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Sample records for activation analysis naa

  1. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  2. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6

  3. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ab. Khalik bin Haji Wood [Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1999-10-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  4. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  5. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  6. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  7. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, J.R. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  8. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  9. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  10. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  11. Determination of Hf element in zircon oxide chloride (ZrOCl2.8H2O) at characteristic energy by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitable technique of qualitative and quantitative analysis of Hf element by analysis is neutron activation analysis (NAA). Hf has r energies of 133.05 keV, 345.95 keV, 482.16 keV and 615.00 keV. Hf is contained in zircon oxide chloride, while the standard was the reference material of zircon sand and ZrO2 produced by PTAPB laboratory. Sample and standard were irradiated together in one capsule for 2 x 6 hours in Lazy Suzan irradiation facility, with reactor power of 100 kW and thermal neutron flux of 0,585 x 1011 n. m-2 sec-1). The results showed that by using energy of 133,05 keV (probability ware 43,0 %), concentration was 0,6195 %, and by energy of 482,16 keV (probability ware 86,0 %) the concentration was 0.6012 %. (author)

  12. Comparison between NAA and AFS analysis of mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An elaborate comparison is made between two methods, i.e. NAA (neutron activation analysis) and AFS (atomic fluorescence analysis), for determining mercury in human hair on the basis of the authors' experience. It is emphasized that in spite of advantages of NAA, such as high sensitivity, accuracy and the multielement-analysis feasibility, AFS method seems more suitable for the determination of both organic and inorganic mercury in human hair samples under some conditions due to its simplicity, rapidity and low cost

  13. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  14. Application of ko-NAA technique on Dalat research reactor for human hair analysis in environmental pollution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ko-standardization method of neutron activation analysis (ko-NAA) has recently been developed on Dalat research reactor. However, in order to apply the ko-NAA technique for practical research objects, it is necessary to establish different experimental procedures for each object. This work is aiming at establishing such a ko-NAA procedure on Dalat research reactor for human hair samples to solve the environmental pollution study prob;em. Therefore, the sample collection and preparation, irradiation, gamma-ray spectrum measurement and data processing, as well as quality assurance and quality control of the ko-NAA procedure for human hair samples have been assessed by comparing with elemental concentrations in terms of the experimental to certified values ratio and U-score. The experimental results showed that the ko-NAA for multi-element in human hair sample analysis is able to apply on Dalat research reactor with a rather good analytical quality. (author)

  15. Provenience study of medieval Bulgarian glasses by NAA and cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis results from 30 glass samples were subjected to cluster analysis. The reliable localization of part of the medieval glass finds from Preslav enabled the evaluation of the variety of the production of a medieval glass workshop (ninth-tenth century), allowing conclusions to be made about the technological level of glass-making in Bulgaria during the Middle Ages. The work proved that NAA followed by cluster analysis is a successful approach to finding the local and chronological features of the investigated glasses. (author)

  16. Analysis of some herbal plants from India used in the control of diabetes mellitus by NAA and AAS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Pardeshi, B.M. [Pune Univ., Chemistry Dept., Pune (India)

    1997-08-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the control of diabetes has been done by the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ca, Zn and Hg are found to be present in different plants in various proportions. (Author).

  17. Bayesian Statistical Analysis Applied to NAA Data for Neutron Flux Spectrum Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, D.; Previtali, E.; Sisti, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical method, based on Bayesian statistics, to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum from the activation data of different isotopes. The experimental data were acquired during a neutron activation analysis (NAA) experiment [A. Borio di Tigliole et al., Absolute flux measurement by NAA at the Pavia University TRIGA Mark II reactor facilities, ENC 2012 - Transactions Research Reactors, ISBN 978-92-95064-14-0, 22 (2012)] performed at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of Pavia University (Italy). In order to evaluate the neutron flux spectrum, subdivided in energy groups, we must solve a system of linear equations containing the grouped cross sections and the activation rate data. We solve this problem with Bayesian statistical analysis, including the uncertainties of the coefficients and the a priori information about the neutron flux. A program for the analysis of Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, is used to define the problem statistical model and solve it. The energy group fluxes and their uncertainties are then determined with great accuracy and the correlations between the groups are analyzed. Finally, the dependence of the results on the prior distribution choice and on the group cross section data is investigated to confirm the reliability of the analysis.

  18. k0-NAA implementation and application at IPEN neutron activation laboratory by using the k0-IAEA software: application to geological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples such as rocks, soils and sediments, for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k0-standardization method at LAN - IPEN, for geological sample analysis, by using the program k0- IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor α of the epithermal flux distribution of the IPEN IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'are triple-monitor' method with 197Au- 96Zr-94Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST - BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned values, with bias less than 10% except for Zn in AGV-1 (11.4%) and Mg in GS-N (13.4%). Three different scores were used to evaluate the results: z-score, zeta-score and Uscore. The z-score showed that the results can be considered satisfactory (z3) for Mn in BE-N, Mg, Ce and La in GS-N, Mg in JB-1, and Th and Eu in Buffalo River Sediment. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, were within 95% confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geological samples analysis in geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

  19. Determination of the Macro Element on Sandy Soil in the Field of Samas Beach Bantul Using Neutron Activation Analysis Method (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of macro element in which N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca in sandy soil of Samas beach using AAN method has been done. The aim of analysis is to determine the element contents in N, P, K, Mg, S, Ca. The samples were taken from several field location in Samas beach Yogyakarta and then the sample are cleaned from stone, grass, then samples ware dried under sun light then grinded until homogeneous and lied at polyethylene ampoule. The experiment result show that the samples in field A before the cultivation are N = 2.6 %, P 100.8 ppm, K = 0.6 %, Mg = 1.2 %, Ca = 2.7%, while during the cultivation are N = 2.3 %, P = 118.8 ppm, K = 0.1 %, Mg = 0.1 %, Ca = 2.8 %, and after the cultivation are N = 0.4 %, P = 253.8 ppm, K =1.3 %, Mg = 3.4 %, Ca = 5.1 %. The result of the samples in field B before the cultivation are N = 1.9 %, P 28.9 ppm, K = 0.2 %, Mg = 0.6 %, Ca = 3.3 %, while during the cultivation are N = 1.3 %, P =79.3 ppm, K = 1.1 %, Mg = 0.2 %, Ca = 1.9 %, and after the cultivation are N = 0.2 %, P = 62.5 ppm, K =0.2 %, Mg = 0.2 %, Ca = 4.3 %. The result of the samples in field C before the cultivation are N = 1.3 %, P = 33.6 ppm, K = 0.1 %, Mg = 0.2 %, Ca = 1.8 %, while during the cultivation are N = 0.8 %, P = 347.4 ppm, K = 0.7%, Mg = 0.8 %, Ca = 2.3 %, and after the cultivation are N = 0.6 %, P = 252.9 ppm, K = 1.1 %, Mg = 3.3 %, Ca = 1.1 %. This data can improve the condition of sandy soil in Samas Bantul, so that it can give the manuring doses exactly to improve the quality of the plant. (author)

  20. Analysis and measurement of Kartini reactor parameters for application of K0-NAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The k0-NAA method is an analysis method that widely used by many of the advantages. In the application of k0-NAA method needed values of reactor parameters (f and α), then the purpose of the research would be conducted measurement parameter values f and a. in the Lazy Susan Kartini reactor facilities. The methods used include Cd-ratio and triple bare methods. The parameter value has been measured in three channels in the irradiation facilities Lazy Susan. Differences of measurement results obtained parameter values are significant in each channel irradiation, the value off ranged from 13,713 to 22,128 and the value of a. ranged from -0,060 to 0,068. The results of measurements for the f and α with the Cd-ratio method, providing more stable value than the triple bare method. The value of f and α obtained can be used a database for the application of k0-NAA method for sample analysis in the laboratory NAA - CAST. (author)

  1. Can robust statistics aid in the analysis of NAA results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, which is part of a larger effort to develop a software to automate instrumental neutron activation analysis calculations, the elemental concentration in a sample was calculated using either a set containing only the gamma-ray peaks recommended in the literature or a set containing all peaks identified. The results for each element were reduced using five tools: the usual unweighted and weighted means, plus the limitation of statistical weight, Normalized Residuals and Rajeval. The results were compared to the certified value for each element, allowing for discussion on the performance of each statistical tool and on the choices of peaks. (author)

  2. Analysis of SMELS by k0-based IM-NAA method using PFTS position of KAMINI reactor for quality control exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of QA/QC of k0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA), three types of synthetic multielement standards (SMELS) were analyzed using pneumatic fast transfer system irradiation position of KAMINI reactor, IGCAR. Radioactive assay of activation products was carried out by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. IM-NAA was used to determine relative concentration ratios of 22 elements with respect to gold internal monostandard. Absolute concentrations were calculated using assigned concentration of Au in all the types of SMELS. Z-score values within ±1 at 95.5 % confidence level and percentage deviations within ±5 % indicated good quality of the results by IM-NAA in most of the cases. Using this methodology, an ilmenite mineral sample was analyzed and concentrations of 14 elements were determined using Sc as monostandard. (author)

  3. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg-1) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg-1) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg-1). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  4. Reversible emission evolution from Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hui, E-mail: linh8112@163.com, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru, E-mail: linh8112@163.com, E-mail: fujii@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-11-24

    Reversible emission evolution of thermally treated Ag activated zeolite Na-A upon dehydration/hydration in vacuum/water vapor was observed. The phenomenon was observed even for the sample with low Ag{sup +}-Na{sup +} exchanging (8.3%), indicating that the emission from Ag activated zeolites may not come from Ag clusters while from the surrounding coordinated Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms. It was disclosed that the characteristic yellow-green emission at ∼560 ± 15 nm is strongly associated with the coordinating water molecules to the Ag{sup +} ions or Ag{sup 0} atoms, which is clear evidence for that the efficient emission from Ag activated zeolites may not originate from the quantum confinement effect.

  5. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  6. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  7. Analysis of Angolan human hair samples by the k0-NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is personal difference in concentrations of trace elements in the human hair according to human life or history such as occupation, sex, age, food, habit, social condition and so on. It is also found that the individual's deviation of elemental concentrations reflecting the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to the human body, intakes of food and metabolism. The k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA) on research reactor has been recommended by WHO and IAEA as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multi-element and routine. This report presents the results of determination of about 20 elements in 23 human hair samples, which have been collected from different places in Angola by using k0-NAA technique on Dalat nuclear research reactor. Accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of two human hair certified reference materials (CRMs), i.e. NIES-5 and GBW-09101 and assessed by the deviation of experiment to certified values generally within 10% and U-score values mostly lower 2. (author)

  8. Application of k0-based internal monostandard NAA for large sample analysis of clay pottery. As a part of inter comparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of inter comparison exercise of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project on large sample neutron activation analysis, a large size and non standard geometry size pottery replica (obtained from Peru) was analyzed by k0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). Two large size sub samples (0.40 and 0.25 kg) were irradiated at graphite reflector position of AHWR Critical Facility in BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. Small samples (100-200 mg) were also analyzed by IM-NAA for comparison purpose. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40 % relative efficiency HPGe detector. To examine homogeneity of the sample, counting was also carried out using X-Z rotary scanning unit. In situ relative detection efficiency was evaluated using gamma rays of the activation products in the irradiated sample in the energy range of 122-2,754 keV. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na of small size (100 mg mass) as well as large size (15 and 400 g) samples were used to check the homogeneity of the samples. Concentration ratios of 18 elements such as K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf and Th with respect to Na (internal mono standard) were calculated using IM-NAA. Absolute concentrations were arrived at for both large and small samples using Na concentration, obtained from relative method of NAA. The percentage combined uncertainties at ±1 s confidence limit on the determined values were in the range of 3-9 %. Two IAEA reference materials SL-1 and SL-3 were analyzed by IM-NAA to evaluate accuracy of the method. (author)

  9. Novel Synthesis Method of Micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A and Cytotoxic Activity of Its Silver Exchanged Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The core-shell method is used as a novel synthetic process of micronized Ti-Zeolite Na-A which involves calcination at 700°C of coated Egyptian Kaolin with titanium tetrachloride in acidic medium as the first step. The produced Ti-coated metakaolinite is subjected to microwave irradiation at low temperature of 80°C for 2 h. The prepared micronized Ti-containing Zeolites-A (Ti-Z-A is characterized by FTIR, XRF, XRD, SEM, and EDS elemental analysis. Ag-exchanged form of Ti-Z-Ag is also prepared and characterized. The Wt% of silver exchanged onto the Ti-Zeolite structure was determined by atomic absorption spectra. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of Ti-Z-Ag against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HePG2, colon cell line carcinoma (HCT116, lung carcinoma cell line (A549, and human Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7 is reported. The results were promising and revealed that the exchanged Ag form of micronized Ti-Zeolite-A can be used as novel antitumor drug.

  10. Human Naa50 Protein Displays Broad Substrate Specificity for Amino-terminal Acetylation: DETAILED STRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING TETRAPEPTIDE LIBRARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Saddanapu, Venkateshwarlu; Chinthapalli, Dinesh Kumar; Sankoju, Priyanka; Sripadi, Prabhakar; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2016-09-23

    Amino-terminal acetylation is a critical co-translational modification of the newly synthesized proteins in a eukaryotic cell carried out by six amino-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). All NATs contain at least one catalytic subunit, and some contain one or two additional auxiliary subunits. For example, NatE is a complex of Naa10, Naa50, and Naa15 (auxiliary). In the present study, the crystal structure of human Naa50 suggested the presence of CoA and acetylated tetrapeptide (AcMMXX) that have co-purified with the protein. Biochemical and thermal stability studies on the tetrapeptide library with variations in the first and second positions confirm our results from the crystal structure that a peptide with Met-Met in the first two positions is the best substrate for this enzyme. In addition, Naa50 acetylated all MXAA peptides except for MPAA. Transcriptome analysis of 10 genes that make up six NATs in humans from eight different cell lines suggests that components of NatE are transcribed in all cell lines, whereas others are variable. Because Naa10 is reported to acetylate all amino termini that are devoid of methionine and Naa50 acetylates all other peptides that are followed by methionine, we believe that NatE complex can be a major contributor for amino-terminal acetylation at the ribosome exit tunnel. PMID:27484799

  11. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA); Identificacion de procedencia para obsidianas de Cantona, Puebla, por el metodo de analisis por activacion neutronica (AAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-07-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  12. Implementation of the k0-NAA method in the NAA#3 irradiation hole of the HANARO research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Dung, Ho Manh; Moon, Jong Hwa; Park, Kwang Won; Kim, Hark Rho

    2006-08-01

    The NAA#3 irradiation hole in the 30 MW HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with a thermal neutron flux of 1.26×10 14 cm -2 s -1, has been regarded as suitable for the application of k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA). The objectives of the present work were: (a) to characterize the NAA#3 irradiation hole via the determination of the neutron spectrum parameters required for the method, (b) to calibrate the HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer system via establishing the detection efficiency curves and (c) to assess the quality of the k0-NAA method by the analysis of six certified reference materials, three of which were of biological nature and three of environmental origin. The results obtained indicated that, by using the k0-NAA method, approximately 25 or 35 elements could be quantitatively determined in the biological and environmental samples, respectively. The deviations between the experimental and the certified values for the determined elements were generally within 12% with u-scores mostly below 2. The results prove that the k0-NAA method, implemented in the HANARO research reactor, is applicable for multi-element analysis in biological and environmental samples with a rather high analytical performance and that the method is available for further practical applications.

  13. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  14. NAA analysis of trace elements in hair and feces for normal persons and Wilson's patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of human hair and feces have been investigated by NAA. Trace elements Cu, Zn, Ca, Mn, Al and Mg were determined. Elemental concentrations in samples from normal persons and from patients with Wilson's disease have been compared. The variation of elemental concentrations in hair and feces samples taken from patients before-and after-cure, was also studied. The analytical results show that Cu in feces from patients is remarkably lower than that from normal persons; patients before-and after-cure have no significant differences in Cu; and there are significant differences for Al and Ca in hair and Al, Ca and Mg in feces between patients and normal persons

  15. Chemistry and crime detection: application to NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is extensively used for the analysis of gun shot residues (GSR). But the analysis becomes increasingly difficult when the exhibits collected from the scene of crime are contaminated with various contaminants. During this work, systematic experiments were carried out to study the interferences from various common contaminants like soil, rust, grease, blood, etc., along with difficulties in the determination of GSR elements in presence of these contaminants. An attempt has been made to demonstrate in this paper how contaminations can mislead the investigation. In such cases careful analysis followed by proper evaluation of the analytical data of control and also exhibits can provide meaningful results

  16. Large sample NAA work at BARC: Methodology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, R., E-mail: racharya@barc.gov.i [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Swain, K.K. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Pujari, P.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-10-11

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) was carried out using thermal column facility of Apsara reactor at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. The k{sub 0}-based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) using in situ detection efficiency was used to analyze large and non-standard geometry samples of clay pottery, uranium ore and stainless steel. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na as a monostandard were used in the study of pottery and ore samples. For stainless steel sample of SS 304L, the absolute concentrations were calculated from concentration ratios by mass balance approach since all the major elements (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn) were amenable to NAA. Applications of LSNAA in the above-mentioned three different areas are described in this paper.

  17. NAA and low-background Υ- spectrometry for the analysis of U and Th in high purity silica used in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that soft error of high precision electronic circuits can be induced by alpha particle emitted from the naturally occurring radioactive impurities such as U and Th. Silica has used in electronic industries as the base materials and impurities must be controlled strictly. Recently, electronic circuits have become lower dimension and higher density, so alpha-particle emitting radioactive impurities have to be strictly controlled. The objective of the present study was to develop of NAA and gamma-spectrometry for the sensitive (ng/g) and precise analysis of U and Th. A new NAA method has been established using the HTS irradiation facility which has been used to produce radioisotopes for industries and medicines. When the ultratrace impurities have to be analyzed by NAA, background gamma-ray spectra induced from 222Rn and its progeny nuclides in atmosphere are serious problem. This unstable background was eliminated and stabilized by the use of a nitrogen purging system. By the use of HTS-NAA and low background gamma-spectrometry ultratrace amounts of U (0.1ng/g) and Th (0.01ng/g) in high purity silica could be analyzed

  18. Very accurate (definitive) methods by radiochemical NAA and their significance for quality assurance in trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of very accurate (definitive) methods by RNAA for the determination of individual trace elements in selected matrices is presented. The approach is based on combination of neutron activation with selective and truly quantitative post-irradiation isolation of an indicator radionuclide by column chromatography followed by high resolution γ-ray spectrometric measurement. The method should be, in principle, a single element method to optimize all conditions with respect to determination of this particular element. Radiochemical separation scheme should assure separation of the analyte from practically all accompanying radionuclides to provide interference-free γ-ray spectrometric measurement and achieving best detection limits. The method should have some intrinsic mechanisms incorporated into the procedure preventing any possibility of making gross errors. Several criteria were formulated which must be simultaneously fulfilled in order to acknowledge the analytical result as obtained by definitive method. Such methods are not intended for routine measurements but rather for verifying the accuracy of other methods of analysis and certification of the candidate reference materials. The usefulness of such methods is illustrated on the example of Cd and references are given to similar methods elaborated for the determination of several other elements (Co, Cu, Mo, Ni and U) in biological materials. (author)

  19. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  20. Chemical composition analysis of ancient bricks and potteries by internal monostandard NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ko-based internal monostandard INAA (IM-INAA) method was used for the determination of major, minor and trace element concentrations in ancient bricks as well as potteries, collected from Buddhist (4th B.C. to 3rd A.D.) sites of in and around Vishakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Chemical composition analysis of these artifacts was carried out for the provenance study and also to find out possible correlations among the bricks and potteries. INAA is one of the best techniques used for the provenance study due to its advantageous properties like simultaneous multielement capability, negligible matrix effect, no spectral interference and inherent precision and accuracy

  1. A study of air monitoring at an urban region in Korea and a comparative analysis by the three k0-NAA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the study on air pollution, airborne particulate matter (APM) for the fine (2.5) and coarse particle (2.5-10 μm EAD: PM2.5-10) fractions were collected using the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters. Air samples were collected twice a month at two regions (suburban and industrial site of Daejeon city in the Republic of Korea) from January to December 2002. Monthly mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured and the concentrations of 10 elements such as Al, Sc, Ti (indices for silicates); Na, Cl (sea salts); As, V, Sb, Br, Se (pollutants) were determined by an Instrumental NAA at the HANARO research reactor, Korea. Analytical quality control was carried out using three certified reference materials (CRM). Enrichment factors were also calculated from the monitoring data to classify the anthropogenic and crustal origins. A comparison of the analytical data determined by the three K0-NAA software was carried out using a part of the air monitoring sample and the CRM of the air filter to evaluate the accuracy as well as the convenience and simplicity of analysis. The k0-NAA method of three countries, Korea, China and Vietnam were used for the comparative analysis. The results obtained from this project can be used to investigate the source identification and its trends, and to establish a more cost-effective method for national air quality management. (author)

  2. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  3. Current role of NAA in biological and health-related environmental studies as exemplified by programs of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has many projects and activities supporting the utilization of nuclear research reactors for neutron activation analysis (NAA). Globally the number of operating nuclear research reactors has been in decline since about 1975. This contrasts with the situation in developing countries where the numbers show a modest increase over the same period. This paper reviews the current status of NAA as seen from the particular perspective of IAEA programs involving studies of biological and environmental specimens. Some of the areas in which NAA is maintaining its role as a competitive technique are briefly reviewed. (author)

  4. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  5. Software for NAA sample changer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra Neto, Aimore; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: dutraa@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-RJ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In CDTN/CNEN laboratories, the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique routinely employed. The irradiation is performed in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor. After irradiated, the samples depend of an operator to be changed, creating a bottle neck in the process. To optimize the whole process, an automation of the changing samples is necessary. In order to achieve this goal, it was developed a software to control a sample changer under construction at CDTN laboratories. Two programs, running in two different environments, manages the entire acquisition process and performs all activities necessary to move the motors to positioning the samples and control the vacuum to grip the vials. The high level routine communicates with Genie 2000 software to control a Canberra Multiport II, while a low level program controls the physical assemble. (author)

  6. The validation of Kayzero-assisted NAA in Budapest, Rez, and Ljubljana via the analysis of three BCR certified reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, F; van Sluijs, R; Simonits, A; Kucera, J; Smodis, B; Byrne, A R; De Wispelaere, A; Bossus, D; Frána, J; Horák, Z; Jaćimović, R

    2001-05-01

    After installation and calibration of k0-assisted NAA in three Central European research institutes (AEKI-Budapest, NPI-Rez, and IJS, Ljubljana), its validation was established via the analysis of three BCR certified reference materials. The matrices of choice were: CRM 277 estuarine sediment, CRM 038 coal fly ash from pulverized coal, and CRM 101 spruce needles. For some elements, e.g. Zn, Cd, and Hg, the analyses were not only performed instrumentally (INAA), but also in the radiochemical mode (RNAA). The work was performed in the framework of a European Copernicus Project. PMID:11393234

  7. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  8. An evaluation of thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis compton suppression methods for biological reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Wu, D

    1999-01-01

    For neutron activation analysis (NAA), the usual matrix problems of sodium, chlorine, and bromine are well known to give rise to high backgrounds that inhibit the determination of several trace elements for short-lived or medium-lived NAA. For long counting times in long-lived NAA, very low backgrounds are required to achieve good sensitivities. We have investigated the use of thermal and epithermal NAA in conjunction with Compton suppression to determine several elements such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium, and mercury, at the level of a few nanograms. The values of these techniques are discussed in contrast to the standard radiochemical methods. PMID:10676521

  9. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  10. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  11. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  12. NAA TECHNIQUE FOR CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICE IMMUNIZED WITH BOTHROP VENOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  13. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung

    2003-05-01

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology.

