to the proton beam. This PIXE analysis was carried out with an ET Tandem Accelerator at the ININ. X-ray spectrometry was carried out with an external beam facility employing a Si(Li) detector set at 52.5 degrees in relation to the target normal (parallel to the beam direction) and 4.2 cm away from the target center. A filter was set in front of the detector, to determine the best attenuation conditions to obtain most of the elements, taking into account that X-ray spectra from obsydians are dominated by intense major elements lines. Thus, a 28 μ m- thick aluminium foil absorber was selected and used to reduce the intensity of the major lines as well as pile-up effects. The mean proton energy was 2.62 MeV, and the beam profile was about 4 mm in diameter. As results were founded elemental concentrations of a set of samples from ten different sources: Altotonga (Veracruz), Penjamo (Guanajuato), Otumba (Mexico), Zinapecuaro (Michoacan), Ucareo (Michoacan), Tres Cabezas (Puebla), Sierra Navajas (Hidalgo), Zaragoza

  11. Applications of electrochemical techniques in mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yusheng; Sun, Fengyue; Xu, Yuanhong; Cong, Zhichao; Wang, Erkang

    2014-09-01

    This review, covering reports published in recent decade from 2004 to 2013, shows how electrochemical (EC) techniques such as voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiometry, coulometry, etc., have made significant contributions in the analysis of minerals such as clay, sulfide, oxide, and oxysalt. It was discussed based on the classifications of both the types of the used EC techniques and kinds of the analyzed minerals. Furthermore, minerals as electrode modification materials for EC analysis have also been summarized. Accordingly, research vacancies and future development trends in these areas are discussed.

  12. Kinematic Analysis of Healthy Hips during Weight-Bearing Activities by 3D-to-2D Model-to-Image Registration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic hip kinematics during weight-bearing activities were analyzed for six healthy subjects. Continuous X-ray images of gait, chair-rising, squatting, and twisting were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector. Digitally reconstructed radiographic images were used for 3D-to-2D model-to-image registration technique. The root-mean-square errors associated with tracking the pelvis and femur were less than 0.3 mm and 0.3° for translations and rotations. For gait, chair-rising, and squatting, the maximum hip flexion angles averaged 29.6°, 81.3°, and 102.4°, respectively. The pelvis was tilted anteriorly around 4.4° on average during full gait cycle. For chair-rising and squatting, the maximum absolute value of anterior/posterior pelvic tilt averaged 12.4°/11.7° and 10.7°/10.8°, respectively. Hip flexion peaked on the way of movement due to further anterior pelvic tilt during both chair-rising and squatting. For twisting, the maximum absolute value of hip internal/external rotation averaged 29.2°/30.7°. This study revealed activity dependent kinematics of healthy hip joints with coordinated pelvic and femoral dynamic movements. Kinematics’ data during activities of daily living may provide important insight as to the evaluating kinematics of pathological and reconstructed hips.

  13. Microfluidic IEF technique for sequential phosphorylation analysis of protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nakchul; Song, Simon; Choi, Hoseok; Lim, Bu-Taek; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-11-01

    Sequential phosphorylation of protein kinases play the important role in signal transduction, protein regulation, and metabolism in living cells. The analysis of these phosphorylation cascades will provide new insights into their physiological functions in many biological functions. Unfortunately, the existing methods are limited to analyze the cascade activity. Therefore, we suggest a microfluidic isoelectric focusing technique (μIEF) for the analysis of the cascade activity. Using the technique, we show that the sequential phosphorylation of a peptide by two different kinases can be successfully detected on a microfluidic chip. In addition, the inhibition assay for kinase activity and the analysis on a real sample have also been conducted. The results indicate that μIEF is an excellent means for studies on phosphorylation cascade activity.

  14. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A Beril

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement. PMID:12485656

  15. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan N.

    2016-05-26

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social context-aware feedback and recommendations in our daily activities. Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments have thus gained unprecedented importance in the last few years. Such analysis typically spans multiple disciplines, such as computer graphics, and computer vision as well as architecture, geoscience, and remote sensing. Reconstructing an urban environment usually requires an entire pipeline consisting of different tasks. In such a pipeline, data analysis plays a strong role in acquiring meaningful insights from the raw data. This dissertation primarily focuses on the analysis of various forms of urban data and proposes a set of techniques to extract useful information, which is then used for different applications. The first part of this dissertation presents a semi-automatic framework to analyze facade images to recover individual windows along with their functional configurations such as open or (partially) closed states. The main advantage of recovering both the repetition patterns of windows and their individual deformation parameters is to produce a factored facade representation. Such a factored representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates the importance of a layout configuration on its performance. As a specific application scenario, I investigate the interior layout of warehouses wherein the goal is to assign items to their storage locations while reducing flow congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The third part of the dissertation proposes a method to classify cities

  16. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination; Estudo comparativo entre a tecnica de inducao de raios X por particulas e analise por ativacao com neutrons na determinacao do metal pesado zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). CNPDIA. E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in {mu}g/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university.

  17. Earthquake Analysis of Structure by Base Isolation Technique in SAP

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; J. Jothi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the present state of base isolation techniques with special emphasis and a brief on other techniques developed world over for mitigating earthquake forces on the structures. The dynamic analysis procedure for isolated structures is briefly explained. The provisions of FEMA 450 for base isolated structures are highlighted. The effects of base isolation on structures located on soft soils and near active faults are given in brief. Simple case s...

  18. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  19. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  20. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS BY GRAPH MINING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    KATSUTOSHI YADA; HIROSHI MOTODA; TAKASHI WASHIO; ASUKA MIYAWAKI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how graph mining system is applied to sales transaction data so as to understand consumer behavior. First, existing research of consumer behavior analysis for sequential purchase pattern is reviewed. Then we propose to represent the complicated customer purchase behavior by a directed graph retaining temporal information in a purchase sequence and apply a graph mining technique to analyze the frequent occurring patterns. In this paper, we demonstrate through the case...

  2. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  3. Sample preparation techniques in trace element analysis of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagj, Marina; Jakšić, M.; Orlić, I.; Valković, V.

    1985-06-01

    Sample preparation techniques for the analysis of water for trace elements using X-ray emission spectroscopy are described. Fresh water samples for the analysis of transition metals were prepared by complexation with ammonium-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate (APDC) and filtering through a membrane filter. Analyses of water samples for halogenes was done on samples prepared by precipitation with AgNO 3 and subsequent filtration. Two techniques for seawater preparation for uranium determination are described, viz. precipitation with APDC in the presence of iron (II) as a carrier and complexation with APDC followed with adsorption on activated carbon. In all cases trace element levels at 10 -3 μg/g were measured.

  4. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  5. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  6. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  7. Development of a technique using MCNPX code for determination of nitrogen content of explosive materials using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrabadi, M.N., E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakhshi, F.; Jalali, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-11

    Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma 10.8 MeV following radioactive neutron capture by {sup 14}N nuclei. We aimed to study the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) along with improved nuclear equipment to detect and identify explosives, illicit substances or landmines. A {sup 252}Cf radio-isotopic source was embedded in a cylinder made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the cylinder was then placed in another cylindrical container filled with water. Measurements were performed on high nitrogen content compounds such as melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}). Melamine powder in a HDPE bottle was placed underneath the vessel containing water and the neutron source. Gamma rays were detected using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The results were simulated with MCNP4c code calculations. The theoretical calculations and experimental measurements were in good agreement indicating that this method can be used for detection of explosives and illicit drugs.

  8. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg, and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentrations of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study, were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas

  9. COSIMA data analysis using multivariate techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Silén

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe how to use multivariate analysis of complex TOF-SIMS spectra introducing the method of random projections. The technique allows us to do full clustering and classification of the measured mass spectra. In this paper we use the tool for classification purposes. The presentation describes calibration experiments of 19 minerals on Ag and Au substrates using positive mode ion spectra. The discrimination between individual minerals gives a crossvalidation Cohen κ for classification of typically about 80%. We intend to use the method as a fast tool to deduce a qualitative similarity of measurements.

  10. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  11. Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V Dhurandhar

    2004-10-01

    Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for extracting binary inspirals; Fourier transforms over Doppler shifted time intervals are computed for long duration periodic sources; optimally weighted cross-correlations for stochastic background. Some recent schemes which efficiently search for inspirals will be described. The performance of some of these techniques on real data obtained will be discussed. Finally, some results on cancellation of systematic noises in laser interferometric space antenna (LISA) will be presented and future directions indicated.

  12. Learning by Doing: An Empirical Study of Active Teaching Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Solomon, Erin D.; Blankmeyer, Kate L.; Tennial, Rachel E.; Garczynski, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the effectiveness of four teaching techniques (lecture, demonstrations, discussions, and in-class activities) in the classroom. As each technique offers different benefits to the instructor and students, each technique was expected to aid in a different depth of learning. The current findings indicated that each…

  13. Handwashing Technique. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on handwashing. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to…

  14. A numerical comparison of sensitivity analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    Engineering and scientific phenomena are often studied with the aid of mathematical models designed to simulate complex physical processes. In the nuclear industry, modeling the movement and consequence of radioactive pollutants is extremely important for environmental protection and facility control. One of the steps in model development is the determination of the parameters most influential on model results. A {open_quotes}sensitivity analysis{close_quotes} of these parameters is not only critical to model validation but also serves to guide future research. A previous manuscript (Hamby) detailed many of the available methods for conducting sensitivity analyses. The current paper is a comparative assessment of several methods for estimating relative parameter sensitivity. Method practicality is based on calculational ease and usefulness of the results. It is the intent of this report to demonstrate calculational rigor and to compare parameter sensitivity rankings resulting from various sensitivity analysis techniques. An atmospheric tritium dosimetry model (Hamby) is used here as an example, but the techniques described can be applied to many different modeling problems. Other investigators (Rose; Dalrymple and Broyd) present comparisons of sensitivity analyses methodologies, but none as comprehensive as the current work.

  15. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles Obtained by Four Different Techniques from Salvia rosifolia Sm. and Evaluation for Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Salvia rosifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae), endemic to Turkey, were obtained by four different isolation techniques and then analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Also in scope of the present work, the...

  16. Weed identification using an automated active shape matching (AASM) technique

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Kishore; Nørremark, Michael; Jørgensen, Rasmus N.; Midtiby, Henrik S.; Green, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Weed identification and control is a challenge for intercultural operations in agriculture. As an alternative to chemical pest control, a smart weed identification technique followed by mechanical weed control system could be developed. The proposed smart identification technique works on the concept of ‘active shape modelling’ to identify weed and crop plants based on their morphology. The automated active shape matching system (AASM) technique consisted of, i) a Pixelink camera ii) an LTI L...

  17. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen determination in Zr by photon or proton activation analysis. Comparison between the results obtained by this method and other analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon and nitrogen are determined by the following nuclear reactions: 12C(γ,n)11C and 14N(p,α)11C. The performances of the method and the main interferences are considered. The process developed for the separation of carbon-11 from zirconium is described and its efficiency evaluated. The results obtained are compared with those given by different laboratories using various analytical techniques

  19. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  20. Population estimation techniques for routing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of on-site and off-site factors affect the potential siting of a radioactive materials repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Transportation related issues such route selection and design are among them. These involve evaluation of potential risks and impacts, including those related to population. Population characteristics (total population and density) are critical factors in the risk assessment, emergency preparedness and response planning, and ultimately in route designation. This paper presents an application of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to facilitate such analyses. Specifically, techniques to estimate critical population information are presented. A case study using the highway network in Nevada is used to illustrate the analyses. TIGER coverages are used as the basis for population information at a block level. The data are then synthesized at tract, county and state levels of aggregation. Of particular interest are population estimates for various corridor widths along transport corridors -- ranging from 0.5 miles to 20 miles in this paper. A sensitivity analysis based on the level of data aggregation is also presented. The results of these analysis indicate that specific characteristics of the area and its population could be used as indicators to aggregate data appropriately for the analysis

  1. Bone feature analysis using image processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z Q; Austin, T; Thomas, C D; Clement, J G

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish the correlation between bone structure and age, and information about age-related bone changes, it is necessary to study microstructural features of human bone. Traditionally, in bone biology and forensic science, the analysis if bone cross-sections has been carried out manually. Such a process is known to be slow, inefficient and prone to human error. Consequently, the results obtained so far have been unreliable. In this paper we present a new approach to quantitative analysis of cross-sections of human bones using digital image processing techniques. We demonstrate that such a system is able to extract various bone features consistently and is capable of providing more reliable data and statistics for bones. Consequently, we will be able to correlate features of bone microstructure with age and possibly also with age related bone diseases such as osteoporosis. The development of knowledge-based computer vision-systems for automated bone image analysis can now be considered feasible.

  2. Performance Comparison of Active Queue Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion is an important issue which researchers focus on in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP network environment. To keep the stability of the whole network, congestion control algorithms have been extensively studied. Queue management method employed by the routers is one of the important issues in the congestion control study. Active Queue Management (AQM has been proposed as a router-based mechanism for early detection of congestion inside the network. In this study, we are comparing AQM two popular queue management methods, Random Early Detection (RED and droptail, in different aspects, such as throughput and fairness Index. The comparison results indicate RED performed slightly better with higher throughput and higher fairness Index than droptail. Simulation is done by using Network Simulator (NS2 and the graphs are drawn using X- graph.

  3. Liver Ultrasound Image Analysis using Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Sahu, Maheedhar Dubey, Mohammad Imroze Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the sixth most common malignanttumour and the third most common cause ofcancer-related deaths worldwide. Chronic Liverdamage affects up to 20% of our population. It hasmany causes - viral infections (Hepatitis B and C,toxins, genetic, metabolic and autoimmune diseases.The rate of liver cancer in Australia has increasedfour-fold in the past 20 years. For detection andqualitative diagnosis of liver diseases, Ultrasound(US image is an easy-to-use and minimally invasiveimaging modality. Medical images are oftendeteriorated by noise due to various sources ofinterferences and other phenomena known asSpeckle noise. Therefore it is required to apply somedigital image processing techniques for smoothingor suppression of speckle noise in ultrasoundimages. This paper attempts to undertake the studythree types of the image enhancement techniquesincluding, Shock Filter, Contrast Limited AdaptiveHistogram Equalization (CLAHE and Spatialfilter. These smoothing techniques are comparedusing performance matrices Peak Signal to NoiseRatio (PSNR and Mean Square Error (MSE. Ithas been observed that the Spatial high pass filtergives the better performance than others for liverultrasound image analysis.

  4. Window technique for climate trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentimrey, Tamás; Faragó, Tibor; Szalai, Sándor

    1992-01-01

    Climatic characteristics are affected by various systematic and occasional impacts: besides the changes in the observing system (locations of the stations of the meteorological network, instruments, observing procedures), the possible local-scale and global natural and antropogenic impacts on climatic conditions should be taken into account. Apart from the predictability problems, the phenomenological analysis of the climatic variability and the determination of past persistent climatic anomalies are significant problems, among other aspects, as evidence of the possible anomalous behavior of climate or for climate impact studies. In this paper, a special technique for the identification of such “shifts” in the observational series is presented. The existence of these significant shorter or longer term changes in the mean characteristics for the properly selected adjoining periods of time is the necessary condition for the formation of any more or less unidirectional climatic trends. Actually, the window technique is based on a complete set of orthogonal functions. The sensitivity of the proposed model on its main parameters is also investigated. This method is applied for hemispheric and Hungarian data series of the mean annual surface temperature.

  5. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  6. Input techniques that dynamically change their cursor activation area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2007-01-01

    Efficient pointing is crucial to graphical user interfaces, and input techniques that dynamically change their activation area may yield improvements over point cursors by making objects selectable at a distance. Input techniques that dynamically change their activation area include the bubble...... cursor, whose activation area always contains the closest object, and two variants of cell cursors, whose activation areas contain a set of objects in the vicinity of the cursor. We report two experiments that compare these techniques to a point cursor; in one experiment participants use a touchpad...... for operating the input techniques, in the other a mouse. In both experiments, the bubble cursor is fastest and participants make fewer errors with it. Participants also unanimously prefer this technique. For small targets, the cell cursors are generally more accurate than the point cursor; in the second...

  7. Transmission and Reflection of Neutrons Using Foil Activation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new neutron irradiation facility has been designed, constructed .and located at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, NRC, AEA, cairo. The neutrons were obtained from CNIF2 (Second Cairo Neutron Irradiation Facility) that is based on one 241 Am-Be(α, n) isotopic neutron source with a present activity of about 175 GBq results in a neutron yield of about 1.04 x107 n/s. The geometrical arrangements of the facility consider the safety and protection rules aspects. MCNP5 code is used to estimate radiation doses and neutron fluxes. This new irradiation facility provides fast and epithermal neutrons that can be used in basic research and industrial applications. The aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of this new irradiation facility and to develop methods able to use fast and epithermal neutron in some different applications. Experimental measurements for the transmission and reflection of neutrons were carried out via a number of hydrogenous materials using the activation foil technique. A comparison of the experimental results with that calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation method is presented Using the neutron transmission technique in combination with foil activation method, our arrangement is used to measure the total neutron microscopic cross-sections for some compounds. The facility is calibrated and suitable to estimate the hydrogen content H (wt %) and the weight ratios C/H in hydrocarbon materials and was used to measure these ratios for some Egyptian crude oil samples. A brief overview of the neutron activation analysis methods for elemental concentrations in bulk samples in natural conditions is presented.

  8. Accelerator based techniques for aerosol analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN (Florence, Italy) an external beam facility is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols. Examples regarding recent monitoring campaigns, performed in urban and remote areas, both on a daily basis and with high time resolution, as well as with size selection, will be presented. It will be evidenced how PIXE can provide unique information in aerosol studies or can play a complementary role to traditional chemical analysis. Finally a short presentation of 14C analysis of the atmospheric aerosol by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for the evaluation of the contributions from either fossil fuel combustion or modern sources (wood burning, biogenic activity) will be given. (author)

  9. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  10. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  11. Application of Active Flow Control Technique for Gust Load Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaoping; ZHU Xiaoping; ZHOU Zhou; FAN Ruijun

    2011-01-01

    A new gust load alleviation technique is presented in this paper based on active flow control.Numerical studies are conducted to investigate the beneficial effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil using arrays of jets during the gust process.Based on unsteady Navier-Stokes equations,the grid-velocity method is introduced to simulate the gust influence,and dynamic response in vertical gust flow perturbation is investigated for the airfoil as well.An unsteady surface transpiration boundary condition is enforced over a user specified portion of the airfoil's surface to emulate the time dependent velocity boundary conditions.Firstly,after applying this method to simulate typical NACA0006 airfoil gust response to a step change in the angle of attack,it shows that the indicial responses of the airfoil make good agreement with the exact theoretical values and the calculated values in references.Furthermore,gust response characteristic for the quasi “Global Hawk” airfoil is analyzed.Five kinds of flow control techniques are introduced as steady blowing,steady suction,unsteady blowing,unsteady suction and synthetic jets.The physical analysis of the influence on the effects of gust load alleviation is proposed to provide some guidelines for practice.Numerical results have indicated that active flow control technique,as a new technology of gust load alleviation,can affect and suppress the fluid disturbances caused by gust so as to achieve the purpose of gust load alleviation.

  12. Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water

  13. Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, J.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1984-02-01

    The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water.

  14. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  15. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis; Determinacion de plata, oro, zinc y cobre en muestras minerales mediante diversas tecnicas de analisis por activacion de neutrones instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez R, N. I.; Rios M, C.; Pinedo V, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Yoho, M.; Landsberger, S., E-mail: neisla126@hotmail.com [University of Texas at Austin, Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, Austin 78712, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide {sup 110}Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide {sup 199}Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide {sup 69m}Zn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide {sup 66}Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used

  16. Development of flow injection analysis technique for uranium estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow injection analysis is increasingly used as a process control analytical technique in many industries. It involves injection of the sample at a constant rate into a steady flowing stream of reagent and passing this mixture through a suitable detector. This paper describes the development of such a system for the analysis of uranium (VI) and (IV) and its gross gamma activity. It is amenable for on-line or automated off-line monitoring of uranium and its activity in process streams. The sample injection port is suitable for automated injection of radioactive samples. The performance of the system has been tested for the colorimetric response of U(VI) samples at 410 nm in the range of 35 to 360mg/ml in nitric acid medium using Metrohm 662 Photometer and a recorder as detector assembly. The precision of the method is found to be better than +/- 0.5%. This technique with certain modifications is used for the analysis of U(VI) in the range 0.1-3mg/ailq. by alcoholic thiocynate procedure within +/- 1.5% precision. Similarly the precision for the determination of U(IV) in the range 15-120 mg at 650 nm is found to be better than 5%. With NaI well-type detector in the flow line, the gross gamma counting of the solution under flow is found to be within a precision of +/- 5%. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  18. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  19. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  20. The neutron and gamma-ray dose characterization using the Monte Carlo method to study the feasibility of the Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis technique at IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Bruno T.; Soares, Alexandre L.; Grynberg, Suely E.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: brunoteixeiraguerra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The IPR-R1 is a reactor type TRIGA, Mark-I model, manufactured by the General Atomic Company and installed at Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. It is a light water moderated and cooled, graphite-reflected, open-pool type research reactor. IPR-R1 works at 100 kW but it will be briefly licensed to operate at 250 kW. It presents low power, low pressure, for application in research, training and radioisotopes production. The fuel is an alloy of zirconium hydride and uranium enriched at 20% in {sup 235}U. The Implementation of the PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) Technical at the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor of the CDTN will significantly increase in the types of matrices analyzable. A project is underway in order to implement this technique in CDTN. In order of verified the feasibility of the PGNAA at the TRIGA reactor, the MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) method is used to theoretical calculations. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of the neutron and gamma-ray dose in the room where the reactor is located, in case of implementation of this technique in the IPR-R1. (author)

  1. Escherichia coli activity characterization using a laser dynamic speckle technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E; Contreras-Alarcón, Orestes R

    2012-01-01

    The results of applying a laser dynamic speckle technique to characterize bacterial activity are presented. The speckle activity was detected in two-compartment Petri dishes. One compartment was inoculated and the other one was left as a control blank. The speckled images were processed by the recently reported temporal difference method. Three inoculums of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 McFarland units of cell concentration were tested; each inoculum was tested twice for a total of six experiments. The dependences on time of the mean activity, the standard deviation of activity and other descriptors of the speckle pattern evolution were calculated for both the inoculated compartment and the blank. In conclusion the proposed dynamic speckle technique allows characterizing the activity of Escherichia coli bacteria in solid medium.

  2. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  3. Node Augmentation Technique in Bayesian Network Evidence Analysis and Marshaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keselman, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tompkins, George H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leishman, Deborah A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Given a Bayesian network, sensitivity analysis is an important activity. This paper begins by describing a network augmentation technique which can simplifY the analysis. Next, we present two techniques which allow the user to determination the probability distribution of a hypothesis node under conditions of uncertain evidence; i.e. the state of an evidence node or nodes is described by a user specified probability distribution. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of three criteria for ranking evidence nodes based on their influence on a hypothesis node. All of these techniques have been used in conjunction with a commercial software package. A Bayesian network based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G is a graphical representation of a system of random variables that satisfies the following Markov property: any node (random variable) is independent of its non-descendants given the state of all its parents (Neapolitan, 2004). For simplicities sake, we consider only discrete variables with a finite number of states, though most of the conclusions may be generalized.

  4. COMPARISON OF ACTIVE RELEASE TECHNIQUE AND MYOFASCIAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE ON PAIN, GRIP STRENGTH & FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Trivedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Lateral epicondylitis is the most common lesion of the elbow. Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is defined as a syndrome of pain in the wrist extensor muscles at or near their lateral epicondyle origin or pain directly over the lateral epicondyle. So, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Active Release Technique (ART and Myofascial Release Technique (MFR in the treatment of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis (CLE. Methodology: The study included thirty-six patients with Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis of age group range between 30 to 45 years. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Control Group (A, Active Release Technique Group (B and Myofascial Release Technique Group (C. The patients were treated for 4 weeks and three outcome measures: 0-10 NPRS, Hand Dynamometer and PRTEE were taken for assessment and analysis at baseline and after 4th weeks was done. Result: In this study the result showed that Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique were effective in all three outcome measures when compared to Control Group. Myofascial Release Technique was more effective in improving grip strength & reducing pain & disability when compared to Active Release Technique.(p<0.05 Conclusion: Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique are effective in patients with Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis. Myofascial Release Technique demonstrated better outcomes than Active Release Technique in the management of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis.

  5. Weed Identification Using An Automated Active Shape Matching (AASM) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swain, K C; Nørremark, Michael; Jørgensen, R N;

    2011-01-01

    on the concept of ‘active shape modelling’ to identify weed and crop plants based on their morphology. The automated active shape matching system (AASM) technique consisted of, i) a Pixelink camera ii) an LTI (Lehrstuhlfuer technische informatik) image processing library, iii) a laptop pc with the Linux OS. A 2......-identification process required 0.062 s for eight iterations with the Linux platform used....

  6. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  7. Bonding techniques for hybrid active pixel sensors (HAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigas, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Marc.Bigas@cnm.es; Cabruja, E. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Enric.Cabruja@cnm.es; Lozano, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-01

    A hybrid active pixel sensor (HAPS) consists of an array of sensing elements which is connected to an electronic read-out unit. The most used way to connect these two different devices is bump bonding. This interconnection technique is very suitable for these systems because it allows a very fine pitch and a high number of I/Os. However, there are other interconnection techniques available such as direct bonding. This paper, as a continuation of a review [M. Lozano, E. Cabruja, A. Collado, J. Santander, M. Ullan, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 473 (1-2) (2001) 95-101] published in 2001, presents an update of the different advanced bonding techniques available for manufacturing a hybrid active pixel detector.

  8. Active structural control with stable fuzzy PID techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of intelligent techniques to measure the displacement of buildings when they are subjected to vibration. It shows how these techniques are used to control active devices that can reduce vibration 60–80% more effectively than widely used passive anti-seismic systems. After introducing various structural control devices and building-modeling and active structural control methods, the authors propose offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques to solve some common problems of building-displacement measurement using accelerometers. The most popular control algorithms in industrial settings, PD/PID controllers, are then analyzed and then combined with fuzzy compensation. The stability of this combination is proven with standard weight-training algorithms. These conditions provide explicit methods for selecting PD/PID controllers. Finally, fuzzy-logic and sliding-mode control are applied to the control of wind-induced vibration. The methods described are support...

  9. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  11. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

  12. JAEA − JRC collaboration on the development of active neutron NDA techniques

    OpenAIRE

    KURETA M.; Koizumi, M.; OHZU A.; Furutaka, K.; Tsuchiya, H.; SEYA M.; Harada, H.; ABOUSAHL Said; HEYSE JAN; Kopecky, Stefan; MONDELAERS Willy; PEDERSEN Bent; SCHILLEBEECKX Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission started a program titled “Development of active neutron NDA techniques”. The program aims at developing an innovative non-destructive analysis (NDA) system for various applications in the field of nuclear safety, security and safeguards. A Non Destructive Analysis (NDA) system is proposed that is based on a combination of different active neutron interrogation techniques, i.e. DDA (Di...

  13. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  14. NEW TECHNIQUES USED IN AUTOMATED TEXT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I strate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automated analysis of natural language texts is one of the most important knowledge discovery tasks for any organization. According to Gartner Group, almost 90% of knowledge available at an organization today is dispersed throughout piles of documents buried within unstructured text. Analyzing huge volumes of textual information is often involved in making informed and correct business decisions. Traditional analysis methods based on statistics fail to help processing unstructured texts and the society is in search of new technologies for text analysis. There exist a variety of approaches to the analysis of natural language texts, but most of them do not provide results that could be successfully applied in practice. This article concentrates on recent ideas and practical implementations in this area.