  14. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology

  15. Gold determination in massive samples by neutron activation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Broglio, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the characteristics of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) in the determination of gold in voluminous mineral samples using a linear particle accelerator (Linac) as source of irradiation. The used volumes are one or two orders of magnitude higher than the ones that can be used in nuclear research reactor, which is the source usually used to determine through the NAA. This study was encouraged by a specific legal requirement to determine the gold law in a small Patagonian gold deposit.

  16. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  17. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  18. Synthesis of NaA zeolite from kaolin source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian MIAO; Zhihui ZHOU; Jianhua YANG; Jinming LU; Shiwei YAN; Jinqu WANG

    2009-01-01

    In this work, zeolite NaA was successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method using kaolin as a combined source for silica and alumina. Zeolite NaA with high static water adsorption was synthesized from the low-cost raw material, kaolin, and the reaction parameters were optimized. Metakaolin was obtained by calcining kaolin at temperatures ranged from 953 K to 1173 K. The synthesis mixture was pre-crystallized at 343 K and crystallized at 373 K successively. Zeolite NaA was obtained, which was confirmed by SEM, XRD and the water adsorption analysis. The optimized metakaolinization temperature was found at 973 K. The influence of Na2O/SiO2 molar ratio, pre-crystallization time and seed on the crystal- lization of NaA zeolite was investigated. A thorough mixing of metakaolin and NaOH solution was favourable for the nucleation/crystallization rate. The obtained NaA zeolite under the optimized conditions shows excellent crystallinity and static water adsorption of 28.0wt-%,which was higher than 25.9 wt-% of the commercial NaA zeolite. Kaolin was suggested to be a feasible and economical raw material for the practical industrial applications for NaA zeolite.

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis in determining the mineral contents of the olive fruit fly and its food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition of the olive fruit mesocarp and of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, pupae in Na, K, Ca, Mg and Mn determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is reported. The AAS was used as a standard method to evaluate the results obtained by NAA because of problems encountered with this method. (Auth.)

  20. NAA of organohalogens in air particles and precipitation in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organohalogens are ubiquitous pollutants which are especially controlled in many countries and their behaviors in environment become the hot topic in environment science. By the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) combined with chemical separation, the extractable organohalogens (EOX) in environmental samples were determined. NAA is a nuclear analysis method, which has high sensibility and high precision. The detection limits were 50ng, 8ng, 3.5ng for Cl, Br, I, respectively. The principle is that when the sample was irradiated by thermal neutron, the energies and the intensities of γ ray of halogen nuclides (38Cl, Eγ=1642keV, t1/2=37.24min; 80Br,Eγ=617keV, t1/2=17.68min; 128I, Eγ=443keV, t1/2=24.99min)produced by nuclear reaction can be measured. Total content of halogens were analyzed and the organochlorines, organobromines and organoiodines in the samples were detected. In this paper, NAA and gas chromatography (GC) were used to determine organohalogens in air particles and precipitation samples in Jiading District, Shanghai, collected between December 2004 and August 2005. Extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs) in atmosphere were analyzed. The effect of preference for absorbance of organohalogens in fine air particles has been found. The sources for organochlorines in atmospheres are miscellaneous, while organobromine unitary and its possible souce is PBDEs. The contamination levels of HCH and DDT that are forbidden from 1983 in our country are coming down every year, but still being affected by transfusing of pesticides. The migration of lower chloro-diphenyls and HCH in ecosphere is larger than higher chloro-diphenyls, DDT and its metabolites. This work is supported by Foundation of Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. K117). (authors)

  1. Determination of aluminum in green tea and hijiki by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitive determination of aluminum in Japanese green tea and hijiki (spindle-shaped bladder leaf) was carried out by means of the 14 MeV neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA). From the results obtained, aluminum contents in 100 g dry green tea were 0.214±0.039 g for NAA and 0.215±0.013 g for XFA, and in 100 g dry hijiki, 0.545±0.058 g for NAA and 0.611±0.031 g for XFA. (author)

  2. Investigation of the cyclic techniques in neutron activation analysis on Da Lat research reactor for determination of short-lived radionuclides in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of the sensitivity and precision of Cyclic, Pseudocyclic and Cumulative (Replicate) techniques in neutron activation analysis (NAA) on Dalat research reactor were investigated for the determination of short-lived radionuclides. This research focused on determination of 77mSe (T1/2 = 17.4 seconds) in biological materials as a case in point. The result shows that an improvement of detection limits of approximately 2 times in the 3rd cycle to 4th cycle was obtained by using Cyclic NAA, Pseudocyclic NAA and Cumulative NAA in comparison with conventional NAA. The lower detection limits of approximately 3 times can be obtained by a combination of 3 subsamples in Cumulative NAA and 3 cycles in PCNAA. The precision of the techniques is typically within 2-5% from 2nd to 3rd cycles and afterward. In general, the precision and confidence in representative of the analysis result of Cumulative NAA are better than others. However, the utilization of Cyclic NAA is the most useful as regards analysis time. With reference to analytical sensitivity, Cumulative NAA in combination with CNAA or PCNAA will provide a lowest detection limit, and thereby suiting for determining short-lived radionuclides in biological materials with very low concentration levels. (author)

  3. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  4. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  5. NAA using the photoneutrons of a Linac as a neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera P, E.; De Leon M, H. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Soto B, T. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: rivera_yo@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal No. 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Linear accelerators working above 8 MV produce photoneutrons that represent a radiological risk in the patient and hospital staff. In this work a moderator has been designed in the aim to use the photoneutron field to perform neutron activation analysis (NAA) of small samples. The moderator has been designed using Monte Carlo methods, here the photoneutron spectrum is modified by the moderator having the maximum thermal neutron flux in the moderator cavity where the sample to be analyzed is located. (Author)

  6. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  7. Quality assessment of ksub0-NAA by statistical evaluation of CRM results:

    OpenAIRE

    Bučar, Tinkara; Jaćimović, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Smodiš, Borut

    2008-01-01

    The k0-based neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA) is an analytical method basedon nuclear properties of atoms. Since it is a multi-element technique, correlations among repeated measurement results for different elements can in principle be observed in case of certain systematic errors. For a deeper insight into potential sources of uncertainty and potential systematical errors of the analytical method, a set of measurement results for the StandardReference Material (SRM) 2782 obtained from t...

  8. Neutron activation analysis as analytical tool of environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) ia applicable to the sample of wide range of research fields, such as material science, biology, geochemistry and so on. However, respecting the advantages of NAA, a sample with small amounts or a precious sample is the most suitable samples for NAA, because NAA is capable of trace analysis and non-destructive determination. In this paper, among these fields, NAA of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sample is discussed emphasizing on the use of obtained data as an analytical tool of environmental issue. Concentration of PM in air is usually very low, and it is not easy to get vast amount of sample even using a high volume air sampling devise. Therefore, high sensitive NAA is suitable to determine elements in PM samples. Main components of PM is crust oriented silicate, and so on in rural/remote area, and carbonic materials and heavy metals are concentrated in PM in urban area, because of automobile exhaust and other anthropogenic emission source. Elemental pattern of PM reflects a condition of air around the monitoring site. Trends of air pollution can be traced by periodical monitoring of PM by NAA method. Elemental concentrations in air change by season. For example, crustal elements increase in dry season, and sea salts components increase their concentration when wind direction from sea is dominant. Elements that emitted from anthropogenic sources are mainly contained in fine portion of PM, and increase their concentration during winter season, when emission from heating system is high and air is stable. For further analysis and understanding of environmental issues, indicator elements for various emission sources, and elemental concentration ratios of some environmental samples and source portion assignment techniques are useful. (author)

  9. Practical aspects of operating a neutron activation analysis laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is intended to advise in everyday practical problems related to operating a neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory. It gives answers to questions like ''what to use NAA for'', ''how to find relevant research problems'', ''how to find users for the technique'', ''how to estimate the cost of the analysis and how to finance the work'', ''how to organize the work in a rational way'' and ''how to perform the quality control''. It gives advice in choosing staff, equipment, and consumables and how to design facilities and procedures according to need and available resources. Potential applications of economic or environmental importance, reactor facilities, counting and measuring equipment of the lab, cooperation with other analytical groups and competitiveness of NAA are discussed by experienced analysts. The compiled 8 tables of data useful for neutron activation analysts are a valuable asset for research labs as well as industrial quality control units. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. A software architectural framework specification for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is a sensitive multi-element nuclear analytical technique that has been routinely applied by research reactor (RR) facilities to environmental, nutritional, health related, geological and geochemical studies. As RR facilities face calls to increase their research output and impact, with existing or reducing budgets, automation of NAA offers a possible solution. However, automation has many challenges, not the least of which is a lack of system architecture standards to establish acceptable mechanisms for the various hardware/software and software/software interactions among data acquisition systems, specialised hardware such as sample changers, sample loaders, and data processing modules. This lack of standardization often results in automation hardware and software being incompatible with existing system components, in a facility looking to automate its NAA operations. This limits the availability of automation to a few RR facilities with adequate budgets or in-house engineering resources. What is needed is a modern open system architecture for NAA, that provides the required set of functionalities. This paper describes such an 'architectural framework' (OpenNAA), and portions of a reference implementation. As an example of the benefits, calculations indicate that applying this architecture to the compilation and QA steps associated with the analysis of 35 elements in 140 samples, with 14 SRM's, can reduce the time required by over 80 %. The adoption of open standards in the nuclear industry has been very successful over the years in promoting interchangeability and maximising the lifetime and output of nuclear measurement systems. OpenNAA will provide similar benefits within the NAA application space, safeguarding user investments in their current system, while providing a solid path for development into the future. (author)

  11. Neutron Activation Analysis of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) - With Emphasis on Geological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosch, Heinz-Günter

    2016-08-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been the analytical method of choice for rare earth element (REE) analysis from the early 1960s through the 1980s. At that time, irradiation facilitieswere widely available and fairly easily accessible. The development of high-resolution gamma-ray detectors in the mid-1960s eliminated, formany applications, the need for chemical separation of the REE from the matrix material, making NAA a reliable and effective analytical tool. While not as precise as isotopedilution mass spectrometry, NAA was competitive by being sensitive for the analysis of about half of the rare earths (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu). The development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry since the 1980s, together with decommissioning of research reactors and the lack of installation of new ones in Europe and North America has led to the rapid decline of NAA.

  12. Activities of the neutron activation analysis laboratory of the radiochemistry division of IPEN - CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of the relevant applications of nuclear research reactors. Due to the high neutron fluxes available in these reactors, an excellent sensitivity of analysis is attained for many elements. NAA is one of the most sensitive, precise and accurate analytical methods for trace element determination. NAA has been one of the main activities of the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN, since the beginning of the operation of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1. Most of the effort was devoted to research work, aimed to improvements in the method as well as to its applications to several kinds of matrixes (geological, biological, metallic, environmental, forensic). Besides, analytical services were also offered, to the CNEN, to industries, universities, mining companies and research institutes. In the present paper, a review is made of the research work being developed presently at the Radiochesmitry Division of IPEN. A discussion is also made of the planned expansion of the analytical services offered

  13. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  14. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an important technique to determine the provenance of ancient ceramics. The most common technique used for preparing ancient samples for NAA is to grind them into a powder and then encapsulate them before neutron irradiation. Unfortunately, ceramic materials are typically very hard making it a challenge to grind them into a powder. In this study we utilize bulk porcelain samples cut from ancient shards. The bulk samples are irradiated by neutrons alongside samples that have been conventionally ground into a powder. The NAA for both the bulk samples and powders are compared and shown to provide equivalent information regarding their chemical composition. Also, the multivariate statistical have been employed to the analysis data for check the consistency. The findings suggest that NAA results are less dependent on the state of the porcelain sample, and thus bulk samples cut from shards may be used to effectively determine their provenance. (author)

  16. Assessment of the intrinsic uncertainty of the k0-based NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučar, Tinkara; Smodiš, Borut

    2006-08-01

    This paper addresses the intrinsic uncertainty of k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) by evaluating the partial uncertainties of the nuclear parameters and parameters given by the irradiation conditions. Uncertainty propagation factors are determined from the basic equations of the k0-NAA and the combined uncertainties are calculated using a software package specially developed for this purpose. The nuclear parameter values and respective uncertainties are taken from an IUPAC database. The uncertainties are calculated for specific conditions given at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Jožef Stefan Institute, for all reactions where data is available. On average, neutron reaction-specific values in the range of 1-2% were obtained for 44 elements. For 23 elements, some data are missing in the database, so the values should be obtained elsewhere. The developed approach is generally applicable to other neutron flux conditions.

  17. Activation Analysis of Biological Samples of Forensic Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In forensic (crime investigation) studies, samples of a biological origin are frequently used as evidence. Often it is necessary to compare one sample (associated with a victim or the scene of a crime) with another sample of the same general type (associated with a suspect in some way). The purpose of such comparisons is to establish, if possible, that - to a high degree of probability - the two samples have a common origin. Typically, all available relevant methods of comparison are utilized in such cases by the criminalist: microscopic examination; X-ray diffraction; infra-red, visible, and ultra-violet spectrometry; and various methods of elemental analysis. The forensic applications of high-flux thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) have shown great promise and are attracting considerable attention. The authors' laboratory has been engaged in such forensic NAA research and development studies for the past five years. (It also operates a non-profit Forensic Activation Analysis Service, available to all law enforcement agencies, for the NAA comparison of evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases. Samples from many actual cases have been thus examined.) In the United States, NAA results have now been successfully presented in court in some 20 actual cases. Some of the evidence-type materials of interest are non-biological; others are biological. Only the latter will be discussed in this paper. The principal evidence-type materials of a biological nature that have been examined in this laboratory by high-flux thermal-NAA to date are the following: hair, blood, faeces, urine, fingernails, skin, wood, tobacco, whisky, green plants, and marijuana. (In addition, a number of these evidence-type materials have also been studied in this laboratory by high-flux photonuclear activation analysis (PNAA); attention in this paper will be largely devoted to the thermal-NAA forensic studies.) The main topics to be reported upon in this paper are: (1) limits of

  18. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

  19. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  20. Computer-assisted uncertainty assessment of k0-NAA measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučar, T.; Smodiš, B.

    2008-10-01

    In quantifying measurement uncertainty of measurement results obtained by the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA), a number of parameters should be considered and appropriately combined in deriving the final budget. To facilitate this process, a program ERON (ERror propagatiON) was developed, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the combined uncertainty. The program calculates uncertainty of the final result—mass fraction of an element in the measured sample—taking into account the relevant neutron flux parameters such as α and f, including their uncertainties. Nuclear parameters and their uncertainties are taken from the IUPAC database (V.P. Kolotov and F. De Corte, Compilation of k0 and related data for NAA). Furthermore, the program allows for uncertainty calculations of the measured parameters needed in k0-NAA: α (determined with either the Cd-ratio or the Cd-covered multi-monitor method), f (using the Cd-ratio or the bare method), Q0 (using the Cd-ratio or internal comparator method) and k0 (using the Cd-ratio, internal comparator or the Cd subtraction method). The results of calculations can be printed or exported to text or MS Excel format for further analysis. Special care was taken to make the calculation engine portable by having possibility of its incorporation into other applications (e.g., DLL and WWW server). Theoretical basis and the program are described in detail, and typical results obtained under real measurement conditions are presented.

  1. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  2. Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29Si(n,p)29Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)

  3. Analysis of consumed fish species by neutron activation analysis in six Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish were selected as a common target sample for a collaborative study of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia)-NAA (neutron activation analysis) project in 2011. Six Asian countries took part in this work. Fish samples were purchased from commercial markets and prepared by following an agreed protocol. Toxic and essential elements in the prepared samples were determined by NAA. The concentration levels of As, Hg in many fish samples have higher values than the regulation ones. The fish contamination by heavy metals should be monitored continuously for human health. (author)

  4. Thirty years of NAA developments and applications at the THETIS reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the past and present fundamental developments and practical applications of neutron activation analysis performed at the reactor THETIS of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent, which has already now for more than 30 years played an internationally appreciated pioneering role in this domain. Whereas the applications were mainly dealing with the analysis of semiconductor and high-purity materials, biomedical matrices, geological materials, environmental samples and artefacts, the developments were directed towards the elaboration of irradiation, separation and counting schemes, the determination of nuclear activation and decay constants, and especially towards the introduction of a modern (so-called k0-) standardization method which - especially combined with a dedicated software package such as KAYZERO/SOLCOI(C) issued by DSM Research - proved to make NAA to a manageable and competitive analytical tool, nowadays applied in more than 50 NAA-labs worldwide. (author)

  5. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future

  6. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  7. Testing the applicability of the k 0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k 0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA (k 0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k 0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k 0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters (α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k 0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k 0-NAA method at the MINT

  8. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN / CNEN - SP) - Centro do Reator de Pesquisas Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242 - 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenco, T. F.; Macedo, D. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP - Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970 - Campinas, SP Brazil - Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  9. Activation analysis in Europe: present and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the present-day European contribution to activation analysis, covering neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Attention is paid to the available irradiation facilities, in particular nuclear reactors, cyclotrons and Van de Graaff accelerators, and linear electron accelerators. Mention is made of progress in fundamental fields, but the attention is especially focussed on practical applications: environmental, geochemical/cosmochemical, biological/medical, and high-purity materials. Eventually, the role of activation analysis in research projects of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and in the Reference Materials program of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is emphasized

  10. On multielement analysis of biological samples with the aid of neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A main objective of this study was elucidation of problems of sampling and sample preparation methods for multielement analysis of environmental and biological specimens. Another was assessment of the potentials of multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) in environmental and biological research. In an attempt to explain the great differences in the elemental concentration ranges between biopsy and autopsy samples as reported in the literature, it was shown that post mortem changes induce great variations in the apparent elemental composition of autopsy specimens resulting in serious systematic errors. Applications of NAA to analysis of tissues of experimental animals, human tissues in health and disease, and environmental samples are illustrated with several examples. The suitability of NAA for routine analysis of elements such as Cr, Mo and Se, which are difficult to determine by other methods has been specially discussed. (author)

  11. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  12. Implementation of the k0-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k0-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established ko-NAA procedure.The ko-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(ko-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The ko-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used

  13. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  14. Moessbauer, XRD, NAA and XRF study of archaeological slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1960, remains of four furnaces from Early Medieval Age were excavated in Nitra. Because a lot of glass-like findings were found on this site the function of furnaces was considered as being used for production of glass even though no analytical tests were performed. These dig-outs were divided into two groups: The first group contains dark glass-like archaeological fragments which were interpreted as a waste (slag) of a glass production. The second group consists of archaeological artefacts which were thought to be a slag from iron production. The main aim of this work is to investigate these two types of archaeological artefacts. Employing standard transmission geometry Moessbauer effect experiments, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. In addition, some of the archaeological artefacts that are presumably coming from glass production show traces of metallic iron. On the other hand, slag from iron production exhibit minute contribution of iron oxides in several instances. Additional information about the composition of slag is obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements. (authors)

  15. The use of the k0-IAEA program in NIRR-1 NAA laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The k0-IAEA program developed for implementation of the single comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis method (k0-INAA) has been used for elemental analysis with NIRR-1 irradiation and counting facilities. The existing experimental protocols for routine analysis based on the relative method were used to test the capability and reliability of the program for the analyses of geological and biological samples. The Synthetic Multi-element Standards (SMELS) types I, II and III recommended by the international k0 user community for the validation of k0-NAA method in NAA laboratories, furthermore, the following standard reference materials: NIST-1633b (Coal Fly Ash) and IAEA-336 (Lichen) were analyzed. Results obtained with the version 3.12 of the k0-IAEA program were found to be in good agreement with the data obtained with the established relative method using WINSPAN-2004 software. Detection limits for elemental analysis of geological and biological samples with NIRR-1 facilities are provided. (author)

  16. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  17. Self-sustainability of a research reactor facility with neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term self-sustainability of a small reactor facility is possible because there is a large demand for non-destructive chemical analysis of bulk materials that can only be achieved with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The Ecole Polytechnique Montreal SLOWPOKE Reactor Facility has achieved self-sustainability for over twenty years, benefiting from the extreme reliability, ease of use and stable neutron flux of the SLOWPOKE reactor. The industrial clientele developed slowly over the years, mainly because of research users of the facility. A reliable NAA service with flexibility, high accuracy and fast turn-around time was achieved by developing an efficient NAA system, using a combination of the relative and k0 standardisation methods. The techniques were optimized to meet the specific needs of the client, such as low detection limit or high accuracy at high concentration. New marketing strategies are presented, which aim at a more rapid expansion. (author)

  18. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  19. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  20. Elemental analysis of rain- and fresh water by neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of rain-and fresh water for trace constituents is a manda tory part of environmental monitoring. This text gives a survey of neutron activation analysis (NAA) within the framework of current environmental water research pro grammes, based on the practice developed in co-operation with the Dutch Energy Research Centre at Petten (ECN). While the procedures reported in literature cover about thirty five elements, our routine procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is limited to ten to fifteen elements. The use of some dedicated ra diochemical separations (RNAA) adds another six, some of which are speciated as well. Current contributions of NAA to water analysis center on determination and speciation of anionic trace elements, notably Br, I, As. and Se, on the assay of some ultra traces like Ag, Au and Hg and on validation.