  15. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurementsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  16. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  17. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  18. Cognitive task analysis: Techniques applied to airborne weapons training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M.; Seamster, T.L.; Snyder, C.E.; Treitler, I.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is an introduction to cognitive task analysis as it may be used in Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) training development. The focus of a cognitive task analysis is human knowledge, and its methods of analysis are those developed by cognitive psychologists. This paper explains the role that cognitive task analysis and presents the findings from a preliminary cognitive task analysis of airborne weapons operators. Cognitive task analysis is a collection of powerful techniques that are quantitative, computational, and rigorous. The techniques are currently not in wide use in the training community, so examples of this methodology are presented along with the results. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Psychoanalytic technique and 'analysis terminable and interminable'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, J

    1988-01-01

    Some of the implications for psychoanalytic technique of the papers given at the plenary sessions of the Montreal Congress are considered. Emphasis is placed on the role of affects in development and in current psychic functioning. Motivation for unconscious wishes arises from many sources, and affects should not only be thought of as drive derivatives. There is a substantial gap between the (largely) implicit clinico-technical theories in the analytic work presented, which do in fact show great sensitivity to the patients' affects, and the formal 'official' general psychoanalytic theory used. This discrepancy in our theories should be faced. Freud's tripartite structural theory of the mind (the 'second topography') seems now to have limitations for clinical purposes. PMID:3063676

  20. OPERATIONAL MODAL ANALYSIS SCHEMES USING CORRELATION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Min; Shen Fan; Chen Huaihai

    2005-01-01

    For some large-scale engineering structures in operating conditions, modal parameters estimation must base itself on response-only data. This problem has received a considerable amount of attention in the past few years. It is well known that the cross-correlation function between the measured responses is a sum of complex exponential functions of the same form as the impulse response function of the original system. So this paper presents a time-domain operating modal identification global scheme and a frequency-domain scheme from output-only by coupling the cross-correlation function with conventional modal parameter estimation. The outlined techniques are applied to an airplane model to estimate modal parameters from response-only data.

  1. HELCATS - Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard; Davies, Jackie; Perry, Chris; Moestl, Christian; Rouillard, Alexis; Bothmer, Volker; Rodriguez, Luciano; Eastwood, Jonathan; Kilpua, Emilia; Gallagher, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the evolution of the solar wind is fundamental to advancing our knowledge of energy and mass transport in the solar system, rendering it crucial to space weather and its prediction. The advent of truly wide-angle heliospheric imaging has revolutionised the study of both transient (CMEs) and background (SIRs/CIRs) solar wind plasma structures, by enabling their direct and continuous observation out to 1 AU and beyond. The EU-funded FP7 HELCATS project combines European expertise in heliospheric imaging, built up in particular through lead involvement in NASA's STEREO mission, with expertise in solar and coronal imaging as well as in-situ and radio measurements of solar wind phenomena, in a programme of work that will enable a much wider exploitation and understanding of heliospheric imaging observations. With HELCATS, we are (1.) cataloguing transient and background solar wind structures imaged in the heliosphere by STEREO/HI, since launch in late October 2006 to date, including estimates of their kinematic properties based on a variety of established techniques and more speculative, approaches; (2.) evaluating these kinematic properties, and thereby the validity of these techniques, through comparison with solar source observations and in-situ measurements made at multiple points throughout the heliosphere; (3.) appraising the potential for initialising advanced numerical models based on these kinematic properties; (4.) assessing the complementarity of radio observations (in particular of Type II radio bursts and interplanetary scintillation) in combination with heliospheric imagery. We will, in this presentation, provide an overview of progress from the first 18 months of the HELCATS project.

  2. Comparison of Commonly Used Accident Analysis Techniques for Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRAJ MOHAMMADFAM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adverse consequences of major accident events have led to development of accident analysis techniques to investigate thoroughly the accidents. However, each technique has its own advantages and shortcomings,which make it very difficult to find a single technique being capable of analyzing all types of accidents. Therefore, the comparison of accident analysis techniques would help finding out their capabilities in different circumstances to choose the most one. In this research, the techniques CBA and AABF were compared with Tripod β in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of major accidents in manufacturing industries. At first step, the comparison criteria were developed using Delphi Method. Afterwards, the relative importance of each criterion was qualitatively determined and the qualitative values were then converted to the quantitative values  applying  Fuzzy  triangular  numbers.  Finally,  the  TOPSIS  was  used  to  prioritize  the techniques in terms of the preset criteria. The results of the study showed that Tripod β is superior to the CBA and AABF. It is highly recommended to compare all available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria in order to select the best one whereas improper choice of accident analysis techniques may lead to misguided results.

  3. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  4. Nuclear techniques for analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purposes of this meeting were to establish the state-of-the-art in the field, to identify new research and development that is required to provide an adequate framework for analysis of environmental samples and to assess needs and possibilities for international cooperation in problem areas. This technical report was prepared on the subject based on the contributions made by the participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  5. DNA ANALYSIS OF RICIN USING RAPD TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Vivodík; Želmíra Balážová; Zdenka Gálová

    2014-01-01

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important plant for production of industrial oil. The systematic evaluation of the molecular diversity encompassed in castor inbreds or parental lines offers an efficient means of exploiting the heterosis in castor as well as for management of biodiversity. The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 30 castor genotypes using 5 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 30 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded 35 fragments, w...

  6. ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SEARCHING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Yuvraj Singh Chandrawat*

    2015-01-01

    We live in the age of technolgy and it is quiet obvious that it is increasing day-by-day endlessly. In this technical era researchers are focusing on the development of the existing technologies. Software engineering is the dominant branch of Computer Science that deals with the development and analysis of the software. The objective of this study is to analyze and compare the existing searching algorithms (linear search and binary search). In this paper, we will discuss both thes...

  7. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  8. Soft computing techniques in voltage security analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Kabir

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on soft computing techniques for enhancing voltage security in electrical power networks. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been chosen as a soft computing tool, since such networks are eminently suitable for the study of voltage security. The different architectures of the ANNs used in this book are selected on the basis of intelligent criteria rather than by a “brute force” method of trial and error. The fundamental aim of this book is to present a comprehensive treatise on power system security and the simulation of power system security. The core concepts are substantiated by suitable illustrations and computer methods. The book describes analytical aspects of operation and characteristics of power systems from the viewpoint of voltage security. The text is self-contained and thorough. It is intended for senior undergraduate students and postgraduate students in electrical engineering. Practicing engineers, Electrical Control Center (ECC) operators and researchers will also...

  9. Two-phase flow measurement by pulsed neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) technique for measuring the mass flow velocity and the average density of two-phase mixtures is described. PNA equipment can be easily installed at different loops, and PNA techniques are non-intrusive and independent of flow regimes. These features of the PNA technique make it suitable for in-situ measurement of two-phase flows, and for calibration of more conventional two-phase flow measurement devices. Analytic relations governing the various PNA methods are derived. The equipment and procedures used in the first air-water flow measurement by PNA techniques are discussed, and recommendations are made for improvement of future tests. In the present test, the mass flow velocity was determined with an accuracy of 2%, and average densities were measured down to 0.08 g/cm3 with an accuracy of 0.04 g/cm3. Both the accuracy of the mass flow velocity measurement and the lower limit of the density measurement are functions of the injected activity and of the total number of counts. By using a stronger neutron source and a larger number of detectors, the measurable density can be decreased by a factor of 12 to .007 g/cm3 for 12.5 cm pipes, and to even lower ranges for larger pipes

  10. Techniques for Surveying Urban Active Faults by Seismic Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mingcai; Gao Jinghua; Liu Jianxun; Rong Lixin

    2005-01-01

    Using the seismic method to detect active faults directly below cities is an irreplaceable prospecting technique. The seismic method can precisely determine the fault position. Seismic method itself can hardly determine the geological age of fault. However, by considering in connection with the borehole data and the standard geological cross-section of the surveyed area, the geological age of reflected wave group can be qualitatively (or semi-quantitatively)determined from the seismic depth profile. To determine the upper terminal point of active faults directly below city, it is necessary to use the high-resolution seismic reflection technique.To effectively determine the geometric feature of deep faults, especially to determine the relation between deep and shallow fracture structures, the seismic reflection method is better than the seismic refraction method.

  11. Active vibration control techniques for flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Jayasuriya, Suhada

    1990-01-01

    Two proposed control system design techniques for active vibration control in flexible space structures are detailed. Control issues relevant only to flexible-body dynamics are addressed, whereas no attempt was made to integrate the flexible and rigid-body spacecraft dynamics. Both of the proposed approaches revealed encouraging results; however, further investigation of the interaction of the flexible and rigid-body dynamics is warranted.

  12. Application of neutron activation tracer sediment technique on environmental science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinYi; ZhongWei-Ni; 等

    1997-01-01

    Field and laboratory inverstigations were carried out to study the transport and dispersion law of polluted sediments near wastewater outlet using neutron activation tracer technique.The direction of transport and dispersion of polluted sediments,dispersion amount in different directions,sedimentary region of polluted sediment and evaluation of polluted risk are given.This provided a new test method for the study of environmental science and added a new forecasted content for the evaluation of environmental influence.

  13. Radial Velocity Data Analysis with Compressed Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Nathan C.; Boué, G.; Laskar, J.; Correia, A. C. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel approach for analysing radial velocity data that combines two features: all the planets are searched at once and the algorithm is fast. This is achieved by utilizing compressed sensing techniques, which are modified to be compatible with the Gaussian processes framework. The resulting tool can be used like a Lomb-Scargle periodogram and has the same aspect but with much fewer peaks due to aliasing. The method is applied to five systems with published radial velocity data sets: HD 69830, HD 10180, 55 Cnc, GJ 876 and a simulated very active star. The results are fully compatible with previous analysis, though obtained more straightforwardly. We further show that 55 Cnc e and f could have been respectively detected and suspected in early measurements from the Lick observatory and Hobby-Eberly Telescope available in 2004, and that frequencies due to dynamical interactions in GJ 876 can be seen.

  14. Radial Velocity Data Analysis with Compressed Sensing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Nathan C; Laskar, Jacques; Correia, Alexandre C M

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach for analysing radial velocity data that combines two features: all the planets are searched at once and the algorithm is fast. This is achieved by utilizing compressed sensing techniques, which are modified to be compatible with the Gaussian processes framework. The resulting tool can be used like a Lomb-Scargle periodogram and has the same aspect but with much fewer peaks due to aliasing. The method is applied to five systems with published radial velocity data sets: HD 69830, HD 10180, 55 Cnc, GJ 876 and a simulated very active star. The results are fully compatible with previous analysis, though obtained more straightforwardly. We further show that 55 Cnc e and f could have been respectively detected and suspected in early measurements from the Lick observatory and Hobby-Eberly Telescope available in 2004, and that frequencies due to dynamical interactions in GJ 876 can be seen.

  15. Theoretical analysis of highly linear tunable filters using Switched-Resistor techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiraseree-amornkun, Amorn; Worapishet, Apisak; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Surakampontorn, Wanlop

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an in-depth analysis of switched-resistor (S-R) techniques for implementing low-voltage low-distortion tunable active-RC filters is presented. The S-R techniques make use of switch(es) with duty-cycle-controlled clock(s) to achieve tunability of the effective resistance and, hence, th

  16. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W. [and others

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.

  17. New analytical techniques for cuticle chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) The analytical methodology of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and direct pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) using soft ionization techniques by high electric fields (FL) are briefly described. Recent advances of Py-GC/MS and Py-FIMS for the analyses of complex organic matter such as plant materials, humic substances, dissolved organic matter in water (DOM) and soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural and forest soils are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of the applied methods. 2) Novel applications of Py-GC/MS and Py-MS in combination with conventional analytical data in an integrated, chemometric approach to investigate the dynamics of plant lipids are reported. This includes multivariate statistical investigations on maturation, senescence, humus genesis, and environmental damages in spruce ecosystems. 3) The focal point is the author's integrated investigations on emission-induced changes of selected conifer plant constituents. Pattern recognition of Py-MS data of desiccated spruce needles provides a method for distinguishing needles damaged in different ways and determining the cause. Spruce needles were collected from both controls and trees treated with sulphur dioxide (acid rain), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone under controlled conditions. Py-MS and chemometric data evaluation are employed to characterize and classify leaves and their epicuticular waxes. Preliminary mass spectrometric evaluations of isolated cuticles of different plants such as spruce, ivy, holly, and philodendron, as well as ivy cuticles treated in vivo with air pollutants such as surfactants and pesticides are given. (orig.)

  18. Analysis and calibration techniques for superconducting resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Edward J.; Barrentine, Emily M.; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, S. Harvey; U-Yen, Kongpop

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed and experimentally explored for in-situ calibration of complex transmission data for superconducting microwave resonators. This cryogenic calibration method accounts for the instrumental transmission response between the vector network analyzer reference plane and the device calibration plane. Once calibrated, the observed resonator response is analyzed in detail by two approaches. The first, a phenomenological model based on physically realizable rational functions, enables the extraction of multiple resonance frequencies and widths for coupled resonators without explicit specification of the circuit network. In the second, an ABCD-matrix representation for the distributed transmission line circuit is used to model the observed response from the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. When used in conjunction with electromagnetic simulations, the kinetic inductance fraction can be determined with this method with an accuracy of 2%. Datasets for superconducting microstrip and coplanar-waveguide resonator devices were investigated and a recovery within 1% of the observed complex transmission amplitude was achieved with both analysis approaches. The experimental configuration used in microwave characterization of the devices and self-consistent constraints for the electromagnetic constitutive relations for parameter extraction are also presented.

  19. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  20. Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.

    The thesis describes and develops the theoretical foundations of the Random Decrement technique, while giving several examples of modal analysis of large building constructions (bridges). The connection between modal parameters and Random Decrement functions is described theoretically. The effici...

  1. Development of evaluation method for software safety analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Following the massive adoption of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for nuclear power plant (NPP), various Software Safety Analysis (SSA) techniques are used to evaluate the NPP safety for adopting appropriate digital I and C system, and then to reduce risk to acceptable level. However, each technique has its specific advantage and disadvantage. If the two or more techniques can be complementarily incorporated, the SSA combination would be more acceptable. As a result, if proper evaluation criteria are available, the analyst can then choose appropriate technique combination to perform analysis on the basis of resources. This research evaluated the applicable software safety analysis techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/ noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. These indexes may help the decision makers and the software safety analysts to choose the best SSA combination arrange their own software safety plan. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various SSA combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (without transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and Simulation-based model analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantage are the completeness complexity

  2. Evolution of Electroencephalogram Signal Analysis Techniques during Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud I. Al-Kadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosignal analysis is one of the most important topics that researchers have tried to develop during the last century to understand numerous human diseases. Electroencephalograms (EEGs are one of the techniques which provides an electrical representation of biosignals that reflect changes in the activity of the human brain. Monitoring the levels of anesthesia is a very important subject, which has been proposed to avoid both patient awareness caused by inadequate dosage of anesthetic drugs and excessive use of anesthesia during surgery. This article reviews the bases of these techniques and their development within the last decades and provides a synopsis of the relevant methodologies and algorithms that are used to analyze EEG signals. In addition, it aims to present some of the physiological background of the EEG signal, developments in EEG signal processing, and the effective methods used to remove various types of noise. This review will hopefully increase efforts to develop methods that use EEG signals for determining and classifying the depth of anesthesia with a high data rate to produce a flexible and reliable detection device.

  3. Evolution of electroencephalogram signal analysis techniques during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kadi, Mahmoud I; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd

    2013-05-17

    Biosignal analysis is one of the most important topics that researchers have tried to develop during the last century to understand numerous human diseases. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are one of the techniques which provides an electrical representation of biosignals that reflect changes in the activity of the human brain. Monitoring the levels of anesthesia is a very important subject, which has been proposed to avoid both patient awareness caused by inadequate dosage of anesthetic drugs and excessive use of anesthesia during surgery. This article reviews the bases of these techniques and their development within the last decades and provides a synopsis of the relevant methodologies and algorithms that are used to analyze EEG signals. In addition, it aims to present some of the physiological background of the EEG signal, developments in EEG signal processing, and the effective methods used to remove various types of noise. This review will hopefully increase efforts to develop methods that use EEG signals for determining and classifying the depth of anesthesia with a high data rate to produce a flexible and reliable detection device.

  4. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  5. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical tec

  6. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  7. Meta-analysis in a nutshell: Techniques and general findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the technique and main findings of meta-analysis to the reader, who is unfamiliar with the field and has the usual objections. A meta-analysis is a quantitative survey of a literature reporting estimates of the same parameter. The funnel showing the dis...

  8. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization.Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be beneficial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  9. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-01-01

    SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization. Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be benefi cial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  10. Kinematics analysis technique fouettes 720° classic ballet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Athletics practice proved that the more complex the item, the more difficult technique of the exercises. Fouettes at 720° one of the most difficult types of the fouettes. Its implementation is based on high technology during rotation of the performer. To perform this element not only requires good physical condition of the dancer, but also requires possession correct technique dancer. On the basis corresponding kinematic theory in this study, qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of fouettes at 720 by the best Chinese dancers. For analysis, was taken the method of stereoscopic images and the theoretical analysis.

  11. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  12. Determination of the archaeological origin of ceramic fragments characterized by neutron activation analysis, by means of the application of multivariable statistical analysis techniques;Determinacion del origen de fragmentos de ceramica arqueologica caracterizados con analisis por activacion neutronica, mediante la aplicacion de tecnicas de analisis estadistico multivariable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M. G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez G, N. L. [Instituto Mexiquense de Cultura, Subdireccion de Restauracion y Conservacion, Hidalgo poniente No. 1013, 50080 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The elementary composition of archaeological ceramic fragments obtained during the explorations in San Miguel Ixtapan, Mexico State, was determined by the neutron activation analysis technique. The samples irradiation was realized in the research reactor TRIGA Mark III with a neutrons flow of 1centre dot10{sup 13}ncentre dotcm{sup -2}centre dots{sup -1}. The irradiation time was of 2 hours. Previous to the acquisition of the gamma rays spectrum the samples were allowed to decay from 12 to 14 days. The analyzed elements were: Nd, Ce, Lu, Eu, Yb, Pa(Th), Tb, La, Cr, Hf, Sc, Co, Fe, Cs, Rb. The statistical treatment of the data, consistent in the group analysis and the main components analysis allowed to identify three different origins of the archaeological ceramic, designated as: local, foreign and regional. (Author)

  13. Managing Software Project Risks (Analysis Phase) with Proposed Fuzzy Regression Analysis Modelling Techniques with Fuzzy Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Elzamly, Abdelrafe; Hussin, Burairah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose new mining techniques by which we can study the impact of different risk management techniques and different software risk factors on software analysis development projects. The new mining technique uses the fuzzy multiple regression analysis techniques with fuzzy concepts to manage the software risks in a software project and mitigating risk with software process improvement. Top ten software risk factors in analysis phase and thirty risk management techni...

  14. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  15. Continuous monitoring α-activity on aerosol filters by the pseudo-coincidence-technique. Explicitly taking into account the short lived Po-218 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudo-coincidence-technique is applied to continuous monitoring of α-activity on aerosolfilters by proportional counters. Filter activity can markedly increase or decrease by changing air conditions especially by the amount of short lived Po-218 activity. Conditions of constant proportions of activity concentrations for the short lived species for operating this technique are seldom fulfilled. The dynamic behavior of artificial (long lived) and natural (short lived) activity is mathematically modelled and the measured moving count rates are analyzed under this model by a multivariate regression analysis for activity concentrations of artificial resp. short lived activity. Results are compared to standard recommendations of DIN ISO 11929.

  16. Microarray Analysis Techniques Singular Value Decomposition and Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, M E; Rocha, L M; Wall, Michael E.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Rocha, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes gene expression analysis by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), emphasizing initial characterization of the data. We describe SVD methods for visualization of gene expression data, representation of the data using a smaller number of variables, and detection of patterns in noisy gene expression data. In addition, we describe the precise relation between SVD analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) when PCA is calculated using the covariance matrix, enabling our descriptions to apply equally well to either method. Our aim is to provide definitions, interpretations, examples, and references that will serve as resources for understanding and extending the application of SVD and PCA to gene expression analysis.

  17. Dynamic analysis of large structures by modal synthesis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurty, W. C.; Hart, G. C.; Collins, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Several criteria that may be used to evaluate the merits of some of the existing techniques for the dynamic analysis of large structures which involve division into substructures or components are examined. These techniques make use of component displacement modes to synthetize global systems of generalized coordinates and, for that reason, they have come to be known as modal synthesis or component mode methods. Two techniques have been found to be particularly useful - i.e., the modal synthesis method with fixed attachment modes, and the modal synthesis method with free attachment modes. These two methods are treated in detail, and general flow charts are presented for guidance in computer programming.

  18. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  19. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Virtual Mold Technique in Thermal Stress Analysis during Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Young Kwak; Jae-Wook Baek; Jeong-Ho Nam; Jeong-Kil Choi

    2008-01-01

    It is important to analyse the casting product and the mold at the same time considering thermal contraction of the casting and thermal expansion of the mold. The analysis considering contact of the casting and the mold induces the precise prediction of stress distribution and the defect such as hot tearing. But it is difficult to generate FEM mesh for the interface of the casting and the mold. Moreover the mesh for the mold domain spends lots of computational time and memory for the analysis due to a number of meshes. Consequently we proposed the virtual mold technique which only uses mesh of the casting part for thermal stress analysis in casting process. The spring bar element in virtual mold technique is used to consider the contact of the casting and the mold. In general, a volume of the mold is much bigger than that of casting part, so the proposed technique decreases the number of mesh and saves the computational memory and time greatly. In this study, the proposed technique was verified by the comparison with the traditional contact technique on a specimen. And the proposed technique gave satisfactory results.

  1. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Applications of Electromigration Techniques in Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), are widely used for separation and identification of compounds present in food products. These techniques may also be considered as alternate and complementary with respect to commonly used analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or gas chromatography (GC). Applications of CE concern the determination of high-molecular compounds, like polyphenols, including flavonoids, pigments, vitamins, food additives (preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, artificial pigments) are presented. Also, the method developed for the determination of proteins and peptides composed of amino acids, which are basic components of food products, are studied. Other substances such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, biogenic amines, natural toxins, and other contaminations including pesticides and antibiotics are discussed. The possibility of CE application in food control laboratories, where analysis of the composition of food and food products are conducted, is of great importance. CE technique may be used during the control of technological processes in the food industry and for the identification of numerous compounds present in food. Due to the numerous advantages of the CE technique it is successfully used in routine food analysis.

  2. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  3. Micro analysis of disolved gases by the gas chromatography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique which allows the quantitative analysis of small concentration of disolved gases such as CO2 and H2 in the order of 10-6 - 10-3M is discussed. For the extraction, separation and quantification a Toepler pump was used. This is in tandem to a gas chromatography. This method also can be applied for the analysis of other gases like CO, CH4, CH3-CH3 etc. This technique may be applied in fields such as radiation chemistry, oceanography and environmental studies. (author)

  4. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  5. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  6. Determination of trace impurities of chlorine in zirconium-alloy matrices using neutron activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, H.; Nathaniel, T. Newton [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Sant, V.L. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Suryanarayana, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Physics Div.; Prajapati, P.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Physics Design Div.

    2011-07-01

    Trace impurities of chlorine in the zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5% Nb alloy matrix have been determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometric technique. The results have been compared with the values obtained from pyrohydrolysis-IC and spark source mass spectrometric method. The limit of internal precision error from the neutron activation technique is 6.7% for zircaloy-2 and 9% for Zr-2.5% Nb alloy, which are lower than that of pyrohydrolysis-IC and spark source mass spectrometric measurements respectively. For both alloys the results from present work based on NAA technique are slightly higher than the results based on the other two methods but are comparable within the uncertainty. Read More: http://www.oldenbourg-link.com/doi/abs/10.1524/ract.2011.1863 (orig.)

  7. Improvement of vibration and noise by applying analysis technology. Development of active control technique of engine noise in a car cabin. Kaiseki gijutsu wo oyoshita shindo-soon no kaizen. Shashitsunai engine soon akutibu seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H.; Nakao, N.; Butsuen, T. (Matsuda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan). Technology Research Inst.)

    1994-06-01

    It is difficult to reduce engine noise which is principal noise in a car cabin without producing an adverse effect on low cost production. Active noise control technique (ANC) has been developed to reduce engine noise compatible with low cost production. This paper discusses its control algorithm and the system configuration and presents experimental results. The filtered-x least mean square method is a well-known ANC algorithm, however, it often requires large amount of calculation exceeding the present capacity of a digital signal processor. An effective ANC algorithm is developed by the use of the repetitiveness of the engine noise. This paper describes the basic theory of the control algorithm, the extension to a multiple input and output system, the system configuration and experimental results. A noise control system with three microphones is designed with consideration of the spatial distribution of the noise and reduces noise in the whole cabin by 8dB(A) in the largest case. Active noise control technique is applicable to many areas and can be used for the reduction of noise and vibration other than engine noise. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  9. Review of geographic processing techniques applicable to regional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, R.C.

    1988-02-01

    Since the early 1970s regional environmental studies have been carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using computer-assisted techniques. This paper presents an overview of some of these past experiences and the capabilities developed at the Laboratory for processing, analyzing, and displaying geographic data. A variety of technologies have resulted such as computer cartography, image processing, spatial modeling, computer graphics, data base management, and geographic information systems. These tools have been used in a wide range of spatial applications involving facility siting, transportation routing, coal resource analysis, environmental impacts, terrain modeling, inventory development, demographic studies, water resource analyses, etc. The report discusses a number of topics dealing with geographic data bases and structures, software and processing techniques, hardware systems, models and analysis tools, data acquisition techniques, and graphical display methods. Numerous results from many different applications are shown to aid the reader interested in using geographic information systems for environmental analyses. 15 refs., 64 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  11. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  12. Evaluation of Analysis Techniques for Fluted-Core Sandwich Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    Buckling-critical launch-vehicle structures require structural concepts that have high bending stiffness and low mass. Fluted-core, also known as truss-core, sandwich construction is one such concept. In an effort to identify an analysis method appropriate for the preliminary design of fluted-core cylinders, the current paper presents and compares results from several analysis techniques applied to a specific composite fluted-core test article. The analysis techniques are evaluated in terms of their ease of use and for their appropriateness at certain stages throughout a design analysis cycle (DAC). Current analysis techniques that provide accurate determination of the global buckling load are not readily applicable early in the DAC, such as during preliminary design, because they are too costly to run. An analytical approach that neglects transverse-shear deformation is easily applied during preliminary design, but the lack of transverse-shear deformation results in global buckling load predictions that are significantly higher than those from more detailed analysis methods. The current state of the art is either too complex to be applied for preliminary design, or is incapable of the accuracy required to determine global buckling loads for fluted-core cylinders. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for calculating global buckling loads of fluted-core cylinders that includes transverse-shear deformations, and that can be easily incorporated in preliminary design.

  13. Neutron noise analysis techniques in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main techniques used in neutron noise analysis of BWR and PWR nuclear reactors are reviewed. Several applications such as control of vibrations in both reactor types, determination of two phase flow parameters in BWR and stability control in BWR are discussed with some detail. The paper contains many experimental results obtained by the main author of this paper. (author)

  14. Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the work carried out within the project: Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique - Application to Civil Engineering Structures. The project is part of the research programme: Dynamics of Structures sponsored by the Danish Technical Research Counsil. The planned...

  15. DETECTION OF DNA DAMAGE USING MELTING ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid and simple fluorescence screening assay for UV radiation-, chemical-, and enzyme-induced DNA damage is reported. This assay is based on a melting/annealing analysis technique and has been used with both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from E. coli). DN...

  16. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  17. Activated mechanisms in amorphous silicon: an activation-relaxation-technique study

    OpenAIRE

    Mousseau, N.; Barkema, G. T.

    1999-01-01

    At low temperatures, dynamics in amorphous silicon occurs through a sequence of discrete activated events that locally reorganize the topological network. Using the activation-relaxation technique, a data base containing over 8000 such events is generated, and the events are analyzed with respect to their energy barrier and asymmetry, displacement and volume expansion/contraction. Special attention is paid to those events corresponding to diffusing coordination defects. The energetics is not ...

  18. Developing techniques for cause-responsibility analysis of occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Mousa; Ghorbani, Roghayeh

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the causes of occupational accidents, determine social responsibility and the role of groups involved in work-related accidents. This study develops occupational accidents causes tree, occupational accidents responsibility tree, and occupational accidents component-responsibility analysis worksheet; based on these methods, it develops cause-responsibility analysis (CRA) techniques, and for testing them, analyzes 100 fatal/disabling occupational accidents in the construction setting that were randomly selected from all the work-related accidents in Tehran, Iran, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). The main result of this study involves two techniques for CRA: occupational accidents tree analysis (OATA) and occupational accidents components analysis (OACA), used in parallel for determination of responsible groups and responsibilities rate. From the results, we find that the management group of construction projects has 74.65% responsibility of work-related accidents. The developed techniques are purposeful for occupational accidents investigation/analysis, especially for the determination of detailed list of tasks, responsibilities, and their rates. Therefore, it is useful for preventing work-related accidents by focusing on the responsible group's duties.