  1. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  2. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  3. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  4. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 1013 - 1 x 1014 n/cm2·s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  5. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} - 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis in an industrial laboratory using an off-site nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multifunctional research laboratory, such as Procter and Gamble's Miami Valley Laboratories, requires elemental analyses on many materials. A general survey technique is important even if the information it provides is incomplete or is less precise than single element analyses. Procter and Gamble has developed neutron activation analysis (NAA) capabilities using a nuclear reactor several hundred miles away. The concentration of 40 to 50 elements can be determined in a variety of matrices. We have found NAA to be a powerful supplement to some of the more classical analytical techniques even without having an on-site neutron source. We have also found an automated data acquisition system to be essential for the successful application of NAA in an industrial laboratory

  7. NAA OF SOME ANCIENT INDIAN COINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.S.Rajurkar; B.D.Fulsoundar

    1995-01-01

    The radioactivity induced in the coins from satvahanas,Ahmadshah Bahamani,Gujrat Sultan,Nizamshahi and Marathas after(n,γ) reactions for the elements of interest is measured on multichannel analyzer coupled to high purity germanium detector and percentage of these elements is determined by comparator method of NAA.All these coins are found to be copper based with the presence of As,Sb,In,Au,Sn and Mn.

  8. NAA10 mutation causing a novel intellectual disability syndrome with Long QT due to N-terminal acetyltransferase impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jillian P.; Støve, Svein I.; McGorrian, Catherine; Galvin, Joseph; Blenski, Marina; Dunne, Aimee; Ennis, Sean; Brett, Francesca; King, Mary D.; Arnesen, Thomas; Lynch, Sally Ann

    2015-01-01

    We report two brothers from a non-consanguineous Irish family presenting with a novel syndrome characterised by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, scoliosis and long QT. Their mother has a milder phenotype including long QT. X-linked inheritance was suspected. Whole exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.128 A > C; p.Tyr43Ser) in NAA10 (X chromosome) as the cause of the family’s disorder. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the mutation arose de novo in the carrier mother. NAA10 encodes the catalytic subunit of the major human N-terminal acetylation complex NatA. In vitro assays for the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme showed a significant decrease in catalytic activity and reduced stability compared to wild-type Naa10 protein. NAA10 has previously been associated with Ogden syndrome, Lenz microphthalmia syndrome and non-syndromic developmental delay. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of NAA10 and suggest that the proposed correlation between mutant Naa10 enzyme activity and phenotype severity is more complex than anticipated; the p.Tyr43Ser mutant enzyme has less catalytic activity than the p.Ser37Pro mutant associated with lethal Ogden syndrome but results in a milder phenotype. Importantly, we highlight the need for cardiac assessment in males and females with NAA10 variants as both patients and carriers can have long QT. PMID:26522270

  9. Concentrations of ions in blood or athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K) are widely distributed in the body and are the mainly of body fluids electrolytes. K is the major intracellular ion. Na and Cl are the major extracellular ions. Therefore, Na and Cl can be regarded as the most important osmotically active electrolytes. The concentrations of these ions in body fluids are very tightly controlled. These electrolytes play central roles in electrolytic balances and current, in osmotic control, in the transport of organic metabolites by cells, and stabilization of poly electrolytes in cells. In this study Na, Cl and K levels were investigated in blood of athletes submitted to physical exercise at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP - Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The blood samples were collected from six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, before and after the physical training. These results were compared with the rest condition (before start the physical exercise), as well as with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities), for checking the performance of the athletes during and after the exercise. The nuclear procedure adopted as NAA, it can be an alternative procedure to perform biochemistry analyses in blood, mainly when the biological material is scarce. (author)

  10. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R

    2007-01-15

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future.

  11. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  12. Use of research reactors for neutron activation analysis. Report of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique based on the measurement of characteristic radiation from radionuclides formed directly or indirectly by neutron irradiation of the material of interest. In the last three decades, neutron activation analysis has been found to be extremely useful in the determination of trace and minor elements in many disciplines. These include environmental analysis applications, nutritional and health related studies, geological as well as material sciences. The most suitable source of neutrons for NAA is a research reactor. There are several application fields in which NAA has a superior position compared to other analytical methods, and there are good prospects in developing countries for long term growth. Therefore, the IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote neutron activation analysis and at the same time to assist developing Member States in better utilization of their research reactors. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the benefits and the role of NAA in applications and research areas that may contribute towards improving utilization of research reactors. The participants focused on five specific topics: (1) Current trends in NAA; (2) The role of NAA compared to other methods of chemical analysis; (3) How to increase the number of NAA users through interaction with industries, research institutes, universities and medical institutions; (4) How to reduce costs and to maintain quality and reliability; (5) NAA using low power research reactors. Neutron activation analysis in its various forms is still active and there are good prospects in developing countries for long-term growth. This can be achieved by a more effective use of existing irradiation and counting facilities, a better end-user focus, and perhaps marginal improvements in equipment and techniques. Therefore, it is recommended that the Member States provide financial and other assistance to enhance the effectiveness of their laboratories

  13. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN AMBIENT AIR COLLECTED ON GLASS-FIBER FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic with 25 other elements are simultaneously determined in ambient air samples collected on glass-fiber filter composites at 250 United States sites. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique combined with the power of a dedicated mini-computer resulted in...

  14. Recent applications of neutron activation analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two purposes in this research; first aim is to promote the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a utilization of nuclear research reactor in the field of air pollution studies through a routine and long-term monitoring. Other is to improve NAA with an experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions. For the study on air pollution, airborne particulate matter (APM) for the fine (< 2.5 μm EAD) and coarse particle (2.5-10 μm EAD) fractions were collected using the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters. Air samples were collected at two regions (suburban and industrial site of Daejeon city in the Republic of Korea) from January to December 2002. Mass concentration and elemental black carbon of APM were measured and the concentration of 25 elements were determined by Instrumental NAA. Analytical quality control is carried out using three certified reference materials (CRM). The monitoring data were treated statistically to assess air pollution source and source apportionment. The results obtained from this project can be used to investigate source identification and apportionment and its trends, and to establish a more cost-effective method for national air quality management. Preliminary experiment for application of ko-standardization method has been carried out to determine the reactor neutron spectrum parameters, i.e.a and f-values as the main factors of irradiation quality at NAA no.1 irradiation hole on HANARO research reactor, to determine peak detection efficiency for the HP Ge(EG and G ORTEC, GEM 35185) detector for the use in the ko-experiments and to compare the measured concentration results with the certified values of some CRMs applying the experimentally determined ko-parameters. (author)

  15. Quality evaluation of the k0-standardized neutron activation analysis on Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory for neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the 500 kW Dalat Research Reactor( DRR) has been accredited following ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 (TCVN VILAS-519). Successful introduction of the k0-based NAA using Ko-Dalat software written in house at DRR has allowed to extend its applications in petroleum, archaeology and environment besides other traditional fields, i.e. geology, biomedicine, industry and materials. This study aimed to assess the quality of k0-NAA by analyzing a number of standard reference materials: SMELS, NIST-1547, NIST-2711a, IAEA-Soil-7 and IAEA-V-10. The laboratory has also participated in proficiency testing schemes organized by IAEA and FNCA. External and internal quality assessment revealed that the k0-NAA using Ko-Dalat software established at DRR has met the requirements of multi-element analysis in the intended applications. About 42 elements: Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, In, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr, were determined in the above mentioned materials. The results were evaluated and reported in this paper. (author)

  16. Study on Hongzhou kiln porcelains of successive dynasties by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln covering 8 periods from Eastern Han to Late Tang Dynasty/the Five Dynasties and their bodies were analysed by NAA. The results show that the elemental contents in different samples are quite distinct, even for those in the same period. It means no single element can be used as 'fingerprint' to distinguish the period. The curves of the contents of Na, Rb, Ba and Fe varying with time are very similar, like 'U' shape. As a colorant element, the content of Fe is consistent with the color of the body. The higher content of Fe is, the more dark of the body is. The outcome of principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that most of the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (authors)

  17. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females. PMID:27094817

  18. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  19. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  20. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (ELAI/CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). UNIFIEO - Centro Universitario FIEO; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica (LAN/CRPq)

    2011-07-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  1. Improving neutron activation analysis accuracy for the measurement of gold in the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts using a TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the gold content of a catalyst accurately, neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of the methods of choice. NAA is preferred for such heterogeneous catalysts because: (1) it requires minimal sample preparation; (2) NAA provides consistent and accurate results; and (3) in most cases results are obtained much quicker than competing methods. NAA is also used as a referee for the other elemental techniques when results do not fall within expected statistical uncertainties. However, at very high gold concentrations, applying NAA to determine the gold in a heterogeneous catalyst is more challenging than a routine NAA procedure. On the one hand, the neutron absorption cross section for gold is very high, resulting in significant self-shielding related errors. On the other hand, gold exhibits low energy resonance neutron absorptions. In this application the self-shielding minimization effort was handled more rigorously than the classic suppression of neutron flux within a specimen. This non-routine approach was used because: (1) for most applications, high accuracy, <3 % relative, is desired, (2) the low energy resonances of gold make its neutron reaction rate complex and (3) the TRIGA reactor flux profile used in this study contains both thermal and significant epithermal neutron fluxes. Accuracy and precision, using this new approach, are expected to improve from 15 % to better than 3 % relative uncertainty. This has been accomplished through a rigorous assessment of the observed effects of low energy resonance on the neutron flux spectral shape within the sample and designing an experiment to minimize the effects. (author)

  2. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  3. Multielement analysis of aerosols by means of neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis with totally reflecting sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the analysis of aerosol samples on filters several methods for the energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis with Totally Reflecting Sample Holder (TRXFA) with Mo-exitation were developed and investigated for systematic errors. The elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb and Ba are detectable with high sensitivity. For the improved detection of short lifed nuclides (tsub(1/2) = 2 - 50 h) with the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) a radiochemical procedure for the separation of Na-24 and Br-82 was developed. The results of TRXFA and NAA correspond well. The capabilities of the developed methods were demonstrated on a set of size-fractionated aerosol samples. (orig.)

  4. Elemental concentration determination in certain medicinal leaves by K0 instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations of two types of medicinal leaves (neem and eucalyptus) are determined by neutron activation analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA) method. Data obtained on one of the varieties studied (neem), collected from two different places, have also been used to see the effect of soil condition. The method was validated by analysing the SRM-1571 and it was found that the measured elemental concentrations in SRM-1571 are within ±9% of the reported values. (author)

  5. Multielement atmospheric deposition study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring, NAA, AAS and GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique and two complementary analytical techniques - neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to study multielement atmospheric deposition in the Republic of Croatia. Moss samples were collected during the summer 2006 from 98 sites evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention - ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. Conventional and epithermal neutron activation analyses made it possible to determine concentrations of 41 elements including key heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cu determined by AAS. Principal component analysis (factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation) was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values for Croatia are consistent with the corresponding values for all Europe for most elements. It was shown that the Adriatic coastline of Croatia may be considered as an environmentally pristine area. This study was conducted for providing reliable assessment of air quality throughout Croatia and producing information needed for better identification of pollution sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Croatia associated with toxic metals

  6. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  7. International comparison of Cd content in a quality control material of Navajuelas (Tagelus dombeii) determined by anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queirolo, F. (Universidad Catolica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. of Chemistry Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry); Ostapczuk, P. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie); Valenta, P.; Stegen, S. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry); Marin, C.; Vinagre, F.; Sanchez, A. (Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry)

    1991-05-01

    The determination of Cd was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame or in the electrothermal mode and anodic stripping voltammetry in the differential pulse mode (DPASV) and the square wave mode (SWASV). (orig./EF).

  8. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  9. Assessment of phosphatic fertilizer production impact on occupational staff based on NAA of hair, nails, and inhald particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raińska, Emilia; Biziuk, Marek; Sarbu, Costel; Szczepaniak, Karolina; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Culicov, Otilia; Bode, Peter; Astel, Aleksander

    2005-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was performed for the determination of 25 elements in hair, toenails, and PM2.5 (particles smaller than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) to assess how human tissues of occupational staff and inhaled particles follow the industrial exposure of Gdansk Phosphatic fertilizer plant in Poland. Statistical analysis was used to elucidate this exposure. The results obtained were compared using box and whiskers plot and the parametric t-test and nonparametric Mann-Whitney U- test. The comparison showed a statistically significant difference between workers and control group concerning for example Br, Ca, Cl, La, Mn, Sm, U and V in hair, Cu, Dy, La, Sm, Ti and U in toenails and Al, As, Cl, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Sm and Zn in PM2.5 samples. PMID:16319014

  10. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of marine sediment in-house reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference materials play an important role in demonstrating the quality and reliability of analytical data. The advantage of using in-house reference materials is that they provide a relatively cheap option as compared to using commercially available certified reference material (CRM) and can closely resemble the laboratory routine test sample. A marine sediment sample was designed as an in-house reference material, in the framework of quality assurance and control (QA/QC) program of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory at Nuclear Malaysia. The NAA technique was solely used for the homogeneity test of the marine sediment sample. The CRM of IAEA- Soil 7 and IAEA- SL1 (Lake Sediment) were applied in the analysis as compatible matrix based reference materials for QA purposes. (Author)

  11. Duplicate diet study of Korean geriatric population by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One day duplicate diet samples of 30 Korean geriatric populations over 60 years old were collected. Samples were analyzed by NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) after sample preparation such as homogenization and freeze-drying. SRM(Standards Reference Materials) from NIST were analyzed for quality control of the analytical method. Analytical results were classified into two groups such as macro elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) and minor elements (Cr, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn). Analytical results for daily intake of geriatric population in Korea were showed that macro and minor elements were lower than RDA and literature except Na. In conclusion, NAA is proved to be a sensitive analytical method useful for performing both qualitative and quantitative multi-elemental analysis of macro and minor elements in diet or biological materials. (author)

  12. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated {sup 42}K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  13. Investigation of selected trace elements in Sudanese patients with leukemia using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Se, Zn in the serum of 103 adult patients with newly diagnosed of leukemia (before treatment) were studied. Samples were collected from Radiation of Isotopes Center-Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology-Aljazeera State. Samples were freeze-dried and analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Serum levels of these elements were compared with the contents found in healthy group samples. The patients were divided into 4 groups: 1- Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL), 2- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 3- Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL), 4- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The control group was formed of 40 healthy subjects, data analysis was performed using the T-tests. partial correlation was used to study a relationship between two variables. It was found that, In group I (ALL ): higher concentration of Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Zn, were found in the serum of patients with significant difference as compared to healthy group (p 0.05), the level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p 0.05). Similar result was obtained in Co. The level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p< 0.05). (Author)

  14. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and proteins in chromium-rich brewer's yeast by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results show that the extracted relative amounts and concentrations of DNA, RNA and proteins have no significant difference for two types of yeast, but the chromium content in DNA, RNA and proteins fractions extracted from the chromium-rich yeast are substantially higher than those from the normal. In addition, the concentration of chromium in DNA is much higher than that in RNA and proteins. It is evident that the inorganic chromium compounds can enter the yeast cell during the yeast cultivation in the chromium-containing culture medium and are converted into organic chromium species, which are combined with DNA, RNA and proteins. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis of the provenance relation of the ancient Yaozhou porcelain glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of 29 elements in ancient Yaozhou porcelain glaze samples and the soil ore nearby museum of Yaozhou kiln are measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA), the NAA data are statistically treated by fuzzy cluster method and the trend fuzzy cluster diagram is obtained. The results indicate that the ancient Yaozhou porcelain had absolutely different glaze pigments and were made from different kilns, their sources are comparatively complex. The sources of raw materials of the black glazes in Tang dynasty are very concentrated, the green glazes and the white glazes are scattered. The sources of raw materials of the dark reddish brown glazes and the glaze of rabbit hair in Song dynasty are similar with black glazes in Tang dynasty. The sources of raw material of the green glazes in Song dynasty are similar with bluish white glazes in Jin dynasty. The sources of raw material of the Tang three color are scattered, and obviously not the same as other samples

  16. Dating ancient Chinese celadon porcelain by neutron activation analysis and bayesian classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating ancient Chinese porcelain is one of the most important and difficult problems in porcelain archaeological field. Eighteen elements in bodies of ancient celadon porcelains fired in Southern Song to Yuan period (AD 1127-1368) and Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644), including La, Sm, U, Ce, etc., were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). After the outliers of experimental data were excluded and multivariate normal distribution was tested, and Bayesian classification was used for dating of 165 ancient celadon porcelain samples. The results show that 98.2% of total ancient celadon porcelain samples are classified correctly. It means that NAA and Bayesian classification are very useful for dating ancient porcelain. (authors)

  17. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the 52V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  18. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  19. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  20. Neutron activation analysis: a powerful tool in provenance investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that neutron activation analysis (NAA), both instrumental and destructive, allows the simultaneous determination of a number of elements, mostly trace elements, with high levels of precision and accuracy. These peculiar properties of NAA are very useful when applied to provenance studies, i.e. to the identification of the origin of raw materials with which artifacts had been manufactured in ancient times. Data reduction by statistical procedures, especially multivariate analysis techniques, provides a statistical 'fingerprint' of investigated materials, both raw materials and archaeological artifacts, that, upon comparison, allows the identification of the provenance of prime matters used for artifact manufacturing. Thus information on quarries and flows exploitation in the antiquity, on technological raw materials processing, on trade routes and about the circulation of fakes, can be obtained. In the present paper two case studies are reported. The first one deals with the identification of the provenance of clay used to make ceramic materials, mostly bricks and tiles, recovered from the excavation of a Roman 'villa' in Lomello (Roman name Laumellum) and of Roman settlings in Casteggio (Roman name Clastidium). Both sites are located in the Province of Pavia in areas called Lomellina and Oltrepo respectively. The second one investigates the origin of the white marble used to build medieval arks, Carolingian age, located in the church of San Felice, now property of the University of Pavia. Experimental set-up, analytical results and data reduction procedures are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Synthetic multi-element standards: a good tool for calibration and quality control of irradiation facilities used for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a physical technique used for the absolute measurement of the concentration of substances in solids and liquids. The method uses neutron irradiation which is commonly realised using a nuclear reactor in order to activate (make radioactive) different isotopes of the elements present in the sample. The radionuclides produced in this way emit gamma-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. Using gamma-ray spectrometry these radionuclides can then be identified and quantified, and hence their concentration in the sample can be determined. Although NAA is a straightforward method it requires a sound control of the many physical parameters involved to obtain accurate results and to guarantee a set accuracy in routine analysis. The accuracy of NAA depends on the specific measurement method used. One can perform NAA in a relative way by co-irradiating a known standard and the unknown sample in the same conditions and by comparing the ratio of gamma-rays they emit. Relative NAA has limited applicability since it requires reference standards with a comparable composition as the unknown. A more generally applicable method is the k0-NAA method. In the k0-NAA method all measurements are relative to the element Au resulting in 198Au when irradiated. The k0-NAA method further relies on the fact that the neutron energy spectrum produced in a given position in the reactor can be parameterised with two parameters: the shape factor of the epithermal neutron flux, indicating the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum from the ideal 1/E shape approximated by a 1/E1+a distribution, with E the neutron energy; f: the thermal-to-epithermal neutron flux ratio. The parameters f and a are characteristic for the irradiation facility (reactor and irradiation channels) and may change or fluctuate in time according to the irradiation conditions. The way elements activate (become radioactive) when interacting with neutrons is

  2. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis applications in materials science and in forensic surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was applied to the characterization of lithious ceramic materials to be used as tritiogenic breeders in future fusion reactors. After neutron irradiation, measurements by γ-spectrometry were performed on the activated impurities, particularly on the ones with large neutron cross section. Irradiated samples were then annealed at rising temperatures, to obtain a fractional release of the tritium [formed by (n,α) reaction on lithium] as element (HT/T2) or tritiated water (HTO/T2O). Barium and antimony were determined by NAA, on request of Italian Courts, as evidence of gunshot residues (GSR), on hands and clothes of suspected people. The sample is left unchanged, even if slightly radioactive, allowing further examinations, in case of controversial results. In some actual cases, NAA was performed on samples already examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), allowing the determination of several more elements and a more definite identification of the ammunitions involved in the crime. (author)

  4. Study on 99Mo production by Mo-solution irradiation method (3). Activation analysis of irradiation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impurity concentrations in both (NH4)6Mo7O24 and K2MoO4 solutions, which were selected as the advanced targets of the Mo-solution irradiation method for 99Mo production, were determined by the instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) using the k0-standardization method. As a result, Na, Mn and W were identified as impurities in the received molybdates. After the compatibility test with structural material (SUS304) under gamma-ray irradiation, activation analysis of the molybdate solutions by the NAA method was also carried out. It was found that the identified impurity concentrations stayed stably in the solutions and that no elements came from the structural material. However, a small corrosion of the structural material was observed from the ICP measurement. (author)

  5. Remodeling and Characterization of Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS no.3) of HANARO Research Reactor for Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in an irradiation of a target material for an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. This technical report describes for the irradiation test and the characteristics and removing, remodelling of the reinstalled PTS no.3 in NAA no.3 irradiation hole at HANARO for user information and the reactor management

  6. Study on Microelements of Ten Consumed Fish Species by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; JIN; Xiang-chun; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>As the improvement of the living standard, people are more and more concerned about the safety of food currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the microelement of them by NAA.

  7. Enhancement of research reactor utilization for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical Chemistry Division has been utilising NAA for the past 4 decades for trace analysis of a number of materials. Some of the procedures developed recently for the trace element determination of high purity hi-tech and nuclear pure materials, geological, environmental and forensic samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) are discussed here. Nearly complete characterization of high purity (>4N) As and Ga is possible by the procedures developed which are simple, rapid and elegant and can be used easily for the process samples. It is to be emphasised that though the INAA is simple and being widely followed, the RNAA alone can address the problems of analysis for elements present at ultra trace levels in many matrices. (author)

  8. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination; Estudo comparativo entre a tecnica de inducao de raios X por particulas e analise por ativacao com neutrons na determinacao do metal pesado zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). CNPDIA. E-mail: cruvinel@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in {mu}g/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university.