  19. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  20. Study of analysis techniques of thermoluminescent dosimeters response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Personal Monitoring Service of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares uses in its dosemeter the TLD 700 material . The TLD's analysis is carried out using a Harshaw-Bicron model 6600 automatic reading system. This system uses dry air instead of the traditional gaseous nitrogen. This innovation brought advantages to the service but introduced uncertainties in the reference of the detectors; one of these was observed for doses below 0,5 mSv. In this work different techniques of analysis of the TLD response were investigated and compared, involving dose values in this interval. These techniques include thermal pre-treatment, and different kinds of the glow curves analysis methods were investigated. Obtained results showed the necessity of developing a specific software that permits the automatic background subtraction for the glow curves for each dosemeter . This software was developed and it bean tested. Preliminary results showed the software increase the response reproducibility. (author)

  1. A comparative study on change vector analysis based change detection techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sartajvir Singh; Rajneesh Talwar

    2014-12-01

    Detection of Earth surface changes are essential to monitor regional climatic, snow avalanche hazard analysis and energy balance studies that occur due to air temperature irregularities. Geographic Information System (GIS) enables such research activities to be carried out through change detection analysis. From this viewpoint, different change detection algorithms have been developed for land-use land-cover (LULC) region. Among the different change detection algorithms, change vector analysis (CVA) has level headed capability of extracting maximuminformation in terms of overall magnitude of change and the direction of change between multispectral bands from multi-temporal satellite data sets. Since past two–three decades, many effective CVA based change detection techniques e.g., improved change vector analysis (ICVA), modified change vector analysis (MCVA) and change vector analysis posterior-probability space (CVAPS), have been developed to overcome the difficulty that exists in traditional change vector analysis (CVA). Moreover, many integrated techniques such as cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) based CVA. CVA uses enhanced principal component analysis (PCA) and inverse triangular (IT) function, hyper-spherical direction cosine (HSDC), and median CVA (m-CVA), as an effective LULC change detection tools. This paper comprises a comparative analysis on CVA based change detection techniques such as CVA, MCVA, ICVA and CVAPS. This paper also summarizes the necessary integrated CVA techniques along with their characteristics, features and shortcomings. Based on experiment outcomes, it has been evaluated that CVAPS technique has greater potential than other CVA techniques to evaluate the overall transformed information over three differentMODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data sets of different regions. Results of this study are expected to be potentially useful for more accurate analysis of LULC changes which will, in turn

  2. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN SERVICE QUALITY LITERATURE: ESSENTIALS AND ADVANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed naved Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic and business researchers have for long debated on the most appropriate data analysis techniques that can be employed in conducting empirical researches in the domain of services marketing. On the basis of an exhaustive review of literature, the present paper attempts to provide a concise and schematic portrayal of generally followed data analysis techniques in the field of services quality literature. Collectively, the extant literature suggests that there is a growing trend among researchers to rely on higher order multivariate techniques viz. confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling etc. to generate and analyze complex models, while at times ignoring very basic and yet powerful procedures such as mean, t-Test, ANOVA and correlation. The marked shift in orientation of researchers towards using sophisticated analytical techniques can largely beattributed to the competition within the community of researchers in social sciences in general and those working in the area of service quality in particular as also growing demands of reviewers ofjournals. From a pragmatic viewpoint, it is expected that the paper will serve as a useful source of information and provide deeper insights to academic researchers, consultants, and practitionersinterested in modelling patterns of service quality and arriving at optimal solutions to increasingly complex management problems.

  3. A Review on Clustering and Outlier Analysis Techniques in Datamining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koteeswaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The modern world is based on using physical, biological and social systems more effectively using advanced computerized techniques. A great amount of data being generated by such systems; it leads to a paradigm shift from classical modeling and analyses based on basic principles to developing models and the corresponding analyses directly from data. The ability to extract useful hidden knowledge in these data and to act on that knowledge is becoming increasingly important in today's competitive world. Approach: The entire process of applying a computer-based methodology, including new techniques, for discovering knowledge from data is called data mining. There are two primary goals in the data mining which are prediction and classification. The larger data involved in the data mining requires clustering and outlier analysis for reducing as well as collecting only useful data set. Results: This study is focusing the review of implementation techniques, recent research on clustering and outlier analysis. Conclusion: The study aims for providing the review of clustering and outlier analysis technique and the discussion on the study will guide the researcher for improving their research direction.

  4. Error analysis in correlation computation of single particle reconstruction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡悦; 隋森芳

    1999-01-01

    The single particle reconstruction technique has become particularly important in the structure analysis of hiomaeromolecules. The problem of reconstructing a picture from identical samples polluted by colored noises is studied, and the alignment error in the correlation computation of single particle reconstruction technique is analyzed systematically. The concept of systematic error is introduced, and the explicit form of the systematic error is given under the weak noise approximation. The influence of the systematic error on the reconstructed picture is discussed also, and an analytical formula for correcting the distortion in the picture reconstruction is obtained.

  5. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  6. The virtual microphone technique in active sound field control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Iraklis E.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2003-04-01

    Active Sound Field Control (AFC) has been proven very useful in reverberation enhancement applications in large rooms. However, feedback control is required in order to eliminate peaks in the frequency response of the system. The present research closely follows the studies of Shimizu in AFC, in which smoothing of the rooms transfer function is achieved by averaging the impulse responses of multiple microphones. ``The virtual or rotating microphone technique'' reduces the number of microphones in the aforementioned AFC technology, while still achieving the same acoustical effects in the room. After the impulse responses at previously specified pairs of microphone positions are measured, the ratio of transfer functions for every pair is calculated, thus yielding a constant K. Next, microphones are removed and their impulse responses are reproduced by processing the incoming signal of each pair through a convolver, where the computed K constants have been previously stored. Band limiting, windowing and time variance effects are critical factors, in order to reduce incoherence effects and yield reliable approximations of inverse filters and consequently calculations of K. The project is implemented in a church lacking low frequency reverberation for music and makes use of 2 physical and 2 virtual microphones.

  7. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  8. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, William S

    1999-09-01

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  9. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels

  10. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Experimental Analysis of Small Scale PCB Manufacturing Techniques for Fablabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Verbelen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a complete modular PCB manufacturing process on fablab scale that is compliant with current PCB manufacturing standards. This includes, but is not limited to, a minimum track width of 8 mil, a minimum clearance of 6 mil, plated and non plated holes, a solder resist, surface finish and component overlay. We modularize industrial manufacturing processes and discuss advantages and disadvantages of production techniques for every phase. We then proceed to discuss the relevance and added value of every phase in the manufacturing process and their usefulness in a fablab context. Production techniques are evaluated regarding complexity, overhead, safety, required time, and environmental concerns. To ensure practical feasibility of the presented techniques, the manufacturing process is benchmarked in FablabXL and aims to be a practical reference for implementing or extending PCB manufacturing activities in fablabs.

  12. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  13. Techniques for measuring vitamin A activity from β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen

    2012-11-01

    Dietary β-carotene is the most important precursor of vitamin A. However, the determination of the efficiency of in vivo conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A requires sensitive and safe techniques. It presents the following challenges: 1) circulating β-carotene concentration cannot be altered by eating a meal containing ≤6 mg β-carotene; 2) because retinol concentrations are homeostatically controlled, the conversion of β-carotene into vitamin A cannot be estimated accurately in well-nourished humans by assessing changes in serum retinol after supplementation with β-carotene. In the past half-century, techniques using radioisotopes of β-carotene and vitamin A, depletion-repletion with vitamin A and β-carotene supplements, measurement of postprandial chylomicron fractions after consumption of a β-carotene dose, and finally, stable isotopes as tracers to follow the absorption and conversion of β-carotene in humans have been developed. The reported values for β-carotene to vitamin A conversion showed a wide variation from 2 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for synthetic pure β-carotene in oil) and 28 μg β-carotene to 1 μg retinol (for β-carotene from vegetables). In recent years, a stable isotope reference method (IRM) was developed that used labeled synthetic β-carotene. The IRM method provided evidence that the conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A is likely dose dependent. With the development of intrinsically labeled plant foods harvested from a hydroponic system with heavy water, vitamin A activity of stable isotope-labeled biosynthetic β-carotene from various foods consumed by humans was studied. The efficacy of plant foods rich in β-carotene, such as natural (spinach, carrots, spirulina), hybrid (high-β-carotene yellow maize), and bioengineered (Golden Rice) foods, to provide vitamin A has shown promising results. The results from these studies will be of practical importance in recommendations for the use of pure β-carotene and foods

  14. Innovative techniques to analyze time series of geomagnetic activity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Potirakis, Stelios M.; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic storms are undoubtedly among the most important phenomena in space physics and also a central subject of space weather. The non-extensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced, as an effective complexity measure for the analysis of the geomagnetic activity Dst index. The Tsallis entropy sensitively shows the complexity dissimilarity among different "physiological" (normal) and "pathological" states (intense magnetic storms). More precisely, the Tsallis entropy implies the emergence of two distinct patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a higher degree of organization, and (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a lower degree of organization. Other entropy measures such as Block Entropy, T-Complexity, Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy and Fuzzy Entropy verify the above mentioned result. Importantly, the wavelet spectral analysis in terms of Hurst exponent, H, also shows the existence of two different patterns: (i) a pattern associated with the intense magnetic storms, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian persistent behavior (ii) a pattern associated with normal periods, which is characterized by a fractional Brownian anti-persistent behavior. Finally, we observe universality in the magnetic storm and earthquake dynamics, on a basis of a modified form of the Gutenberg-Richter law for the Tsallis statistics. This finding suggests a common approach to the interpretation of both phenomena in terms of the same driving physical mechanism. Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series further supports the aforementioned proposal.

  15. An activated fluid stream - New techniques for cold water cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Birkin, Peter; Offin, Douglas; Leighton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical, acoustic and imaging techniques are used to characterise surface cleaning with particular emphasis on the understanding of the key phenomena relevant to surface cleaning. A range of novel techniques designed to enhance and monitor the effective cleaning of a solid/liquid interface is presented. Among the techniques presented, mass transfer of material to a sensor embedded in a surface is demonstrated to be useful in the further exploration of ultrasonic cleaning of high asp...

  16. Technique Triangulation for Validation in Directed Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M. Humble PhD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor in wedding planning varies for first-time marriages, with three types of couples—traditional, transitional, and egalitarian—identified, but nothing is known about wedding planning for remarrying individuals. Using semistructured interviews, the author interviewed 14 couples in which at least one person had remarried and used directed content analysis to investigate the extent to which the aforementioned typology could be transferred to this different context. In this paper she describes how a triangulation of analytic techniques provided validation for couple classifications and also helped with moving beyond “blind spots” in data analysis. Analytic approaches were the constant comparative technique, rank order comparison, and visual representation of coding, using MAXQDA 2007's tool called TextPortraits.

  17. The analysis of gastric function using computational techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Young, P

    2002-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, between October 1996 and June 2000. This thesis describes the application of computerised techniques to the analysis of gastric function, in relation to Magnetic Resonance Imaging data. The implementation of a computer program enabling the measurement of motility in the lower stomach is described in Chapter 6. This method allowed the dimensional reduction of multi-slice image data sets into a 'Motility Plot', from which the motility parameters - the frequency, velocity and depth of contractions - could be measured. The technique was found to be simple, accurate and involved substantial time savings, when compared to manual analysis. The program was subsequently used in the measurement of motility in three separate studies, described in Chapter 7. In Study 1, four different meal types of varying viscosity and nutrient value were consumed by 12 volunteers. The aim of...

  18. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvan Yousefi; Sanaz Hamedeyazdan; Mohammadali Torbati; Fatemeh Fathiazad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radic...

  19. Analysis of questioning technique during classes in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Young

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questioning is one of the essential techniques used by lecturers to make lectures more interactive and effective. This study surveyed the perception of questioning techniques by medical school faculty members and analyzed how the questioning technique is used in actual classes. Methods Data on the perceptions of the questioning skills used during lectures was collected using a self‒questionnaire for faculty members (N = 33 during the second semester of 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 18 items covering the awareness and characteristics of questioning skills. Recorded video tapes were used to observe the faculty members’ questioning skills. Results Most faculty members regarded the questioning technique during classes as being important and expected positive outcomes in terms of the students’ participation in class, concentration in class and understanding of the class contents. In the 99 classes analyzed, the median number of questions per class was 1 (0–29. Among them, 40 classes (40.4 % did not use questioning techniques. The frequency of questioning per lecture was similar regardless of the faculty members’ perception. On the other hand, the faculty members perceived that their usual wait time after question was approximately 10 seconds compared to only 2.5 seconds measured from video analysis. More lecture‒experienced faculty members tended to ask more questions in class. Conclusions There were some discrepancies regarding the questioning technique between the faculty members’ perceptions and reality, even though they had positive opinions of the technique. The questioning skills during a lecture need to be emphasized to faculty members.

  20. Analysis of dynamic conflicts by techniques of artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shinar, Josef

    1989-01-01

    Dynamic conflicts exhibit differentiel game characteristics and their analysis by any method which disregards this feature may be, by definition, futile. Unfortunately, realistic conflicts may have an intricate information structure and a complex hierarchy which don't fit in the classical differential game formulation. Moreover, in many cases even well formulated differential games are not solvable. In the recent years great progress has been made in artificial intelligence techniques, put in...

  1. Calcium Hardness Analysis of Water Samples Using EDXRF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanan Deep

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hardness of water samples has been determined using a method based upon the Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF technique for elemental analysis. The minimum detection limit for Ca has been found in the range 0.1-100ppm. The experimental approach and analytical method for calcium studies seem satisfactory for the purpose and can be utilized for similar investigations.

  2. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, R. S.; Poggi, C.; Pimazzoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Serianni, G.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  3. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, R. S., E-mail: rita.delogu@igi.cnr.it; Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 35127 Padova (Italy); Poggi, C.; Rossi, G. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 1848, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  4. The potential of electroanalytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, J M; Pékli-Novák, M; Nagy, A

    1996-03-01

    With the considerable progresses observed in analytical instrumentation, it was of interest to survey recent trends in the field of electroanalysis of drugs. Potentiometric, voltammetric and amperometric techniques were scrutinized both in terms of historical evolution and in terms of potentialities with respect to the analysis of drugs in various matrices. With regard to the former, it appeared that numerous original selective electrodes (for drugs and ions) have been studied and several ion-selective electrodes have been successfully commercialized. Improvements are still expected in this field in order to find more robust membrane matrices and to minimize the surface fouling. Electrochemistry is well suited for trace metal analysis. A renewed interest in potentiometric stripping analysis is observed and is stimulated by the power of computers and microprocessors which allow rapid signal recording and data handling. Polarography and its refinements (Pulsed Waveform, Automation,...) is ideally applied for trace metal analysis and speciation. The technique is still useful in the analysis of drug formulations and in biological samples provided that the method is adequately validated (selectivity!). The same holds for solid electrodes which are currently routinely applied as sensitive detectors after chromatographic separation. New instrumentation is soon expected as regard electrochemical detection in capillary electrophoresis. Actually, in order to increase the responses and improve the selectivity, solid electrodes are facing exponential research dedicated to surface modifications. Perm-selectivity, chelations catalysis, etc. may be considered as appropriate strategies. Microelectrodes and screen printed (disposable) sensors are of considerable interest in cell culture e.g. for single cell excretion analysis and in field (decentralized) assays, respectively. Finally several biosensors and electrochemical immunoassays have been successfully development for the

  5. Applying Stylometric Analysis Techniques to Counter Anonymity in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous nature and anonymity abuses in cyberspace, it’s difficult to make criminal identity tracing in cybercrime investigation. Writeprint identification offers a valuable tool to counter anonymity by applying stylometric analysis technique to help identify individuals based on textual traces. In this study, a framework for online writeprint identification is proposed. Variable length character n-gram is used to represent the author’s writing style. The technique of IG seeded GA based feature selection for Ensemble (IGAE is also developed to build an identification model based on individual author level features. Several specific components for dealing with the individual feature set are integrated to improve the performance. The proposed feature and technique are evaluated on a real world data set encompassing reviews posted by 50 Amazon customers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework, with accuracy over 94% for 20 authors and over 80% for 50 ones. Compared with the baseline technique (Support Vector Machine, a higher performance is achieved by using IGAE, resulting in a 2% and 8% improvement over SVM for 20 and 50 authors respectively. Moreover, it has been shown that IGAE is more scalable in terms of the number of authors, than author group level based methods.

  6. The activation of irrigation solutions in Endodontics: a perfected technique

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Simeone; Alessandra Valletta; Amerigo Giudice; Pierpaolo Di Lorenzo; Alfredo Iandolo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In endodontics a complete chemo mechanical cleansing of the complex root canal system is essential in order to achieve a theraupetic success. Methodology: Sodium hypoclorite due to its antimicrobial and proteolytic characteristic, is an efficient endodontic irrigant and it is the most commonly used. The following article introduces a refined technique in order to increase the degree of cleansing during endodontic treatment. The technique involves intracanal heating of the irriga...

  7. Requirements Analyses Integrating Goals and Problem Analysis Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    One of the difficulties that goal-oriented requirements analyses encounters is that the efficiency of the goal refinement is based on the analysts' subjective knowledge and experience. To improve the efficiency of the requirements eiicitation process, engineers need approaches with more systemized analysis techniques. This paper integrates the goal-oriented requirements language i* with concepts from a structured problem analysis notation, problem frames (PF). The PF approach analyzes software design as a contextualized problem which has to respond to constraints imposed by the environment. The proposed approach is illustrated using the meeting scheduler exemplar. Results show that integration of the goal and the problem analysis enables simultaneous consideration of the designer's subjective intentions and the physical environmental constraints.

  8. Dispersion analysis techniques within the space vehicle dynamics simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program was evaluated as a dispersion analysis tool. The Linear Error Analysis (LEA) post processor was examined in detail and simulation techniques relative to conducting a dispersion analysis using the SVDS were considered. The LEA processor is a tool for correlating trajectory dispersion data developed by simulating 3 sigma uncertainties as single error source cases. The processor combines trajectory and performance deviations by a root-sum-square (RSS process) and develops a covariance matrix for the deviations. Results are used in dispersion analyses for the baseline reference and orbiter flight test missions. As a part of this study, LEA results were verified as follows: (A) Hand calculating the RSS data and the elements of the covariance matrix for comparison with the LEA processor computed data. (B) Comparing results with previous error analyses. The LEA comparisons and verification are made at main engine cutoff (MECO).

  9. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  10. Empirical Analysis of Data Mining Techniques for Social Network Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G.S Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networks allow users to collaborate with others. People of similar backgrounds and interests meet and cooperate using these social networks, enabling them to share information across the world. The social networks contain millions of unprocessed raw data. By analyzing this data new knowledge can be gained. Since this data is dynamic and unstructured traditional data mining techniques will not be appropriate. Web data mining is an interesting field with vast amount of applications. With the growth of online social networks have significantly increased data content available because profile holders become more active producers and distributors of such data. This paper identifies and analyzes existing web mining techniques used to mine social network data.

  11. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA MINING TECHNIQUES FOR SOCIAL NETWORK WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G.S Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networks allow users to collaborate with others. People of similar backgrounds and interests meet and cooperate using these social networks, enabling them to share information across the world. The social networks contain millions of unprocessed raw data. By analyzing this data new knowledge can be gained. Since this data is dynamic and unstructured traditional data mining techniques will not be appropriate. Web data mining is an interesting field with vast amount of applications. With the growth of online social networks have significantly increased data content available because profile holders become more active producers and distributors of such data. This paper identifies and analyzes existing web mining techniques used to mine social network data.

  12. BaTMAn: Bayesian Technique for Multi-image Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Casado, J; García-Benito, R; Guidi, G; Choudhury, O S; Bellocchi, E; Sánchez, S; Díaz, A I

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Bayesian Technique for Multi-image Analysis (BaTMAn), a novel image segmentation technique based on Bayesian statistics, whose main purpose is to characterize an astronomical dataset containing spatial information and perform a tessellation based on the measurements and errors provided as input. The algorithm will iteratively merge spatial elements as long as they are statistically consistent with carrying the same information (i.e. signal compatible with being identical within the errors). We illustrate its operation and performance with a set of test cases that comprises both synthetic and real Integral-Field Spectroscopic (IFS) data. Our results show that the segmentations obtained by BaTMAn adapt to the underlying structure of the data, regardless of the precise details of their morphology and the statistical properties of the noise. The quality of the recovered signal represents an improvement with respect to the input, especially in those regions where the signal is actually con...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Partial Occlusion Using Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Nallammal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of partial occlusion using face recognition techniques that gives in which technique produce better result for total success rate. The partial occlusion of face recognition is especially useful for people where part of their face is scarred and defect thus need to be covered. Hence, either top part/eye region or bottom part of face will be recognized respectively. The partial face information are tested with Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF, Local NMF (LNMF and Spatially Confined NMF (SFNMF. The comparative results show that the recognition rate of 95.17% with r = 80 by using SFNMF for bottom face region. On the other hand, eye region achieves 95.12% with r = 10 by using LNMF.

  14. Gamma absorption technique in elemental analysis of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Application of gamma-ray absorption technique in elemental analysis. ► Determination of elemental composition of some bronze and gold alloys. ► Determination of some heavy elements in water. - Abstract: Expressions for calculating the elemental concentrations of composite materials based on a gamma absorption technique are derived. These expressions provide quantitative information about elemental concentrations of materials. Calculations are carried out for estimating the concentrations of copper and gold in some alloys of bronze and gold. The method was also applied for estimating the concentrations of some heavy elements in a water matrix highlighting the differences with photon attenuation measurements. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on high purity germanium detector (HPGe) was employed to measure the attenuation of a strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through samples.

  15. COMPARISON ANALYSIS OF WEB USAGE MINING USING PATTERN RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanhay Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is the application of data mining techniques to better serve the needs of web-based applications on the web site. In this paper, we analyze the web usage mining by applying the pattern recognition techniques on web log data. Pattern recognition is defined as the act of taking in raw data and making an action based on the ‘category’ of the pattern. Web usage mining is divided into three partsPreprocessing, Pattern discovery and Pattern analysis. Further, this paper intended with experimental work in which web log data is used. We have taken the web log data from the “NASA” web server which is analyzed with “Web Log Explorer”. Web Log Explorer is a web usage mining tool which plays the vital role to carry out this work.

  16. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, Neutron Activation Analysis and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R

    2002-01-01

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-17 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 31 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals characteristic of emissions from this kind industry. The observed data for Pb, As, Cu, and Cd are all high compared with those observed in other regions of Europe with similar industries, but the concentrations in moss approach regional background levels at a distance of about 8 km from the main source area. Factor analysis of the data distinguishes two industrial components, one characterized by Pb, Cu, As, and Sb, and another one by Zn and Cd...

  17. Ion beam analysis and spectrometry techniques for Cultural Heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of experimental techniques for the characterisation of Cultural heritage materials has to take into account some requirements. The complexity of these past materials requires the development of new techniques of examination and analysis, or the transfer of technologies developed for the study of advanced materials. In addition, due to precious aspect of artwork it is also necessary to use the non-destructive methods, respecting the integrity of objects. It is for this reason that the methods using radiations and/or particles play a important role in the scientific study of art history and archaeology since their discovery. X-ray and γ-ray spectrometry as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) are analytical tools at the service of Cultural heritage. This report mainly presents experimental developments for IBA: PIXE, RBS/EBS and NRA. These developments were applied to the study of archaeological composite materials: layered materials or mixtures composed of organic and non-organic phases. Three examples are shown: evolution of silvering techniques for the production of counterfeit coinage during the Roman Empire and in the 16. century, the characterization of composites or mixed mineral/organic compounds such as bone and paint. In these last two cases, the combination of techniques gave original results on the proportion of both phases: apatite/collagen in bone, pigment/binder in paintings. Another part of this report is then dedicated to the non-invasive/non-destructive characterization of prehistoric pigments, in situ, for rock art studies in caves and in the laboratory. Finally, the perspectives of this work are presented. (author)

  18. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the low student achievement in microbiology courses and presents an active learning method applied in an introductory microbiology course which features daily quizzes, cooperative learning activities, and group projects. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  19. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  20. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  2. Exogenous bleaching evaluation on dentin using chemical activated technique compared with diode laser technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in vitro study compared the results of different exogenous bleaching proceedings on dentin after treatment of enamel surface. Thirty human canine were hewn preserving the vestibular half of the crown and 3 mm of root, showing a vestibular-lingual thickness average of 3,5 mm, measuring in the third middle of the crown. Ali teeth were maintained in wet chamber during the experiment. Digital photographs were taken of the dentin surface at 3 experimental times (LI: initial record, L0: immediate pos-bleaching record and L 15: 15 days after bleaching). The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups of 10 teeth in each. The Control Group did not receive any kind of treatment. The Laser Group received 2 session of laser bleaching, with 3 applications each, using 35% hydrogen peroxide, activated by diode laser during 30 seconds, by scanning the enamel surface from incisal edge to the top of the crown, from mesial to distal portion of the crown and circularly, each movement during 10 seconds. The following parameters being adopted: wavelength of 808 nm, power of 1,5 W and optic fiber with 600 μm (core). The Peroxide Group received 28 daily applications, during 4 hours each application, using 16% carbamide peroxide. The bleaching records were analysed using a computer, through RGBK (red, green , blue and black). The K averages (K=100% for black and K=0% for white) of the records for Control Group were: LI=50,1 %, L0=50,3% and L 15=50,6%. For Laser Group the K averages were LI=48,5%, L0=50,0% and L 15=47,7%. And for the Peroxide Group were LI=50,5%, L0=35,9% and L 15=37,3%. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference of the K between the Control Group and the Laser Group, as to LI, L0 and L 15. Only Peroxide Group showed significant statistical difference between LI with L0 and L 15 (0,1%), and L0 in comparison with L 15 did not show any difference. (author)

  3. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Helena; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Rodrigues Pereira Da; Jorge, Mario

    2013-01-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in th...

  4. New technique for high-speed microjet breakup analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vago, N. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111, Budapest (Hungary); Synova SA, Ch. Dent d' Oche, 1024 Ecublens (Switzerland); Spiegel, A. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111, Budapest (Hungary); Couty, P. [Institute of Imaging and Applied Optics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, BM, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Wagner, F.R.; Richerzhagen, B. [Synova SA, Ch. Dent d' Oche, 1024 Ecublens (Switzerland)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a new technique for visualizing the breakup of thin high-speed liquid jets. Focused light of a He-Ne laser is coupled into a water jet, which behaves as a cylindrical waveguide until the point where the amplitude of surface waves is large enough to scatter out the light from the jet. Observing the jet from a direction perpendicular to its axis, the light that appears indicates the location of breakup. Real-time examination and also statistical analysis of the jet disruption is possible with this method. A ray tracing method was developed to demonstrate the light scattering process. (orig.)

  5. Acceleration of multivariate analysis techniques in TMVA using GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoecker, A; Therhaag, J; Washbrook, A

    2012-01-01

    A feasibility study into the acceleration of multivariate analysis techniques using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) will be presented. The MLP-based Artificial Neural Network method contained in the TMVA framework has been chosen as a focus for investigation. It was found that the network training time on a GPU was lower than for CPU execution as the complexity of the network was increased. In addition, multiple neural networks can be trained simultaneously on a GPU within the same time taken for single network training on a CPU. This could be potentially leveraged to provide a qualitative performance gain in data classification.

  6. The effects of communication techniques on public relation activities: A sample of hospitality business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şirvan Şen Demir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, firms who give importance to public relations have been increasing rapidly in numbers. All modern firms either found public relations department in their body to deal with public relations operations or outsource this activity to consultants in order to communicate with target populations. Among the firms in tourism sector, hospitality companies are the ones that use public relations the most. The purpose of this study is to investigate the communication techniques in public relation and effects of these techniques on public relation activities. A literature review was conducted for research model and then questionnaire was developed from the studies in the literature. Data were collected by researchers in face-to-face interviews with 145 supervisors who are responsible for public relation activities of the hotel and were analyzed with SPSS statistical programs. Structural and convergent validity of the data have revealed with the explanatory factor analysis. It was tested using a regression analysis to determine the effects of independent variables on dependent variables. As a result, independent variables have positive effects on the dependent variables.

  7. Elemental investigation of talcum baby powder by X-Ray florescence and fast neutron activation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different samples of Egyptian and Hungarian talcum powders were studied, using X-ray florescence (XRF) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) techniques to ensure the safety of its use. The K (X-rays) and the gamma-rays were measured, using Si(Li) and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers to detect and determine qualitatively and quantitatively the constituents of the studied samples. The concentrations of the elements (Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Zn, and Ba) were measured and their presence was confirmed by X-ray, lifetime and/or XRF measurements. One of these samples was also studied, using the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)

  8. Preliminary study of sample uniformity impact on the elemental analysis in PGNAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In the adoption of Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) technique, the composition of samples is always assumed to be uniform, while it is nonuniform in fact, which would affect the analysis result. Purpose: The influence of the sample's uniformity, to PGNAA has been discussed. Methods: Samples of the same composition and average density, but different uniformity have been simulated with Monte Carlo method. And the preliminary analysis has been discussed in the aspects of self-absorption and the neutron field distribution of the samples. Results: The results show that the change of sample uniformity. has a certain effect on the gamma-rays spectrum. The difference of the element characteristic peak counting rate, which is caused by the change of samples' uniformity, is even higher than 20% for some elements. Conclusion: In the PGNAA technique, the uniformity of samples has to be considered to ensure the element analysis accuracy. (authors)

  9. Recovering prehistoric woodworking skills using spatial analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Hanke, K.