  9. Determination of bromine, chlorine and iodine in environmental aqueous samples by epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S.; O'Kelly, D. J.; Braisted, J.; Panno, S.

    2006-01-01

    Halides, particularly Br- and Cl-, have been used as indicators of potential sources of Na+ and Cl- in surface water and groundwater with limited success. Contamination of groundwater and surface water by Na+ and Cl- is a common occurrence in growing urban areas and adversely affects municipal and private water supplies in Illinois and other states, as well as vegetation in environmentally sensitive areas. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be effectively used to determine these halogens, but often the elevated concentrations of sodium and chlorine in water samples can give rise to very high detection limits for bromine and iodine due to elevated backgrounds from the activation process. We present a detailed analytical scheme to determine Cl, Br and I in aqueous samples with widely varying Na and Cl concentrations using epithermal NAA in conjunction with Compton suppression. ?? 2006 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  10. A strategy for the survival and enrichment of NAA in a wider context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the current trends in NAA, its applications and the use of research reactors for NAA is given. A case is made for a more versatile, interdisciplinary approach towards NAA, operating in the context of a larger national or regional nuclear analytical center where other nuclear and non-nuclear analyses can be combined. (author)

  11. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  12. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  13. The study of trace element distribution in biological samples with NAA for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean was collected from the data based on the food intake of 108 healthy subjects between the ages 20 and 50. Sampling for the Korean total diet was carried out by the way of using a market basket study based on the Korean standard food consumption scheme reported by the Korean Nutrition Society. Average consumption frequency of different food items for a one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean and the amount of each item to prepare a one day Korean representative total diet are surveyed. The analytical methods involve both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques developed for the determination of the elements Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of food samples. Concentrations of trace elements including 5 important elements for radiological protection, U, Th, Cs, Sr and I in the Korean total diet and the 4 most frequently consumed Korean foodstuffs have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Detection limits for U, Th, Sr and I were improved to ppb levels by radiochemical separation after neutron irradiation. Five biological NIST reference materials were also analyzed for quality control of the analysis. Seventeen trace elements in the Korean total diet and four Korean representative foodstuffs were also analyzed quantitatively by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental distributions in supplemental healthy food and Korean and Chinese origin oriental medicine were also identified. The amount of trace elements ingested with the hair analysis of oriental medicine takers were estimated. The amounts of trace elements inhaled with the analysis of foundry air, blood and hair of foundry workers were also estimated. The basic estimation method in view of health and environment with the neutron activation analysis of biological samples such as foods and hair was established with the result. Nationwide usage system of the NAA facility in Hanaro in many different and

  14. Neutron activation analysis and Mossbauer spectroscopy research on coloring mechanism of Chinese Ru porcelain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The characteristic spectrum and its main wavelength of Ru porcelain glaze are measured by color difference instrument to determine the relations between glaze color and its main wavelength. The content of the 30 coloring elements in Ru porcelain is determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA), which showed that iron is the major coloring element. M?ssbauer spectroscopy analysis shows that the iron element in the glaze exists in the form of structural iron (Fe2+, Fe3+). The quantitative relationship between the main wavelength of glaze in various colors and the relative content of structural iron (Fe2+/Fe3+) is determined. Thus the coloring mechanism of Ru porcelain is investigated entirely.

  15. A Web tool for calculating k0-NAA uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of uncertainty budgets is becoming a standard step in reporting analytical results. This gives rise to the need for simple, easily accessed tools to calculate uncertainty budgets. An example of such a tool is the Excel spreadsheet approach of Robouch et al. An internet application which calculates uncertainty budgets for k0-NAA is presented. The Web application has built in 'Literature' values for standard isotopes and accepts as inputs fixed information such as the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio, as well as experiment specific data such as the mass of the sample. The application calculates and displays intermediate uncertainties as well as the final combined uncertainty of the element concentration in the sample. The interface only requires access to a standard browser and is thus easily accessible to researchers and laboratories. This may facilitate and standardize the calculation of k0-NAA uncertainty budgets. (author)

  16. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  17. Applications of NAA technique at RSG-GAS reactor on determination of essential and toxic elements in fish and fish feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reported on the application of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) Technique in the determination of the concentration of the essential and toxic elements in some species of fish and fish feed. Determination of elements using instrumental NAA technique with comparison and k0-INAA methods. Samples were irradiated in the RSG-GAS which has a thermal neutron flux ∼ 5E +13 ncm-2s-1. The results showed that as many as 12 elements in 11 species offish in the sea water and fresh water has been determined that As, Br, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn, For toxic elements, As concentrations in marine fish has exceeded the maximum limit of 1 mg / kg, Hg concentrations were still below the maximum limit of 0,5 mg / kg, both for marine fish and fresh water fish. K and Na elements is the macro essential element while Cr, Co, Fe, Se and Zn elements are micro essential elements. The concentration of minerals in marine fish higher concentration than fresh water fish. Br, Cs, and Rb are non-essential elements were identified in all analyze fish. The results also showed that all of the elements identified in the fish feed contained in fish. This suggests that fish feed contributes to the concentration of elements in freshwater fish. (author)

  18. AQP4 expression and its correlation with the Lac and NAA using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy after rat cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ren-lan; XIE Peng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether AQP4 expression is associated with lactate (Lac) and Nacetyl aspartate (NAA) and with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) abnormality after rat cerebral ischemia. Methods: The time courses of ADC and lactate and NAA assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) were investigated at the time point of 6 h, and 1, 3, 7 d after rat cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Expression of AQP4 mRNA and protein were measured using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. Results: Significant reductions of NAA concentration and increases of lactate concentration were found after rat cerebral ischemia. The expressions of AQP4 mRNA and protein were increased at 6 h, and reached the peak at 1-3 d, then began to decrease at 7 d after rat cerebral ischemia. The expression of AQP4 was significantly correlated with NAA (rRT =-0.856, rw =-0. 927, P<0. 01), and with lactate (rW=0. 473, rRT=0. 413, P<0. 05), and with ADC values during the period of 1-7 d after rat cerebral ischemia (rW=0. 984, rRT= -0. 925, P<0.05). In addition, correlations between Lac and the ADC values(r=-0. 677, P<0. 05)and between NAA and ADC values during the period of 1-7 d after rat cerebral ischemia (r= 0. 909, P<0.05) were also observed. Conclusion: The data suggest that AQP4 is involved in the transport of water when brain edema is formed and cell membrane integrity is lost.

  19. Preparation of zeolite NaA for CO2 capture from nickel laterite residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Du; Li-ying Liu; Penny Xiao; Shuai Che; He-ming Wang

    2014-01-01

    Zeolite NaA was successfully prepared from nickel laterite residue for the first time via a fusion-hydrothermal procedure. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized zeolite NaA were characterized with a range of experimental techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. It was revealed that the structures of the produced zeolites were dependent on the molar ratios of the reactants and hydrothermal reaction conditions, so the synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain pure zeolite NaA. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide on the prepared zeolite NaA was also measured and analyzed. The results showed that zeolite NaA could be prepared with reasonable purity, it had physicochemical properties comparable with zeolite NaA made from other methods, and it had excellent gas adsorption properties, thus demonstrating that zeolite NaA could be prepared from nickel laterite residue.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of phytotherapic obtained from medicinal plants; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de fitoterapicos obtidos de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Henrique S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: hs_moreira@hotmail.com; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the inorganic constituents in phytotherapic samples for posterior study of the relationship existent among the concentrations of the found elements and the their possible therapeutical effects. The samples of phytotherapic pills (Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba and Ginseng) were analysed by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn samples were determined in the phytotherapics, The Centella asiatica presented the higher concentrations of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. In the sample of Ginko biloba, higher levels of As and Ca were found, while in the sample ol Ginseng the element As were not detected. The found results have shown the the NAA method is appropriated for analysing this type of materials due to his simplicity, multielemental capacity and quality of the results obtained. (author)

  1. Utilization of a TRIGA nuclear reactor for neutron activation analysis and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some examples of utilization of the TRIGA reactor at Casaccia research center of ENEA are described, including neutron activation analysis (NAA), isotope production and tritium release studies. 1) NAA - Determination of trace elements by NAA has been performed, in the last years upon a variety of matrices: a) environmental: suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments collected in some Italian seas and rivers were analyzed for about 30 elements. Different types of filters were also tested to choose the most suitable for the collection of SPM. b) forensic: many applications of NAA have been performed on request of Italian Courts for determination of gunshot residues; firing distances were also determined in some cases. c) agricultural: the uptake of Zn and Co by cereals has been studied in pot in co-operation with the Istituto per la Cerealicoltura of Rome. d) geological: some USGS reference materials were analyzed by thermal and epithermal NAA, for evaluating accuracy and precision of both methods. Rock samples from the basaltic plateau of Kenya were then analyzed by ENAA, chiefly for rare earth elements, whose concentration patterns can give useful informations about petrogenesis. e) reference materials: several elements have been determined in lake and river sediment samples and in three plant materials (tobacco, apple-tree and peach-tree), in order to provide data for their certification as reference materials to be used in different fields. f) nuclear materials: trace elements have been determined in LiAlO2 to be used in the blanket of fusion reactors, as well as in cements for building nuclear plants, in order to evaluate the activity at the time of plant decommissioning. 2) Isotope production a) A program for the utilization of TRIGA reactor at Casaccia to prepare a 191m-Ir generator to be used in pediatric angiography has been drawn up. b) Preparation of 18-F to be used in positron emission tomography (PET) for studies of cerebral diseases

  2. Neutron activation analysis of organohalogens in Chinese human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To effectively extract organohalogens from human hair, two factors, the extracting time and hair length on the extraction efficiency of organohalogens were studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in hair samples from angioma and control babies were also measured by the established method. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhlet-extraction time for EOX and EPOX in hair was from 8 to 11 hours, and the extraction efficiencies for organochlorine pesticides in hair were in the order of powder >2 mm>5 mm. Also, the mean levels of EOCl and EPOCl in hair of the angioma babies were significantly higher than those in the control babies (PEOClEPOCl<0.05), which implied the possible relationship between the environmental pollution and angioma. (author)

  3. Progress report on neutron activation analysis at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of most powerful techniques for the simultaneous multi-elements analysis. This technique has been studied and applied to analyze major, minor and trace elements in Geological, Biological and Environmental samples at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. At the sixth Workshop, February 8-11, 1999, Yojakarta, Indonesia we had a report on Current Status of Neutron Activation Analysis using Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Another report on Neutron Activation Analysis at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor also was presented at the seventh Workshop in Taejon, Korea from November 20-24, 2000. So in this report, we would like to present the results obtained of the application of NAA at NRI for one year as follows: (1) Determination of the concentrations of noble, rare earth, uranium, thorium and other elements in Geological samples according to requirement of clients particularly the geologists, who want to find out the mineral resources. (2) The analysis of concentration of radionuclides and nutrient elements in foodstuffs to attend the program on Asian Reference Man. (3) The evaluation of the contents of trace elements in crude oil and basement rock samples to determine original source of the oil. (4) Determination of the elemental composition of airborne particle in the Ho Chi Minh City for studying air pollution. The analytical data of standard reference material, toxic elements and natural radionuclides in seawater are also presented. (author)

  4. Emulsion-based synthesis of NaA zeolite nanocrystals and its integration towards NaA membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Naskar; A Das; D Kundu; M Chatterjee

    2011-07-01

    NaA zeolite nanoparticles (seed crystals) of size 50–65 nm were synthesized using water-in-oil (w/o) type emulsions at a considerably low temperature of 65 ± 1°C in a short duration of 2 h. The emulsions were stabilized using non-ionic surfactants e.g. sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20), polyoxyethylene(5)nonylphenylether with ethoxy numbers of 5 (Igepal CO-520) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of 4.3, 8.6, 10 and 15 respectively. Among the surfactants, the intermediate HLB values of 8.6 (Span 20) and 10 (Igepal CO-520) were effective in synthesizing highly dispersible NaA nanoparticles of size 50–65 nm. The membrane prepared hydrothermally in multi-steps at 65 ± 1°C, using the Span 20-derived seed crystals deposited on porous support, showed the formation of high quality interlocked NaA coating. Single gas nitrogen (N2) permeation of the membrane exhibited a permeance value of 1.01 × 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1 at ambient temperature (30°C).

  5. Provenance Study and Identification of Authenticity of Tang Sancai by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Sancai is a general name for the color-glazed pottery produced in Tang Dynasty (618∼960AD) in China. It was firstly excavated at Luoyang City in 1899. Four kiln-ruins making Tang Sancai have been discovered. The provenance of Tang Sancai excavated in some ruins and mausoleums could not be differentiated, because the appearances of some wares of various kilns are very similar. In addition, it is difficult to identify the mimics with traditional method. The provenance study of Tang Sancai is a critical step in studying the history and development of it. In order to grouping the Tang Sancai, whose provenance is unknown, to distinctive kilns according to their chemical compositions, the major and trace elements of Tang Sancai samples excavated in different kilns and mausoleums will be determined by nuclear analytical techniques. Two hundred and three Tang Sancai sherd samples excavated from four kiln ruins have been collected, 94 from twelve mausoleums, 30 from two ruins, 69 modern mimics from three modern factory and two cultural relic markets. The chemical composition of Tang Sancai body specimens has been determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The body and glaze of some samples were non-destructive analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results indicated the compositional differences of the studied Sancai. The characteristics of the trace elements were identified by statistical methods and the results could be used as database for the identification of unknown Tang Sancai in future. Most of Tang Sancai from different Kiln-ruins proved to be chemically separable. Tang Sancai excavated from mausoleums is able to be identified. The provenance of Tang Sancai excavated from city ruins can be confirmed. Modern mimic of it can be distinguished with the data of different kiln's Tang Sancai. (author)

  6. Activation analysis of human hair as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development and uses of neutron activation techniques for human hair analyses are reviewed. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) appears to have the potential to be used as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring. Principally, two types of NAA procedure are in use nowadays for multi-element analyses of human scalp hair. The more common of these is the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) consisting in a single short-term (3 to 10 hours) exposure of hair to a beam of neutrons in a nuclear reactor, followed by two measurements of gamma-ray spectra at 2 to 3 days and 3 to 4 weeks after the irradiation. The following microelements can be commonly determined by this type of activation procedure: As, Au, Br, Cu, K, La, Na, Sb, Sm, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. The other procedure involves the use of radiochemical separation techniques and is employed for quantitative determinations of elements that are not easily determined by INAA (Mo, Cd, Ni, etc.), or in cases where there is a need to achieve the lowest possible limits of analytical determination. The accuracy of NAA techniques is strongly dependent on the hair sampling and hair sample processing methods used. The analytical error of this method may vary within the range of 5 to 15%. Its applicability as a tool for monitoring the environmental pollution level is demonstrated on an example of groups of individuals living in areas differing by the degree of environmental pollution. The use of other biological materials, such as mammalian hair, for the purpose of environmental exposure monitoring is also considered. (author)

  7. Target preparation and neutron activation analysis a successful story at IRMM

    CERN Document Server

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Ingelbrecht, C

    2002-01-01

    The main task of a target producer is to make well characterized and homogeneous deposits on specific supports. Alpha and/or gamma spectrometry are traditionally used to monitor the quality of actinide deposits. With the increasing demand for enriched stable isotope targets, other analytical techniques, such as ICP-MS and NAA, are needed. This paper presents the application of neutron activation analysis to quality control of 'thin' targets, 'thicker' neutron dosimeters and 'thick' bronze disks prepared by the Reference Materials Unit at the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements.

  8. The Jamaican SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor: neutron activation analysis in environmental and health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its 24 years of existence the reactor has been utilized mainly for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and has played an important role in the development of research programs in the areas of archaeology, biology, chemistry, forensics, geochemistry, and mining as well as for the production of short lived radioisotopes for experimental work in the physics department. However, over the last fifth teen years our main thrust has been environmental geochemistry, agriculture and health related studies, with interesting results that have implications for land use, farming practices, diabetic control and dietary intakes during pregnancy. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of low-level element contents in silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, W. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Berger, A. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Niese, S. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Koehler, M. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Matthes, M. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Gawlik, D. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Semiconductor silicon is among the purest materials having ever been produced by modern technology. Thus, it is quite suitable as a primary reference material validating the correctness and the detection capabilities of developed analytical methods. Among them neutron activation analysis plays a competitive role. The U.S. National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) has initiated and carried out an interlaboratory comparison in order to study the spread of analytical results worldwide evolved by several laboratories dealing with specimens of extreme purity. The outcome of the experiment was intended to review the capabilities of NAA as well as to differentiate between bulk and surface contamination. (orig./DG)

  10. Determination of mineral content of some cereals by k0 neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations of a few varieties of cereals are determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator method (K0 NAA method). A total of 16 elements are measured. The method was validated by analysing the Standard Reference Material (SRM-1571) of NIST. The applicability of the method in nutritional studies has been made by analysing the results on the measured concentrations of major and minor elements in terms of the average intake of mineral content and the role of these elements. (author)

  11. THINNING OF ‘GALA’ AND 'GOLDEN DELICIOUS' APPLES WITH BA, NAA AND THEIR COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M STOPAR

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Apple trees, eight-year-old ‘Gala’/M.9 and four-year-old ‘Golden Delicious’/M.9 have been thinned with 6- benzyladenine (BA 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 200 ppm, with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 5 ppm, 10 ppm and 20 ppm, and with the tank mix combinations of BA 50 ppm + NAA 5 ppm or BA 20 ppm + NAA 5 ppm, all at 9-10 mm fruitlet diameter. All applied concentrations of BA and NAA thinned both cultivars significantly and no significant difference was found between BA or NAA thinning action. No concentration response on thinning was observed with neither BA nor NAA application. All BA or NAA separate treatments caused yield of fruit to shift to bigger size class. The only concentration response effect was found on evaluation of mean fruit weight data on ‘Golden Delicious’. The higher concentration of BA was used, the higher was the weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit. On the opposite, the higher concentration of NAA was used, the lower was the weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ fruit (not significantly. When BA and NAA were sprayed on ‘Gala’ or ‘Golden Delicious’ as a tank mix combination, similar effect on thinning or fruit growth occurred comparing to BA or NAA when sprayed alone. Return bloom was enhanced on all thinned ‘Gala’ trees while flower formation of ‘Golden Delicious’ was better in the case of BA 200 ppm, NAA 5 ppm, NAA 20 ppm or tank mix spraying of BA 20 ppm + NAA 5 ppm.

  12. Selected environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAA is very useful for the determination of trace and minor elements in many environmental applications. While instrumental NAA (INAA) has a number of valid applications in this field, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) prior to, or post irradiation provides some significant advantages. One of the major focus points for environmental applications of NAA is to assess the magnitude of various pollutants. This paper discusses doing this via two methods, namely air monitoring and biological monitoring. (author)

  13. Using robust statistics to improve neutron activation analysis results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G., E-mail: gzahn@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas

    2011-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique where an unknown sample is submitted to a neutron flux in a nuclear reactor, and its elemental composition is calculated by measuring the induced activity produced. By using the relative NAA method, one or more well-characterized samples (usually certified reference materials - CRMs) are irradiated together with the unknown ones, and the concentration of each element is then calculated by comparing the areas of the gamma ray peaks related to that element. When two or more CRMs are used as reference, the concentration of each element can be determined by several different ways, either using more than one gamma ray peak for that element (when available), or using the results obtained in the comparison with each CRM. Therefore, determining the best estimate for the concentration of each element in the sample can be a delicate issue. In this work, samples from three CRMs were irradiated together and the elemental concentration in one of them was calculated using the other two as reference. Two sets of peaks were analyzed for each element: a smaller set containing only the literature-recommended gamma-ray peaks and a larger one containing all peaks related to that element that could be quantified in the gamma-ray spectra; the most recommended transition was also used as a benchmark. The resulting data for each element was then reduced using up to five different statistical approaches: the usual (and not robust) unweighted and weighted means, together with three robust means: the Limitation of Relative Statistical Weight, Normalized Residuals and Rajeval. The resulting concentration values were then compared to the certified value for each element, allowing for discussion on both the performance of each statistical tool and on the best choice of peaks for each element. (author)

  14. Fast formation of NaA zeolite membrane in the microwave field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    NaA zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on the porous α-Al2O3 support by microwave heating. The synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane in the microwave field only needs 15 min and the synthesis time is 10 times shorter than that by conventional heating. SEM characterization indicates that the zeolite crystals in the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by microwave heating are uniform in size; the membrane thickness is about 4 μm and is thinner than that of the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by conventional heating. Gas permeation studies indicate that the permeances of the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by microwave heating are 3-4 times higher than those of the NaA zeolite membrane synthesized by conventional heating, while their permselectivities are comparable.

  15. Determination of {sup 129}I in environmental samples by AMS and NAA using an anion exchange resin disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi [AMS Management Section, Mutsu Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki.takashi58@jaea.go.jp; Banba, Shigeru [Natural Radioactivity Analysis Group, Japan Chemical Analysis Center, 295-3, Sanno-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-0002 (Japan); Kitamura, Toshikatsu [AMS Management Section, Mutsu Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Kabuto, Shoji [AMS Management Section, Mutsu Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan); Isogai, Keisuke [Natural Radioactivity Analysis Group, Japan Chemical Analysis Center, 295-3, Sanno-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-0002 (Japan); Amano, Hikaru [AMS Management Section, Mutsu Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-24, Minato-machi, Mutsu, Aomori 035-0064 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We have developed a new extraction method for the measurement of {sup 129}I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) utilizing an anion exchange resin disk. In comparison to traditional methods such as solvent extraction and ion exchange, this method provides for simple and quick sample handling. This extraction method was tested on soil, seaweed and milk samples, but because of disk clogging, the milk samples and some of the seaweed could not be applied successfully. Using this new extraction method to prepare samples for AMS analysis produced isotope ratios of iodine in good agreement with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The disk extraction method which take half an hour is faster than previous techniques, such as solvent extraction or ion exchange which take a few hours. The combination of the disk method and the AMS measurement is a powerful tool for the determination of {sup 129}I. Furthermore, these data will be available for the environmental monitoring before and during the operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan.

  16. Determination of 129I in environmental samples by AMS and NAA using an anion exchange resin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Banba, Shigeru; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Kabuto, Shoji; Isogai, Keisuke; Amano, Hikaru

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a new extraction method for the measurement of 129I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) utilizing an anion exchange resin disk. In comparison to traditional methods such as solvent extraction and ion exchange, this method provides for simple and quick sample handling. This extraction method was tested on soil, seaweed and milk samples, but because of disk clogging, the milk samples and some of the seaweed could not be applied successfully. Using this new extraction method to prepare samples for AMS analysis produced isotope ratios of iodine in good agreement with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The disk extraction method which take half an hour is faster than previous techniques, such as solvent extraction or ion exchange which take a few hours. The combination of the disk method and the AMS measurement is a powerful tool for the determination of 129I. Furthermore, these data will be available for the environmental monitoring before and during the operation of a new nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan.

  17. Studies on application of neutron activation analysis -Applied research on air pollution monitoring and development of analytical method of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs

  18. Tracing footprints of environmental events in tree ring chemistry using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Dagistan

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental effects on tree-ring chemistry. It is known that industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, acid rain and similar events can cause substantial changes in soil chemistry. Establishing whether a particular group of trees is sensitive to these changes in soil environment and registers them in the elemental chemistry of contemporary growth rings is the over-riding goal of any Dendrochemistry research. In this study, elemental concentrations were measured in tree-ring samples of absolutely dated eleven modern forest trees, grown in the Mediterranean region, Turkey, collected and dated by the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology laboratory at Cornell University. Correlations between measured elemental concentrations in the tree-ring samples were analyzed using statistical tests to answer two questions. Does the current concentration of a particular element depend on any other element within the tree? And, are there any elements showing correlated abnormal concentration changes across the majority of the trees? Based on the detailed analysis results, the low mobility of sodium and bromine, positive correlations between calcium, zinc and manganese, positive correlations between trace elements lanthanum, samarium, antimony, and gold within tree-rings were recognized. Moreover, zinc, lanthanum, samarium and bromine showed strong, positive correlations among the trees and were identified as possible environmental signature elements. New Dendrochemistry information found in this study would be also useful in explaining tree physiology and elemental chemistry in Pinus nigra species grown in Turkey. Elemental concentrations in tree-ring samples were measured using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC). Through this study, advanced methodologies for methodological, computational and

  19. PERKEMBANGAN LATISIFER PADA KULTUR KALUS CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS (L G. DON YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN KOMBINASI ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH KINETIN + NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI NYOMAN DARSINI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of laticifer on callus culture of Catharanthus roseus (L G Don in Zenk medium supplemented with combination of plant growth regulator kinetin + NAA was studied. The explants were taken from the second folium from shoot apex. Development of laticifer was observed using descriptive analysis method for callus anatomy and percentage of laticifer was observed during 4–14 weeks of callus development. The percentage of laticifer was determined by counting the average number of the laticifer and the average number of surrounding cells in every optical field of few under light microscope. The results showed that early development of laticifer which was induced with plant regulator growth kinetin + NAA was found in the 9 weeks old callus. The laticifer has specific characteristics i.e. thicker cell wall and longer cell than sorounding cell. Elongated laticifer was observed at 12 weeks old callus. The highest percentage of laticifer on callus C. roseus induced with combination of kinetin and NAA was found in 12 weeks old callus i.e. 0,12%. At 13 and 14 weeks old callus, the anatomy of laticifer was similar to that at 12 weeks old callus, but the percentage was lower.

  20. A compact DD neutron generator–based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator–based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*109 neutrons s−1 was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R2 = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg g−1 dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans. (paper)

  1. Neutron flux parameters for k{sub 0}-NAA method at the Malaysian nuclear agency research reactor after core reconfiguration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavar, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Sarmani, S. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Wood, A.K. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Fadzil, S.M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Masood, Z. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor 43000 (Malaysia); Khoo, K.S., E-mail: khoo@ukm.m [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor 43600 (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor, commissioned in 1982, is a TRIGA Mark II swimming pool type reactor. When the core configuration changed in June 2009, it became essential to re-determine such neutron flux parameters as thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), epithermal neutron flux shape factor ({alpha}), thermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub th}) and epithermal neutron flux ({phi}{sub epi}) in the irradiation positions of MNA research reactor in order to guarantee accuracy in the application of k{sub 0}-neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-NAA).The f and {alpha} were determined using the bare bi-isotopic monitor and bare triple monitor methods, respectively; Au and Zr monitors were utilized in present study. The results for four irradiation positions are presented and discussed in the present work. The calculated values of f and {alpha} ranged from 33.49 to 47.33 and -0.07 to -0.14, respectively. The {phi}{sub th} and the {phi}{sub epi} were measured as 2.03 x 10{sup 12} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and 6.05 x 10{sup 10} (cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) respectively. These results were compared to those of previous studies at this reactor as well as to those of reactors in other countries. The results indicate a good conformity with other findings.

  2. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmdmdx/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMDmdx/J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmdmdx/J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  3. Neutron activation analysis of single human hairs and possible applications for forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new analytical procedure that enables to determine more than 10 trace elements in single, 3 cm human hair segments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) was elaborated. Application of a special washing procedure of hair (before irradiation) made possible to lower sodium content by two orders of magnitude without affecting trace element content. After irradiation in the thermal neutron flux of about 1014n.cm-2.sec-1 the activity of hair was measured with 70 cm3Ge(Li) detector coupled to 4000 channel pulse height analyser. As an alternative method, a destructive version of NAA with ion exchange group separation of radionuclides was applied. It was found that sometimes high gradients of element concentration along the hair length exist and that there is without any doubt a distinct influence of environmental factor on the content of some trace elements in hair. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were also studied using new statistical criterion for elimination (identification). Both possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  4. Neutron flux characterization of the Moroccan Triga Mark II research reactor and validation of the k0 standardization method of NAA using k0-IAEA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to implement and to validate the k0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA) at the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor. This technique was used in order to determine, the calibration of several HPGe detectors and calibration of neutron flux parameters in the typical irradiation channels [rotary specimen rack (RSR) and the pneumatic tube system (PTS) facilities]. Calibrations and calculations of k0-NAA results were carried out using the k0-IAEA program. The two parameters of neutron flux in the selected irradiation channels used for elemental concentration calculation, f (thermal-to-epithermal ratio) and α (deviation from the 1/E distribution), have been determined as well in the PTS as in the RSR facilities using the zirconium bare triple method. Results obtained for f and α in two irradiation channels show that f parameter determined in this way is different in the RSR and the PTS facilities. This can be explained by the fact that the RSR channel is situated in a graphite reflector and is relatively far from the reactor core, while the PTS is in the core. Five reference materials of different origin obtained from USGS (basalt BE-N, bauxite BX-N, biotite mica-Fe, granite GS-N) and IAEA (Soil-7) were used to evaluate the validity of this method in our laboratory by analyzing the elemental concentrations with respect to the certified values. In general, good agreement was obtained between results of this work and values in certificates of the individual reference materials, thus proving the accuracy of our results and successful implementation of the method for analysis of real samples. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis of new botanical reference materials. Pt. 2. Evaluation of Czechoslovak green algae, lucerne, wheat and rye bread flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, J.; Soukal, L. (Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Czechoslovakia))

    1993-01-01

    The certified, information, and other values of elemental contents were compared with results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the new Czechoslovak botanical reference materials (RMs) Green Algae 12-02-02, Lucerne 12-02-03, Wheat Bread Fluor 12-02-04, and Rye Bread Flour 12-02-05. These were prepared by the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Kosice, and statistically evaluated after interlaboratory comparisons. For the majority of elements, a very good agreement was found between the IRANT values and the results of NAA. In several cases, however, significant differences were detected; possible analytical reasons for the differences and the suitability of a purely statistical evaluation of intercomparison results without analytical considerations for RM certification are discussed. (orig.).

  6. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  7. Standard reference material certification: contribution of NAA with a TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavia has cooperative links with the major international agencies devoted to the certification of SRMs or CRMs as the Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR), the European Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement (IRMM), the USA National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). During these cooperative works, a large amount of analytical data obtained with NAA has been compared, and meaningful methodological information achieved with respect to accuracy and precision in the analysis of several elements at different concentrations in various matrices. Analytical data on As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Cs, Fe, Zn, K, Sc, U, Th, Al, Sb, Mn, V, Hg, Sr, Rb, Se,Pt, all the Rare Earths and halogens Br, Cl, I, have been obtained and contributed for the final certification

  8. Organization of commercial neutron activation analysis at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a period of declining funds, curriculum reconsiderations, and unpopular image among the general public of anything nuclear related, (university) research reactor establishments should have strategies to justify the existence and continuation of their expensive facilities. At the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI), part of this strategy is to focus the potential of instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) on problems of economical and social importance. Development and application of NAA is one of the principal research tasks of the radiochemistry department of the institute. A multidisciplinary team of nine (analytical) chemists, physicists, computer experts, electronic engineers, and technicians is responsible for innovative developments and maintenance of the INAA facilities. For long, the facilities have been made available for open-quotes routineclose quotes use to non-radiochemists from other universities. Interactively operating software and manuals enable these guests to perform INAA independently after a short introductory period. No special demands were set for the educational level of the users; universities did not have to pay for use of the facilities. In the early 1980s, other (governmental) research institutes became interested in the potential of INAA, and cooperation started on projects with a large sample throughput; in these projects, some financial support was included. Over the years, the number of requests for multielement determinations via INAA grew steadily, not only from the universities, which were charged for a part of the total analysis' cost, but also from industry

  9. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: vitor.ito@outlook.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  10. Undergraduate research opportunities in neutron activation analysis for local, regional and international students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) remains an excellent technique to introduce undergraduate students to nuclear science and engineering coming from different academic areas. The NAA methods encompass an appreciation of basic reactor engineering concepts, radiation safety, nuclear instrumentation and data analysis. At the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab at the University of Texas at Austin we have continued to provide opportunities through outreach programs to Huston-Tillotson University in Austin and Florida Memorial University in Miami Gardens, both Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Southwestern University in Georgetown, Texas. Furthermore, in the past four years we have established a strong educational collaboration with the Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Ingenieurs de Caen (ENSICAEN), France. Undergraduate students at ENSICAEN are required to have an internship outside of France. While many of the students stay in neighboring European countries others have chosen the United States. The cornerstone of these programs is to secure a relationship with each institution through clear educational and research objectives and goals. (author)

  11. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  12. Validation of methodology and uncertainty assessment of antimony determination in environmental materials using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest because of the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a suitable method for the determination of several elements in different types, but in case of Sb, the analysis presents some difficulties due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the method of NAA and uncertainty assessment for Sb determination in environmental samples. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiating twelve certified reference samples of different kind of matrices. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA R1 IPEN/CNEN/SP followed by measurement of induced radioactivity, using a hyperpure germanium detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb were measured and the Sb concentrations with their respective uncertainties were obtained by the comparative method. Relative errors and values of Z scores were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results for Sb determination in certified reference materials. The evaluation of the components that contribute to uncertainty measurement of the Sb concentration, showed that the major uncertainty contribution is due to statistical counting. The results also indicated that the uncertainty value of the combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotope measured and the decay time used for counting. (author)

  13. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  14. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis; Caracterizacion de artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con Analisis por Activacion Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  15. The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities

  16. Analysis of some ores and soils by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the compositions of some samples from Ingassana region, some marble samples, and some ceramic samples which were collected from different parts of Sudan. The investigations involved the use of two nuclear analytical techniques, namely x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The elements of interest in this study were Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Au and Pt. It is to be noted that Au and Pt were determined by using XRF for the first time in this laboratory. Some of the results were compared with those obtained by chemical method. It was found that the NAA method gave better results for low z elements such as Al, Si and XRF gave better results for higher z elements such as Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Au and Pt. The results showed low concentrations from the economic point of view for Cr, higher concentrations of Ni, but considerable concentrations of Au and Pt in the samples obtained from Ingassana region. The marble samples showed high values of Ca in 2 samples. The ceramic samples showed good results with regard to ceramic work in most of the samples. (Author)

  17. A re-evaluation of k0 and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-line emitted by the 104mRh-104Rh mother-daughter pair for use in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A re-evaluation is made of the k0-factor and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-ray of the 104mRh-104Rh mother-daughter pair that are important in neutron activation analysis (NAA). This study considers that the relevant level is also fed by the 4.34 min 104mRh mother (with an absolute gamma-ray emission probability γ2=0.13%) and not only, as assumed in former work, by the 42.3 s 104Rh daughter isotope (with γ3=2.0%). In view of this, generalised equations were developed for both the experimental determination and the analytical use of the k0-factor and of the associated parameters k0(m)/k0(g), Q0(m) and Q0(g) [(m):104mRh; (g): 104Rh], requiring the introduction of the γ2 and γ3 data and also of the 104mRh→104Rh fractional decay factor F2(=0.9987). The experimental determinations were based on irradiations performed in the BR1 reactor in Mol and the WWR-M reactor in Budapest. Furthermore, considering the special formation of the 555.8 keV gamma-ray, the procedure for true-coincidence correction was revised as well. All this led to the compilation and recommendation of a new set of 'k0-NAA' data

  18. Neutron activation analysis in the central nervous system tissues of neurological diseases and rats maintained on minerally unbalanced diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1995-02-01

    Epidemiological surveys on Guam have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and high Al and Mn in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Experimentally, low Ca-Mg diets with or without added Al have been found to accelerate Al deposition in the CNS of rats and monkeys. Although excessive deposition of Mn produces neurotoxic action similar to Al in CNS tissues, the mechanism of Mn deposition coupled with Al loading in the presence of low Ca-Mg intake is not yet known. In this animal study, the deposition and metal-metal interaction of both Al and Mn in the CNS, visceral organs and bones of rats fed unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn content were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, kidney, muscle, abdominal aorta, femur and lumbar spine using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the high concentrations of Mn and Al in bones and in the frontal cortex. It is likely that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the unequal distribution of Al and Mn in bones and ultimately in the CNS inducing CNS degeneration. On the other hand, concentrations of copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) for 26 subanatomical regions of the CNS were measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two cases of Wilson`s disease, two of portal systemic encephalopathy, six pathologically verified cases of ALS, four of Parkinson`s disease and five neurologically normal controls. Also zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations were measured by NAA for frontal and occipital lobes of parkinsonism-dementia. (author).

  19. A Study of Shandong Longshan Culture Pottery by Means of NAA%山东地区龙山文化陶器的中子活化分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增林; 梁中合; 袁靖; 田伟之; 倪邦发; 王平生

    2003-01-01

    The pottery of Shandong Longshan culture features its unique shape and super making techniques. To understand further the generation, development and flourishing of pottery making tech-nology in this culture, it is highly necessary to clarify the producing areas of its pottery. With this idea the authors gathered 25 shards from the Qufu Xixiahou, Linqu Xizhufeng and Chiping Jiaochangpu sites,which belong to different types of the culture, and carried out an NAA (neutron activation analysis) of these samples. In the present paper, they report the results of this test and study the measured data bymeans of cluster analysis and factor analysis. On this basis they put forward their viewpoints on the producing area of the pottery, the production and currency of pottery gui steamers and possible cultural exchange between sites.

  20. Rooting of Mugo pine (Pinus mugo cuttings as affected by IBA, NAA and planting substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Sedaghathoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The effect of planting substrate and concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA hormones was studied on the rooting of mugo pine cuttings. Area of study: The research was carried out in Rasht city, Guilan province, Iran. Material and Methods: Both hormones (IBA and NAA were applied at four concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/l. Planting substrates included sand, perlite, cocopeat, sand + perlite, and sand + cocopeat (1:1. Main results: The highest rooting percentage (55% was obtained under the trilateral treatment a2b4c1 (sand × 4000 mg/l NAA × 1000 mg/l IBA. Sand + cocopeat was found to be the best rooting substrate. Research highlights: It is recommended to apply sand with 4000 mg/l and 1000mg/l concentration of experimental hormones (NAA and IBA, respectively. Keywords: auxin; rooting; Pinus mugo; vegetative propagation.

  1. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  2. Treatment of radioactive liquid waste (Co-60) by sorption on Zeolite Na-A prepared from Iraqi kaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, Yasmen A., E-mail: yasmen.mustafa@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Baghdad, P.O. Box 47121, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq); Zaiter, Maysoon J. [Ministry of Science and Technology (Iraq)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iraqi synthetic zeolite type Na-A has been suggested as ion exchange material to treat cobalt-60 in radioactive liquid waste which came from neutron activation for corrosion products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ability of Na-A zeolite to remove cobalt from wastewater was checked for high cobalt concentration (822 mg/L) in addition to low cobalt concentration in the source sample (0.093 mg/L). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of important design variables on the zeolite column performance were studied these include initial concentration, flow rate, and bed depth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimental results show that high sorption capacity can be obtained at high influent concentration, low flow rate, and high bed depth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher column performance was obtained at higher bed depth. - Abstract: Iraqi synthetic zeolite type Na-A has been suggested as ion exchange material to treat cobalt-60 in radioactive liquid waste which came from neutron activation for corrosion products. Batch experiments were conducted to find out the equilibrium isotherm for source sample .The equilibrium isotherm for radioactive cobalt in the source sample showed unfavorable type, while the equilibrium isotherm for the total cobalt (the radioactive and nonradioactive cobalt) in the source sample showed a favorable type. The ability of Na-A zeolite to remove cobalt from wastewater was checked for high cobalt concentration (822 mg/L) in addition to low cobalt concentration in the source sample (0.093 mg/L). A good fitting for the experimental data with Langmuir equilibrium model was observed. Langmuir constant qm which is related to monolayer adsorption capacity for low and high cobalt concentration was determined to be 0.021 and 140 mg/g{sub zeolite}. The effects of important design variables on the zeolite column performance were studied these include initial concentration, flow rate, and bed depth. The

  3. The scrapers of obsidian from Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Typology and tools function with the application of the Sem, PIXE and NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 50 years have been enormous changes and the archaeology has been benefited with the technology development, as computation, the advancements in nuclear physics, the electron microscopy, the particle accelerator and the DNA analysis. As first approach to studied material it was realized in cabinet the morphological and technological analysis to establish a typology and to know the manufacturer process of the scrapers (tool used for to scrape a cavity after cutting its lance-shaping leaves at the maguey core obtaining so the sap commonly named hydromel at the Hidalgo state region in Mexico). On the other hand the studies which carried out in the ININ consist in the functional analysis of use traces in scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and stereoscopic to know about the type of work which were addressed the scrapers. Also were carried out the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with the purpose to know the obsidian site which was supplied the Dominion population. (Author)

  4. Ion Uptake Determination of Dendrochronologically-Dated Trees Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenan Unlu; P.I. Kuniholm; D.K.H. Schwarz; N.O. Cetiner; J.J. Chiment

    2009-03-30

    Uptake of metal ions by plan roots is a function of the type and concentration of metal in the soil, the nutrient biochemistry of the plant, and the immediate environment of the root. Uptake of gold (Au) is known to be sensitive to soil pH for many species. Soil acidification due to acid precipitation following volcanic eruptions can dramatically increase Au uptake by trees. Identification of high Au content in tree rings in dendrochronologically-dated, overlapping sequences of trees allows the identification of temporally-conscribed, volcanically-influenced periods of environmental change. Ion uptake, specifically determination of trace amounts of gold, was performed for dendrochronologically-dated tree samples utilizing Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The concentration of gold was correlated with known enviironmental changes, e.g. volcanic activities, during historic periods.

  5. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Y.A., E-mail: yaahmed1@gmail.co [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Landsberger, S.; O' Kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J. [Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 (United States); Gabdo, H. [Physics Department, Federal College of Education, Yola (Nigeria); Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I. [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2010-10-15

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and epithermal flux of 1.4x10{sup 11} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  6. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I

    2010-10-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  7. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x1012 n cm-2 s-1 and epithermal flux of 1.4x1011 n cm-2 s-1. Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements.

  8. Compton suppression method and epithermal NAA in the determination of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Y A; Landsberger, S; O'Kelly, D J; Braisted, J; Gabdo, H; Ewa, I O B; Umar, I M; Funtua, I I

    2010-10-01

    We used in this study Compton suppression method and epithermal neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of nutrients and heavy metals in Nigerian food and beverages. The work was performed at the University of Texas TRIGA Reactor by short, medium, and long irradiation protocols, using thermal flux of 1.4x10(12)n cm(-2)s(-1) and epithermal flux of 1.4x10(11)n cm(-2)s(-1). Application of Compton suppression method has reduced interferences from Compton scattered photons thereby allowing easy evaluation of Na, Cl, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Co, Cr, Rb, Fe, and Se. The epithermal NAA method has enabled determination of Cd, As, Ba, Sr, Br, I, and V with little turn-around time. Quality Control and Quality Assurance of the method was tested by analyzing four Standard Reference Materials (non-fat powdered milk, apple leaves, citrus leaves, and peach leaves) obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology. Our results show that sorghum, millet, and maize have high values of Zn, Mn, Fe, low values of Cd, As, and Se. Powdered milks, rice, beans, and soybeans were found to have moderate amounts of all the elements. Tobacco recorded high content of Cd, Mn, and As, whereas tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and okro seed have more As values than others. However, biscuits, macaroni, spaghetti, and noodles show lower concentrations of all the elements. The distribution of these nutrients and heavy metals in these food and beverages shows the need to fortify biscuits and pastas with micro and macro-nutrients and reduce the use of tobacco, tea, tsobo leaves, Baobab leaves, and Okro seed to avoid intake of heavy elements. PMID:20472451

  9. Neutron activation analysis of ceramic tiles and its component and radon exhalation rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. El-Shershaby; A. Sroor; F. Ahmed; A.S. Abdel-Haleem; Z. Abdel

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of 20 trace elements in several ceramics tiles and ceramic composites used in Egypt were elementally analyzed by neutron activation analysis(NAA) technique. The samples and standard were irradiated with reactor for 4 h( in the Second The gamma-ray spectra obtained were measured for several times by means of the hyper pure germanium detection system( HPGe).Also a solid state nuclear track detector(SSNTD) CR-39, was used to measure the emanation rate of radon for these samples. The radium concentrations were found to vary from 0.39-3.59 ppm and the emanation rates were found to vary from (0.728-5.688) x 10-4The elemental analysis of the ceramic tiles and ceramic composites have a great importance in assigning the physical properties and in turn the quality of the material.