    2015-08-01

    Recovering of ancient woodworking skills can be achieved by the simultaneous documentation and analysis of the tangible evidences such as the geometry parameters of prehistoric hand tools or the fine morphological characteristics of well preserved wooden archaeological finds. During this study, altogether 10 different hand tool forms and over 60 hand tool impressions were investigated for the better understanding of the Bronze Age woodworking efficiency. Two archaeological experiments were also designed in this methodology and unknown prehistoric adzes could be reconstructed by the results of these studies and by the spatial analysis of the Bronze Age tool marks. Finally, the trimming efficiency of these objects were also implied and these woodworking skills could be quantified in the case of a Bronze Age wooden construction from Austria. The proposed GIS-based tool mark segmentation and comparison can offer an objective, user-independent technique for the related intangible heritage interpretations in the future.

  10. METHODOLOGICAL STUDY OF OPINION MINING AND SENTIMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision making both on individual and organizational level is always accompanied by the search of other’s opinion on the same. With tremendous establishment of opinion rich resources like, reviews, forum discussions, blogs, micro-blogs, Twitter etc provide a rich anthology of sentiments. This user generated content can serve as a benefaction to market if the semantic orientations are deliberated. Opinion mining and sentiment analysis are the formalization for studying and construing opinions and sentiments. The digital ecosystem has itself paved way for use of huge volume of opinionated data recorded. This paper is an attempt to review and evaluate the various techniques used for opinion and sentiment analysis.

  11. Dynamic analysis of granite rockburst based on the PIV technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongjian; Liu Da’an; Gong Weili; Li Liyun

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the deep rockburst simulation system to reproduce the granite instantaneous rock-burst process. Based on the PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) technique, quantitative analysis of a rock-burst, the images of tracer particle, displacement and strain fields can be obtained, and the debris trajectory described. According to the observation of on-site tests, the dynamic rockburst is actually a gas–solid high speed flow process, which is caused by the interaction of rock fragments and surrounding air. With the help of analysis on high speed video and PIV images, the granite rockburst failure process is composed of six stages of platey fragment spalling and debris ejection. Meanwhile, the elastic energy for these six stages has been calculated to study the energy variation. The results indicate that the rockburst process can be summarized as:an initiating stage, intensive developing stage and gradual decay stage. This research will be helpful for our further understanding of the rockburst mechanism.

  12. Metabolic Engineering: Techniques for analysis of targets for genetic manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    at different operating conditions, and the application of metabolic engineering to process optimization is, therefore, expected mainly to have an impact on the improvement of processes where yield, productivity, and titer are important design factors, i.e., in the production of metabolites and industrial...... enzymes. Despite the prospect of obtaining major improvement through metabolic engineering, this approach is, however, not expected to completely replace the classical approach to strain improvement-random mutagenesis followed by screening. Identification of the optimal genetic changes for improvement...... analysis of pathways, and (5) kinetic modeling. In this article, these different techniques are discussed and their applications to the analysis of different processes are illustrated. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  13. An effective technique for isolating adult activated Schwann cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jifei Zhang; Lianhong Jin; Yuzhen Zhao

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schwann cells (SCs) are neuroglial cells of peripheral nerve and play a key role in repairing peripheral nerve injury; therefore, it provides an important evidence for transplantation of SCs which are characterized by active proliferation and adult high-purity in vitro after nerve injury in clinic, and also develops a new therapeutic way for nerve injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate an effective technique for isolating adult activated Schwann cells.DESIGN: Controlled observational study.SETTING: Mudanjiang Medical College.MATERIALS: The experiment was completed at the Department of Medical Genetics of Harbin Medical University from March 2003 to April 2005. Health female Wistar rats, aged 2 months, weighting 150-160 g, were randomly divided into 3 groups with 5 in each group.METHODS: The right sciatic nerves from 15 Wistar rats were exposed and transected at the mid thigh under pentobarbital anesthesia (4 mg/kg, I.p). Seven days later, the distal segments of the predegenerated nerves were removed and used to produce adult Schwann cell cultures. The distal segment of the predegenerated nerve, 20 mm in length, was resected. The nerve was cut into pieces 1 mm in length and incubated for 3 hours under CO2 at 37 ℃ with an enzyme mixture of 0.05% collagenase/dispase. Rats were divided into 3 groups:① Group 1: The nerve fragments were explanted in poly-L-lysine and laminin-coated dishes with BS medium from the 1st to the 6th day. On the 6th day, the fragments were removed into a new poly-L-lysine-laminin-coated dish and the BS medium was changed to BS with 10% FBS. The nerve fragments were replaced repeatedly in the same way in new dishes on the 12th and the 18th days. ②Group 2: For the first 3 days, the nerve fragments were fed with BS with 10% FBS. This medium was changed to BS medium on the third day. The nerve fragments were removed to another dish on day 6 and BS medium was changed to BS with 25 mL/L FBS. Hereafter the culture method was the same as

  14. Examination, characterisation and analysis techniques for the knowledge and the conservation / restoration of cultural heritage - importance of ionising radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the examination, characterisation and analysis of cultural heritage artefacts or art objects and their component materials, the conservation scientist needs a palette of non destructive and non invasive techniques, in order to improve our knowledge concerning their elaboration, their evolution and/or degradation during time, and to give rational basis for their restoration and conservation. A general survey and illustrations showing the usefulness of these techniques will be presented. Among these methods, many are based on the use of ionising radiation. 1. Radiography (using X-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, secondary electrons, neutrons), electron emission radiography, tomodensimetry, 2. Scanning electron microscope associated with X-ray spectrometry, 3. X-ray diffraction, 4. Synchrotron radiation characterisation, 5. X-ray fluorescence analysis, 6. Activation analysis, 7. Ion beam analysis (PIXE, PIGE, RBS, secondary X-ray fluorescence), 8. Thermoluminescence dating, 9. Carbon-14 dating. These methods are used alone or in connection with other analytical methods. Any kind of materials can be encountered, for instance: i. stones, gems, ceramics, terracotta, enamels, glasses, i i. wood, paper, textile, bone, ivory, i i i. metals, jewellery, i v. paint layers, canvas and wooden backings, pigments, dyers, oils, binding media, varnishes, glues. Some examples will be taken, among recent work done at the Centre of Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (C2RMF), from various geographical origins, various ages and different art disciplines. This will illustrate the kind of assistance that science and technology can provide to a better knowledge of mankind's cultural heritage and also to the establishment of rational basis for its better conservation for the future generations. (Author)

  15. Validation of Design and Analysis Techniques of Tailored Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C. (Technical Monitor); Wijayratne, Dulnath D.

    2004-01-01

    Aeroelasticity is the relationship between the elasticity of an aircraft structure and its aerodynamics. This relationship can cause instabilities such as flutter in a wing. Engineers have long studied aeroelasticity to ensure such instabilities do not become a problem within normal operating conditions. In recent decades structural tailoring has been used to take advantage of aeroelasticity. It is possible to tailor an aircraft structure to respond favorably to multiple different flight regimes such as takeoff, landing, cruise, 2-g pull up, etc. Structures can be designed so that these responses provide an aerodynamic advantage. This research investigates the ability to design and analyze tailored structures made from filamentary composites. Specifically the accuracy of tailored composite analysis must be verified if this design technique is to become feasible. To pursue this idea, a validation experiment has been performed on a small-scale filamentary composite wing box. The box is tailored such that its cover panels induce a global bend-twist coupling under an applied load. Two types of analysis were chosen for the experiment. The first is a closed form analysis based on a theoretical model of a single cell tailored box beam and the second is a finite element analysis. The predicted results are compared with the measured data to validate the analyses. The comparison of results show that the finite element analysis is capable of predicting displacements and strains to within 10% on the small-scale structure. The closed form code is consistently able to predict the wing box bending to 25% of the measured value. This error is expected due to simplifying assumptions in the closed form analysis. Differences between the closed form code representation and the wing box specimen caused large errors in the twist prediction. The closed form analysis prediction of twist has not been validated from this test.

  16. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabipour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA technique and Malmquist indices.This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software.Six hospitals (50% had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05 (except in 2009 years.Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  17. Use of statistical techniques in analysis of biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the ancient age to the modern times not a single area can be found where statistics is not playing a vital role. Statistics has now been recognized and universally accepted as an essential component of research in every branch of science. Starting from agriculture, biology, education, economics, business, management, medical, engineering, psychology, environment and space, statistics is playing significant role. Statistics is being extensively used in biological sciences. Specifically, biostatistics is the branch of applied statistics that concerns the application of statistical methods to medical, genetics and biological problems. In the sequel, one important step is the appropriate and careful analysis of statistical data to get precise results. It is pertinent to mention that majority of statistical tests and techniques are applied under certain mathematical assumptions. Therefore, it is necessary to realize the importance of relevant assumptions. In this connection, among other assumptions, the assumption of normality (normal distribution of population(s and variance homogeneity etc. are the most important. If these assumptions are not satisfied, the results may be potentially misleading. It is, therefore, suggested to check the relevant assumption(s about the data before applying statistical test(s to get valid results. In this study, a few techniques/tests have been described for checking the normality of a given set of data. Since the Analysis of variance (ANOVA models are extensively used in biological research, therefore, the assumptions underlying the ANOVA have also been discussed. Non-parametric statistics is also described to some extent.

  18. Vortex metrology using Fourier analysis techniques: vortex networks correlation fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor

    2012-10-20

    In this work, we introduce an alternative method of analysis in vortex metrology based on the application of the Fourier optics techniques. The first part of the procedure is conducted as is usual in vortex metrology for uniform in-plane displacement determination. On the basis of two recorded intensity speckled distributions, corresponding to two states of a diffuser coherently illuminated, we numerically generate an analytical signal from each recorded intensity pattern by using a version of the Riesz integral transform. Then, from each analytical signal, a two-dimensional pseudophase map is generated in which the vortices are located and characterized in terms of their topological charges and their core's structural properties. The second part of the procedure allows obtaining Young's interference fringes when Fourier transforming the light passing through a diffracting mask with multiple apertures at the locations of the homologous vortices. In fact, we use the Fourier transform as a mathematical operation to compute the far-field diffraction intensity pattern corresponding to the multiaperture set. Each aperture from the set is associated with a rectangular hole that coincides both in shape and size with a pixel from recorded images. We show that the fringe analysis can be conducted as in speckle photography in an extended range of displacement measurements. Effects related with speckled decorrelation are also considered. Our experimental results agree with those of speckle photography in the range in which both techniques are applicable.

  19. Homogenization techniques for the analysis of porous SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, V.; Auricchio, F.; Marfia, S.; Sacco, E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the mechanical response of porous Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is modeled. The porous SMA is considered as a composite medium made of a dense SMA matrix with voids treated as inclusions. The overall response of this very special composite is deduced performing a micromechanical and homogenization analysis. In particular, the incremental Mori-Tanaka averaging scheme is provided; then, the Transformation Field Analysis procedure in its uniform and nonuniform approaches, UTFA and NUTFA respectively, are presented. In particular, the extension of the NUTFA technique proposed by Sepe et al. (Int J Solids Struct 50:725-742, 2013) is presented to investigate the response of porous SMA characterized by closed and open porosity. A detailed comparison between the outcomes provided by the Mori-Tanaka, the UTFA and the proposed NUTFA procedures for porous SMA is presented, through numerical examples for two- and three-dimensional problems. In particular, several values of porosity and different loading conditions, inducing pseudoelastic effect in the SMA matrix, are investigated. The predictions assessed by the Mori-Tanaka, the UTFA and the NUTFA techniques are compared with the results obtained by nonlinear finite element analyses. A comparison with experimental data available in literature is also presented.

  20. Comparative analysis of face recognition techniques with illumination variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illumination variation is one of the major challenges in the face recognition. To deal with this problem, this paper presents comparative analysis of three different techniques. First, the DCT is employed to compensate for illumination variations in the logarithm domain. Since illumination variation lies mainly in the low frequency band, an appropriate number of DCT coefficients are truncated to reduce the variations under different lighting conditions. The nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance is employed for classification. Second, the performance of PCA is checked on normalized image. PCA is a technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets to a lower dimension for analysis. Third, LDA based methods gives a satisfactory result under controlled lighting condition. But its performance under large illumination variation is not satisfactory. So, the performance of LDA is checked on normalized image. Experimental results on the Yale B and ORL database show that the proposed approach of application of PCA and LDA on normalized dataset improves the performance significantly for the face images with large illumination variations.

  1. The regeneration of polluted activated carbon by radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Minghong; Bao Borong [Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (China); Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang; Hu Longxin [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the regeneration of used activated carbon from monosodium glutamate factory was experimented using radiation and acid-alkali chemical cleaning method. Results showed that the activated carbon saturated with pollutants can be wash away easily by flushing with chemical solution prior irradiation. DSC was used to monitor the change of carbon adsorption.

  2. Comparison of correlation analysis techniques for irregularly sampled time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehfeld

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geoscientific measurements often provide time series with irregular time sampling, requiring either data reconstruction (interpolation or sophisticated methods to handle irregular sampling. We compare the linear interpolation technique and different approaches for analyzing the correlation functions and persistence of irregularly sampled time series, as Lomb-Scargle Fourier transformation and kernel-based methods. In a thorough benchmark test we investigate the performance of these techniques.

    All methods have comparable root mean square errors (RMSEs for low skewness of the inter-observation time distribution. For high skewness, very irregular data, interpolation bias and RMSE increase strongly. We find a 40 % lower RMSE for the lag-1 autocorrelation function (ACF for the Gaussian kernel method vs. the linear interpolation scheme,in the analysis of highly irregular time series. For the cross correlation function (CCF the RMSE is then lower by 60 %. The application of the Lomb-Scargle technique gave results comparable to the kernel methods for the univariate, but poorer results in the bivariate case. Especially the high-frequency components of the signal, where classical methods show a strong bias in ACF and CCF magnitude, are preserved when using the kernel methods.

    We illustrate the performances of interpolation vs. Gaussian kernel method by applying both to paleo-data from four locations, reflecting late Holocene Asian monsoon variability as derived from speleothem δ18O measurements. Cross correlation results are similar for both methods, which we attribute to the long time scales of the common variability. The persistence time (memory is strongly overestimated when using the standard, interpolation-based, approach. Hence, the Gaussian kernel is a reliable and more robust estimator with significant advantages compared to other techniques and suitable for large scale application to paleo-data.

  3. PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, J.; Hutchinson, P.; Townsend, T.; Whitaker, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of PV systems at the main test site in Davis, California: new module technologies fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays and more mature technologies fielded as 70- to 500-kW turnkey Utility-Scale (US) systems. PVUSA members have also installed systems in their service areas. Designed appropriately, data acquisition systems (DASs) can be a convenient and reliable means of assessing system performance, value, and health. Improperly designed, they can be complicated, difficult to use and maintain, and provide data of questionable validity. This report documents PVUSA PV system instrumentation and data analysis techniques and lessons learned. The report is intended to assist utility engineers, PV system designers, and project managers in establishing an objective, then, through a logical series of topics, facilitate selection and design of a DAS to meet the objective. Report sections include Performance Reporting Objectives (including operational versus research DAS), Recommended Measurements, Measurement Techniques, Calibration Issues, and Data Processing and Analysis Techniques. Conclusions and recommendations based on the several years of operation and performance monitoring are offered. This report is one in a series of 1994--1995 PVUSA reports documenting PVUSA lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California. Other topical reports address: five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid support PV plant benefits; construction and safety experience in installing and operating PV systems; balance-of-system design and costs; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  4. Residual matrix from different separation techniques impacts exosome biological activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Paolini; Andrea Zendrini; Giuseppe Di Noto; Sara Busatto; Elisabetta Lottini; Annalisa Radeghieri; Alessandra Dossi; Andrea Caneschi; Doris Ricotta; Paolo Bergese

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are gaining a prominent role in research due to their intriguing biology and several therapeutic opportunities. However, their accurate purification from body fluids and detailed physicochemical characterization remain open issues. We isolated exosomes from serum of patients with Multiple Myeloma by four of the most popular purification methods and assessed the presence of residual contaminants in the preparations through an ad hoc combination of biochemical and biophysical technique...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  6. Insight to Nanoparticle Size Analysis-Novel and Convenient Image Analysis Method Versus Conventional Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippola, Minnamari; Valkonen, Masi; Sarlin, Essi; Honkanen, Mari; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new image analysis program "Nanoannotator" particularly developed for analyzing individual nanoparticles in transmission electron microscopy images. This paper describes the usefulness and efficiency of the program when analyzing nanoparticles, and at the same time, we compare it to more conventional nanoparticle analysis techniques. The techniques which we are concentrating here are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with different image analysis methods and X-ray diffraction techniques. The developed program appeared as a good supplement to the field of particle analysis techniques, since the traditional image analysis programs suffer from the inability to separate the individual particles from agglomerates in the TEM images. The program is more efficient, and it offers more detailed morphological information of the particles than the manual technique. However, particle shapes that are very different from spherical proved to be problematic also for the novel program. When compared to X-ray techniques, the main advantage of the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method is the average data it provides from a very large amount of particles. However, the SAXS method does not provide any data about the shape or appearance of the sample. PMID:27030469

  7. Insight to Nanoparticle Size Analysis-Novel and Convenient Image Analysis Method Versus Conventional Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippola, Minnamari; Valkonen, Masi; Sarlin, Essi; Honkanen, Mari; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new image analysis program "Nanoannotator" particularly developed for analyzing individual nanoparticles in transmission electron microscopy images. This paper describes the usefulness and efficiency of the program when analyzing nanoparticles, and at the same time, we compare it to more conventional nanoparticle analysis techniques. The techniques which we are concentrating here are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with different image analysis methods and X-ray diffraction techniques. The developed program appeared as a good supplement to the field of particle analysis techniques, since the traditional image analysis programs suffer from the inability to separate the individual particles from agglomerates in the TEM images. The program is more efficient, and it offers more detailed morphological information of the particles than the manual technique. However, particle shapes that are very different from spherical proved to be problematic also for the novel program. When compared to X-ray techniques, the main advantage of the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method is the average data it provides from a very large amount of particles. However, the SAXS method does not provide any data about the shape or appearance of the sample.

  8. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  9. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  10. Use of decision analysis techniques to determine Hanford cleanup priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office, Westinghouse Hanford Company, and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated the Hanford Integrated Planning Process (HIPP) to ensure that technically sound and publicly acceptable decisions are made that support the environmental cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the HIPP's key roles is to develop an understanding of the science and technology (S and T) requirements to support the cleanup mission. This includes conducting an annual systematic assessment of the S and T needs at Hanford to support a comprehensive technology development program and a complementary scientific research program. Basic to success is a planning and assessment methodology that is defensible from a technical perspective and acceptable to the various Hanford stakeholders. Decision analysis techniques were used to help identify and prioritize problems and S and T needs at Hanford. The approach used structured elicitations to bring many Hanford stakeholders into the process. Decision analysis, which is based on the axioms and methods of utility and probability theory, is especially useful in problems characterized by uncertainties and multiple objectives. Decision analysis addresses uncertainties by laying out a logical sequence of decisions, events, and consequences and by quantifying event and consequence probabilities on the basis of expert judgments

  11. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard E.A. van Emmerik; Scott W. Ducharme; Avelino C. Amado; Joseph Hamill

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new states, and (3) are governed by short-and long-term (fractal) correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent) can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.

  12. The Acquisition High-resolution the Prospecting Technique of Seismic Data for of Active Faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chengbin; Liu Baojin; Ji Jifa

    2011-01-01

    The high-resolution shallow seismic technique can be used for more accurately prospecting the position and property of faults and for the preliminary study of fault activity. The author obtains many high quality stack time sections through the prospecting methods of different seismic sources, different group intervals and different observation systems on the Xiadian fault. These sections clearly display the stratum structure and the structure characteristics from several meters to several hundred meters of the Xiadian fault. The resolutions of the different seismic sources, different group intervals and different observing systems are obtained. The prospecting methods and work parameters applicable for goal stratum of different depths and different accuracy requirements are proposed through the analysis of the stack time sections. This lays a good foundation for raising the prospecting resolution of the fault position and the latest active time of the fault.

  13. Analysis by Neutron activation of the Calakmul jadeite mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to know the elemental composition of archaeological materials with the purpose to find relations that allow to establish their origin standards. the origin and present localization of pre hispanic archaeological pieces can lead to the determination of commercial routes and of technology transfer among different ancient cultures. In the present work it has been realized a systematic analysis using the Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique of three samples obtained from Calakmul jadeite mask, tomb I, that in addition to give a composition of constituent and trace elements detected by this technique it has leaded to establish an applicable methodology to the routine analysis of ceramics of historical interest. (Author)

  14. Nuclear fuel lattice performance analysis by data mining techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper shows a data mining application to analyse nuclear fuel lattice designs. • Data mining methods were used to predict if fuel lattices could operate in an adequate way into the BWR reactor core. • Data mining methods learned from fuel lattice datasets simulated with SIMULATE-3. • Results show high recognition percentages of adequate or inadequate fuel lattice performance. - Abstract: In this paper a data mining analysis for BWR nuclear fuel lattice performance is shown. In a typical three-dimensional simulation of the reactor operation simulator gives the core performance for a fuel lattice configuration measured by thermal limits, shutdown margin and produced energy. Based on these results we can determine the number of fulfilled parameters of a fuel lattice configuration. It is interesting to establish a relationship between the fuel lattice properties and the number of fulfilled core parameters in steady state reactor operation. So, with this purpose data mining techniques were used. Results indicate that these techniques are able to predict with enough accuracy (greater than 75%) if a given fuel lattice configuration will have a either “good” or “bad” performance according to reactor core simulation. In this way, they could be coupled with an optimization process to discard fuel lattice configurations with poor performance and, in this way accelerates the optimization process. Data mining techniques apply some filter methods to discard those variables with lower influence in the number of core fulfilled parameter. From this situation, it was also possible to identify a set of variables to be used in new optimization codes with different objective functions than those normally used

  15. Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    days after shoot cutting and decreased thereafter. In conclusion, the study showed that fresh root detritus stimulates enzyme activities much stronger than living roots, probably because of the high pulse input of C and N from dying roots compared to slow continuous release of rhizodeposits. Taken together, soil zymography is a very promising novel technique to gain insights the effects of roots on the spatial and temporal dynamic of exoenzyme activity in soil. References Spohn, M., Carminati, A., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013). Zymography - A novel in situ method for mapping distribution of enzyme activity in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 58, 275-280. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (2013): Distribution of microbial- and root- derived phosphatase activities in the rhizosphere depending on P availability and C allocation - Coupling soil zymography with 14C imaging. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67, 106-113. Spohn, M., Kuzyakov, Y. (accepted): Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity as affected by living and dead roots - A soil zymography analysis. Plant and Soil

  16. A comparison between active and passive techniques for measurements of radon emanation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Coto, I. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: Israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es; Mas, J.L. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada I, E.U.P., University of Seville, Seville (Spain); San Miguel, E.G.; Bolivar, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, I.I.T. Kharagpur, West Bengal (India)

    2009-05-15

    Some radon related parameters have been determined through two different techniques (passive and active) in soil and phosphogypsum samples. Emanation factors determined through these techniques show a good agreement for soil samples while for phosphogympsum samples appear large discrepancies. In this paper, these discrepancies are analyzed and explained if non-controlled radon leakages in the passive technique are taken into account.

  17. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The soft'' ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  18. Image analysis technique applied to lock-exchange gravity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helena I. S.; Adduce, Claudia; Alves, Elsa; Franca, Mário J.

    2013-04-01

    An image analysis technique is used to estimate the two-dimensional instantaneous density field of unsteady gravity currents produced by full-depth lock-release of saline water. An experiment reproducing a gravity current was performed in a 3.0 m long, 0.20 m wide and 0.30 m deep Perspex flume with horizontal smooth bed and recorded with a 25 Hz CCD video camera under controlled light conditions. Using dye concentration as a tracer, a calibration procedure was established for each pixel in the image relating the amount of dye uniformly distributed in the tank and the greyscale values in the corresponding images. The results are evaluated and corrected by applying the mass conservation principle within the experimental tank. The procedure is a simple way to assess the time-varying density distribution within the gravity current, allowing the investigation of gravity current dynamics and mixing processes.

  19. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Baldenegro-Barrera, C X; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Detwiler, J A; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2015-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0nbb-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR 0s germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  20. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  1. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  2. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuestra, Clara [University of Washington; Rielage, Keith Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xu, Wenqin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goett, John Jerome III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular HPGe detector array to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0νββ-decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The background rejection techniques to be applied to the data include cuts based on data reduction, pulse shape analysis, event coincidences, and time correlations. The Point Contact design of the DEMONSTRATOR's germanium detectors allows for significant reduction of gamma background.

  3. Expert rowers’ motion analysis for synthesis and technique digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippeschi Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Four expert rowers’ gestures were gathered on the SPRINT rowing platform with the aid of an optic motion tracking system. Data were analyzed in order to get a digital representation of the features involved in rowing. Moreover, these data provide a dataset for developing digital models for rowing motion synthesis. Rowers were modeled as kinematic chains, data were processed in order to get position and orientation of upper body limbs. This representation was combined with SPRINT data in order to evaluate features found in the literature, to find new ones and to build models for the generation of rowing motion. The analysis shows the effectiveness of the motion reconstruction and two examples of technique features: stroke timing and upper limbs orientation during the finish phase.

  4. Techniques for active embodiment of participants in virtual environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, R.; Stansfield, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary work in the development of an avatar driver. An avatar is the graphical embodiment of a user in a virtual world. In applications such as small team, close quarters training and mission planning and rehearsal, it is important that the user`s avatar reproduce his or her motions naturally and with high fidelity. This paper presents a set of special purpose algorithms for driving the motion of the avatar with minimal information about the posture and position of the user. These algorithms utilize information about natural human motion and posture to produce solutions quickly and accurately without the need for complex general-purpose kinematics algorithms. Several examples illustrating the successful applications of these techniques are included.

  5. Acoustical Characteristics of Mastication Sounds: Application of Speech Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochetti, Denise

    Food scientists have used acoustical methods to study characteristics of mastication sounds in relation to food texture. However, a model for analysis of the sounds has not been identified, and reliability of the methods has not been reported. Therefore, speech analysis techniques were applied to mastication sounds, and variation in measures of the sounds was examined. To meet these objectives, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, a digital sound spectrograph generated waveforms and wideband spectrograms of sounds by 3 adult subjects (1 male, 2 females) for initial chews of food samples differing in hardness and fracturability. Acoustical characteristics were described and compared. For all sounds, formants appeared in the spectrograms, and energy occurred across a 0 to 8000-Hz range of frequencies. Bursts characterized waveforms for peanut, almond, raw carrot, ginger snap, and hard candy. Duration and amplitude of the sounds varied with the subjects. In the second experiment, the spectrograph was used to measure the duration, amplitude, and formants of sounds for the initial 2 chews of cylindrical food samples (raw carrot, teething toast) differing in diameter (1.27, 1.90, 2.54 cm). Six adult subjects (3 males, 3 females) having normal occlusions and temporomandibular joints chewed the samples between the molar teeth and with the mouth open. Ten repetitions per subject were examined for each food sample. Analysis of estimates of variation indicated an inconsistent intrasubject variation in the acoustical measures. Food type and sample diameter also affected the estimates, indicating the variable nature of mastication. Generally, intrasubject variation was greater than intersubject variation. Analysis of ranks of the data indicated that the effect of sample diameter on the acoustical measures was inconsistent and depended on the subject and type of food. If inferences are to be made concerning food texture from acoustical measures of mastication

  6. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  7. Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Hoffman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format.

  8. New trends in the development of "active correlations" technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2016-09-01

    With reaching extremely high intensities of heavy-ion beams, new requirements for the detection system of the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) will definitely be set. One of the challenges is how to apply the "active correlations" method [1-6] to suppress beam associated background products without significant losses in the whole long-term experiment efficiency value. Different scenarios and equations for the development of a method according to this requirement are under consideration in the present paper.

  9. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  10. Application of the INAA technique for elemental analysis of metallic biomaterials used in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cincu, Em [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Research and Development in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele, 407 Atomistilor Street, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania)], E-mail: cincue@nipne.ro; Craciun, L.; Manea-Grigore, Ioana; Cazan, I.L.; Manu, V. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Research and Development in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele, 407 Atomistilor Street, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Barbos, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Mioveni, 1Campului Street, P. O. Box 78, Bucharest 115400 (Romania); Cocis, A. [Dental Surgery Clinic PANA-DANIELA, Bucharest, 6 Intrarea Buzesti Street (Romania)

    2009-12-15

    The sensitive nuclear analytical technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied on several types of metallic biomaterials (Heraenium CE, Ventura Nibon, Wiron 99 and Ducinox which are currently used for restoration in the dental clinics) to study its performance in elemental analysis and identify eventual limitations. The investigation has been performed by two NAA Laboratories and aimed at getting an answer to the question on how the biomaterials compositions influence the patients' health over the course of time, taking into account the EC Directive 94/27/EC recommendations concerning Ni toxicity.

  11. Analysis of some herbal plants from India used in the control of diabetes mellitus by NAA and AAS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Pardeshi, B.M. [Pune Univ., Chemistry Dept., Pune (India)

    1997-08-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the control of diabetes has been done by the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ca, Zn and Hg are found to be present in different plants in various proportions. (Author).

  12. Efficient geometric rectification techniques for spectral analysis algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Pang, S. S.; Curlander, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral analysis algorithm is a viable technique for processing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in near real time throughput rates by trading the image resolution. One major challenge of the spectral analysis algorithm is that the output image, often referred to as the range-Doppler image, is represented in the iso-range and iso-Doppler lines, a curved grid format. This phenomenon is known to be the fanshape effect. Therefore, resampling is required to convert the range-Doppler image into a rectangular grid format before the individual images can be overlaid together to form seamless multi-look strip imagery. An efficient algorithm for geometric rectification of the range-Doppler image is presented. The proposed algorithm, realized in two one-dimensional resampling steps, takes into consideration the fanshape phenomenon of the range-Doppler image as well as the high squint angle and updates of the cross-track and along-track Doppler parameters. No ground reference points are required.

  13. Pattern recognition software and techniques for biological image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Shamir

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays.

  14. Sensitivity-analysis techniques: self-teaching curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iman, R.L.; Conover, W.J.

    1982-06-01

    This self teaching curriculum on sensitivity analysis techniques consists of three parts: (1) Use of the Latin Hypercube Sampling Program (Iman, Davenport and Ziegler, Latin Hypercube Sampling (Program User's Guide), SAND79-1473, January 1980); (2) Use of the Stepwise Regression Program (Iman, et al., Stepwise Regression with PRESS and Rank Regression (Program User's Guide) SAND79-1472, January 1980); and (3) Application of the procedures to sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the groundwater transport model MWFT/DVM (Campbell, Iman and Reeves, Risk Methodology for Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste - Transport Model Sensitivity Analysis; SAND80-0644, NUREG/CR-1377, June 1980: Campbell, Longsine, and Reeves, The Distributed Velocity Method of Solving the Convective-Dispersion Equation, SAND80-0717, NUREG/CR-1376, July 1980). This curriculum is one in a series developed by Sandia National Laboratories for transfer of the capability to use the technology developed under the NRC funded High Level Waste Methodology Development Program.

  15. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. 中子活化法表征酸奶与苹果中有机卤化物%Study of organohalogens in yogurt and apple by neutron activation analysis and related techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 柴之芳; 孙慧斌

    2008-01-01

    利用仪器中子活化分析、气相色谱和化学分离相结合的方法,研究随机采自北京、深圳超市的酸奶(20个品牌)和苹果(9种)中总卤素、可萃取有机卤素、可萃取持久性有机卤素和可鉴别持久性有机氯.结果显示,Cl、Br和I的INAA探测极限分别为50 ng、8 ng和3.5 ng.酸奶中可萃取有机氯占总氯含量的0.005%~0.043%,其中约24%为耐浓硫酸的可萃取持久性有机氯,可鉴别有机氯占总EPOCl的0.7%~13.1%;苹果中相应比例分别为1.6%~5.1%、34%和0.5%~6.2%,表明酸奶与苹果中的氯化物主要为极性水溶性化合物,EOCl主要为酸溶或酸不稳定氯化物,大部分EPOCl为现代气相色谱技术尚不能鉴别的未知化合物,仍留待人们去认识.%Twenty brands of Chinese commercial yogurt specimens and nine different kinds of apple samples collected randomly from supermarkets in Beijing and Shenzhen,China,were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with gas chromatography (GC) and chemical separation methods for total halogens,extractable organohalogens (EOX),extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and identified organochlorines. The INAA detection limits are 50 ng,8 ng and 3.5 ng for Cl,Br and I,respectively. The extractable organochlorines (EOCl) accounted for 0.005% to 0.043% of the total chlorine in yogurt and 1.6% to 5.1% in apple.About 24% of EOCl kept undecomposed as the extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) after treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid in yogurt,and 34% in apple.These results indicated that chlorine in the two selected foodstuffs mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organochlorines,and most EOCl in yogurt and apple were acid-liable or acid-soluble fractions. The Ratios of identified organochlorines to total EPOCl were 0.7% to 13.1% and 0.5% to 6.2% in yogurt and apple samples,respectively,which implying that a major portion of EPOCl measured in yogurt and apple

  17. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  18. Ionospheric Plasma Drift Analysis Technique Based On Ray Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Gizem; Toker, Cenk

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric drift measurements provide important information about the variability in the ionosphere, which can be used to quantify ionospheric disturbances caused by natural phenomena such as solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. One of the prominent ways for drift measurement depends on instrumentation based measurements, e.g. using an ionosonde. The drift estimation of an ionosonde depends on measuring the Doppler shift on the received signal, where the main cause of Doppler shift is the change in the length of the propagation path of the signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Unfortunately, ionosondes are expensive devices and their installation and maintenance require special care. Furthermore, the ionosonde network over the world or even Europe is not dense enough to obtain a global or continental drift map. In order to overcome the difficulties related to an ionosonde, we propose a technique to perform ionospheric drift estimation based on ray tracing. First, a two dimensional TEC map is constructed by using the IONOLAB-MAP tool which spatially interpolates the VTEC estimates obtained from the EUREF CORS network. Next, a three dimensional electron density profile is generated by inputting the TEC estimates to the IRI-2015 model. Eventually, a close-to-real situation electron density profile is obtained in which ray tracing can be performed. These profiles can be constructed periodically with a period of as low as 30 seconds. By processing two consequent snapshots together and calculating the propagation paths, we estimate the drift measurements over any coordinate of concern. We test our technique by comparing the results to the drift measurements taken at the DPS ionosonde at Pruhonice, Czech Republic. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR14/001 projects.

  19. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  20. Isotopic techniques for measuring the biological activity in plant rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of 14C made it possible to separate root respired CO2 and microbial CO2 resulting from exudates utilisation by the rhizosphere microflora. Measurements were done after wheat plants grown under axenic and non axenic conditions were placed during short period of time in an atmosphere contaning 14CO2. Under axenic conditions evolution of 14CO2 follows a bell shaped curve due to the brief appearance of labelled compounds translocated from the aerial part of the plants to the roots. In the presence of microorganisms, the maximum of activity due to root respiration is identical but immediately followed by a second peak of 14CO2 evolution that was attributed to the decomposition of labelled exudates by the microflora. The same observations resulted from the labelling of a grassland vegetation sampled with its soil and placed in the laboratory. Preliminary results obtained using this method of short term labelling of plants are presented here

  1. A dynamic mechanical analysis technique for porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Adam J; McGarry, Matthew; Weaver, John B; Paulsen, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is a common way to measure the mechanical properties of materials as functions of frequency. Traditionally, a viscoelastic mechanical model is applied and current DMA techniques fit an analytical approximation to measured dynamic motion data by neglecting inertial forces and adding empirical correction factors to account for transverse boundary displacements. Here, a finite element (FE) approach to processing DMA data was developed to estimate poroelastic material properties. Frequency-dependent inertial forces, which are significant in soft media and often neglected in DMA, were included in the FE model. The technique applies a constitutive relation to the DMA measurements and exploits a non-linear inversion to estimate the material properties in the model that best fit the model response to the DMA data. A viscoelastic version of this approach was developed to validate the approach by comparing complex modulus estimates to the direct DMA results. Both analytical and FE poroelastic models were also developed to explore their behavior in the DMA testing environment. All of the models were applied to tofu as a representative soft poroelastic material that is a common phantom in elastography imaging studies. Five samples of three different stiffnesses were tested from 1 – 14 Hz with rough platens placed on the top and bottom surfaces of the material specimen under test to restrict transverse displacements and promote fluid-solid interaction. The viscoelastic models were identical in the static case, and nearly the same at frequency with inertial forces accounting for some of the discrepancy. The poroelastic analytical method was not sufficient when the relevant physical boundary constraints were applied, whereas the poroelastic FE approach produced high quality estimates of shear modulus and hydraulic conductivity. These results illustrated appropriate shear modulus contrast between tofu samples and yielded a consistent contrast in

  2. MEASURING THE LEANNESS OF SUPPLIERS USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zare Mehrjerdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A technique that helps management to reduce costs and improve quality is ‘lean supply chain management’, which focuses on the elimination of all wastes in every stage of the supply chain and is derived from ‘agile production’. This research aims to assess and rank the suppliers in an auto industry, based upon the concept of ‘production leanness’. The focus of this research is on the suppliers of a company called Touse-Omron Naein. We have examined the literature about leanness, and classified its criteria into ten dimensions and 76 factors. A questionnaire was used to collect the data, and the suppliers were ranked using the principal component analysis (PCA technique.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Lenige voorsieningsbestuur (“lean supply chain management” is ’n tegniek wat bestuur in staat stel om koste te verminder en gehalte te verbeter. Dit fokus op die vermindering van vermorsing op elke stadium van die voorsieningsketting en word afgelei van ratse vervaardiging (“agile production”. Hierdie navorsing poog om leweransiers in ’n motorbedryf te beoordeel aan die hand van die konsep van vervaardigingslenigheid (“production leanness”. Die navorsing fokus op leweransiers van ’n maatskappy genaamd Touse-Omron Naein. ’n Literatuurstudie aangaande lenigheid het gelei tot die klassifikasie van kriteria in tien dimensies en 76 faktore. ’n Vraelys is gebruik om die data te versamel en die leweransiers is in rangvolgorde geplaas aan die hand van die PCA-tegniek.

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle cost analysis using a probabilistic simulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple approach was described to incorporate the Monte Carlo simulation technique into a fuel cycle cost estimate. As a case study, the once-through and recycle fuel cycle options were tested with some alternatives (ie. the change of distribution type for input parameters), and the simulation results were compared with the values calculated by a deterministic method. A three-estimate approach was used for converting cost inputs into the statistical parameters of assumed probabilistic distributions. It was indicated that the Monte Carlo simulation by a Latin Hypercube Sampling technique and subsequent sensitivity analyses were useful for examining uncertainty propagation of fuel cycle costs, and could more efficiently provide information to decisions makers than a deterministic method. It was shown from the change of distribution types of input parameters that the values calculated by the deterministic method were set around a 40th ∼ 50th percentile of the output distribution function calculated by probabilistic simulation. Assuming lognormal distribution of inputs, however, the values calculated by the deterministic method were set around an 85th percentile of the output distribution function calculated by probabilistic simulation. It was also indicated from the results of the sensitivity analysis that the front-end components were generally more sensitive than the back-end components, of which the uranium purchase cost was the most important factor of all. It showed, also, that the discount rate made many contributions to the fuel cycle cost, showing the rank of third or fifth of all components. The results of this study could be useful in applications to another options, such as the Dcp (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In Candu reactors) cycle with high cost uncertainty

  4. Assessment of Random Assignment in Training and Test Sets using Generalized Cluster Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The properness of random assignment of compounds in training and validation sets was assessed using the generalized cluster technique. Material and Method: A quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship model using Molecular Descriptors Family on Vertices was evaluated in terms of assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets during the leave-many-out analysis. Assignment of compounds was investigated using five variables: observed anticancer activity and four structure descriptors. Generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm was applied in order to investigate if the assignment of compounds was or not proper. The Euclidian distance and maximization of the initial distance using a cross-validation with a v-fold of 10 was applied. Results: All five variables included in analysis proved to have statistically significant contribution in identification of clusters. Three clusters were identified, each of them containing both carboquinone derivatives belonging to training as well as to test sets. The observed activity of carboquinone derivatives proved to be normal distributed on every. The presence of training and test sets in all clusters identified using generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm and the distribution of observed activity within clusters sustain a proper assignment of compounds in training and test set. Conclusion: Generalized cluster analysis using the K-means algorithm proved to be a valid method in assessment of random assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets.

  5. Superresolution and other mathematical techniques for quantitative analysis of infrared absorption and emission spectra of gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicholas M.; Lettington, Alan H.; Hilton, Moira

    1997-05-01

    Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy has become a powerful analytical tool for the detection and measurement of atmospheric pollutant gases. This work describes the application of concentration analysis techniques to data recorded with a versatile FTIR spectroscopy system, developed at the University of Reading PHysics Department. Spectra were recorded at three separate sites, each possessing a distinct source of atmospheric pollution gases. The two sites monitored in the active mode were a traffic congested town center at rush hour and a dairy farm cow shed. The site monitored passively contained three 5 m high methane burners. The analysis techniques have been designed to provide rapid and accurate analysis of the spectrometer data, without the need for high computing power, thus making analysis possible in the field using a laptop PC. In an attempt to enhance the resolution of the spectral data, and therefore resolve overlapping spectral lines, a super- resolution algorithm has been tested on part of the recorded data. The results of applying the algorithm has been tested on part of the recorded data. The results of applying the algorithm, predominantly an image processing technique, are shown and improvements to the algorithm are discussed. Results from the urban and agricultural sites show that CO, CH4, and NH3 can be measured to a ppm level with a maximum uncertainly of 8 percent.

  6. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100μm. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two large earrings

  7. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  8. DNQAA program to be used in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of the analysed elements were calculated by the program, based on the instrumental technique of analysis by activation. The DNQAA corrects due to the radioactive decay and to the neutron flow variation or carried particles and too the error propagation involved in the analysis. It is written in ORACL to be used in the ORTEC 6240-42 system. (L.M.J.)

  9. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  10. A novel preconcentration technique for the PIXE analysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of using dried algae as a novel preconcentration technique for the analysis of water samples by PIXE was examined. The algae cells were found to contain significant levels of P and S, indicative of phosphorous- and sulfur-containing groups on the cell wall or inside the algae cells which may serve as potential binding sites for metal ions. When C. vulgaris was used on mixed metal solutions, linear responses were observed for Ag+, Ba2+, and Cd2+ in the concentration range from 10 ng/g to 1 μg/g; for Cu2+ and Pb2+ from 10 ng/g to 5 μg/g; and for Hg2+ from 10 ng/g to 10 μg/g. When S. bacillaris was used, linear responses were observed from 10 ng/g up to 10 μg/g for all of the metal cations investigated. The PIXE results demonstrated that metal binding at low concentrations involves replacement of sodium on the cell wall and that at high concentrations magnesium was also replaced. Competitive binding studies indicate that the metal ions, Ag+, Ba2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+, share common binding sites with binding efficiencies varying in the sequence of Pb2+>Cu2+>Ag2+>Cd2+>Ba2+. The binding of Hg2+ involved a different binding site with an increase in binding efficiency in the presence of Ag+. (orig.)

  11. Damage Detection and Analysis in CFRPs Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Travis Laron

    Real time monitoring of damage is an important aspect of life management of critical structures. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques allow for measurement and assessment of damage in real time. Acoustic emission parameters such as signal amplitude and duration were monitored during the loading sequences. Criteria that can indicate the onset of critical damage to the structure were developed. Tracking the damage as it happens gives a better analysis of the failure evolution that will allow for a more accurate determination of structural life. The main challenge is distinguishing between legitimate damage signals and "false positives" which are unrelated to damage growth. Such false positives can be related to electrical noise, friction, or mechanical vibrations. This research focuses on monitoring signals of damage growth in carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) and separating the relevant signals from the false ones. In this Dissertation, acoustic emission signals from CFRP specimens were experimentally recorded and analyzed. The objectives of this work are: (1) perform static and fatigue loading of CFRP composite specimens and measure the associated AE signals, (2) accurately determine the AE parameters (energy, frequency, duration, etc.) of signals generated during failure of such specimens, (3) use fiber optic sensors to monitor the strain distribution of the damage zone and relate these changes in strain measurements to AE data.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Different LIDAR System Calibration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.; Habib, A.

    2016-06-01

    With light detection and ranging (LiDAR) now being a crucial tool for engineering products and on the fly spatial analysis, it is necessary for the user community to have standardized calibration methods. The three methods in this study were developed and proven by the Digital Photogrammetry Research Group (DPRG) for airborne LiDAR systems and are as follows; Simplified, Quasi-Rigorous, and Rigorous. In lieu of using expensive control surfaces for calibration, these methods compare overlapping LiDAR strips to estimate the systematic errors. These systematic errors are quantified by these methods and include the lever arm biases, boresight biases, range bias and scan angle scale bias. These three methods comprehensively represent all of the possible flight configurations and data availability and this paper will test the limits of the method with the most assumptions, the simplified calibration, by using data that violates the assumptions it's math model is based on and compares the results to the quasi-rigorous and rigorous techniques. The overarching goal is to provide a LiDAR system calibration that does not require raw measurements which can be carried out with minimal control and flight lines to reduce costs. This testing is unique because the terrain used for calibration does not contain gable roofs, all other LiDAR system calibration testing and development has been done with terrain containing features with high geometric integrity such as gable roofs.

  13. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed

  14. Stratified source-sampling techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A.

    1998-07-10

    In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo ''Eigenvalue of the World'' problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. In this paper, stratified source-sampling techniques are generalized and applied to three different Eigenvalue of the World configurations which take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem, but which differ in the amount of neutronic coupling among the constituents of each configuration. It is concluded that, in Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis of loosely-coupled arrays, the use of stratified source-sampling reduces the probability of encountering an anomalous result over that if conventional source-sampling methods are used. However, this gain in reliability is substantially less than that observed in the model-problem results.

  15. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  16. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  17. Analysis of Consistency of Printing Blankets using Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an analytical tool to quantify material consistency of offset printing blankets. Printing blankets are essentially viscoelastic rubber composites of several laminas. High levels of material consistency are expected from rubber blankets for quality print and for quick recovery from smash encountered during the printing process. The present study aims at determining objectively the consistency of printing blankets at three specific torque levels of tension under two distinct stages; 1. under normal printing conditions and 2. on recovery after smash. The experiment devised exhibits a variation in tone reproduction properties of each blanket signifying the levels of inconsistency also in thicknessdirection. Correlation technique was employed on ink density variations obtained from the blanket on paper. Both blankets exhibited good consistency over three torque levels under normal printing conditions. However on smash the recovery of blanket and its consistency was a function of manufacturing and torque levels. This study attempts to provide a new metrics for failure analysis of offset printing blankets. It also underscores the need for optimizing the torque for blankets from different manufacturers.

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  19. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  20. Investigation of Lecturer's Chalk by X-Ray Florescence and Fast Neutron Activation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different samples of lecturer's chalk were studied, using X-ray florescence (XRF) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) techniques to ensure the safety of its use. The K (X-rays) and the gamma-rays were measured, using Si(Li) and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers to detect and determine qualitatively and quantitatively the constituents of the studied samples. For the investigated bulk chalk samples, the XRF was used for determination the average neutron flux of 2×107 n/cm2 sec. The concentrations of the elements (Ca and small traces of Al, Fe, Mg and Si) were measured and their presence was confirmed by γ-ray, lifetime and/or XRF measurements.

  1. Descriptive, metallographic and chemical study of cooper-alloy points found at the grave of one member of the Sican elite, Lambayeque - Peru, using optical microscopy techniques and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper offers a description as well as physical and morphological analyses of 489 points found inside the grave of one of the elite members of Sican (900 - 1110 dC). A metallographic study of one of the points is also carried out, plus the multielemental-quantitative chemical analysis of twelve items from the same grave. In addition, four points of the same culture from the Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Antropologia e Historia of Peru are also analyzed

  2. HPLC-MS technique for radiopharmaceuticals analysis and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macášek, F.; Búriová, E.; Brúder, P.; Vera-Ruiz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Potentialities of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detector (MSD) were investigated with the objective of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals; 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) being an example. Screening of suitable MSD analytical lines is presented. Mass-spectrometric monitoring of acetonitrile— aqueous ammonium formate eluant by negatively charged FDG.HCO2 - ions enables isotope analysis (specific activity) of the radiopharmaceutical at m/z 227 and 226. Kryptofix® 222 provides an intense MSD signal of the positive ion associated with NH4 + at m/z 394. Expired FDG injection samples contain decomposition products from which at least one labelled by 18F and characterised by signal of negative ions at m/z 207 does not correspond to FDG fragments but to C5 decomposition products. A glucose chromatographic peak, characterised by m/z 225 negative ion is accompanied by a tail of a component giving a signal of m/z 227, which can belong to [18O]glucose; isobaric sorbitol signals were excluded but FDG-glucose association occurs in the co-elution of separation of model mixtures. The latter can actually lead to a convoluted chromatographic peak, but the absence of 18F makes this inconsistent. Quantification and validation of the FDG component analysis is under way.

  3. Fluorometric Discrimination Technique of Phytoplankton Population Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shanshan; SU Rongguo; DUAN Yali; ZHANG Cui; SONG Zhijie; WANG Xiulin

    2012-01-01

    The discrete excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence spectra(EEMS)at 12 excitation wavelengths (400,430,450,460,470,490,500,510,525,550,570,and 590 nm)and emission wavelengths ranging from 600-750 nm were determined for 43 phytoplankton species.A two-rank fluorescence spectra database was established by wavelet analysis and a fluorometric discrimination technique for determining phytoplankton population was developed.For laboratory simulatively mixed samples,the samples mixed from 43 algal species(the algae of one division accounted for 25%,50%,75%,85%,and 100% of the gross biomass,respectively),the average discrimination rates at the level of division were 65.0%,87.5%,98.6%,99.0%,and 99.1%,with average relative contents of 18.9%,44.5%,68.9%,73.4%,and 82.9%,respectively;the samples mixed from 32 red tide algal species(the dominant species accounted for 60%,70%,80%,90%,and 100% of the gross biomass,respectively),the average correct discrimination rates of the dominant species at the level of genus were 63.3%,74.2%,78.8%,83.4%,and 79.4%,respectively.For the 81 laboratory mixed samples with the dominant species accounting for 75% of the gross biomass(chlorophyll),the discrimination rates of the dominant species were 95.1% and 72.8% at the level of division and genus,respectively.For the 12 samples collected from the mesocosm experiment in Maidao Bay of Qingdao in August 2007,the dominant species of the 11 samples were recognized at the division level and the dominant species of four of the five samples in which the dominant species accounted for more than 80% of the gross biomass were discriminated at the genus level;for the 12 samples obtained from Jiaozhou Bay in August 2007,the dominant species of all the 12 samples were recognized at the division level.The technique can be directly applied to fluorescence spectrophotometers and to the developing of an in situ algae fluorescence auto-analyzer for

  4. Comparative Analysis of Vehicle Make and Model Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Ayub Syed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle Make and Model Recognition (VMMR has emerged as a significant element of vision based systems because of its application in access control systems, traffic control and monitoring systems, security systems and surveillance systems, etc. So far a number of techniques have been developed for vehicle recognition. Each technique follows different methodology and classification approaches. The evaluation results highlight the recognition technique with highest accuracy level. In this paper we have pointed out the working of various vehicle make and model recognition techniques and compare these techniques on the basis of methodology, principles, classification approach, classifier and level of recognition After comparing these factors we concluded that Locally Normalized Harris Corner Strengths (LHNS performs best as compared to other techniques. LHNS uses Bayes and K-NN classification approaches for vehicle classification. It extracts information from frontal view of vehicles for vehicle make and model recognition.

  5. ESTIMATION OF ACTIVATED ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF n—HEXANE ON ACTIVATED CARBONS BY PTD TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhong; WANGHongjuan; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,six kinds of activated carbons such as Ag+-activated carbon,Cu2+activated carbon,Fe3+-activated carbon,activated carbon,Ba2+-activated carbon and Ca2+activated carbon were prepared.The model for estimating activated energy of desorption was established.Temperature-programmed desorption(TPD)experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of n-hexanol and then estimate the activation energy for desorption of n-hexanol on the activated carbons.Results showed that the activation energy for the desorption of n-hexanol on the Ag+-activated carbon,the Cu2+-activated carbon and the Fe3+-activated carbon were higher than those of n-hexanol on the activated carbon,the Ca2+-activated carbon and the Ba2+-activated carbon.

  6. ESTIMATION OF ACTIVATED ENERGY OF DESORPTION OF n-HEXANE ON ACTIVATED CARBONS BY TPD TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, six kinds of activated carbons such as Ag+-activated carbon, Cu2+-activated carbon, Fe3+- activated carbon, activated carbon, Ba2+- activated carbon and Ca2+-activated carbon were prepared. The model for estimating activated energy of desorption was established. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted to measure the TPD curves of n-hexanol and then estimate the activation energy for desorption of n-hexanol on the activated carbons. Results showed that the activation energy for the desorption of n-hexanol on the Ag+- activated carbon, the Cu2+- activated carbon and the Fe3+- activated carbon were higher than those of n-hexanol on the activated carbon, the Ca2+- activated carbon and the Ba2+- activated carbon.

  7. Analysis of Jugular Foramen Exposure in the Fallopian Bridge Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Satar, Bulent; Yazar, Fatih; Aykut CEYHAN; Arslan, Hasan Huseyin; Aydin, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the exposure of the jugular foramen afforded by the fallopian bridge technique. Method: The jugular foramen exposure was obtained using the jugular foramen approach combined with the fallopian bridge technique. We applied this technique using 10 temporal bone specimens at a tertiary referral center. The exposure was assessed by means of depth of the dissection field and two separate dissection spaces that were created anteriorly and posteriorly to the facial nerve. Anter...

  8. Development of active control technique for engine noise. Engine soon no active seigyo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H.; Nakao, N.; Butsuen, T. (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1994-03-31

    As a measure to reduce engine noise in a car, the active noise control (ANC) technique to eliminate noise by another noise of antiphase has been studied. The conventional filtered-x LMS control algorithm has been generally applied to the ANC, but a large quantity of arithmetic operation used for filtering is practically problematic. This paper proposes the new algorithm of which control effects and practicability have been improved by utilizing periodicity of engine noise and by introducing the idea of error scanning. This algorithm requires only 30-50% of the arithmetic operation of the above LMS method. Concerning the actual system structure, arrangement and the number of microphones have been examined based on the detailed measurement results of the spatial distribution of noise in a car. As a result, the suitable arrangement of only three microphones to reduce noise in the whole interior space of a car is found. Through the experiments, maximum noise reduction of 8dB (A scale) has been achieved at each seat position. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Biomechanical analysis of cross-country skiing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A

    1992-09-01

    The development of new techniques for cross-country skiing based on skating movements has stimulated biomechanical research aimed at understanding the various movement patterns, the forces driving the motions, and the mechanical factors affecting performance. Research methods have evolved from two-dimensional kinematic descriptions of classic ski techniques to three-dimensional analyses involving measurement of the forces and energy relations of skating. While numerous skiing projects have been completed, most have focused on either the diagonal stride or the V1 skating technique on uphill terrain. Current understanding of skiing mechanics is not sufficiently complete to adequately assess and optimize an individual skier's technique.

  10. Getting the Most Out of Dual-Listed Courses: Involving Undergraduate Students in Discussion Through Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasich, C. M.; Duncan, L. L.; Duncan, B. R.; Burkhardt, B. L.; Benneyworth, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Dual-listed courses will persist in higher education because of resource limitations. The pedagogical differences between undergraduate and graduate STEM student groups and the underlying distinction in intellectual development levels between the two student groups complicate the inclusion of undergraduates in these courses. Active learning techniques are a possible remedy to the hardships undergraduate students experience in graduate-level courses. Through an analysis of both undergraduate and graduate student experiences while enrolled in a dual-listed course, we implemented a variety of learning techniques used to complement the learning of both student groups and enhance deep discussion. Here, we provide details concerning the implementation of four active learning techniques - role play, game, debate, and small group - that were used to help undergraduate students critically discuss primary literature. Student perceptions were gauged through an anonymous, end-of-course evaluation that contained basic questions comparing the course to other courses at the university and other salient aspects of the course. These were given as a Likert scale on which students rated a variety of statements (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = no opinion, and 5 = strongly agree). Undergraduates found active learning techniques to be preferable to traditional techniques with small-group discussions being rated the highest in both enjoyment and enhanced learning. The graduate student discussion leaders also found active learning techniques to improve discussion. In hindsight, students of all cultures may be better able to take advantage of such approaches and to critically read and discuss primary literature when written assignments are used to guide their reading. Applications of active learning techniques can not only address the gap between differing levels of students, but also serve as a complement to student engagement in any science course design.