  10. Analysis of standard substance human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human hair samples as standard substances were analyzed by the neutron activation analysis (NAA) on the miniature neutron source reactor. 19 elements, i.e. Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn, were measured. The average content, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and the detection limit under the present research conditions were given for each element, and the results showed that the measured values of the samples were in agreement with the recommended values, which indicated that NAA can be used to analyze standard substance human hair with a relatively high accuracy. (authors)

  11. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  12. Commercial NAA — Is It a Success? Evaluation of a Twenty Year Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial service at Imperial College was maintained for twenty years by juggling staff, equipment and irradiation facilities, building when required and downsizing when necessary. At no point was the service entirely self-sufficient since staff had more than one role and participated in teaching and research as well as the analytical service. The balance was of benefit everyone concerned, including students who have studied with us and gained experience of working within a well maintained and quality assured laboratory. The benefits of collaborating with industry cannot be overestimated, with the secondary effects for research and teaching identified previously. A key change took place in the early 2000s, which can be seen in Figure 5 by the fall in income from 2002. The author’s academic department became a separate cost centre to the Reactor Centre, and irradiations were charged at a more realistic price. Once the true costs were built in, including space, overheads and irradiation charges, it was not possible to maintain a viable business plan without reducing staff to a non-viable number. As a result, in 2003 the analytical service was handed to the Reactor Centre, in which the business could remain viable because the irradiation charge became income not expenditure. Without the continued interactions that academic research generated, the NAA service has diminished with very few customers in the past few years. Staff are occupied with internal work for the reactor such as routine monitoring using gamma spectrometry. In summary the introduction and operation of a commercial service is to be recommended, particularly in those situations where it can complement other parts of the organisation such other analytical or academic activities. It is not practical to fund reactor operations entirely on commercial activities, but it can result in a number of spin-offs that can increase other income streams such as teaching and research projects. Over the past 28

  13. Biomonitoring of trace-element air pollution in a gold mining area in Ghana using the generalized k0-standardization NAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mining activities contribute immensely to trace element atmospheric pollution. In Ghana, air pollution due to gold mining is the least investigated. In order to obtain preliminary information on air quality in the mining areas, the generalized ko- Standardization neutron activation analysis (NAA) method for nuclides following '1/v' and non-'1/v' (n,γ) reactions was used to analyse lichen samples from Prestea, a gold mining area in Ghana. Using the computed EPI values of both the Hogdahl-convention and the modified Westcott-formalism with gold as comparator standard, the IAEA lichen 336 certified reference material (CRM) and the lichen samples were irradiated in the inner irradiation site of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) operating at a thermal neutron flux of 5.0x1011ns-1cm-2. Comparison of the results with samples obtained from a non-mining (control) area, indicates that values of some metal pollutants such as As, Cr, Sb, and V were found to be higher in the lichens from the mining area than those in the non-mining area (control area); signifying accumulation of these metal pollutant due to gold - mining activities. (author)

  14. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  15. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  16. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  17. Concentrations of ions and metals in blood of amateur and elite runners using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense physical training is known to be associated with increased mineral losses through sweating (during the exercise) and also through urine (after the exercise). Nowadays physical training is recognized for adapting or damaging the muscles, depending on the intensity and duration of the effort, provoking detectable metabolic alterations in blood, mainly in the content of some ions. In this study Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S levels were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes that were submitted to constant physical exercise, at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateurs and elite athletes, ranging from 18 to 36 years old. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5 MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The concentrations data were compared with the control group (subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities). These data can be useful for evaluating the performance of endurance athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as to propose new evaluation of protocols not yet reported. (author)

  18. The neutron activation analysis in the study of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers composition - relation to other methods of investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) used in the study of Langmuir-Blodget (LB) multilayers composition are compared with the following analytical techniques: radiometry, spectrophotometry, IR-spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. A very important advantage of NAA is possibility for the simultaneous determination of all the inorganic ions in the sample, especially when LB multilayers serve as models of biological systems. Thus competitive reactions of bivalent and monovalent cations (Ca2+/Na+, K+) or specific reactions of counterions of equal charge (Zn2+/Cd2+. HPO42-/HAsO42-, SO42-/CrO42-) can be investigated with great accuracy. The parallel application of onother analytical technique is necessary when the structure of the multilayers, their stability, the molecular interactions or the binding energies of the elements are to be studied. An attempt to classify roughly the applicability of each method to some particular counterions is given. Such characteristics as the lower limit of detection, simplicity of the analysis accessibility, rapidity, etc. have been taken into consideration

  19. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method; Estabelecimento de procedimento para determinacao de vanadio em mexilhoes pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele, E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S., E-mail: edvinett@usp.b, E-mail: camilo.pereira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha

    2009-07-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the {sup 52}V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  20. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  1. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  2. Determination of elements in cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of elements in Cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis has been conducted. Samples of sediments were obtained from some location along Cisadane river, i.e. Leuranji, Karanggan, Cibigo, Cisauk, Warung Mangga Pintu Air and Estuary Teluk Naga. the elements analysed were Al, Mn, Mg, V, K, Na, Fe, Cr, Co, U and Zn, and the results were compared to the SRM of sediment sample from IAEA. Generally, the results showed that the mean concentration of elements were found in Cibogo, Cisauk, Pintu Air and Muara Teluk Naga which were higher than others. Concentration factor of elements in sediments were in between of 0,02 - 3,45, this factor indicated that Cisadane river sediments have not been contaminated. CRM sediments 2704 from IAEA used as NAA Quality Control (author)

  3. The application of NAA and ASS techniques on determination of daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn in school-aged children in Bandung city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronutrient elements contained in foods have an important role in the metabolism process in human body, so micronutrient element deficiencies can cause health problems and chronic diseases. Children are the population that generally more vulnerable in suffering of micronutrient deficiencies which have significant affects on their growth and development. Micronutrient deficiencies have long been happening in Indonesia but were not solved and the nutrition status data of children in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, through this research the daily dietary intake of Ca, Fe and Zn micronutrient in school-aged children has been determined. Food sampling was carried out using duplicate diet method and the Fe and Zn elements were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) while the Ca was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) method. The analysis results show the range concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in food samples obtained were 307-1991; 10,1-95,5 and 11,9-29,4 mg/kg respectively, while the average of Ca, Fe and Zn daily intake were 228; 9.3 and 4.6 mg/day and they were only fulfill 28%, 74% and 39% of AKG (adequate value of nutrient). The Ca, Fe and Zn deficiencies were observed on school-aged children in Bandung. This result is expected to give description and information to the authority on planning and policies taking as efforts in quality improvement of the next human resources. (author)

  4. Determination of the f parameter for k0-neutron activation analysis at the Australian 20 MW OPAL research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the k0 method of standardisation in neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA), the ratio of thermal to epithermal neutrons, a value known as f, is fundamental in accurately determining the concentration of elements within the sample. Research into determining this f value via the cadmium ratio method was undertaken for two positions within the 20 MW Open Pool Australian Light water (OPAL) research reactor (Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia). A short irradiation and long irradiation position were assessed via two methods; the conventional cadmium ratio method based on the Hogdahl formalism, with f values of 2,666 ± 255 and 1,538 ± 258 being calculated respectively for the short and long positions, and an ASTM-INVAP-based cadmium ratio method, which allows for the higher neutron temperature of OPAL to be accounted for, with f values of 3,057 ± 318 and 1,755 ± 312 being calculated respectively. These values were validated by analysis of NIST standard reference materials (SRMTM), with good agreement between experimental values and reference and literature values being observed, showing the accuracy and suitability of these values for OPAL. Additionally, the high values of f shown endorse the strength of performing k0-NAA at OPAL. This manuscript publishes the first values of f from OPAL and provides a detailed description of the method employed.

  5. The effect of some organic compounds and NAA application on the in vitro growth of the black orchid (Coelogyne pandurata Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINI UNTARI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Coelogyne pandurata Lindl. is a lowland epiphytic orchid that has pale green flowers with typically black markings on the lips. This species conventionally propagated asexually by rhizome. This orchid is now facing a great conservation problem and threatened to extinction due to human exploitation. That is why conservation activities such as developing proper cultivation, are urgently required. An in vitro experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Tissue Culture at Bogor Botanic Garden. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with two factors and ten replications. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal media i.e. Vacin and Went added with sugar, activated charcoal and agar, with 30 different combinations of organic compounds i.e., coconut water 250 mL/L, banana 150 g/L, potato 200 g/L, sweet potato 150 g/L, soybean 150 g/L and no organic compound as a control, and application of NAA (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ppm. The result showed that there was a significant effect of the organic compounds and NAA application on the length and the number of roots, height, number of leaves and number of shoots produced by the explants. The combination of sweet potato 150 g/L without NAA application showed the best result.

  6. Characterisation of airborne Ce, Th and Cd in workplace and their co-relation with their concentrations in body fluids and excreta of occupational workers using NAA, ICP - AES and XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne Ce, Th and Cd in the occupational settings were studied at the monazite mineral beneficiation and zinc ore concentrate processing using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Air samples were collected using grab and size selective samplers simultaneously. The size selective sampler consisted of 8-stage Anderson cascade impactor with back-up filter. Size characterisation showed that the Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of the airborne dust at the monazite mineral beneficiation ranged from 3 to 10 μm. The Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) for Th and Ce were also in the same range. Over 85% of the airborne dust associated with zinc concentrate ore handling was above 9 μm however: the MMAD at the down stream processing was about 3 μm. Composite air samples were subjected to leaching in simulated lung serum to find the solubility class. The urine samples of occupational workers engaged in mineral beneficiation showed Th levels ranging from 39 to 552 ng l-1 with a geometric mean of 186 ng l-1. The results were obtained using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The observed levels of Th in the urine samples were lower than the predicted levels, due to resistance of the mineral to biochemical leaching. In a limited number of urine samples Ce ranged from 312 to 1587 ng l-1 with a geometric mean of 700 ngl-1. These values, also determined by NAA, are unique in occupational settings. The Ce to Th ratio in the samples works out to 3.7 as against their ratio of 2.9 in the monazite mineral. The biological levels of Th and Ce observed in occupational settings need refinement on account of the possible environmental contribution due to uptake of these elements in the natural high radiation background areas. Detailed work on characterisation of dust, simulated leaching and analysis of biological samples is in progress in connection with the CRP. (author)

  7. The impact of heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke on indoor air quality as determined by Compton suppression neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Wu, D

    1995-12-01

    The method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been improved for air filter samples in the determination of low level heavy metals in indoor air. By using the techniques of epithermal neutron irradiation in conjunction with Compton suppression, the detection limits of cadmium, arsenic and antimony measurements have been dramatically reduced to 2 ng for Cd, 0.2 ng for As, and 0.03 ng for Sb. The determination of these heavy metals in particulate material generated from cigarette smoking in indoor environments has been conducted. Other elements, Br, Cl, Na, K, Zn were also found at elevated levels. PMID:8560226

  8. NaA Zeolite Membrane with High Performance Synthesized by Vapor Phase Transformation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志林; 晁自胜; 林海强; 万惠霖

    2003-01-01

    NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized with high permeance on porous alumina substrate by the vapor phase transformation method. The membranes were characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. The XRD results showed that the membranes after the synthesis time of 24 h consisted of the pure NaA zeolite crystals. The SEM results showed that the membranes after the synthesis time of 48 h consisted of intergrown zeolite crystals.The H2 permeance of the NaA zeolite membranes was higher than 2.0 × 10-6 mol/(Pa·m2·s), and the maximum of the gas H2/C3H8 permselectivity was 7.15, which is higher than the corresponding Knudsen diffusion selectivity of which is 4.69.

  9. The scrapers of obsidian from Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Typology and tools function with the application of the Sem, PIXE and NAA techniques; Los raspadores de obsidiana del senorio de Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Tipologia y funcion de herramientas con la aplicacion de tecnicas de SEM, PIXE y NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde R, S.V.; Mandujano A, C

    2000-07-01

    In the last 50 years have been enormous changes and the archaeology has been benefited with the technology development, as computation, the advancements in nuclear physics, the electron microscopy, the particle accelerator and the DNA analysis. As first approach to studied material it was realized in cabinet the morphological and technological analysis to establish a typology and to know the manufacturer process of the scrapers (tool used for to scrape a cavity after cutting its lance-shaping leaves at the maguey core obtaining so the sap commonly named hydromel at the Hidalgo state region in Mexico). On the other hand the studies which carried out in the ININ consist in the functional analysis of use traces in scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and stereoscopic to know about the type of work which were addressed the scrapers. Also were carried out the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with the purpose to know the obsidian site which was supplied the Dominion population. (Author)

  10. Analysis of large and non-standard geometry samples of ancient potteries by internal monostandard neutron activation analysis using in situ detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The k0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA) method was used for the analysis of 30 large and non-standard geometry ancient pottery samples obtained from Buddhist sites of Andhra Pradesh, India. One freshly finished pottery and a sun-drenched pottery were also analyzed for comparison. Samples were irradiated in thermal column facility of Apsara reactor and also in graphite reflector position of critical facility of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. Concentration ratios of 15 elements with respect to Sc were determined. The La/Ce values as well as statistical cluster analysis utilizing concentration ratios of elements were used for grouping/provenance of the potteries. (author)

  11. Influence of water on Sm2+ sorption by NaA zeolite in tetrahydrofuran solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons for increase in the sorption of bivalents samarium in the form of SmI2 on NaA zeolite from tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution in the presence of water were studied. By the method of absorptional spectroscopy it is ascertained that in THF-H2O solution, as compared with anhydrous THF water molecule is substituted for samarium ion coordination sphere, which improves exchange of samarium-sodium ions in zeolite matrix. Sorption of samarium ions by hydrated zeolite NaA is accompained by water polarization in zeolite and formation of (Si, Al)-O-Sm-O-(Si, Al) bonds

  12. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  13. Elemental profiles of soil in and around Tirupati by reactor neutron activation using KO method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples, representatives of various places in and around Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, that are affected by industrial effluents and sewages, were analysed for the elemental profiles by neutron activation analysis (NAA) using Ko method. Concentrations of 23 elements were measured. Variation in concentration of important elements with respect to influence on vegetation is discussed. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  14. NAA: metals in surface waters, margin sediments, forage and cattle hair in flood plains of the Rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Adelaide R.V., E-mail: madelaide@fumec.br [Universidade Fundacao Mineira de Educacao e Cultura (FUMEC), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Construcao Civil, Meio Ambiente; Barbosa, Ana Flavia S.; Ruckert, Gabriela V., E-mail: mariavasc@unilestemg.br [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Mestrado em Engenharia Industrial; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: cida@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metals are toxic and can cause damage to human health when they accumulate in the food chain. The aim of this study was to determine Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in different samples: surface waters, margin sediments, forages and cattle hairs in the region of the Rio Doce basin. The metals were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis - NAA at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CDTN / CNEN. The sampling sites were taken at two points: P1- (Pingo D'agua - city, Ponte Queimada, in a no industrial area) and P2 - (Santana do Paraiso city, industrial and pasture areas, subject to frequent floods). The samples were collected in different seasons: July 2009 (dry season - winter) and February 2010 (rainy season - summer). These points were strategically chosen because P1 is located into the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, considered a no industrial pollution region. Contrariwise, P2 is located in a region of high concentration of industries. In (P2) the Doce River receives its most polluted affluent upstream the Piracicaba River which is charged of several pollutants of industries of Steel Valley region, Brazil. In general, the results showed higher concentrations of the elements in P2 riverside area of livestock production and subject to flood. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis in trace element determinaton in studies of wound healing and in the framework of dose-effect studies on platinum-containing cancer chemotherapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of the iron concentration in wound tissues was studied. To differentiate between blood and tissue iron the erythrocytes of a rabbit were marked with radioactive 55Fe. Under the assumption that the half-life of rabbit erythrocytes of 34.5 days would not be changed by 55Fe marking, the 55Fe activity found in samples taken from the wound area of muscle cut wounds in a healing time of up to 14 days should be a measure for the blood iron share in the wound. The total iron content was determined be measuring 59Fe with the help of NAA. The portion of iron which was from the tissues was found as the difference between total iron (NAA) and blood iron (55Fe). The activation analysis of the samples from the wound tissues was supposed to give information about the participation of other essential trace elements in wound healing. In the framework of the development of new cancer chemotherapeutics with a specific effect on hormone-dependent mammary carcinoma, the distribution of the respective medications in tumor tissues and organs of rats and mice based on the activation analysis determination of platinum content in tissues of interest was ascertained. In the activation analyses for platinum determination the amounts in the samples of other essential trace elements was also determined, in order to ascertain characteristic accumulation or reduction of trace elements in various tissues as a result of tumor development or in connection with therapy. (orig./MG)

  16. Activity, exposure rate and spectrum prediction with Java programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to envision the radiation exposure during Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) experiments, a software called Activity Predictor is developed using JavaTM programming language. The Activity Predictor calculates activities, exposure rates and gamma spectra of activated samples for NAA experiments performed at Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC), Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The calculation procedure for predictions involves both analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The Activity Predictor software is validated with a series of activation experiments. It has been found that Activity Predictor software calculates the activities and exposure rates precisely. The software also predicts gamma spectrum for each measurement. The predicted spectra agreed partially with measured spectra. The error in net photo peak areas varied from 4.8 to 51.29%, which is considered to be due to simplistic modeling, statistical fluctuations and unknown contaminants in the samples. (author)

  17. Determination of hafnium at the 10−4% level (relative to zirconium content) using neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We worked out ICP-MS method of Hf determination in Zr and Zr compounds. •We used NAA method as reference one. •We obtained pure zirconium matrix by ion exchange (Diphonix® resin). •These permit to determine ≥1 × 10−4% Hf in Zr sample by ICP MS with good precision and accuracy. -- Abstract: Hafnium at the very low level of 1–8 ppm (in relation to zirconium) was determined in zirconium sulfate solutions (originating from investigations of the separation of ca. 44 ppm Hf from zirconium by means of the ion exchange method) by using three independent methods: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results of NAA and ICP MS determinations were consistent with each other across the entire investigated range (the RSD of both methods did not exceed 38%). The results of ICP-AES determination were more diverse, particularly at less than 5 ppm Hf (RSD was significantly higher: 29–253%). The ion exchange method exploiting Diphonix® resin proved sufficient efficiency in Zr–Hf separation when the initial concentration ratio of the elements ([Zr]0/[Hf]0) ranged from 1200 to ca. 143,000

  18. Influence of GA3 and NAA on certain carbohydrate fractions in corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil K. Chrungoo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 and napthaleneacetic acid (NAA to corms of saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. markedly influenced degradation of reserve carbohydrates in the corm tissues. GA3 stimulated the breakdown of starch and promoted the accumulation of soluble sugars, especially sucrose. Although NAA treatment stimulated starch breakdown for the first 14 days after the treatment, the effect was less pronounced as compared to that of GA3. NAA treatment promoted the accumulation of reducing sugars but suppressed accumulation of non reducing sugars in the corm tissues. Corms treated with GA3 showed an increased accumulation of total pentoses and total ketoses. In NAA treated corms, accumulation of total pentoses was stimulated but that of total ketoses was suppressed. The effects of GA3 and NAA on carbohydrate changes in the corm tissues are discussed in the light of their effects on bud development.

  19. Pretreatment of Isopropanol Solution from Pharmaceutical Industry and Pervaporation Dehydration by NaA Zeolite Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余从立; 刘艳梅; 陈纲领; 顾学红; 邢卫红

    2011-01-01

    NaA zeolite membranes with 80 cm in length and 12.8 mm in outer diameter were prepared by our research group cooperating with Nanjing Jiusi Hi-Tech Co., China. The influence of dissolved inorganic salts and pH value in the feed of isopropanol (IPA) solution on NaA zeolite membranes was investigated. It was found that both factors exhibited strong influence on the stability of NaA zeolite membranes. A set of pretreatment steps such as pH adjustment and distillation of the IPA solution were proposed to improve stability for pervaporation dehydration. An industrial-scale pervaporation facility with 52 m2 membrane area was built to dehydrate IPA solution from industrial cephalosporin production. The facility was continuously operated at 368-378 K to dehydrate IPA solution from water mass content of 15%-20% to less than 2% with a feed flow rate of 400-500 L·h^-1 and an average water flux of 1-1.5 kg·m^-2·h-1. The successful application of this facility suggested a promising application of NaA zeolite mem-brane for IPA recovery from pharmaceutical production.