  11. Structural analysis of irradiated crotoxin by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Karina C. de; Fucase, Tamara M.; Silva, Ed Carlos S. e; Chagas, Bruno B.; Buchi, Alisson T.; Viala, Vincent L.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: kcorleto@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Snake bites are a serious public health problem, especially in subtropical countries. In Brazil, the serum, the only effective treatment in case of snake bites, is produced in horses which, despite of their large size, have a reduced lifespan due to the high toxicity of the antigen. Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate the biological activity of animal toxins. Crotoxin, the main toxic compound from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt), is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits: crotapotin and phospholipase A{sub 2}. Previous data indicated that this protein, following irradiation process, undergoes unfolding and/or aggregation, resulting in a much lower toxic antigen. The exact mechanisms and structural modifications involved in aggregation process are not clear yet. This work investigates the effects of ionizing radiation on crotoxin employing Infrared Spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism and Dynamic Light Scattering techniques. The infrared spectrum of lyophilized crotoxin showed peaks corresponding to the vibrational spectra of the secondary structure of crotoxin, including β-sheet, random coil, α-helix and β-turns. We calculated the area of these spectral regions after adjusting for baseline and normalization using the amide I band (1590-1700 cm{sup -1}), obtaining the variation of secondary structures of the toxin following irradiation. The Circular Dichroism spectra of native and irradiated crotoxin suggests a conformational change within the molecule after the irradiation process. This data indicates structural changes between the samples, apparently from ordered conformation towards a random coil. The analyses by light scattering indicated that the irradiated crotoxin formed multimers with an average molecular radius 100 folds higher than the native toxin. (author)

  12. SYSTEMATIC SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING COMBINED BIOLOIGCAL/GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic scanning election microscope analytical technique has been developed to examine granular activated carbon used a a medium for biomass attachment in liquid waste treatment. The procedure allows for the objective monitoring, comparing, and trouble shooting of combined ...

  13. Analysis of a proposed Compton backscatter imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James M.; Jacoby, Barry A.

    1994-03-01

    One-sided imaging techniques are currently being used in nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and shallow subsurface structures. In this work we present both analytical calculations and detailed Monte Carlo simulations aimed at assessing the capability of a proposed Compton backscattering imaging technique designed to detect and characterize voids located several centimeters below the surface of a solid.

  14. A Technique for the Analysis of Auto Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothern, Ray D.; And Others

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline explains a technique for separating the complex mixture of hydrocarbons contained in automotive exhausts. A Golay column and subambient temperature programming technique are…

  15. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  16. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  17. Using Metadata Analysis and Base Analysis Techniques in Data Qualities Framework for Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwa A. Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Information provided by any applications systems in organization is vital in order to obtain a decision. Due to this factor, the quality of data provided by Data Warehouse (DW is really important for organization to produce the best solution for their company to move forwards. DW is complex systems that have to deliver highly-aggregated, high quality data from heterogeneous sources to decision makers. It involves a lot of integration of sources system to support business operations. Problem statement: Many of DW projects are failed because of Data Quality (DQ problems. DQ issues become a major concern over decade. Approach: This study proposes a framework for implementing DQ in DW system architecture using Metadata Analysis Technique and Base Analysis Technique. Those techniques perform comparison between target values and current values gain from the systems. A prototype using PHP is develops to support Base Analysis Techniques. Then a sample schema from Oracle database is used to study differences between applying the framework or not. The prototype is demonstrated to the selected organizations to identify whether it will help to reduce DQ problems. Questionnaires have been given to respondents. Results: The result show user interested in applying DQ processes in their organizations. Conclusion/Recommendation: The implementation of the framework suggested in real situation need to be conducted to obtain more accurate result.

  18. Association of two techniques of frontal sinus radiographic analysis for human identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonan Ferreira da SILVA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The analysis of images with human identificationpurpose is a routine activity in the departments of forensic medicine, especially when is necessary to identify burned bodies, skeletal remains or corpses in advanced stage of decomposition. Case report: The feasibility and reliability of the analysis of the morphoradiographic image of the frontal sinus is showed, displayed in a posteroanterior (PA radiography of skull produced in life compared to another produced post-death. Conclusion: The results obtained in the radiographic comparison through the association of two different techniques of analysis of the frontal sinus allowed a positive correlation of the identity of the disappeared person with the body in an advanced stage of decomposition.

  19. A practical technique for benefit-cost analysis of computer-aided design and drafting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of benefits and costs associated with the operation of Computer-Aided Design and Drafting Systems (CADDS) are needed to derive economic justification for acquiring new systems, as well as to evaluate the performance of existing installations. In practice, however, such analyses are difficult to perform since most technical and economic advantages of CADDS are ΣirreduciblesΣ, i.e. cannot be readily translated into monetary terms. In this paper, a practical technique for economic analysis of CADDS in a drawing office environment is presented. A Σworst caseΣ approach is taken since increase in productivity of existing manpower is the only benefit considered, while all foreseen costs are taken into account. Methods of estimating benefits and costs are described. The procedure for performing the analysis is illustrated by a case study based on the drawing office activities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. (auth)

  20. Sampling technique and analysis of the sediments of low level wastes (LLW) of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay and decay is one of the techniques adopted by the nuclear plants for low level waste (LLW) before treating the effluents for final disposal. During this process the solution is kept in alkaline condition and is left open to the atmosphere which leads to the formation of algae which along with sand forms the sediment. The sediment is buried in shallow landfill sites. To reduce its volume, it is often compacted or incinerated (in a closed container) before disposal. It is important to know the composition and activity of the sediment before disposal to make it environmentally safe. The sediment analysis results are shown and the need for proper sampling technique is emphasized in this paper. It is evident from the table that the activity of the sediment is not consistent throughout the tank necessitating proper sampling before carrying out the analysis. The sampling are drawn from three different locations from a point near to the inlet of the effluents and mixed thoroughly to form a uniform sample. Similarly sampling is done from three different locations is done from the point farthest from the inlet of effluents. These are mixed to make a second sample. The average of the analysis results of these two samples are taken as the final value. Known volume of the sediment in the form of slurry is taken. centrifuged and the settled residue is analysed. The residue is dissolved in sulphuric acid and estimated by radiometry. (author)

  1. Annual Report on Scientific Activities in 1997 of Department of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report 1997 is the review of scientific activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Techniques (DNPT) of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow. The studies connected with: radiometric analysis, nuclear electronics, solid state physics, elementary particle and detectors, medical physics, physics of environment, theoretical physics, nuclear geophysics, energetic problems, industrial radiometry and tracer techniques have been broadly presented. The fill list of works being published and presented at scientific conferences in 1997 by the staff of DNPT are also included

  2. Analysis of hydrogen in corrosion product films on molybdenum and niobium using ERDA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Ali [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Center for Applied Physical Sciences; Khaled, M.M. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) technique with {sup 1}H({alpha},{alpha}){sup 1}H forward scattering was used at 3.0 MeV to analyze hydrogen in corrosion product films formed on molybdenum and niobium surfaces at selected potentials of the anodic and cathodic potentiodynamic scan. Hydrogen in the corrosion film on molybdenum was found to be linearly increasing with the polarizing potential. On the other hand, niobium film is found to be less permeable to hydrogen in the active region compared to the passive region of the voltammogram. (author)

  3. Multidimensional scaling technique for analysis of magnetic storms at Indian observatories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sridharan; A M S Ramasamy

    2002-12-01

    Multidimensional scaling is a powerful technique for analysis of data. The latitudinal dependenceof geomagnetic field variation in horizontal component (H) during magnetic storms is analysed in this paper by employing this technique.

  4. SRAM standby leakage decoupling analysis for different leakage reduction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Qing; Lin Yinyin

    2013-01-01

    SRAM standby leakage reduction plays a pivotal role in minimizing the power consumption of application processors.Generally,four kinds of techniques are often utilized for SRAM standby leakage reduction:Vdd lowering (VDDL),Vss rising (VSSR),BL floating (BLF) and reversing body bias (RBB).In this paper,we comprehensively analyze and compare the reduction effects of these techniques on different kinds of leakage.It is disclosed that the performance of these techniques depends on the leakage composition of the SRAM cell and temperature.This has been verified on a 65 nm SRAM test macro.

  5. Surveillance of the nuclear instrumentation by a noise analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear sensors used in the protection channels of a nuclear reactor, have to be tested periodically. A method has been developed to estimate the state of this kind of sensor. The method proposed applies to boron ionization chambers. The principle of this technique is based on the calculation of a specific parameter named a ''descriptor'', using a simple signal processing technique. A modification of this parameter indicates a degradation of the static and dynamic performances of the sensor. Different applications of the technique in a nuclear power plant are given

  6. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed

  7. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  8. Comparative analysis of data mining techniques for business data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Jastini Mohd; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Data mining is the process of employing one or more computer learning techniques to automatically analyze and extract knowledge from data contained within a database. Companies are using this tool to further understand their customers, to design targeted sales and marketing campaigns, to predict what product customers will buy and the frequency of purchase, and to spot trends in customer preferences that can lead to new product development. In this paper, we conduct a systematic approach to explore several of data mining techniques in business application. The experimental result reveals that all data mining techniques accomplish their goals perfectly, but each of the technique has its own characteristics and specification that demonstrate their accuracy, proficiency and preference.

  9. Analysis of neutron-reflectometry data by Monte Carlo technique

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-reflectometry data is collected in momentum space. The real-space information is extracted by fitting a model for the structure of a thin-film sample. We have attempted a Monte Carlo technique to extract the structure of the thin film. In this technique we change the structural parameters of the thin film by simulated annealing based on the Metropolis algorithm. (orig.)

  10. Data Mining Techniques: A Source for Consumer Behavior Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Raorane; R.V. Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Data mining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, the data mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, his psychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply...

  11. MUMAL: Multivariate analysis in shotgun proteomics using machine learning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerqueira Fabio R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shotgun strategy (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is widely applied for identification of proteins in complex mixtures. This method gives rise to thousands of spectra in a single run, which are interpreted by computational tools. Such tools normally use a protein database from which peptide sequences are extracted for matching with experimentally derived mass spectral data. After the database search, the correctness of obtained peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs needs to be evaluated also by algorithms, as a manual curation of these huge datasets would be impractical. The target-decoy database strategy is largely used to perform spectrum evaluation. Nonetheless, this method has been applied without considering sensitivity, i.e., only error estimation is taken into account. A recently proposed method termed MUDE treats the target-decoy analysis as an optimization problem, where sensitivity is maximized. This method demonstrates a significant increase in the retrieved number of PSMs for a fixed error rate. However, the MUDE model is constructed in such a way that linear decision boundaries are established to separate correct from incorrect PSMs. Besides, the described heuristic for solving the optimization problem has to be executed many times to achieve a significant augmentation in sensitivity. Results Here, we propose a new method, termed MUMAL, for PSM assessment that is based on machine learning techniques. Our method can establish nonlinear decision boundaries, leading to a higher chance to retrieve more true positives. Furthermore, we need few iterations to achieve high sensitivities, strikingly shortening the running time of the whole process. Experiments show that our method achieves a considerably higher number of PSMs compared with standard tools such as MUDE, PeptideProphet, and typical target-decoy approaches. Conclusion Our approach not only enhances the computational performance, and

  12. Reticle defect sizing of optical proximity correction defects using SEM imaging and image analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrick, Larry S.; Wang, Lantian; Konicek, Paul; Laird, Ellen R.

    2000-07-01

    Sizing of programmed defects on optical proximity correction (OPC) feature sis addressed using high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and image analysis techniques. A comparison and analysis of different sizing methods is made. This paper addresses the issues of OPC defect definition and discusses the experimental measurement results obtained by SEM in combination with image analysis techniques.

  13. Recent developments in environmental research using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies of the origin and fates of trace elements, it is advantageous to be able to analyze samples for a wide spectrum of elements with a high sensitivity and accuracy. This condition is best satisfied with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), since it is one of the most sensitive, selective, and reliable multielement analysis techniques available. In spite of these advantages in environmental studies, use of the technique has been generally limited to aerosol and source material analysis. Over the last few years, the trace analysis and radiochemistry group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Nuclear Reactor Laboratory has applied INAA to various environmental samples for methodology development and/or to provide more information on some important environmental processes. Some examples of these studies are provided in this paper

  14. A robust satellite technique for monitoring seismically active areas: The case of Bhuj Gujarat earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzano, N.; Aliano, C.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2007-02-01

    A robust satellite data analysis technique (RAT) has been recently proposed as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions and already successfully tested in different cases of earthquakes (both high and medium-low magnitudes). In this paper, the efficiency and the potentialities of the RAT technique have been tested even when it is applied to a wide area with extremely variable topography, land coverage and climatic characteristics (the whole Indian subcontinent). Bhuj-Gujarat's earthquake (occurred on 26th January 2001, MS ˜ 7.9) has been considered as a test case in the validation phase, while a relatively unperturbed period (no earthquakes with MS ≥ 5, in the same region and in the same period) has been analyzed for confutation purposes. To this aim, 6 years of Meteosat-5 TIR observations have been processed for the characterization of the TIR signal behaviour at each specific observation time and location. The anomalous TIR values, detected by RAT, have been evaluated in terms of time-space persistence in order to establish the existence of actually significant anomalous transients. The results indicate that the studied area was affected by significant positive thermal anomalies which were identified, at different intensity levels, not far from the Gujarat coast (since 15th January, but with a clearer evidence on 22nd January) and near the epicentral area (mainly on 21st January). On 25th January (1 day before Gujarat's earthquake) significant TIR anomalies appear on the Northern Indian subcontinent, showing a remarkable coincidence with the principal tectonic lineaments of the region (thrust Himalayan boundary). On the other hand, the results of the confutation analysis indicate that no meaningful TIR anomalies appear in the absence of seismic events with MS ≥ 5.

  15. on the use of INAA and ICP-MS Techniques for analysis of some cosmetics samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques have been used for the analysis of compact eye shadow cosmetics samples. these techniques were chosen for their simplicity. rapidity and sensitivity for analysis of such samples. the analyzed samples were collected from the egyptian market and were of different origins either imported or locally - manufactured. About 21 trace elements have been determined in the analyzed samples. these elements are: Ag,Ba, Cd, Ce, Co,Cr, Cs,Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg,Ni,Pb,Rb, Sb,Sc,Sn, Ta,Th and Zn. The percentage relative standard deviation (%RSD) has been calculated in each case. the importance of this study is to determine trace elements which may have toxic or irritant effects since cosmetics products, similar to drugs come in contact with human skin, and to evaluate the possibility of using INAA for controlling the imitations of brand name through trace elements analysis . the results are discussed in the present paper

  16. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  17. A Social Network Analysis Approach to Detecting Suspicious Online Financial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Jianping

    Social network analysis techniques can be applied to help detect financial crimes. We discuss the relationship between detecting financial crimes and the social web, and use select case studies to illustrate the potential for applying social network analysis techniques. With the increasing use of online financing services and online financial activities, it becomes more challenging to find suspicious activities among massive numbers of normal and legal activities.

  18. IN VITRO ANALYSIS OF MIGRATION ACTIVITY OF ENCEPHALYTOGENIC T CEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in an adoptive transfer model is caused by injecting animal with activated T cells specific for a CNS antigen, e.g., basic myelin protein. Development of autimmune inflammation in such a model is connected with changed functional stateof encephalytogenic (EG T cells in the coure of disease progression, as reflected by changes in their activation, proliferation and motility levels. Present work describes an original technique allowing for in vitro analysis of encephalytogenic T cell motility, and studying effects of certain compomemts of extracellular matrix upon migration and functional activities of EG T cells.

  19. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  1. Contribution of nuclear analytical techniques to the rescue of Brazilian history through the analysis of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prehistory of the last two millennia in Brazil has been characterized by the coexistence of several cultures in each region. Some were competing - specialized agricultural societies in the alluvial plains - but other groups lived in a more isolated and probably peaceful way in the upper interfluvial region. It is difficult to determine what the level of integration was between the different tribes of the Proto-Ge, Proto-Tupi, Proto-Aruaque and Carib populations. Archaeologists wanted to obtain more information concerning social behaviour through the chemical analysis of the ceramics. To provide some clues to help the archaeologists find the answers, k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine element concentrations in the ceramics. The k0 INAA technique was chosen to be applied to the determination of elements because it can determine several elements in the same sample almost simultaneously, with a low detection limit and without any chemical procedure, as is required in the majority of non-nuclear techniques. This technique was the most suitable for this study because it did not entail the destruction of these important items of historical ceramics, it required only a very small piece of the materials to be analysed, and it was able to give the element concentration of more than 20 elements from just one small piece of precious ceramic. The k0 method was applied to all samples, demonstrating its quality as a versatile technique, and it was confirmed to be one of the most advantageous and suitable nuclear analytical techniques

  2. Traveling through potential energy surfaces of disordered materials: the activation-relaxation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousseau, N.; Barkema, G.T.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed description of the activation-relaxation technique (ART) is presented. This method defines events in the configurational energy landscape of disordered materials such as amorphous semiconductors, glasses and polymers, in a two-step process: first, a configuration is activated from a local

  3. Applying Modern Techniques and Carrying Out English .Extracurricular—— On the Model United Nations Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXiaoyu; WangJian

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the extracurricular activity of the Model United Nations in Northwestern Polyteehnical University (NPU) and it focuses on the application of the modem techniques in the activity and the pedagogical theories applied in it. An interview and questionnaire research will reveal the influence of the Model United Nations.

  4. Reconstructing muscle activation during normal walking: a comparison of symbolic and connectionist machine learning techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, Ben W.; Veltink, Peter H.; Rijkhoff, Nico J.M.; Rutten, Wim L.C.; Andrews, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    One symbolic (rule-based inductive learning) and one connectionist (neural network) machine learning technique were used to reconstruct muscle activation patterns from kinematic data measured during normal human walking at several speeds. The activation patterns (or desired outputs) consisted of sur

  5. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines

  6. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Sim, Yun Sub

    2001-02-01

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines.

  7. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  8. Determination of arterial input function in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI using group independent component analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sharon; Liu, Ho-Ling; Yang, Yihong; Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2006-12-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the determination of the arterial input function (AIF). The segmentation of surrounding tissue by manual selection is error-prone due to the partial volume artifacts. Independent component analysis (ICA) has the advantage in automatically decomposing the signals into interpretable components. Recently group ICA technique has been applied to fMRI study and showed reduced variance caused by motion artifact and noise. In this work, we investigated the feasibility and efficacy of the use of group ICA technique to extract the AIF. Both simulated and in vivo data were analyzed in this study. The simulation data of eight phantoms were generated using randomized lesion locations and time activity curves. The clinical data were obtained from spin-echo EPI MR scans performed in seven normal subjects. Group ICA technique was applied to analyze data through concatenating across seven subjects. The AIFs were calculated from the weighted average of the signals in the region selected by ICA. Preliminary results of this study showed that group ICA technique could not extract accurate AIF information from regions around the vessel. The mismatched location of vessels within the group reduced the benefits of group study.

  9. Quantitation of microbicidal activity of mononuclear phagocytes: an in vitro technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Rege N; Dahanukar S

    1993-01-01

    An in vitro assay technique was set up to determine the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of a monocyte-macrophage cell line using Candida species as test organisms. The norms were determined for the activity of peritoneal macrophages of rats (24.69 +/- 2.6% phagocytosis and 35.4 +/- 5.22% ICK) and human (27.89 +/- 3.63% phagocytosis and 50.91 +/- 6.3% ICK). The assay technique was used to test the degree of activation of macrophages ...

  10. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  11. COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADKI.M.R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensity histogram gives information which can be used for contrast enhancement. The histogram equalization could be flat for levels less than the total number of levels. This could deteriorate the image. This problem can be overcome various techniques. This paper gives a comparative of the Bi-Histogram Equalization, Recursive Mean Seperated Histogram Equalization, Multipeak Histogram Equalization and Brightness Preserving Dynamic Histogram Equalization techniques by using these techniques to test few standard images. The method of bi-histogram uses independent histogram over two separate subimages. The method of recursive uses several subimages. Multipeak Histogram Equalization detects the peaks in the histogram and the subimages are formed based on the number detected. The Brightness Preserving Dynamic Histogram Equalization improves contrast while it maintains the brightness of the image. We shall compare the results through the metric parameters of absolute mean Brightness error and peak signal to noise ratio.

  12. Comparative study of Authorship Identification Techniques for Cyber Forensics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Nirkhi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Authorship Identification techniques are used to identify the most appropriate author from group of potential suspects of online messages and find evidences to support the conclusion. Cybercriminals make misuse of online communication for sending blackmail or a spam email and then attempt to hide their true identities to void detection.Authorship Identification of online messages is the contemporary research issue for identity tracing in cyber forensics. This is highly interdisciplinary area as it takes advantage of machine learning, information retrieval, and natural language processing. In this paper, a study of recent techniques and automated approaches to attributing authorship of online messages is presented. The focus of this review study is to summarize all existing authorship identification techniques used in literature to identify authors of online messages. Also it discusses evaluation criteria and parameters for authorship attribution studies and list open questions that will attract future work in this area.

  13. Data Mining Techniques: A Source for Consumer Behavior Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Raorane, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Data mining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, the data mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages. Therefore, it is important to select appropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, his psychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply to improve conventional method. Moreover, in an experiment, association rule is employed to mine rules for trusted customers using sales data in a super market industry

  14. An Information Diffusion Technique for Fire Risk Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 黄崇福

    2004-01-01

    There are many kinds of fires occurring under different conditions. For a specific site, it is difficult to collect sufficient data for analyzing the fire risk. In this paper, we suggest an information diffusion technique to analyze fire risk with a small sample. The information distribution method is applied to change crisp observations into fuzzy sets, and then to effectively construct a fuzzy relationship between fire and surroundings. With the data of Shanghai in winter, we show how to use the technique to analyze the fire risk.

  15. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES: A SOURCE FOR CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Raorane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Various studies on consumer purchasing behaviors have been presented and used in real problems. Datamining techniques are expected to be a more effective tool for analyzing consumer behaviors. However, thedata mining method has disadvantages as well as advantages.Therefore, it is important to selectappropriate techniques to mine databases. The objective of this paper is to know consumer behavior, hispsychological condition at the time of purchase and how suitable data mining method apply to improveconventional method. Moreover, in an experiment, association rule is employed to mine rules for trustedcustomers using sales data in a super market industry

  17. [An analysis of key points for root canal therapy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M W

    2016-08-01

    The success rate of root canal therapy(RCT)have been improved continuously along with the advancement in RCT techniques in the past several decades. If standard procedures of modern RCT techniques are strictly followed, the success rate of RCT may exceed 90%. The success of RCT is mainly affected by such factors as clear concept of the anatomy of root canals, proper mechanical and chemical preparation and perfect filling of root canal system. If these factors are sufficiently noted, a success is easy to achieve. Even though the primary RCT fails, retreatment can further be conducted to save the diseased teeth. PMID:27511032

  18. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  19. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  20. Sixth Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the abstracts of 77 lectures. The topics focus on instrumentation, nuclear techniques and their applications for material science, surfaces, archaeometry, art, geological, environmental and biomedical studies. An outline of the Australian facilities available for research purposes is also provided. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers in this volume

  1. Analysis on Poe's Unique Techniques to Achieve Aestheticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔佳鸣

    2008-01-01

    Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most important poets in the American poetic history for his unremitting pursuit for ‘ideal beauty'.This essay proves by various examples chosen from his poems that his aestheticism was obvious in his versification techniques.His poetic theory and practice gave an immortal example for the development of the English poetry.

  2. Analysis of ISO 26262 Compliant Techniques for the Automotive Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kannan, M. S.; Dajsuren, Y.; Luo, Y.; Barosan, I.

    2015-01-01

    The ISO 26262 standard denes functional safety for automotive E/E systems. Since the publication of the rst edition of this standard in 2011, many dierent safety techniques complying to the ISO 26262 have been developed. However, it is not clear which parts and (sub-) phases of the standard are targ

  3. Design and Testing Analysis of Requirement Prioritizations Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growing need of software in our day to day life, the complexity of the software is increasing as well and also the number of requirements associated to the modern software projects. So, in order to overcome the increasing demands and the pressure on the software engineers and program managers to deliver the software to the customers on time and in given budget, there is a huge need to identify the most important requirements and establish their relative importance for implementation according to certain criteria. The existing techniques for requirement prioritization although provide consistent results but are difficult to use and implement. Whereas some existing techniques that are easy to apply lack structure to analyze the complex requirements. Moreover the available techniques lack user friendliness in the prioritization process. So in order to overcome these issues or problems, a hybrid approach of two available techniques was proposed in our earlier work. In this paper we analyzed the design of the proposed system and testing plan of the system. Use case diagram and control flow diagram are used to explain the structure of the approach.

  4. Design and Testing Analysis of Requirement Prioritizations Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing need of software in our day to day life, the complexity of the software is increasing as well and also the number of requirements associated to the modern software projects. So, in order to overcome the increasing demands and the pressure on the software engineers and program managers to deliver the software to the customers on time and in given budget, there is a huge need to identify the most important requirements and establish their relative importance for implementation according to certain criteria. The existing techniques for requirement prioritization although provide consistent results but are difficult to use and implement. Whereas some existing techniques that are easy to apply lack structure to analyze the complex requirements. Moreover the available techniques lack user friendliness in the prioritization process. So in order to overcome these issues or problems, a hybrid approach of two available techniques was proposed in our earlier work. In this paper we analyzed the design of the proposed system and testing plan of the system. Use case diagram and control flow diagram are used to explain the structure of the approach.

  5. Value of Earth Observations: Key principles and techniques of socioeconomic benefits analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, L.; Macauley, M.; Bernknopf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Internationally, multiple organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal benefits that governments, businesses, and NGOs can derive from applications of Earth-observing satellite observations, research, and models. A growing set of qualitative, anecdotal examples on the uses of Earth observations across a range of sectors can be complemented by the quantitative substantiation of the socioeconomic benefits. In turn, the expanding breadth of environmental data available and the awareness of their beneficial applications to inform decisions can support new products and services by companies, agencies, and civil society. There are, however, significant efforts needed to bridge the Earth sciences and social and economic sciences fields to build capacity, develop case studies, and refine analytic techniques in quantifying socioeconomic benefits from the use of Earth observations. Some government programs, such as the NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program have initiated activities in recent years to quantify the socioeconomic benefits from applications of Earth observations research, and to develop multidisciplinary models for organizations' decision-making activities. A community of practice has conducted workshops, developed impact analysis reports, published a book, developed a primer, and pursued other activities to advance analytic methodologies and build capacity. This paper will present an overview of measuring socioeconomic impacts of Earth observations and how the measures can be translated into a value of Earth observation information. It will address key terms, techniques, principles and applications of socioeconomic impact analyses. It will also discuss activities to pursue a research agenda on analytic techniques, develop a body of knowledge, and promote broader skills and capabilities.

  6. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  7. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  8. Qualitative analysis of the elliptical centric technique and the TRICKS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Seung; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and elliptical centric MRA according to the type of cerebral disease. From February 2010 to January 2012, elliptical centric MRA and TRICKS MRA images were acquired from 50 normal individuals and 50 patients with cerebral diseases by using 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The images were analyzed qualitatively by examining areas such as the presence or absence of artifacts on the images, the distinctness of boundaries of blood vessels, accurate representation of the lesions, and the subtraction level. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction rate, negative prediction rate and accuracy were assessed by comparing the diagnostic efficacy of the two techniques. The results revealed TRICKS MRA to have superior image quality to elliptical centric MRA. Regarding each disease, TRICKS MRA showed higher diagnostic efficacy for artery venous malformation (AVM) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass patients whereas elliptical centric MRA was more suitable for patients with brain tumors, cerebral infarction, cerebral stenosis or sinus mass.

  9. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    OpenAIRE

    Direito, Artur; Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklis...

  10. Effect of Preparation Techniques of Y-Mo/HZSM-5 on Its Activity in Methane Aromatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiying Wang; Weiming Lin

    2004-01-01

    The production of benzene directly from methane aromatization under oxygen-free condition is currently a new focus in natural gas utilization. The influence of preparation techniques of the catalysts on their catalytic activities is studied in this paper. The influencing factors include the impregnating method, the calcination temperature, the promoter content and the acidity of the zeolite support. Optimum preparation techniques for the catalysts are obtained through this work.

  11. Pathways of distinction analysis: a new technique for multi-SNP analysis of GWAS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Rosemary; Buetow, Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become increasingly common due to advances in technology and have permitted the identification of differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles that are associated with diseases. However, while typical GWAS analysis techniques treat markers individually, complex diseases (cancers, diabetes, and Alzheimers, amongst others) are unlikely to have a single causative gene. Thus, there is a pressing need for multi-SNP analysis methods that can reveal system-level differences in cases and controls. Here, we present a novel multi-SNP GWAS analysis method called Pathways of Distinction Analysis (PoDA). The method uses GWAS data and known pathway-gene and gene-SNP associations to identify pathways that permit, ideally, the distinction of cases from controls. The technique is based upon the hypothesis that, if a pathway is related to disease risk, cases will appear more similar to other cases than to controls (or vice versa) for the SNPs associated with that pathway. By systematically applying the method to all pathways of potential interest, we can identify those for which the hypothesis holds true, i.e., pathways containing SNPs for which the samples exhibit greater within-class similarity than across classes. Importantly, PoDA improves on existing single-SNP and SNP-set enrichment analyses, in that it does not require the SNPs in a pathway to exhibit independent main effects. This permits PoDA to reveal pathways in which epistatic interactions drive risk. In this paper, we detail the PoDA method and apply it to two GWAS: one of breast cancer and the other of liver cancer. The results obtained strongly suggest that there exist pathway-wide genomic differences that contribute to disease susceptibility. PoDA thus provides an analytical tool that is complementary to existing techniques and has the power to enrich our understanding of disease genomics at the systems-level.

  12. Determination of boron in water solution by an indirect neutron activation technique from a 241Am/Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron content in water solutions has been analysed by Indirect Activation Technique a twin 241Am/Be neutron source with a source strength of 9x106 n/seg. The boron concentration was inferred from the measurement of the activity induced in a vanadium flux monitor. The vanadium rod was located inside the boron solution in a standart geometrical set up with respect to the neutron source. Boron concentrations in the range of 100 to 1000 ppm were determined with an overall accuracy of about 2% during a total analysis time of about 20 minutes. Eventhough the analysis is not selective for boron yet due the rapid, simple and precise nature, it is proposed for the analysis of boron in the primary coolant circuit of Nuclear Power Plants of PWR type. (Author)

  13. 48 CFR 15.404-1 - Proposal analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the offeror's cost trends, on the basis of current and historical cost or pricing data; (C... required. (2) Price analysis shall be used when certified cost or pricing data are not required (see paragraph (b) of this subsection and 15.404-3). (3) Cost analysis shall be used to evaluate...

  14. Twitter Sentiment Analysis of Movie Reviews using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Amolik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is basically concerned with analysis of emotions and opinions from text. We can refer sentiment analysis as opinion mining. Sentiment analysis finds and justifies the sentiment of the person with respect to a given source of content. Social media contain huge amount of the sentiment data in the form of tweets, blogs, and updates on the status, posts, etc. Sentiment analysis of this largely generated data is very useful to express the opinion of the mass. Twitter sentiment analysis is tricky as compared to broad sentiment analysis because of the slang words and misspellings and repeated characters. We know that the maximum length of each tweet in Twitter is 140 characters. So it is very important to identify correct sentiment of each word. In our project we are proposing a highly accurate model of sentiment analysis of tweets with respect to latest reviews of upcoming Bollywood or Hollywood movies. With the help of feature vector and classifiers such as Support vector machine and Naïve Bayes, we are correctly classifying these tweets as positive, negative and neutral to give sentiment of each tweet.

  15. Analysis of Requirement Engineering Processes, Tools/Techniques and Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tousif ur Rehman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is an integral part of the software development lifecycle since the basis for developing successful software depends on comprehending its requirements in the first place. Requirement engineering involves a number of processes for gathering requirements in accordance with the needs and demands of users and stakeholders of the software product. In this paper, we have reviewed the prominent processes, tools and technologies used in the requirement gathering phase. The study is useful to perceive the current state of the affairs pertaining to the requirement engineering research and to understand the strengths and limitations of the existing requirement engineering techniques. The study also summarizes the best practices and how to use a blend of the requirement engineering techniques as an effective methodology to successfully conduct the requirement engineering task. The study also highlights the importance of security requirements as though they are part of the non-functional requirement, yet are naturally considered fundamental to secure software development.

  16. Method development for arsenic analysis by modification in spectrophotometric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a non-metallic constituent, present naturally in groundwater due to some minerals and rocks. Arsenic is not geologically uncommon and occurs in natural water as arsenate and arsenite. Additionally, arsenic may occur from industrial discharges or insecticide application. World Health Organization (WHO and Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority have recommended a permissible limit of 10 ppb for arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic at lower concentrations can be determined in water by using high tech instruments like the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (hydride generation. Because arsenic concentration at low limits of 1 ppb can not be determined easily with simple spectrophotometric technique, the spectrophotometric technique using silver diethyldithiocarbamate was modified to achieve better results, up to the extent of 1 ppb arsenic concentration.

  17. Analysis of kidney stones by PIXE and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human kidney stones were analyzed by PIXE and RBS techniques using 2 MeV He++ beam. The stones were found to contain the elements: C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Br. Results obtained by PIXE agree with the results obtained by RBS within experimental errors. A Mechanism for the formation of the kidney stones is suggested. 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Document analysis by means of data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jabeen, Saima

    2014-01-01

    The huge amount of textual data produced everyday by scientists, journalists and Web users, allows investigating many different aspects of information stored in the published documents. Data mining and information retrieval techniques are exploited to manage and extract information from huge amount of unstructured textual data. Text mining also known as text data mining is the processing of extracting high quality information (focusing relevance, novelty and interestingness) from text by iden...

  19. Analysis of deployment techniques for webbased applications in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Cathal

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is no longer just a source for accessing information; it has become a valuable medium for social networking and software services. Web-browsers can now access entire software systems available online to provide the user with a range of services. The concept of software as a service(SAAS) was born out of this. The number of development techniques and frameworks for such web-applications has grown rapidly and much research and development has been carried out on adva...

  20. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA MINING TECHNIQUES FOR SOCIAL NETWORK WEBSITES

    OpenAIRE

    S.G.S. Fernando; S.N. Perera

    2015-01-01

    Social networks allow users to collaborate with others. People of similar backgrounds and interests meet and cooperate using these social networks, enabling them to share information across the world. The social networks contain millions of unprocessed raw data. By analyzing this data new knowledge can be gained. Since this data is dynamic and unstructured traditional data mining techniques will not be appropriate. Web data mining is an interesting field with vast amount of applications. With...

  1. Empirical Analysis of Data Mining Techniques for Social Network Websites

    OpenAIRE

    S.G.S. Fernando; MdGaparMdJohar; S.N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Social networks allow users to collaborate with others. People of similar backgrounds and interests meet and cooperate using these social networks, enabling them to share information across the world. The social networks contain millions of unprocessed raw data. By analyzing this data new knowledge can be gained. Since this data is dynamic and unstructured traditional data mining techniques will not be appropriate. Web data mining is an interesting field with vast amount of ap...

  2. A Low Latency Electrocardiographic QRS Activity Recovery Technique for Use on the Upper Left Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical mode decomposition is used as a low latency method of recovering the cardiac ventricular activity QRS biopotential signals recorded from the upper arm. The recovery technique is tested and compared with the industry accepted technique of signal averaging using a database of “normal” rhythm traces from bipolar ECG leads along the left arm, recorded from patient volunteers at a cardiology day procedure clinic. The same partial recomposition technique is applied to recordings taken using an innovative dry electrode technology supplied by Plessey Semiconductors. In each case, signal to noise ratio (SNR is used as a metric for comparison.

  3. Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals using WaveletTransformation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Subba Rao

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE monitoring is carried out during proof pressure testing of pressurevessels to find the occurrence of any crack growth-related phenomenon. While carrying out AEmonitoring, it is often found that the background noise is very high. Along with the noise, thesignal includes various phenomena related to crack growth, rubbing of fasteners, leaks, etc. Dueto the presence of noise, it becomes difficult to identify signature of the original signals related to the above phenomenon. Through various filtering/ thresholding techniques, it was found that the original signals were getting filtered out along with noise. Wavelet transformation technique is found to be more appropriate to analyse the AE signals under such situations. Wavelet transformation technique is used to de-noise the AE data. The de-noised signal is classified to identify a signature based on the type of phenomena.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.559-564, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1677

  4. An ASIC Low Power Primer Analysis, Techniques and Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Chadha, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an invaluable primer on the techniques utilized in the design of low power digital semiconductor devices.  Readers will benefit from the hands-on approach which starts form the ground-up, explaining with basic examples what power is, how it is measured and how it impacts on the design process of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs).  The authors use both the Unified Power Format (UPF) and Common Power Format (CPF) to describe in detail the power intent for an ASIC and then guide readers through a variety of architectural and implementation techniques that will help meet the power intent.  From analyzing system power consumption, to techniques that can employed in a low power design, to a detailed description of two alternate standards for capturing the power directives at various phases of the design, this book is filled with information that will give ASIC designers a competitive edge in low-power design. Starts from the ground-up and explains what power is, how it is measur...

  5. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  6. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  7. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents dev...... population globally sensitive to specific world issues. The models discuss the dynamics of population in response to such issues. All the models presented in the thesis can be combined for a systematic analysis of illicit activities.......Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis...

  8. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  9. Statistical analysis of heartbeat data with wavelet techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazsit, Imre

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of some methods of signal analysis, performed on ECG and in some cases blood pressure signals, for the classification of the health status of the heart of mice and rats. Spectral and wavelet analysis were performed on the raw signals. FFT-based coherence and phase was also calculated between blood pressure and raw ECG signals. Finally, RR-intervals were deduced from the ECG signals and an analysis of the fractal dimensions was performed. The analysis was made on data from mice and rats. A correlation was found between the health status of the mice and the rats and some of the statistical descriptors, most notably the phase of the cross-spectra between ECG and blood pressure, and the fractal properties and dimensions of the interbeat series (RR-interval fluctuations).

  10. Automated image analysis techniques for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, Robertus Jacobus van der

    2011-01-01

    The introductory chapter provides an overview of various aspects related to quantitative analysis of cardiovascular MR (CMR) imaging studies. Subsequently, the thesis describes several automated methods for quantitative assessment of left ventricular function from CMR imaging studies. Several novel

  11. Statistical Performance Analysis and Modeling Techniques for Nanometer VLSI Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Ruijing; Yu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Since process variation and chip performance uncertainties have become more pronounced as technologies scale down into the nanometer regime, accurate and efficient modeling or characterization of variations from the device to the architecture level have  become imperative for the successful design of VLSI chips. This book provides readers with tools for variation-aware design methodologies and computer-aided design (CAD) of VLSI systems, in the presence of process variations at the nanometer scale. It presents the latest developments for modeling and analysis, with a focus on statistical interconnect modeling, statistical parasitic extractions, statistical full-chip leakage and dynamic power analysis considering spatial correlations, statistical analysis and modeling for large global interconnects and analog/mixed-signal circuits.  Provides readers with timely, systematic and comprehensive treatments of statistical modeling and analysis of VLSI systems with a focus on interconnects, on-chip power grids and ...

  12. Computational Intelligence Techniques for Electro-Physiological Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Sardà, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This work contains the efforts I have made in the last years in the field of Electrophysiological data analysis. Most of the work has been done at Starlab Barcelona S.L. and part of it at the Neurodynamics Laboratory of the Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology of the University of Barcelona. The main work deals with the analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) signals, although other signals, such as electrocardiography (ECG), electroculography (EOG) and electromiography (EMG) ...

  13. UPLC-ICP-MS - a fast technique for speciation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L.; Sturup, S.; Gammelgaard, Bente;

    2005-01-01

    aqueous selenium standards were separated within 1.2 min on a 1.00 id x 50 mm reversed phase column in an ion-pair chromatographic system using a flow rate of 200 mu L min(-1). Hence, analysis times could be reduced to 1/10 compared with ordinary HPLC for aqueous standards. The precision and detection...... the use of short columns. Hence, analysis times could be halved without loss of separation efficiency in this biological sample...

  14. General Approach To Materials Classification Using Neutron Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'neutron in, gamma out' method of elemental analysis has been known and used in many applications as an elemental analysis tool. This method is non-intrusive, non-destructive, fast and precise. This set of advantages makes neutron analysis attractive for even wider variety of uses beyond simple elemental analysis. The question that is addressed within this study is under what conditions neutron analysis can be used to differentiate materials of interest from a group or class of materials in the face of knowing that what is truly of interest is the molecular content of any sample under interrogation. Purpose of the study was to develop a neutron-based scanner for rapid differentiation of classes of materials sealed in small bottles. Developed scanner employs D-T neutron generator as a neutron source and HPGe gamma detectors. Materials can be placed into classes by many different properties. However, neutron analysis method can be used only few of them, such as elemental content, stoichiometric ratios and density of the scanned material. Set of parameters obtainable through neutron analysis serves as a basis for a hyperspace, where each point corresponds to a certain scanned material. Sub-volumes of the hyperspace correspond to different classes of materials. One of the most important properties of the materials are stoichiometric ratios of the elements comprising the materials. Constructing an algorithm for converting the observed gamma ray counts into quantities of the elements in the scanned sample is a crucial part of the analysis. Gamma rays produced in both fast inelastic scatterings and neutron captures are considered. Presence of certain elements in materials, such as hydrogen and chlorine can significantly change neutron dynamics within the sample, and, in turn, characteristic gamma lines development. These effects have been studied and corresponding algorithms have been developed to account for them

  15. Analysis of the changes in keratoplasty indications and preferred techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Lang

    Full Text Available Recently, novel techniques introduced to the field of corneal surgery, e.g. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK and corneal crosslinking, extended the therapeutic options. Additionally contact lens fitting has developed new alternatives. We herein investigated, whether these techniques have affected volume and spectrum of indications of keratoplasties in both a center more specialized in treating Fuchs' dystrophy (center 1 and a second center that is more specialized in treating keratoconus (center 2.We retrospectively reviewed the waiting lists for indication, transplantation technique and the patients' travel distances to the hospital at both centers.We reviewed a total of 3778 procedures. Fuchs' dystrophy increased at center 1 from 17% (42 to 44% (150 and from 13% (27 to 23% (62 at center 2. In center 1, DMEK increased from zero percent in 2010 to 51% in 2013. In center 2, DMEK was not performed until 2013. The percentage of patients with keratoconus slightly decreased from 15% (36 in 2009 vs. 12% (40 in 2013 in center 1. The respective percentages in center 2 were 28% (57 and 19% (51. In both centers, the patients' travel distances increased.The results from center 1 suggest that DMEK might increase the total number of keratoplasties. The increase in travel distance suggests that this cannot be fully attributed to recruiting the less advanced patients from the hospital proximity. The increase is rather due to more referrals from other regions. The decrease of keratoconus patients in both centers is surprising and may be attributed to optimized contact lens fitting or even to the effect corneal crosslinking procedure.

  16. Analysis and RHBD technique of single event transients in PLLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-event transient susceptibility of phase-locked loops has been investigated. The charge pump is the most sensitive component of the PLL to SET, and it is hard to mitigate this effect at the transistor level. A test circuit was designed on a 65 nm process using a new system-level radiation-hardening-by-design technique. Heavy-ion testing was used to evaluate the radiation hardness. Analyses and discussion of the feasibility of this method are also presented. (paper)

  17. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  18. Comparative Analysis of Different Fabric Defects Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In last few years’ different textile companies aim to produce the quality fabrics. Major loss of any textile oriented company occurs due to defective fabrics. So the detection of faulty fabrics plays an important role in the success of any company. Till now most of the inspection is done using human visual. This way is too much time consuming, cumbersome and prone to human errors. In past, many advances are made in developing automated and computerized systems to reduce cost and time whereas, increasing the efficiency of the process. This paper aims at comparing some of these techniques on the basis of classification methods and accuracy.

  19. Categorical and nonparametric data analysis choosing the best statistical technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, E Michael

    2014-01-01

    Featuring in-depth coverage of categorical and nonparametric statistics, this book provides a conceptual framework for choosing the most appropriate type of test in various research scenarios. Class tested at the University of Nevada, the book's clear explanations of the underlying assumptions, computer simulations, and Exploring the Concept boxes help reduce reader anxiety. Problems inspired by actual studies provide meaningful illustrations of the techniques. The underlying assumptions of each test and the factors that impact validity and statistical power are reviewed so readers can explain

  20. Analysis of obsydians and films of silicon carbide by RBS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by archaeological interest this work is presented, which consist in the characterization of obsydian samples from different mineral sites in Mexico and films of silicon carbide, undertaken by an Ion Beam Analysis: RBS (Rutherford Back Scattering). As part of an intensive investigation of obsydian in Mesoamerica by anthropologists from Mexico National Institute of Anthropology and History, 818 samples were collected from different volcanic sources in Central Mexico for the purpose of establishing a data bank of element concentrations of each source. Part of this collection was analyzed by Neutron activation analysis and most of the important elements concentrations reported. In the first part of this work, the non-destructive IBA technique, RBS are used to analyze obsydian samples. The last part is an analysis of thin films of silicon carbide as a part of a research program of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and ININ. The application of this technique were carried out at the IF-UNAM, and the analysis was performed at laboratories of the ININ Nuclear Centre facilities. The samples considered in this work were mounted on a sample holder designed for the purpose of exposing each sample to the alpha particles beam. This RBS analysis was carried out with an ET Tandem accelerator at the IF UNAM. The spectrometry was carried out with employing a Si(Li) detector set at 15 degrees in relation to the target normal. The mean projectile energy was 2.00 MeV, and the beam profile was about 4 mm in diameter. As results were founded elemental concentrations of a set of samples from ten different sources: Altotonga (Veracruz), Penjamo (Guanajuato), Otumba (Mexico), Zinapecuaro (MIchoacan), Ucareo (Michoacan), Tres Cabezas (Puebla), Sierra Navajas (Hidalgo), Zaragoza (Puebla), Guadalupe Victoria (Puebla) and Oyameles (Puebla). The mean values are accompanied by errors expressed as one standard devistion of the mean for each element

  1. Non-Foster Impedance Wideband Matching Technique for Electrically Small Active Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a non-Foster wideband circuit matching technique for an electrically small antenna (ESA. By introducing a negative impedance convertor into an active network, the active network can obtain an equivalent input gain at input port to improve gain, sensitivity and output ratio of signal to noise. In addition, it also increases the effective height of active antenna. The experimental results have verified the proposed method by using a 100 KHz–30 MHz wideband active receiving monopole antenna.

  2. Techniques for hazard analysis and their use at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, C; Schönbacher, H

    2001-01-01

    CERN, The European Organisation for Nuclear Research is situated near Geneva and has its accelerators and experimental facilities astride the Swiss and French frontiers attracting physicists from all over the world to this unique laboratory. The main accelerator is situated in a 27 km underground ring and the experiments take place in huge underground caverns in order to detect the fragments resulting from the collision of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. These detectors contain many hundreds of tons of flammable materials, mainly plastics in cables and structural components, flammable gases in the detectors themselves, and cryogenic fluids such as helium and argon. The experiments consume high amounts of electrical power, thus the dangers involved have necessitated the use of analytical techniques to identify the hazards and quantify the risks to personnel and the infrastructure. The techniques described in the paper have been developed in the process industries where they have been to be of great value. They have been successfully applied to CERN industrial and experimental installations and, in some cases, have been instrumental in changing the philosophy of the experimentalists and their detectors.

  3. Design and Performance Analysis of Various Adders and Multipliers Using GDI Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran kaur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the active development of portable electronic devices, the need for low power dissipation, high speed and compact implementation, give rise to several research intentions. There are several design techniques used for the circuit configuration in VLSI systems but there are very few design techniques that gives the required extensibility. This paper describes the implementation of various adders and multipliers. The design approach proposed in the article is based on the GDI (Gate Diffusion Input technique. The paper also includes a comparative analysis of this low power method over CMOS design style with respect to power consumption, area complexity and delay. In this paper, a new GDI based cell designs are projected and are found to be efficient in terms of power consumption and area in comparison with existing CMOS based cell functionality. Power and delay has been calculated using Cadence Virtuoso tool at 45nm CMOS technology. The results obtained show better power and delay performance of the proposed designs at 1.3V supply voltage.

  4. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMATED FLOW CYTOMETRY DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaeepour, Nima; Finak, Greg; Hoos, Holger; Mosmann, Tim R.; Gottardo, Raphael; Brinkman, Ryan; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods for flow cytometry (FCM) data processing rely on subjective manual gating. Recently, several groups have developed computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional FCM data. The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the performance of these methods on two tasks – mammalian cell population identification to determine if automated algorithms can reproduce expert manual gating, and sample classification to determine if analysis pipelines can identify characteristics that correlate with external variables (e.g., clinical outcome). This analysis presents the results of the first of these challenges. Several methods performed well compared to manual gating or external variables using statistical performance measures, suggesting that automated methods have reached a sufficient level of maturity and accuracy for reliable use in FCM data analysis. PMID:23396282

  5. Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M.S.; Mohd-Yasin, F.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals can be used for clinical/biomedical applications, Evolvable Hardware Chip (EHW) development, and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquired from muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition, processing, and classification. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and algorithms for EMG signal analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the signal and its nature. We further point up some of the hardware implementations using EMG focusing on applications related to prosthetic hand control, grasp recognition, and human computer interaction. A comparison study is also given to show performance of various EMG signal analysis methods. This paper provides researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures. This knowledge will help them develop more powerful, flexible, and efficient applications. PMID:16799694

  6. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  7. Analysis of active islanding detection methods for grid-connected microinverters for renewable energy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, C.L. [Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos Industriales del Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N, C.P. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas, Carrera 7 N 40-53 Piso 5, Bogota (Colombia); Velasco, D.; Figueres, E.; Garcera, G. [Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos Industriales del Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N, C.P. 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents the analysis and comparison of the main active techniques for islanding detection used in grid-connected microinverters for power processing of renewable energy sources. These techniques can be classified into two classes: techniques introducing positive feedback in the control of the inverter and techniques based on harmonics injection. Accurate PSIM trademark simulations have been carried out in order to perform a comparative analysis of the techniques under study and to establish their advantages and disadvantages according to IEEE standards. (author)

  8. Cost-variance analysis by DRGs; a technique for clinical budget analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, G B; Limpens, P G; Brans-Brabant, L J; van Ooij, A

    1997-02-01

    In this article it is shown how a cost accounting system based on DRGs can be valuable in determining changes in clinical practice and explaining alterations in expenditure patterns from one period to another. A cost-variance analysis is performed using data from the orthopedic department from the fiscal years 1993 and 1994. Differences between predicted and observed cost for medical care, such as diagnostic procedures, therapeutic procedures and nursing care are analyzed into different components: changes in patient volume, case-mix differences, changes in resource use and variations in cost per procedure. Using a DRG cost accounting system proved to be a useful technique for clinical budget analysis. Results may stimulate discussions between hospital managers and medical professionals to explain cost variations integrating medical and economic aspects of clinical health care. PMID:10165044

  9. A New Computer-Aided Technique for Qualitative Document Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David; Ecclesfield, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    The ever-increasing production of digital textual data in a wide variety of forms presents both opportunities and challenges to researchers. The opportunities derive from the rich availability of secondary data with which to work. The challenges are the familiar ones of lack of time and resources to undertake the analysis. The qualitative…

  10. Multivariate Analysis Techniques for Optimal Vision System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara

    used in this thesis are described. The methodological strategies are outlined including sparse regression and pre-processing based on feature selection and extraction methods, supervised versus unsupervised analysis and linear versus non-linear approaches. One supervised feature selection algorithm...

  11. Spectral analysis and filtering techniques in digital spatial data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeng-Jong

    1989-01-01

    A filter toolbox has been developed at the EROS Data Center, US Geological Survey, for retrieving or removing specified frequency information from two-dimensional digital spatial data. This filter toolbox provides capabilities to compute the power spectrum of a given data and to design various filters in the frequency domain. Three types of filters are available in the toolbox: point filter, line filter, and area filter. Both the point and line filters employ Gaussian-type notch filters, and the area filter includes the capabilities to perform high-pass, band-pass, low-pass, and wedge filtering techniques. These filters are applied for analyzing satellite multispectral scanner data, airborne visible and infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, gravity data, and the digital elevation models (DEM) data. -from Author

  12. Radio & Optical Interferometry: Basic Observing Techniques and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Monnier, John D

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers usually need the highest angular resolution possible, but the blurring effect of diffraction imposes a fundamental limit on the image quality from any single telescope. Interferometry allows light collected at widely-separated telescopes to be combined in order to synthesize an aperture much larger than an individual telescope thereby improving angular resolution by orders of magnitude. Radio and millimeter wave astronomers depend on interferometry to achieve image quality on par with conventional visible and infrared telescopes. Interferometers at visible and infrared wavelengths extend angular resolution below the milli-arcsecond level to open up unique research areas in imaging stellar surfaces and circumstellar environments. In this chapter the basic principles of interferometry are reviewed with an emphasis on the common features for radio and optical observing. While many techniques are common to interferometers of all wavelengths, crucial differences are identified that will help new practi...

  13. Practice patterns in FNA technique: A survey analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; J; DiMaio; Jonathan; M; Buscaglia; Seth; A; Gross; Harry; R; Aslanian; Adam; J; Goodman; Sammy; Ho; Michelle; K; Kim; Shireen; Pais; Felice; Schnoll-Sussman; Amrita; Sethi; Uzma; D; Siddiqui; David; H; Robbins; Douglas; G; Adler; Satish; Nagula

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain fine needle aspiration(FNA) tech-niques by endosonographers with varying levels of ex-perience and environments.METHODS: A survey study was performed on United States based endosonographers. The subjects complet-ed an anonymous online electronic survey. The main outcome measurements were differences in needle choice, FNA technique, and clinical decision making among endosonographers and how this relates to years in practice, volume of EUS-FNA procedures, and prac-tice environment.RESULTS: A total of 210(30.8%) endosonographers completed the survey. Just over half(51.4%) identified themselves as academic/university-based practitioners. The vast majority of respondents(77.1%) identified themselves as high-volume endoscopic ultrasound(EUS)(> 150 EUS/year) and high-volume FNA(> 75 FNA/year) performers(73.3). If final cytology is non-diagnostic, high-volume EUS physicians were more likely than low volume physicians to repeat FNA with a core needle(60.5% vs 31.2%; P = 0.0004), and low volume physicians were more likely to refer patients for either surgical or percutaneous biopsy,(33.4% vs 4.9%, P < 0.0001). Academic physicians were more likely to repeat FNA with a core needle(66.7%) compared to community physicians(40.2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is significant variation in EUS-FNA practices among United States endosonographers. Differences appear to be related to EUS volume and practice environment.

  14. The Application of Neutron Activation Analysis in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of neutron activation analysis was introduced at the OAEP about 5 years ago. Since that time, it has become a useful technique for the determination. in particular, of certain trace inorganic elements in biological samples in this country. Scientists here have been working in close co-operation with those in other Government laboratories to meet the requirements of their studies. At present, a high resolution solid state gamma-ray detector is lacking in our laboratory. The results of the work to be described briefly were thus mainly carried out utilising our research reactor as the neutron source and multi-channel analysers together with the technique of radiochemical separation. In some cases, the non-destructive method was found feasible

  15. Study on the measurement technique of Fe foil's activated γ spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article it is comparatively systematically studied on the related measurement technique of Fe foil's activated γ spectrum and resolving-spectrum under specifical conditions, including high-threshold-energy detectors, self-absorption, self-shielding and perturbation and so on. The experimental results and the calculated results with MCNP code are analyzed and also discussed. (authors)

  16. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  17. Regulation on the Appraisal Activities of The Products,Techniques and Applications Projects of BIRTV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    I General Provisions 1.The Appraisal Activities of the Products,Techniques andApplications Projects of BIRTV is held for the purpose of strengthen-ing the technical advisory work and pilot role,and providing positiveguidance and effective assistance in the field of new technology

  18. Transient analysis techniques in performing impact and crash dynamic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, A. B.; Winter, R.