  20. Determination of the content of selenium in selenium yeast by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The auther succeeded in cultivating brewers yeast, saccharomyces cerevisia, containing various concentrations of sodium selenite in glucose-glycine-yeast (GGY) extract medium. The content of selenium in selenium yeast was determined by NAA. The results indicate that this method is accurate and needs less time than other methods

  1. Installation of permanent cadmium-lined channel as a means for increasing epithermal NAA capabilities of miniature neutron source reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High demand for epithermal neutrons necessitated the need of a permanent cadmium-line. • We reported the design specifications, preliminary studies done and steps followed. • Reactivity worth of the old channel = 0.12 mk and the new channel = 0.336 mk. • Temperature coefficient = −0.1 mk/°C and control rod worth coefficient = 0.023 mk/mm. • The work is a useful tool to the MNSR community for upgrading their reactors. -- Abstract: High demand for epithermal neutrons by the clients of the Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), a Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) has necessitated the need to explore avenues for increasing epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) capabilities of the reactor. Safety and flux stability simulations were done by our group using Monte Carlo Transport Code MCNP5 for permanent cadmium line inside the irradiation channel of NIRR-1 and compared with the ones reported by other MNSR groups. The results of all these simulations revealed that the effect of cadmium-line on safety and flux stability is very minimal in the outer channel than in the inner channel. We have reported here the design specifications, preliminary studies done, steps followed in installation and measurements done in the pre and post installation of the permanent cadmium-line in outer channel of the reactor. We measured the reactivity worth of the old and new channel and readjusted the reactor's core excess reactivity after the installation. Results obtained are: reactivity worth of the old channel (0.12 mk), reactivity worth of the new channel = 0.336 mk, temperature coefficient = −0.1 mk/°C, control rod worth coefficient = 0.023 mk/mm and the core excess reactivity = 3.85 mk. We have also measured the radial and axial flux distribution in the channels of the reactor after the installation. The installation of the permanent cadmium-lined channel reported here will not only boost the sample handling capabilities of NIRR-1 but will also

  2. Analysis of radioactive impurities in alumina and silica used for electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that soft error of high precision electronic circuits can be induced by alpha-particles emitted from the naturally occurring radioactive impurities such as U, Th. As the electronic circuits have recently become lower dimension and higher density, these alpha-particle emitting radioactive impurities have to be strictly controlled. The aim of this study is to develop of NAA(Neutron Activation Analysis) and gamma-spectrometry to improve the analytical sensitivity(ng/g) and precision of U and Th. New NAA methods have been established using the HTS(Hydraulic Transfer System) irradiation facility which has been used to produce radioisotopes for industries and medicines instead of PTS(Pneumatic Transfer System) irradiation facility which has been used in general NAA. When the ultra-trace impurities have to be analyzed by NAA, background gamma-ray spectra induced from 222Rn and its progeny nuclides in air is serious problem. This unstable background has been eliminated or stabilized by the use of a nitrogen purging system. Ultra trace amounts of U(0.1ng/g) and Th(0.01ng/g) in alumina ball and high purity silica used for EMC could be analyzed by the use of HTS-NAA and low background gamma-spectrometry

  3. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - The study on human health and environment by neutron activation analysis of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Yeon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Sang Sun; Jeon, Ki Hong; Na, Kyung Won; Kang, Sang Hun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    With the development of the precise quantitative analytical method for the analysis of trace elements in the various biological samples such as hair and food, evaluation in view of health and environment to the trace elements in various sources which can be introduced inside human body was done. The trace elemental distribution in Korean total diet and representative food stuff was identified first. With the project the elemental distributions in supplemental healthy food and Korean and Chinese origin oriental medicine were identified. The amount of trace elements ingested with the hair analysis of oriental medicine takers were also estimated. The amounts of trace elements inhaled with the analysis of foundry air, blood and hair of foundry workers were also estimated. The basic estimation method in view of health and environment with the neutron activation analysis of biological samples such as foods and hair was established with the result. Nationwide usage system of the NAA facility in Hanaro in many different and important areas of biological area can be initiated with the results. The output of the project can support public heath, environment, and medical research area. The results can be applied for the process of micronutrients enhanced health food production and for the health safety and health status enhancement with the additional necessary data expansion and the development of various evaluation technique. 19 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  4. Simple and direct determination of active ingredients in drugs by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing number of drugs in the market and the need for their control requires new, simple, fast and accurate analytical methods. Iodine, iron, manganese, silver and sodium were determined by INAA in various pharmaceutical formulations, representing capsules, injectables, powders for injection, solutions and tablets. From the results it appears that NAA could be used as an official method for the determination of iron, manganese and silver in pharmaceutical products, in which these elements are present as active ingredients, as well as for the control of the concentration limits for iodine and sodium. (author)

  5. The Initial Study on NAA Promotes Parthenocarpy of Pumpkin%萘乙酸(NAA)促进南瓜单性结实初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昭华; 党选民; 杨龚

    2006-01-01

    通过用不同浓度奈乙酸(NAA)分别处理4个南瓜品种未经授粉的花柱,结果表明,不同浓度的NAA处理对座果率和平均单果重的影响差异不一致,但4个品种均在120 mg/kg的浓度处理时效果最好;4个品种各浓度处理的蛋白质含量与对照无显著性差异.

  6. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  7. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of NAA-Pulse Treated Plumular Leaf Explants of Cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AASIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an economically important grain legume crop and is an important source of dietary protein in many of the developing countries. The present study reports the effect of pulse treatment duration, concentration of NAA and presence of NAA in the culture medium on shoot regeneration from plumular leaf explant of Turkish cowpea cv. �Akkiz� and �Karagoz�. Pulse treatment of mature embryos with 20 mg l-1 NAA for 1 and 3 weeks followed by culturing of plumular leaf explant on MS medium containing 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 BAP with 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l-1 NAA promoted somatic embryogenesis in both cultivars. Longer duration of pulse treatment was deleterious resulting in browning and consequently death of the embryos on explants. Pulse treatment with 20 mg l-1 NAA for one week was less deleterious and developed two plantlets after the explants were transferred to MS0 medium after 6 weeks through somatic embryogenesis in cv. �Akkiz�. Pulse treatment with 10 mg l-1 NAA for 1 week showed 33.33-50.00 % and 25.00-50.00% shoot regeneration frequency in cv. �Akkiz� and �Karagoz� respectively on MS medium containing 0.25-1.00 mg l-1 BAP. Maximum number of 2.50 shoots each per explant were recorded in cv. �Akkiz� and �Karagoz� on MS medium containing 1.00 and 0.50 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Contrarily, maximum shoot length of 8.98 cm of cv. �Akkiz� and 9.42 cm of cv. �Karagoz� was recorded on MS medium containing 0.50 mg l-1 BAP and 1.00 mg l-1 BAP respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.5 mg l-1 IBA and and acclimatized in growth room at room temprature where they produced viable seeds.

  8. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm3 and 15×15×15 cm3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed

  9. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  10. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  11. Trace-element determination in lichens of Cordoba (Argentina) using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalina ecklonii (Spreng.) Mey. and Flot. is a lichen widely distributed in Cordoba, a central province of Argentina. The ability of this lichen as an atmospheric pollution bioindicator has already been studied in relation to its physiological response to air pollutants. This work has to do with the study of R. ecklonii in terms of its capacity to accumulate heavy metals and other trace elements. The sampled area, located in the province of Cordoba, covered 50,000 km2 and was divided following a grid of 25 x 25 km. Lichens were collected at the intersecting points, no least than 500 m from main routes or highly populated centres and individuals were randomly gathered following the four cardinal directions and no more than 100 m from the geographically settled point. From each pool, three sub-samples were taken for independent analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), for the determination of twenty nine elements (Cu, Ni, Mn, and Pb (AAS) and As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn (NAA). The quality of the determinations was checked using standard reference material and data sets were evaluated using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and factor analysis. The highest variation coefficients correspond to Ca, Cr, and Zn. The studied elements were identified as of physiological importance and as emitted by natural (soil and rocks) and anthropogenic sources (non-ferrous metallurgy, coal combustion, oil-fired plants, fossil fuel combustion and, other industries). (author)

  12. Assessment of Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in North Egypt aerosols using neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution of aerosols in different cities of North Egypt using the neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma techniques. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of particulate matter PM10 and total suspended particulate matter were close to industrial areas. From the results of the enrichment factor calculations, the most significant elements of anthropogenic origin are Ba, Sb, Ce and Zn. - Highlights: → Average concentration of Cd using OE-ICP is below detection limit for all the samples. → Maximum average concentration of Pb in PM10 and TSP is 5425 and 570.3, respectively. → Concentration of 20 elements in PM10 and TSP aerosols are determined using the NAA. → EF revealed that Pb, Ba, Br, Ce, Hf, La Sb and Zn are of anthropogenic origin.

  13. Assessment of Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in North Egypt aerosols using neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.H., E-mail: elaraby_20032000@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jezan University, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Abd El-Wahab, M., E-mail: wahab_magda@yahoo.com [Faculty of women for Arts, Science and Education, Physics Department, Ain Shams University, PO11757 Cairo (Egypt); Diab, H.M., E-mail: hnndiab@yahoo.co.uk [National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority Cairo (Egypt); El-Desouky, T.M., E-mail: trkhegazy@yahoo.com [Faculty of women for Arts, Science and Education, Physics Department, Ain Shams University, PO11757 Cairo (Egypt); Mohsen, M., E-mail: m1mohsen@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science. Physics Department, Ain-Shams University, PO 11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of the present study is to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution of aerosols in different cities of North Egypt using the neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma techniques. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of particulate matter PM{sub 10} and total suspended particulate matter were close to industrial areas. From the results of the enrichment factor calculations, the most significant elements of anthropogenic origin are Ba, Sb, Ce and Zn. - Highlights: > Average concentration of Cd using OE-ICP is below detection limit for all the samples. > Maximum average concentration of Pb in PM10 and TSP is 5425 and 570.3, respectively. > Concentration of 20 elements in PM{sub 10} and TSP aerosols are determined using the NAA. > EF revealed that Pb, Ba, Br, Ce, Hf, La Sb and Zn are of anthropogenic origin.

  14. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of cancer on selected trace elements among sudanese patients with confirmed breast cancer. Eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were obtained from the same breast of the same subject from different hospitals in Khartoum State. Samples were freeze dried and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutron irradiations were performed at Egypt second research reactor with a maximum thermal flux of 2.37 Χ 1014 n cm-2 s-1. To examine if there was any difference in the concentrations of elements from normal and malignant tissues; Wilcox on signed ranks test was used. It was found that Al, Mn, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cr elements from the malignant tissues are significantly elevated (p0.05). The results obtained have shown consistency with results obtained by some previous studies, however, no data could be found for the elements Mg, Cr, and Sc.(Author)

  15. Contents of trace elements in meadow mushrooms as results of PIXE, NAA and AAS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents of heavy elements in mushrooms from the Dresden area and from some parts of Poland, by use of three methods of measurement (PIXE, AAS and NAA) were determined, with the special interest focused on wild growing and cultivated meadow mushrooms. The ability for accumulation of Se, Cu, Ag and Cu was established. In some wild growing mushrooms the values of Cd, Hg, As and Pb exceeded allowed limits for human nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  16. Synthesis of Compact NaA Zeolite Membrane by Microwave Heating Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Lin CHENG; Zi Sheng CHAO; Hui Lin WAN

    2003-01-01

    A continuous and dense NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized by microwave heating method while employing a multi-step seeding LTA zeolite with the average size of 120 nm. The gas H2/N2 mixture separating results indicated that the mixture selectivity increased with increasing of synthesis times. In addition, selectivity of the three-step synthesis was higher than the value(3.74) expected from Kundsen diffusion.

  17. Variation induced by plant regeneration from cultures treated with NAA and seed irradiation for soybean improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of high 100-seed weight with 10% intensity in progeny regenerated from callus cultures treated with 0, 1, 2 mg/L NAA caused an improvement of this trait in R2-generation for A 3127 and Williams 82 varieties. The improvement ranged from 13.9% (l mg/L) to 18.7%(2 mg/L) and from 23.1% (2 mg/L) to 31.1% (1 mg/L) for Williams 82 and A 3127, respectively. The improvement in weight of 100-seeds was associated with an increase in No. of pods per plant and seed yield per plant for 1 mg/L NAA. On the other hand, post irradiation of seeds with 40 Gy and selection in M2 for high 100-seed weight caused an advancement for this trait in M3 by about 8% (Williams 82) and 19.4% (A 3127) with no significance differences in the other studied characters Moreover, high heritability values were noted in M3-population for moderate dose (40 Gy) as well as in R2-population with 1 mg/L NAA (A 3127) and 2 mg/L (Williams 82) for the most characters. Therefore, furthermore effective selection of this trait and/or other characters could be achieved in subsequent generations. 3 tab

  18. Removal of Cu2+from Aqueous Solutions Using Na-A Zeolite from Oil Shale Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包维维; 刘璐; 邹海峰; 甘树才; 徐学纯; 季桂娟; 高桂梅; 郑克岩

    2013-01-01

    Na-A zeolite was synthesized using oil shale ash (OSA), which is a solid by-product of oil shale proc-essing. The samples were characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffrac-tion and Brunauer Emmet Teller method. The batch isothermal equilibrium adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Na-A zeolite for removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions. The effects of operating pa-rameters, such as concentration of copper solutions, adsorbent dosages, pH value of solutions and temperature, on the adsorption efficiency were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity of Na-A zeolite obtained from the Langmuir adsorption iso-therm is 156.7 mg·g−1 of Cu (II). The increase of pH level in the adsorption process suggests that the uptake of heavy metals on the zeolite follows an ion exchange mechanism. The batch kinetic data fit the pseudo-second order equation well. The thermodynamic parameters, such as changes in Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and en-tropy (ΔS), are used to predict the nature of the adsorption process. The negativeΔG values at different tempera-tures confirm that the adsorption processes are spontaneous.

  19. The application of neutron activation analysis, scanning electron microscope, and radiographic imaging for the characterization of electrochemically deposited layers of lanthanide and actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide and actinide targets are prepared at the University of Mainz by molecular plating, an electrochemical deposition from an organic solvent, for heavy-ion reaction studies at GSI. To acquire information about deposition yield, target thickness, and target homogeneity, the following analysis methods are applied. With neutron activation analysis (NAA) the deposition yield and the average thickness of the deposited material is determined. We report on the analytical procedure of NAA performed subsequent to the molecular plating process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to determine the morphology of the target surfaces. In combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), we also could obtain qualitative information about the chemical form of the deposited material. So far, gadolinium, samarium, holmium, and uranium targets have been investigated with SEM/EDS. With radiographic imaging (RI), targets of uranium prepared by molecular plating and by vacuum vaporization are investigated. This method is suitable to obtain information about the spatial distribution, the homogeneity, and the thickness of the target layer deposition

  20. Synthesis and characterization of NaA zeolite particle as intumescent flame retardant in chloroprene rubber system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhui Yuan; Huarong Chen; Ranran Chang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    NaA zeolite with average particle size of 1 μm was successfully synthesized by microwave heating. Influences of pre-crystallization time, microwave power and microwave heating time on the synthesis of NaA zeolite were investigated. The as-synthesized sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution (PSD). Thermal and flame retardant properties as intumescent flame retardant (IFR) in chloroprene rubber (CR) system, such as thermogravimetry (TG), limiting oxygen index (LOI), burning rate (BR) and specific extinction area (SEA) were further investigated by adding NaA zeolite particles to CR. Experimental results show that the thermal stability and LOI value increased while BR and SEA decreased by adding 5 phr NaA zeolite into the 40 phr IFR filled CR system.

  1. Time-dependent growth of ceramic supported NaA membranes : a morphological and permeation based study / Jaco Zah

    OpenAIRE

    Zah, Jaco

    2006-01-01

    Based on its ideal aperture size (4.1 A) and hydrophilic framework, the NaA membrane possesses significant potential in the separation of many industrially important gaseous and liquid mixtures. In the local South African context, the foreseeable production of affordable, high-purity ethanol in the alternative fuel market exemplifies one such a possibility. However, there are still certain aspects to the composite NaA membrane that are not clearly understood. These include the tim...

  2. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  3. Samanid ceramics and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarpay, G.; Frierman, J.D.; Asaro, F.

    1977-08-29

    Glazed pottery known as ''Afrasiyab'' and ''Nishapur'' wares (early Islamic ceramics) are generally attributed to the Samanid dynasty (819-1005). The clay composition of Samanid wares and discarded kiln items found in situ were analyzed by NAA and the elemental composition compared with that of other sherds. 7 figures, 1 table. (DLC)

  4. Development of Unified Code for Environmental Research by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Yeon; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Sang Mi; Chung, Sang Uk; Lee, Kyu Sung; Kang, Sang Hun; Cheon, Ki Hong [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Three codes were developed to improve accuracy and precision of neutron activation analysis with the adoption of IAEA`s recommended `GANAAS` program which has the better peak identification and efficiency calibration algorithm than the currently using commercial program. Quantitative analytical ability of trace element was improved with the codes such that the number of detectable elements including environmentally important elements was increased. Small and over lapped peaks can be detected more efficiently with the good peak shape calibration(energy dependence on peak height, peak base width and FWHM). Several efficiency functions were added to determine the detector efficiency more accurately which was the main source of error in neutron activation analysis. Errors caused by nuclear data themselves were reduced with the introduction of ko method. New graphical program called `POWER NAA` was developed for the recent personal computer environment, Window 95, and for the data compatibility. It also reduced the error caused by operator`s mistake with the easy and comfortable operation of the code. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs. (author)

  5. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest due to the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application in industry. The determination of antimony has been a challenge for researchers since this element is found in low concentrations which make its analysis a difficult task. Therefore, although neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an appropriate method for the determination of various elements in different types of matrix, in the case of Sb its analysis presents some difficulties, mainly due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the NAA method for Sb determination in environmental samples. To establish appropriate conditions for Sb determinations, preliminary assays were carried out for further analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). The experimental procedure was to irradiate samples with a synthetic Sb standard for a period of 8 or 16 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The quantification of Sb was performed by measuring the radioactive isotopes of 122Sb and '124Sb. The results of preliminary assays indicated the presence of Sb in Whatman no 40 filter paper used in the preparation of the synthetic standard, but at very low concentrations, which could be considered negligible. In the case of the plastic material used in bags for the sample irradiation, it should be chosen carefully, because depending on the thickness, they may contain Sb. The analyses of the stability of the diluted Sb standard solution showed no change in the Sb concentration within eight months after its preparation. Results obtained in the analysis of certified reference materials indicated the interference of 76As and also of 134Cs and 152Eu in the Sb determinations by measuring '122Sb, due to the proximity of the gamma ray energies. The high activity of '24Na can also mask the peak of 122Sb hindering its detection

  6. Automated system for neutron activation analysis determination of short lived isotopes at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieman, J. J.; Rigot, W. L.; Romick, J. D.; Quinn, T. J.; Kocher, C. W.

    1994-12-01

    An automated neutron activation analysis (NAA) system for the determination of short lived isotopes was constructed at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA Research Reactor in 1993. The NAA group of the Analytical Sciences Laboratory uses the reactor for thousands of analyses each year and therefore automation is important to achieve and maintain high throughput and precision (productivity). This project is complementary to automation of the long-lived counting facilities (see Romick et al., these Proceedings). Canberra/Nuclear Data Systems DEC-based software and electronics modules and an I/O mounting board are the basic commercial components. A Fortran program on a VAX computer controls I/O via ethernet to an Acquisition Interface Module (AIM). The AIM controls the γ spectrometer modules and is interfaced to a Remote Parallel Interface (RPI) module which controls the pneumatic transfer apparatus with TTL signals to the I/O mounting board. Near-infrared sensors are used to monitor key points in the transfer system. Spectra are acquired by a single HPGe detector mounted on a sliding rail to allow flexible and more reproducible counting geometries than with manual sample handling. The maximum sample size is 8 ml in a heat-sealed two dram vial. The sample vial is nested into a "rabbit" vial for irradiation which can be automatically removed prior to spectrum collection. The system was designed to be used by the reactor operator at the control console without the aid of an additional experimenter. Applications include the determination of selenium and silver in coal and water, fluorine in tetra-fluoro ethylene (TFE) coated membranes, aluminum and titanium in composite materials and trace fluorine in non-chlorinated cleaning solvents. Variable dead time software allows analysis for 77mSe despite high dead times from 16N encountered in samples.

  7. Rare Earth Elements In Egyptian Granite By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobilization of rare earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in (REEs) chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of (REEs) and related elements. Therefore, (INAA) was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of rare earth elements to find out what information could be obtained about the (REEs) of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi EI-Allaqi, EI-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pacha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 1011n/cm2.s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence XRF was also used

  8. Study on trace element determination in human head hair using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element determination in human hair has become increasingly popular for monitoring environmental exposure, assessing nutritional status, evaluating intoxication and diagnosing diseases. However, there are controversies of this use due to the difficulty in the removal of only exogenous origin elements from the hair, the small correlation data between elements contents in the hair and other tissues and the poor quality of analytical results for certain elements. In this study, adequate experimental conditions have been established for human scalp hair analysis in order to obtain further reliable reference value ranges. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for the determination of fourteen trace elements. Irradiations were performed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Aliquots of samples from three individuals were analyzed and the results presented good reproducibility, indicating the sample homogeneity. The quality control of the results was assessed analyzing certified materials. The relative errors lower than 8% and relative standard deviations varying from 1.2 to 15% were obtained for most of elements in the reference materials analysis. Hair samples from voluntary donors from Sao Paulo State, aged from 15 to 60 years were studied and the results obtained indicate that As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se are present in the hair at a low level of 7g kg-1 and the elements Br, Ca, Fe, K, Na and Zn, at μg kg-1 level. There is a necessity of obtaining reliable reference values or intervals for hair trace elements for a defined healthy population. (author)

  9. An experiment using neutron activation analysis and a rare earth element to mark cotton plants and two insects that feed on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on insect dispersal and other behaviors can benefit from using markers that will not alter flight and fitness. Rare earth elements, such as samarium (Sm), have been used as ingested markers of some insects and detected using neutron activation analysis (NAA). In this study, samarium nitrate hexahydrate was mixed into artificial diet for boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at different dosages and in water used to irrigate cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Samarium was detected in adult boll weevils fed on the samarium-labeled diet, but not after 5 or 10 days of being switched to non-labeled diet, even if the insects were given labeled diet for as long as 7 consecutive days. Introduced in irrigation water, 1% samarium (m/m) was detectable in cotton squares and leaf tissue. However, boll weevil adults fed samarium-labeled squares did not retain detectable levels of samarium, nor did boll weevil adults reared to adulthood from samarium-labeled squares. Fourth instar beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), fed on samarium-labeled cotton leaves obtained enough samarium for NAA detection, but adult moths reared from them did not have detectable amounts of samarium. Although samarium can be useful as a marker when insects are presented with a continuous pulse of the label, elements that are assimilated by the insect would be more useful if a continuous infusion of the marker cannot be provided

  10. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  11. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  12. Determination of Br in blood of amateur runners using NAA and ITS correlation with adopted physical training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Lourenco, Thiago F.; Macedo, Denise V., E-mail: lazaroalessandro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: thiago_fl@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: denivevm@unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (LABEX/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Bioquimica do Exercicio

    2013-07-01

    Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the biosphere, in the human body is present in blood (as bromide), lungs, liver and hair. There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function and not enough information is available on bromine metabolism but, some studies report its use by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense and electrolytic balance. In this study the Br levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood that performing physical exercise at (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP-Brazil). The samples were collected from twenty six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, at rest. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil and were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. These results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities). The range established at rest for amateur runner (0.0040 - 0.0096 gL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (0.0074 - 0.0306 gL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training. (author)

  13. Determination of Br in blood of amateur runners using NAA and ITS correlation with adopted physical training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromine (Br) is one of the most abundant trace elements in the biosphere, in the human body is present in blood (as bromide), lungs, liver and hair. There is no evidence in humans of bromide concentration in any particular organ that might indicate a specific physiological function and not enough information is available on bromine metabolism but, some studies report its use by eosinophilic leukocytes for immune defense and electrolytic balance. In this study the Br levels were determined in Brazilian amateur athlete's blood that performing physical exercise at (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP-Brazil). The samples were collected from twenty six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, at rest. The blood samples were irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 3-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil and were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. These results were compared with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities). The range established at rest for amateur runner (0.0040 - 0.0096 gL-1) when compared with control group (0.0074 - 0.0306 gL-1) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training. (author)

  14. Tracking inorganic elements in GRMD blood dogs submitted to hASCs investigated by NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation in blood of specific elements concentration are an important step in the development of new treatments. Recently, studies with human adipose derived from stromal cells injected systemic (medication that affects the entire body) into a golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs shown to be able to express improvements in skeletal muscle. To check the alterations that this cell therapy may cause in the dogs, elements concentration in blood of treated dogs were investigated using NAA. These results were compared with the control and affected (untreated) dogs groups showing an improvement in Ca and Fe blood levels in treated dogs. (author)