    1989-01-01

    Because of the emphasis being placed on crashworthiness as a design requirement, increasing demands are being made by various organizations to analyze a wide range of complex structures that must perform safely when subjected to severe impact loads, such as those generated in a crash event. The ultimate goal of crashworthiness design and analysis is to produce vehicles with the ability to reduce the dynamic forces experienced by the occupants to specified levels, while maintaining a survivable envelope around them during a specified crash event. DYCAST is a nonlinear structural dynamic finite element computer code that started from the plans systems of a finite element program for static nonlinear structural analysis. The essential features of DYCAST are outlined.

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES FOR CLASSIFYING CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R GANESH KUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases kill more people than other diseases. Arrhythmia is a common term used for cardiac rhythm deviating from normal sinus rhythm. Many heart diseases are detected through electrocardiograms (ECG analysis. Manual analysis of ECG is time consuming and error prone. Thus, an automated system for detecting arrhythmia in ECG signals gains importance. Features are extracted from time series ECG data with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT computing the distance between RR waves. The feature is the beat’s extracted RR interval. Frequency domain extracted features are classified using Classification and Regression Tree (CART, Radial Basis Function (RBF, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN. Experiments were conducted on the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database.

  20. Biomechanical analysis technique choreographic movements (for example, "grand battman jete"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batieieva N.P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : biomechanical analysis of the execution of choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Material : the study involved students (n = 7 of the department of classical choreography faculty of choreography. Results : biomechanical analysis of choreographic movement "grand battman jete" (classic exercise, obtained kinematic characteristics (path, velocity, acceleration, force of the center of mass (CM bio parts of the body artist (foot, shin, thigh. Built bio kinematic model (phase. The energy characteristics - mechanical work and kinetic energy units legs when performing choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Conclusions : It was found that the ability of an athlete and coach-choreographer analyze the biomechanics of movement has a positive effect on the improvement of choreographic training of qualified athletes in gymnastics (sport, art, figure skating and dance sports.

  1. Advanced Techniques in Pulmonary Function Test Analysis Interpretation and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gildea, T.J.; Bell, C. William

    1980-01-01

    The Pulmonary Functions Analysis and Diagnostic System is an advanced clinical processing system developed for use at the Pulmonary Division, Department of Medicine at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. The system generates comparative results and diagnostic impressions for a variety of routine and specialized pulmonary functions test data. Routine evaluation deals with static lung volumes, breathing mechanics, diffusing capacity, and blood gases while specialized tests include lung c...

  2. Advances in oriental document analysis and recognition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress has been made in computer processing of oriental languages, and the research developments in this area have resulted in tremendous changes in handwriting processing, printed oriental character recognition, document analysis and recognition, automatic input methodologies for oriental languages, etc. Advances in computer processing of oriental languages can also be seen in multimedia computing and the World Wide Web. Many of the results in those domains are presented in this book.

  3. Applications of string mining techniques in text analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horațiu Mocian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this project is on the algorithms and data structures used in string mining and their applications in bioinformatics, text mining and information retrieval. More specific, it studies the use of suffix trees and suffix arrays for biological sequence analysis, and the algorithms used for approximate string matching, both general ones and specialized ones used in bioinformatics, like the BLAST algorithm and PAM substitution matrix. Also, an attempt is made to apply these structures ...

  4. Methods and techniques for bio-system's materials behaviour analysis

    OpenAIRE

    MITU, LEONARD GABRIEL

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the rapid development of the research in the biosystem structure materials domain, a representative direction shows the analysis of the behavior of these materials. This direction of research requires the use of various means and methods for theoretical and experimental measuring and evaluating. PhD thesis "Methods and means for analyzing the behavior of biosystems structure materials" shall be given precedence in this area of research, aimed at studying the behavior of poly...

  5. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  6. Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing a better understanding of xenon transport through porous systems is critical to predicting how this gas will enter the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System. This work details the development of prompt gamma activation analysis for measuring the diffusion rates of xenon and argon gases through a porous medium. The University of Texas at Austin maintains a prompt gamma activation analysis facility with a peak neutron flux of ∼ 1.5 x 107 cm-2 s-1 and a beam diameter of 1 cm. Due to the relatively large prompt gamma cross sections of many stable xenon isotopes at thermal and sub-thermal neutron energies, prompt gamma activation analysis is a suitable technique for in situ non-destructive analysis of natural xenon. A test chamber has been designed and constructed to utilize prompt gamma activation analysis to measure xenon and argon diffusion through geological materials (e.g., sand, soil, etc.). Initial experiments have been conducted to determine the detection limits for stable gas measurements. The results from these experiments will be utilized to benchmark parts of a xenon transport model that is being used to determine diffusion coefficients for xenon and argon. (author)

  7. Sensitivity analysis and performance estimation of refractivity from clutter techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S.

    2009-02-01

    Refractivity from clutter (RFC) refers to techniques that estimate the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter returns. A RFC algorithm works by finding the environment whose simulated clutter pattern matches the radar measured one. This paper introduces a procedure to compute RFC estimator performance. It addresses the major factors such as the radar parameters, the sea surface characteristics, and the environment (region, time of the day, season) that affect the estimator performance and formalizes an error metric combining all of these. This is important for applications such as calculating the optimal radar parameters, selecting the best RFC inversion algorithm under a set of conditions, and creating a regional performance map of a RFC system. The performance metric is used to compute the RFC performance of a non-Bayesian evaporation duct estimator. A Bayesian estimator that incorporates meteorological statistics in the inversion is introduced and compared to the non-Bayesian estimator. The performance metric is used to determine the optimal radar parameters of the evaporation duct estimator for six scenarios. An evaporation duct inversion performance map for a S band radar is created for the larger Mediterranean/Arabian Sea region.

  8. Chromatographic finger print analysis of Naringi crenulata by HPTLC technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Sampathkumar; Ramakrishnan N

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish the fingerprint profile of Naringi crenulata (N. crenulata) (Roxb.) Nicols. using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC studies were carried out. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software was used. Results: The results of preliminary phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, triterpenoid, alkaloid, anthraquinone and quinone. HPTLC finger printing of ethanolic extract of stem revealed 10 spots with Rf values in the range of 0.08 to 0.65;bark showed 8 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.07 to 0.63 and the ethanol extract of leaf revealed 8 peaks with Rf values in the range of 0.09 to 0.49, respectively. The purity of sample was confirmed by comparing the absorption spectra at start, middle and end position of the band. Conclusions:It can be concluded that HPTLC finger printing of N. crenulata may be useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and act as a biochemical marker for this medicinally important plant in the pharmaceutical industry and plant systematic studies.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Automatic Vehicle Classification Techniques: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Yousaf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle classification has emerged as a significant field of study because of its importance in variety of applications like surveillance, security system, traffic congestion avoidance and accidents prevention etc. So far numerous algorithms have been implemented for classifying vehicle. Each algorithm follows different procedures for detecting vehicles from videos. By evaluating some of the commonly used techniques we highlighted most beneficial methodology for classifying vehicles. In this paper we pointed out the working of several video based vehicle classification algorithms and compare these algorithms on the basis of different performance metrics such as classifiers, classification methodology or principles and vehicle detection ratio etc. After comparing these parameters we concluded that Hybrid Dynamic Bayesian Network (HDBN Classification algorithm is far better than the other algorithms due to its nature of estimating the simplest features of vehicles from different videos. HDBN detects vehicles by following important stages of feature extraction, selection and classification. It extracts the rear view information of vehicles rather than other information such as distance between the wheels and height of wheel etc.

  10. Analysis of a digital technique for frequency transposition of speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digirolamo, V.

    1985-09-01

    Frequency transposition is the process of raising or lowering the frequency content (pitch) of an audio signal. The hearing impaired community has the greatest interest in the applications of frequency transposing. Though several analog and digital frequency transposing hearing aid systems have been built and tested, this thesis investigates a possible digital processing alternative. Pole shifting, in the z-domain, of an autoregressive (all pole) model of speech was proven to be a viable theory for changing frequency content. Since linear predictive coding (LPC) techniques are used to code, analyze and synthesize speech, with the resulting LPC coefficients related to the coefficients of an equivalent autoregressive model, a linear relationship between LPC coefficients and frequency tranposition is explored. This theoretical relationship is first established using a pure sine wave and then is extended into processing speech. The resulting speech synthesis experiments failed to substantiate the conjectures of this thesis. However, future research avenues are suggested that may lead toward a viable approach to transpose speech.

  11. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the last quarter of the last year of the three-year grant period. In the final project year, we concentrated on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of large hydrocarbons and mixtures of large and small hydrocarbons in order to develop the VUV-MS technique for compounds more representative of those in coal pyrolysis applications. Special focus was directed at the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of benzene and benzene acetylene mixtures. The acetylene/benzene mixtures were used to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of molecular growth in such systems specifically to look at the kinetics of aryl-aryl reactions as opposed to small molecule addition to phenyl radicals. Sarofim and coworkers at MIT have recently demonstrated the importance of these reactions in coal processing environments. In the past, the growth mechanism for the formation of midsized PAH has been postulated to involve primarily successive acetylene additions to phenyl-type radicals, our work confmns this as an important mechanism especially for smaller PAH but also investigates conditions where biaryl formation can play an important role in higher hydrocarbon formation.

  12. NOS/NGS activities to support development of radio interferometric surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Dracup, J. F.; Hothem, L. D.; Robertson, D. S.; Strange, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    National Geodetic Survey activities towards the development of operational geodetic survey systems based on radio interferometry are reviewed. Information about the field procedures, data reduction and analysis, and the results obtained to date is presented.

  13. Fast-neutron activation analysis of light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The determination of lithium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and other light chemical elements in various modern materials in microgram level is of importance for analytical science. As it is well-known, a thermal neutron activation of C, H, N, and O produces negligible γ-ray activity. 13C (n, γ) 14C and 2H (n, γ) 3H reactions produce very small activities of the non- γ- emitters 3H and 14C, and the 19O (n, γ)19O and 15N(n, γ)16N reactions give very short lived 19O (27 sec) and 16N (7.1 sec). All of these reactions have extremely low thermal neutron cross sections. Therefore a major advantage of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the determination of trace elements in biological, medical and environmental materials. For this reason the above mentioned problems are solved with use of some variants of nuclear analytical techniques based on application of charged particle accelerators. However, there are several non-traditional reactor activation analysis techniques to solve such problems which have been developed and applied in various fields of semiconductor industry, biology, geology. In recent years these techniques were named as the nuclear reactor based charged particles activation analysis (NRCPAA). We distinguished two possible applications of a nuclear reactor as charged particles source. During last years the capabilities of the NRCPAA were investigated intensively and some our results were applied to determine light elements contents [1,2]. The recoil protons are produced as the result of (n, p) elastic and inelastic scattering interaction of fast neutrons with nucleus of light elements, for example, hydrogen. These protons are applied for the development of proton activation analysis for the determination of large concentrations of Li, B and O. The non-destructive activation analysis with use of 14-MeV fast neutrons (FNAA) is the most suitable method for analysis of N, P and Si. FNAA was applied for determination of nitrogen

  14. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  15. Assessment of carotid diameter and wall thickness in ultrasound images using active contours improved by a multiresolution technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marco A.; Pilon, Paulo E.; Lage, Silvia G.; Kopel, Liliane; Carvalho, Ricardo T.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2002-04-01

    Carotid vessel ultrasound imaging is a reliable non-invasive technique to measure the arterial morphology. Vessel diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT) of the far wall and plaque presence can be reliably determined using B-mode ultrasound. In this paper we describe a semi-automatic approach to measure artery diameter and IMT based on an active contour technique improved by a multiresolution analysis. The operator selects a region-of-interest (ROI) in a series of carotid images obtained from B-mode ultrasound. This set of images is convolved with the corresponding partial derivatives of the Gaussian filter. The filter response is used to compute a 2D gradient magnitude image in order to refine the vessel's boundaries. Using an active contour technique the vessel's border is determined automatically. The near wall media-adventitia (NWMA), far wall media-adventitia (FWMA) and far wall lumen-intima (FWLI) borders are obtained by a least-square fitting of the active contours result. The distance between NWMA and FWLI (vessel diameter) and between FWLI and FWMA (far wall intima-media thickness) are obtained for all images and the mean value is computed during systole and diastole. The proposed method is a reliable and reproducible way of assessing the vessel diameter and far wall intima-media thickness of the carotid artery.

  16. Data mining techniques for performance analysis of onshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Indicators are formulated for monitoring quality of wind turbines performances. • State dynamics is processed for formulation of two Malfunctioning Indexes. • Power curve analysis is revisited. • A novel definition of polar efficiency is formulated and its consistency is checked. • Mechanical effects of wakes are analyzed as nacelle stationarity and misalignment. - Abstract: Wind turbines are an energy conversion system having a low density on the territory, and therefore needing accurate condition monitoring in the operative phase. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) control systems have become ubiquitous in wind energy technology and they pose the challenge of extracting from them simple and explanatory information on goodness of operation and performance. In the present work, post processing methods are applied on the SCADA measurements of two onshore wind farms sited in southern Italy. Innovative and meaningful indicators of goodness of performance are formulated. The philosophy is a climax in the granularity of the analysis: first, Malfunctioning Indexes are proposed, which quantify goodness of merely operational behavior of the machine, irrespective of the quality of output. Subsequently the focus is shifted to the analysis of the farms in the productive phase: dependency of farm efficiency on wind direction is investigated through the polar plot, which is revisited in a novel way in order to make it consistent for onshore wind farms. Finally, the inability of the nacelle to optimally follow meandering wind due to wakes is analysed through a Stationarity Index and a Misalignment Index, which are shown to capture the relation between mechanical behavior of the turbine and degradation of the power output

  17. Design of Process Displays based on Risk Analysis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    This thesis deals with the problems of designing display systems for process plants. We state the reasons why it is important to discuss information systems for operators in a control room, es-pecially in view of the enormous amount of information available in computer-based supervision systems......-tions. On the basis of her experience with the design of display systems; with risk analysis methods and from 8 years, as an engi-neer-on-shift at a research reactor, the author developed a method to elicit necessary information to the operator. The method, a combination of a Goal-Tree and a Fault-Tree, is described...

  18. Digital radiographic techniques in the analysis of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the authors use the term digital radiography to mean any method of radiographic image production in which the silver halide-based film is replaced by an electronic sensor for production of an image. There are essentially three types of digital radiographic systems available at present, but others will be developed. These differ primarily in the method of image production and the rapidity with which images can be produced. The three methods discussed are digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and the scanned point source radiography. Each has certain characteristics which, if properly utilized, will allow improved x-ray analysis of paintings

  19. Preliminary Analysis of ULPC Light Curves Using Fourier Decomposition Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi; Barrett, Brittany; Lin, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Recent work on Ultra Long Period Cepheids (ULPCs) has suggested their usefulness as a distance indicator, but has not commented on their relationship as compared with other types of variable stars. In this work, we use Fourier analysis to quantify the structure of ULPC light curves and compare them to Classical Cepheids and Mira variables. Our preliminary results suggest that the low order Fourier parameters of ULPCs show a continuous trend defined by Classical Cepheids after the resonance around 10 days. However their Fourier parameters also overlapped with those from Miras, which make the classification of long period variable stars difficult based on the light curves information alone.

  20. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  1. Study on data analysis techniques in gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work initially investigates the possibility of the use of an innovative time-frequency transform, known as S transform, for the data analysis of the gravitational wave detector ALLEGRO. It is verified that its utility for this kind of detector is limited due to the detectors narrow bandwidth. However, it is argued that the S transform may be useful for interferometric detectors. Then a robust data analysis method is presented based on a hypothesis test known as Neyman-Pearson criteria, which allows the determination of candidate burst events. The method consists in the construction of probability distribution functions for the weighted average energy of the data blocks registered by the detector, both in the case of absence of noise and the case of signal mixed with noise. Based on these distributions it is possible to determine the probability that the data block in which a candidate event is present does not coincide with a noise block. This way of searching candidate signals immersed in noise agrees with another method present in the literature. One concludes that this is a promising method since it does not demand the use of a more refined search for candidate events, thus reducing computational processing time. (author)

  2. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.;

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant...... analysis (DA) are applied to the evaluation matrix data set obtained by simulation of several control strategies applied to the plant-wide IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2). These techniques allow i) to determine natural groups or clusters of control strategies with a similar behaviour, ii......) to find and interpret hidden, complex and casual relation features in the data set and iii) to identify important discriminant variables within the groups found by the cluster analysis. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariable statistical techniques for both analysis and interpretation...

  3. Performance Evaluation a Developed Energy Harvesting Interface Circuit in Active Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramizi Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the performance evaluation a developed energy harvesting interface circuit in active technique. The energy harvesting interface circuit for micro-power applications uses equivalent voltage of the piezoelectric materials have been developed and simulated. Circuit designs and simulation results are presented for a conventional diode rectifier with voltage doubler in passive technique. Most of the existing techniques are mainly passive-based energy harvesting circuits. Generally, the power harvesting capability of the passive technique is very low. To increase the harvested energy, the active technique and its components such as MOSFET, thyristor and transistor have chosen to design the proposed energy harvesting interface circuit. In this study, it has simulated both the conventional in passive circuit and developed energy harvester in active technique. The developed interface circuits consisting of piezoelectric element with input source of vibration, AC-DC thyristor doubler rectifier circuit and DC-DC boost converter using thyristor with storage device. In the development circuits, it is noted that the components thyristor instead of mainly diode available in conventional circuits have chosen. Because the forward voltage potential (0.7 V is higher than the incoming input voltage (0.2 V. Finally, the complete energy harvester using PSPICE software have designed and simulated. The proposed circuits in PSPICE generate the boost-up DC voltage up to 2 V. The overall efficiency of the developed circuit is 70%, followed by the software simulation, which is greater than conventional circuit efficiency of 20% in performance evaluator. It is concluded that the developed circuit output voltage can be used to operate for the applications in autonomous devices.

  4. New spectroscopic techniques for wine analysis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the presented thesis was the development of new, rapid tools for wine analysis based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) - spectroscopy. The results of this thesis are presented in the form of five publications. In publication I a sensor for assessing the main sensory property of red wine polyphenols (tannins), namely astringency, was developed on basis of the underlying chemical reaction between the tannins and the proline-rich proteins in the saliva. The interaction of polyphenols (tannins) with proline rich proteins (gelatin) has been studied using an automated flow injection system with FTIR detection. In Publication II FTIR-spectroscopy of polyphenolic wine extracts combined with multivariate data analysis was applied for the varietal discrimination of Austrian red wines. By hierarchical clustering it could be shown that the mid-infrared spectra of the dry extracts contain information on the varietal origin of wines. The classification of the wines was successfully performed by soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA). Publication III describes the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine by Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with FTIR-detection, where a diamond attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-element was employed for the design of a rugged detector. Partly or completely co-eluting peaks were chemometrically resolved by multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Publication IV reports the first application of a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) for molecular specific laser detection in liquid chromatography. Using a laser wavelength of 9.3721 μm glucose and fructose could be specifically detected and quantified in red wine in spite of the presence of organic acids. Publication V presents the development of an automated method for measuring the primary amino acid concentration in wines and musts by

  5. Multidimensional Analysis of Quenching: Comparison of Inverse Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, K.J.

    1998-11-18

    Understanding the surface heat transfer during quenching can be beneficial. Analysis to estimate the surface heat transfer from internal temperature measurements is referred to as the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Function specification and gradient adjoint methods, which use a gradient search method coupled with an adjoint operator, are widely u led methods to solve the IHCP. In this paper the two methods are presented for the multidimensional case. The focus is not a rigorous comparison of numerical results. Instead after formulating the multidimensional solutions, issues associated with the numerical implementation and practical application of the methods are discussed. In addition, an experiment that measured the surface heat flux and temperatures for a transient experimental case is analyzed. Transient temperatures are used to estimate the surface heat flux, which is compared to the measured values. The estimated surface fluxes are comparable for the two methods.

  6. Analysis of myocardial infarction signals using optical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahri, Nurhafizah; Gan, Kok Beng; Mohd Ali, Mohd Alauddin; Jaafar, Mohd Hasni; Meswari, Rusna

    2016-01-01

    The risk of heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI) may lead to serious consequences in mortality and morbidity. Current MI management in the triage includes non-invasive heart monitoring using an electrocardiogram (ECG) and the cardic biomarker test. This study is designed to explore the potential of photoplethysmography (PPG) as a simple non-invasive device as an alternative method to screen the MI subjects. This study emphasises the usage of second derivative photoplethysmography (SDPPG) intervals as the extracted features to classify the MI subjects. The statistical analysis shows the potential of "a-c" interval and the corrected "a-cC" interval to classify the subject. The sensitivity of the predicted model using "a-c" and "a-cC" is 90.6% and 81.2% and the specificity is 87.5% and 84.4%, respectively. PMID:27010162

  7. A Generalized Lanczos-QR Technique for Structural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, S.

    systems with very special properties. Due to the finite discretization the matrices are sparse and a relatively large number of problems also has real and symmetric matrices. The matrix equation for an undamped vibration contains two matrices describing tangent stiffness and mass distributions....... Alternatively, in a stability analysis, tangent stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices are introduced into an eigenvalue problem used to determine possible bifurcation points. The common basis for these types of problems is that the matrix equation describing the problem contains two real, symmetric......Within the field of solid mechanics such as structural dynamics and linearized as well as non-linear stability, the eigenvalue problem plays an important role. In the class of finite element and finite difference discretized problems these engineering problems are characterized by large matrix...

  8. Denial of Service Attack Techniques: Analysis, Implementation and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elleithy

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A denial of service attack (DOS is any type of attack on a networking structure to disable a server from servicing its clients. Attacks range from sending millions of requests to a server in an attempt to slow it down, flooding a server with large packets of invalid data, to sending requests with an invalid or spoofed IP address. In this paper we show the implementation and analysis of three main types of attack: Ping of Death, TCP SYN Flood, and Distributed DOS. The Ping of Death attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 95 computer. The TCP SYN Flood attack will be simulated against a Microsoft Windows 2000 IIS FTP Server. Distributed DOS will be demonstrated by simulating a distribution zombie program that will carry the Ping of Death attack. This paper will demonstrate the potential damage from DOS attacks and analyze the ramifications of the damage.

  9. Design of process displays based on risk analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the problems of designing display systems for process plants. We state the reasons why it is important to discuss information systems for operators in a control room, especially in view of the enormous amount of information available in computer-based supervision systems. The state of the art is discussed: How are supervision systems designed today and why? Which strategies are used? What kind of research is going on? Four different plants and their display systems, designed by the author, are described and discussed. Next we outline different methods for eliciting knowledge of a plant, particularly the risks, which is necessary information for the display designer. A chapter presents an overview of the various types of operation references: constitutive equations, set points, design parameters, component characteristics etc., and their validity in different situations. On the basis of her experience with the design of display systems; with risk analysis methods and from 8 years, as an engineer-on-shift at a research reactor, the author developed a method to elicit necessary information to the operator. The method, a combination of a Goal-Tree and a Fault-Tree, is described in some detail. Finally we address the problem of where to put the dot and the lines: when all information is on the table, how should it be presented most adequately. Included, as an appendix is a paper concerning the analysis of maintenance reports and visualization of their information. The purpose was to develop a software tool for maintenance supervision of components in a nuclear power plant. (au)

  10. Compartmental analysis, imaging techniques and population pharmacokinetic. Experiences at CENTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In pharmacokinetic evaluation small rodents are used in a large extend. Traditional pharmacokinetic evaluations by the two steps approach can be replaced by the sparse data design which may also represent a complicated situation to evaluate satisfactorily from the statistical point of view. In this presentation different situations of sparse data sampling are analyzed based on practical consideration. Non linear mixed effect model was selected in order to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters in simulated data from real experimental results using blood sampling and imaging procedures. Materials and methods: Different scenarios representing several experimental designs of incomplete individual profiles were evaluated. Data sets were simulated based on real data from previous experiments. In all cases three to five blood samples were considered per time point. A combination of compartmental analysis with tumor uptake obtained by gammagraphy of radiolabeled drugs is also evaluated.All pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed by means of MONOLIX software version 4.2.3. Results: All sampling schedules yield the same results when computed using the MONOLIX software and the SAEM algorithm. Population and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were accurately estimated with three or five determination per sampling point. According with the used methodology and software tool, it can be an expected result, but demonstrating the method performance in such situations, allow us to select a more flexible design using a very small number of animals in preclinical research. The combination with imaging procedures also allows us to construct a completely structured compartmental analysis. Results of real experiments are presented demonstrating the versatility of used methodology in different evaluations. The same sampling approach can be considered in phase I or II clinical trials. (author)

  11. Design of process displays based on risk analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundtang Paulsen, J

    2004-05-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of designing display systems for process plants. We state the reasons why it is important to discuss information systems for operators in a control room, especially in view of the enormous amount of information available in computer-based supervision systems. The state of the art is discussed: How are supervision systems designed today and why? Which strategies are used? What kind of research is going on? Four different plants and their display systems, designed by the author, are described and discussed. Next we outline different methods for eliciting knowledge of a plant, particularly the risks, which is necessary information for the display designer. A chapter presents an overview of the various types of operation references: constitutive equations, set points, design parameters, component characteristics etc., and their validity in different situations. On the basis of her experience with the design of display systems; with risk analysis methods and from 8 years, as an engineer-on-shift at a research reactor, the author developed a method to elicit necessary information to the operator. The method, a combination of a Goal-Tree and a Fault-Tree, is described in some detail. Finally we address the problem of where to put the dot and the lines: when all information is on the table, how should it be presented most adequately. Included, as an appendix is a paper concerning the analysis of maintenance reports and visualization of their information. The purpose was to develop a software tool for maintenance supervision of components in a nuclear power plant. (au)

  12. Activating the Worker in Elderly Care: A Technique and Tactics of Invitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes, A.; Nicoll, K.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to questions of how language acts in and through the interactions of language in situations where people are encouraged to learn to be active in contexts of work. This paper argues that detailed analysis is needed to understand how activation through language acts in the shaping and governing of workers.…

  13. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  14. Bringing New Tools and Techniques to Bear on Earthquake Hazard Analysis and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemann, R. J.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco, E.; Louie, J. N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Schmitz, M.; Moschetti, M. P.; Huerfano Moreno, V.; Pasyanos, M.

    2013-12-01

    During July 2013, IRIS held an Advanced Studies Institute in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, that was designed to enable early-career scientists who already have mastered the fundamentals of seismology to begin collaborating in frontier seismological research. The Institute was conceived of at a strategic planning workshop in Heredia, Costa Rica, that was supported and partially funded by USAID, with a goal of building geophysical capacity to mitigate the effects of future earthquakes. To address this broad goal, we drew participants from a dozen different countries of Middle America. Our objectives were to develop understanding of the principles of earthquake hazard analysis, particularly site characterization techniques, and to facilitate future research collaborations. The Institute was divided into three main sections: overviews on the fundamentals of earthquake hazard analysis and lectures on the theory behind methods of site characterization; fieldwork where participants acquired new data of the types typically used in site characterization; and computer-based analysis projects in which participants applied their newly-learned techniques to the data they collected. This was the first IRIS institute to combine an instructional short course with field work for data acquisition. Participants broke into small teams to acquire data, analyze it on their own computers, and then make presentations to the assembled group describing their techniques and results.Using broadband three-component seismometers, the teams acquired data for Spatial Auto-Correlation (SPAC) analysis at seven array locations, and Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) analysis at 60 individual sites along six profiles throughout Santo Domingo. Using a 24-channel geophone string, the teams acquired data for Refraction Microtremor (SeisOptReMi™ from Optim) analysis at 11 sites, with supplementary data for active-source Multi-channel Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis at

  15. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of human EEG: preliminary investigation and comparison with the wavelet transform modulus maxima technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    Full Text Available Recently, many lines of investigation in neuroscience and statistical physics have converged to raise the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is nonlinear, with self-affine dynamics, while scalp-recorded EEG signals themselves are nonstationary. Therefore, traditional methods of EEG analysis may miss many properties inherent in such signals. Similarly, fractal analysis of EEG signals has shown scaling behaviors that may not be consistent with pure monofractal processes. In this study, we hypothesized that scalp-recorded human EEG signals may be better modeled as an underlying multifractal process. We utilized the Physionet online database, a publicly available database of human EEG signals as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on human EEG signals derived from waking and different sleep stages, and show evidence that supports the use of multifractal methods. Next, we compare multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to a previously published multifractal technique, wavelet transform modulus maxima, using EEG signals from waking and sleep, and demonstrate that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis has lower indices of variability. Finally, we report a preliminary investigation into the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis as a pattern classification technique on human EEG signals from waking and different sleep stages, and demonstrate its potential utility for automatic classification of different states of consciousness. Therefore, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis may be a useful pattern classification technique to distinguish among different states of brain function.

  16. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  17. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  18. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University

    1972-01-01

    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  19. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  20. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…