  15. Epithermal neutron flux characterization of the TRIGA MARK II reactor, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, for use in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonideality of the epithermal neutron flux distribution at a reactor site can be described by a 1/E1+α spectrum representation, with parameter α as a measure of nonideality. α-values were determined in 3 typical irradiation positions of the TRIGA MARK II reactor, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, using the 'Cd-ratio for multi-monitor' method. The simpler 'Cd-ratio for dual monitor' method also yielded reliable results. This characterization is useful in the ko-method of NAA. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Instrument of neutron activation analysis for environmental administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor with thermal power of 500 kW has become a scientific facility for carrying out NAA. During the past two decades, based on NAA methods in combination with other analytical techniques, Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI) has carried out many programs such as: National Research and Development Programs, Co-ordinated Research Projects with other organizations in Vietnam. (author)

  17. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  18. Determination of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with biosolid, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in the sanitary lands. The utilization of biosolid in forest cultures, as the Eucalyptus grandis, is of great economic and scientific interest, because it promotes not only the use of sewage residues, but also a fertilization prices reduction. The objective of this work was to detect the presence of heavy metals in Eucalyptus grandis sample fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. For the experiment, we used the plantation of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga, linked to ESALQ of Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP. The eucalyptus were planted in March of 1998 and collect with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by ETE of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. The samples were prepared in Universidade Estadual Paulista of Itapeva. For the determination of heavy metals presence in eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  19. Development of an elemental tracer using neutron activation analysis for application in an estuarine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of an activable tracer that could be used to study dispersion patterns in an English estuary is described and was carried out in connection with the development and testing of a particle-tracking computer model. Understanding estuarine dynamics will assist in the decision-making process for estuarine management and in contingency planning. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been used to characterize the concentration and natural variation of 40 trace elements in suspended particulate matter and inter-tidal bed sediment in order to identify a suitable tracer. Results have shown that europium, terbium and ytterbium would be suitable to use in a tracer study as they have low background concentrations in sediments and little variability, (Eu: 1.31 mg x kg-1±13%, Tb: 0.90 mg x kg-1±16% and Yb: 2.91 mg x kg-1±18%). The ratios of these elements are constant throughout the estuary and experiments have shown that increases in concentration of any of these elements due to the addition of artificial elemental tracer could be quantitatively determined by changes in the ratio constant. (author)

  20. Environmental monitoring for uranium and neptunium at Yucca Mountain using Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) is investigated as an analysis method for uranium and neptunium in environmental samples from Yucca Mountain. The design and construction of a facility for this technique are described. Theoretical improvement in sensitivity for ENAA over thermal NAA (TNAA) is discussed and compared to experimental results for different sample types. Uranium is analyzed in eight different sample matrices, including samples from Yucca Mountain. Neptunium has been studied only in AGV-1 Granite. As predicted by theory, uranium shows a high experimental sensitivity improvement factor (average = 7.76), while neptunium has a factor of only 0.49. Detection limits for uranium using ENAA range from 6 to 52 ppb by weight (2.6 to 17 ng in sample) for the different matrices. Neptunium shows a detection limit of 57 ppb by weight (6.2 ng in sample) in AGV-1 Granite using ENAA. Using TNAA, neptunium can be analyzed to 35 ppB by weight (3.4 ng in sample)

  1. Elemental activation analysis with decay and prompt gamma ray techniques, using isotopic neutron sources and a nuclear research reactor. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based techniques in geology and mineral prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is to review the research activities carried out through the IAEA research Project 1697/RB ''Elemental activation analysis with decay and prompt gamma ray techniques, using isotopic neutron sources and the nuclear research reactor. The programme of work includes: a) Development of decay and prompt gamma ray activation techniques for mineral exploration. b) Development of epithermal NAA in addition to thermal NAA especially for gold ore. c) Development of non-destructive insitu elemental analysis with decay and prompt gamma ray techniques using isotopic neutron sources. A joint programme has been established with the Egyptian Geological Surrey and Mining Authority for using nuclear techniques in evaluating gold prospects of several ancient gold mines and investigating several tin-tantalum deposits, which were discovered over the last few years. Two sources of neutrons were used for irradiation, one of the dry channels of the two megawatts research reactor, ET-RR-1 for laboratory studies, and a Pu-Be neutron source in paraffin assembly for possible insitu work

  2. IBA和NAA对海桐水培的影响%Effects of IBA and NAA on Hydroponics of Pittosporum Tobira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小玉; 张凤银; 常杰君

    2016-01-01

    Robust branches of Pittosporum tobira under 1 year old were selected as hydroponic cuttings , and concentration of 50,100,200 mg/L of IBA and NAA were compounded to probe the most suitable plant growth regulators and the optimum concentration hydroponics for root growth of Pittosporum tobira. The results showed that the rooting rate of Pittosporum tobira cuttings was promoted by the treatment of IBA 50,200 mg/L,NAA 50,200 mg/L,and the most distinguished treatments were IBA 50 mg/L and NAA 50 mg/L treatment,under which Pittosporum tobira cuttings took root 24 days earlier than the control group. Only NAA 50 mg/L treatment promoted the germination of the cuttings ,and there were no obvious effects with other treatments. IBA 50 mg/L ,NAA 50 mg/L could also promote the growth of adventitious roots(amount)of Pittosporum tobira cuttings.%试验选取一年生的海桐健壮枝条作为水培插条,分别用浓度为50、100、200 mg/L的IBA、NAA对海桐枝条进行处理,探讨海桐水培生根最适合的植物生长调节剂及其最佳浓度。结果表明:IBA 50、200 mg/L,NAA 50、200 mg/L的处理对海桐水培生根率均有促进作用,其中IBA 50 mg/L、NAA 200 mg/L的促进作用最为明显,且在该浓度下使海桐提前24 d生根。仅NAA 50 mg/L的处理对海桐水培的发芽有显著促进作用,其他浓度的NAA及各浓度的IBA则对海桐的发芽率无显著影响。IBA 50 mg/L、NAA 50 mg/L对海桐的不定根生长(数量)也有显著促进作用。

  3. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 104-106 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  4. A study with microbeam PIXE technique needed for the interpretation of data on pollutants in hair obtained with NAA and other bulk concentration analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair metals the analysis of which has been proposed as a practical method for assaying human contamination with metal pollutants, reflect both internal and external contamination. This study is an attempt to distinguish these two components of hair metals, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. Individual hair strands were embedded in a resin combined with a hardener. Each embedded hair strand was cut perpendicular to its axis, into the root, 1-cm and 2-cm segments from the root. The 3 segments were analysed for few elements including As and Pb, using the scanning microbeam PIXE technique. For each segment, a proton microbeam of 15μ diameter and 500Hz frequency was used to scan the segment cross-section along the long axis. X-ray spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of the elements studied. The results, although preliminary, showed that the scanning microbeam PIXE technique may provide important information about elemental concentrations and distribution patterns along hair length and hair cross-section. This may lead to a better understanding of mechanisms responsible for the deposition of elements into hair and thereby to a more rational use of hair analysis as a method for assaying human exposure to element pollutants

  5. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A. [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-10-01

    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  6. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-05-01

    This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques.

  7. Moderate relationships between NAA and cognitive ability in healthy adults: implications for cognitive spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulpesh ePatel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS is a non-invasive imaging technique that enables quantification of neurochemistry in vivo and thereby facilitates investigation of the biochemical underpinnings of human cognitive variability. Studies in the field of cognitive spectroscopy have commonly focused on relationships between measures of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, a surrogate marker of neuronal health and function, and broad measures of cognitive performance, such as IQ.Methodology/Principal Findings. In this study, we used 1H-MRS to interrogate single-voxels in occipitoparietal and frontal cortex, in parallel with assessments of psychometric intelligence, in a sample of 40 healthy adult participants. We found correlations between NAA and IQ that were within the range reported in previous studies. However, the magnitude of these effects was significantly modulated by the stringency of data screening and the extent to which outlying values contributed to statistical analyses.Conclusions/Significance. 1H-MRS offers a sensitive tool for assessing neurochemistry non-invasively, yet the relationships between brain metabolites and broad aspects of human behaviour such as IQ are subtle. We highlight the need to develop an increasingly rigorous analytical and interpretive framework for collecting and reporting data obtained from cognitive spectroscopy studies of this kind.

  8. Integrative Network-based Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Genome Wide Expression in Glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Dieter Henrik; Mader, Irina; Schlosser, Pascal; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Carro, Maria Stella; Lange, Thomas; Schwarzwald, Ralf; Vasilikos, Ioannis; Urbach, Horst; Weyerbrock, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify correlations between metabolites from proton MR spectroscopy and genetic pathway activity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Twenty patients with primary GBM were analysed by short echo-time chemical shift imaging and genome-wide expression analyses. Weighed Gene Co-Expression Analysis was used for an integrative analysis of imaging and genetic data. N-acetylaspartate, normalised to the contralateral healthy side (nNAA), was significantly correlated to oligodendrocytic and neural development. For normalised creatine (nCr), a group with low nCr was linked to the mesenchymal subtype, while high nCr could be assigned to the proneural subtype. Moreover, clustering of normalised glutamine and glutamate (nGlx) revealed two groups, one with high nGlx being attributed to the neural subtype, and one with low nGlx associated with the classical subtype. Hence, the metabolites nNAA, nCr, and nGlx correlate with a specific gene expression pattern reflecting the previously described subtypes of GBM. Moreover high nNAA was associated with better clinical prognosis, whereas patients with lower nNAA revealed a shorter progression-free survival (PFS). PMID:27350391

  9. Neutron activation analysis of copper traces: a study for sodium correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak ratio correction factors for accurate quantitative determination of copper by NAA via 64Cu radioisotope in presence of high 24Na radioactivities has been established. Copper is the principal element as a marker of bullet residues on targets in connection to forensic ballistics cases. Reliable and precise estimation of copper by NAA either via non-destructive way or by resorting to radiochemical separation is of importance in forensic analysis for arriving at definitive inferences. However, majority of samples originating from wearing apparels, paper, leather, skin, glass or any other metal exhibit matrices contain high levels of sodium. The NAA scheme for determination of copper rests on measurements of net counts at 511 KeV which is the positron annihilation peak of 64Cu. 24Na also contributes significantly exactly at 511 KeV of gamma energy albeit by different mechanism i.e., by pair production. Therefore, total signal at 511 KeV is contributed by both. The easiest approach for correct estimation of copper traces has been established by the peak ratio correction factor. This has significance as both 64Cu and 24Na have comparable half lives, hence, as such time gap measurements cannot improve the situation. The consistency of peak ratio correction factor could be established for a particular geometry. (author)

  10. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of zinc for stable isotope tracer studies in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopes are beginning to be used to study trace element nutrition in humans. As they do not expose subjects to radiation, they will be very useful for population groups that can not be studied with radioactive tracers (pregnant women and persons under the age of 18). The zinc stable isotope used in experiments was 70Zn whose abundance was increased from 0.62% to 66%. Blood, urine and feces samples were collected at various times after the administration of the tracer and the ratios of Zn-70/Zn-64 and Zn-70/Zn-68 were determined in the collected samples. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to determine the Zn isotopes. As biological samples contain large quantites of Na, Cl, Br, K it was necessary to separate these in order to detect Zn isotopes. Pre and post-irradiation separations were done. Chelex-100 was used for former, Mn was precipitated as MnO2 and Cu was separated by dithizone extraction. The yields for pre and post-irradiation separations for 90 samples were 86+-16% and 70+-13% respectively. (author)

  11. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of selenium measurements in biological materials using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials has become increasingly important in view of the essential nature of this element for human nutrition and its possible role as a protective agent against cancer. Unfortunately, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials is often difficult for most analytical techniques for a variety of reasons, including interferences, complicated selenium chemistry due to the presence of this element in multiple oxidation states and in a variety of different organic species, stability and resistance to destruction of some of these organo-selenium species during acid dissolution, volatility of some selenium compounds, and potential for contamination. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be one of the best analytical techniques for selenium determinations in biological materials for a number of reasons. Currently, precision at the 1% level (1s) and overall accuracy at the 1 to 2% level (95% confidence interval) can be attained at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for selenium determinations in biological materials when counting statistics are not limiting (using the 75Se isotope). An example of this level of precision and accuracy is summarized. Achieving this level of accuracy, however, requires strict attention to all sources of systematic error. Precise and accurate results can also be obtained after radiochemical separations

  12. Marine Gradients of Halogens in Moss Studied by Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V

    2002-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis is known to be a powerful technique for the simultaneous study of chlorine, bromine and iodine in environmental samples. In this paper it is shown to be useful to elucidate marine gradients of these elements. Examples are from a transect study in northern Norway where samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens were collected at distances 0-300 km from the coastline. All three elements decreased exponentially as a function of distance from the ocean in the moss samples, strongly indicating that atmospheric supply from the marine environment is the predominant source of these elements to the terrestrial ecosystem. These results are compared with similar data for surface soils along the same gradients. Comparison is also made with previous data for halogens in moss in Norway obtained by conventional NAA and covering similar transects in other geographical regions. The Cl/Br and Br/I ratios in moss showed a regular change distance from the ocean in all transects, and h...

  13. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  14. Studies on environmental pollution in Bangladesh using reactor based neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the environmental degradation, the concentration of heavy metal such as chromium (Cr) in soil samples at various depths of existing tannery area of Hazaribagh, Dhaka, Bangladesh and the proposed tannery industrial area at Tatuljhora, Savar Dhaka, Bangladesh were analyzed by reactor based Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method. Arsenic levels in water, soil and herbal at different locations of Sonargaon Upzilla in Narayanganj district, Bangladesh were determined by the same method. The Cr-content at different depths of Hazaribagh area was found in the range of 38 to 33,500 ppm. Higher accumulations were observed in top soil that is above the US permissible level (20 to 85 ppm) except only one sample. The Cr-concentration in soils of Tatuljhora was in the range of 50.9 to 93.6 ppm, which is within the range of chromium background levels reported in worldwide (7 to 221 ppm). Arsenic detected in soil was in the range of 2.06-11.35 ppm. Few water samples contain arsenic above permissible level (0.05 ppm). Surprisingly, arsenic was also found considerably high in some herbals. The arsenic was not found in some herbal corresponding to the water samples where arsenic was not detected. Therefore, some Ayurvedic herbal medicine may be contaminated when they will be prepared with arsenic rich herbs. (author)

  15. STUDY ON OCCURENCE FORM OF PLATINUM IN XINJIE Cu—Pt DEPOSIT BY NAA AND SCANNING PROTON MICROPROBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓林; 童纯菡; 等

    1995-01-01

    A combination of NAA and micro-PIXE was used to study concentrations and distributions of platinum group elements (PGE) in ores from Xinjie Cu-Pt deposit.The NAA results of the bulk indicate that the ores belong to the enriched Pt-Pd type.The element concentration maps of scanning micro-PIXE for the ores show that the occurence form of Pt is independent arsenide minerals.No PGE were detected in chalcopyrite of Xinjie Cu-Pt deposit.These information are economically beneficial to the mineral smelting process.

  16. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmd{sup mdx}/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA; Determinacao de elementos de relevancia clinica em tecidos biologicos de camundongos distroficos Dmd{sup mdx}/J por AAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina

    2012-07-01

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMD{sup mdx}/J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmd{sup mdx}/J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  17. The Evaluation of Metals in Water and Sediment of Code River Using NAA (Phase 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of medium and heavy metals of Mg, V, Al, Mn, Ti, Co, Cd, Cr and As in water and sediment from the upstream area of Code river has been done using NAA method. The sampling carried out in rainy and dry season, at the 6 locations (Boyong spring, Boyong area, Sinduharjo, Ringroad Utara, Sardjito, Tukangan, Tungkak, Karangkajen Ringroad Selatan, Ngoto and Pacar Wonokromo). The main objective of this investigation is to determine data of medium and heavy metals in water and sediment of Code river Yogyakarta, and in the framework of joint research between IAEA and PTAPB-BATAN. Referring to the water quality standard of group C as well as of group D, based on SK Gubenur Kep DIY No 214/kpts/1991 the samples of the 11 sampling locations not greater than MPC. From t test method for statistic calculation was shown that there were significant differences between the concentration of elements in water and sediment. (author)

  18. Microwave-heating Synthesis and Gas Separation Performance of NaA Zeolite Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志林; 刘赞; 万惠霖

    2005-01-01

    The paper presented novel synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane with good performance using microwave heating. The method involved two steps, prior seeding 120 nm of LTA crystals on substrate and then employing a secondary hydrothermal synthesis. Effects of seeding times, synthesis time and synthesis times were investigated in this work. The quality evaluation of membranes respectively used single component gases (HE and N2) and H2/N2 (equivalent volume) mixture. The ideal H2,/N2 selectivity increased from 1.90 of the substrate to 6.37 of the three-stage synthesized membrane, which was distinctly higher than the corresponding Knudsen diffusion selectivity of 3.74. However, the real H2/N2 selectivity of the three-stage synthesis was much lower than the corresponding ideal selectivity and close to the corresponding Knudsen diffusion selectivity of 3.74.

  19. Effects of PASP-KT-NAA on Nitrogen Metabolism Enzyme Activities of Maize Seedlings under Low Temperature Stress%聚糠萘水剂对低温胁迫玉米幼苗氮代谢酶活的调控效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娇; 董志强; 徐田军; 陈传晓; 焦浏; 卢霖; 董学瑞

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment of maize seedlings(material:Zhengdan958 and Fengdan3) was conducted in artificial climate chamber to investigate the effects of low temperature stress and the chemical regulator PKN with various nitro-gen metabolism key enzymes activities. The results showed that the low temperature stress broken nitrogen metabolism balance and made NRA, GSA, GOTA significantly increasing in the beginning 2-3 days of the low temperature pres-sure, and then descended quickly. GSA and GOTA were faster than NRA 2 days. Low temperature stress increased protease and peptidase activity, promote protein decomposed. And soluble protein and free amino acid content in-creased. PKN pretreatment improved NRA, GSA, GOTA, maintained the stability of nitrogen metabolism and reduce the protease, peptidase activity, promoted the dry weight increased, improved the maize seedling cold resistance.%  以郑单958和丰单3号的3展叶期幼苗为材料,在人工气候室进行盆栽试验,研究4℃低温胁迫至幼苗死亡过程中叶片氮素代谢关键酶活的变化规律及聚糠萘水剂(PKN)的调控效应。结果表明,低温胁迫打破了氮素代谢平衡,致使氮素同化相关酶硝酸还原酶活性(NRA)、谷氨酰胺合成酶活性(GSA)和谷氨酸-草酰乙酸转移酶活性(GOTA)于胁迫初期升高,之后迅速下降,且GSA和GOTA降低比NRA提前2 d。随低温胁迫时间的延长,玉米幼苗受害加重,蛋白酶、肽酶活性增加,叶片可溶性蛋白与游离氨基酸含量升高。PKN处理提高了NRA、GSA、GOTA,降低了蛋白酶、肽酶活性,维持氮素代谢稳定,促进单株干物重增加,提高了玉米幼苗抗冷性。

  20. Analysis of pollutants in human scalp hair in Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalp hair, urine and blood samples from volunteers selected from different areas surrounding Cairo were collected for study by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and conventional methods. The results for 14 elements in hair show some variation between the different regions. Qualitatively there is a slight difference of abundance of the investigated elements. Broadly speaking the presence of major elements is dominant. No relationship was observed between the elemental composition of hair and urine. (author)

  1. Studies of nutritionally and toxicologically important elements in foods and diets by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods in conjunction with conventional and anticoincidence counting have been developed in our laboratory over the years for the quantitative determination of up to 24 elements in foods and diets. Additionally, these methods have been applied to measure bioaccessible, ionic, proteomic, lipidic, and organometallic species of many elements. The overall expanded uncertainties of the methods have also been evaluated. (author)

  2. Neutron, gamma and Roentgen fluorescent activation analysis of hair of children suffering from bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study was the multiparametric study of dangerous microelements content in the hair of children under school and primary school age which included 12 children ill with bronchial asthma and 11 control group persons in the town of Troitsk, Moscow Region. The hair specimens with weight 15-220 mg were analysed with the application of epithermal neutron activation analysis conducted at experimental installation REGATA and neutron source-unique Pulsed Fast Reactor IBR-2, with the application of combined gamma-neutron irradiation at Microtron MT-25 and with Roentgen Fluorescence Analysis device of JINR. The data of elements content in hair were obtained with solid state track detectors and semiconductor electronic spectrometers. The solid state track detectors provide the determination of U, Th, Bi and Be elements at the level of sensitivity up to 10-8-10-9 g/g. These data were compared with more representative information about dangerous microelements concentration obtained with NAA and RFA analyses. The obtained concentrations of most elements vary in a wide range, but in agreement with the known data. The highest degree of element dispersion was observed for U, Th, Pb, I, Br, Sb, Co, K and Be (the radiation coefficient was higher than 100-200%). The presented analysis of results shows that in the clinical picture there is some proved correlation between an increased content of some element in hair and symptoms of their accumulation in the organism of ill children, the revelation of which is the basic idea of our examination

  3. Preliminary studies on the observation of oxygen-18 exchange in coal by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, investigations in the use of FTIR for coal ultimate analysis, and a fast pneumatic transfer system for 0-18 determination by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeKeyser, C.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Use of isotope exchange kinetics for functional group determination in coal is investigated. Net exchange kinetics determined by time dependent Neutron Activation Analysis measurements (NAA) would be related to individual functional group exchange kinetics determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements. The work described herein can be grouped into three categories: 1) work relating to the FTIR spectroscopy of coal, 2) work relating to oxygen exchange in coal, and 3) work relating to measurements of O-18 by NAA. Methods are discussed for preparing IR observable samples of coal and ash, obtaining FTIR spectra of these samples, and reducing the spectral data to numerical form. Also included in this category is an investigation into the use of IR spectroscopic methods for the ultimate analysis of coals. An initial attempt at the observation of oxygen exchange in coal is described which includes two exchange schemes and the FTIR spectroscopic observation of their end products. A facile exchange between O-18 water and O-16 in coal was attempted with and without catalysts. Also, the design and construction of a fast pneumatic transfer system for the determination of O-18 is described.

  4. Determination of trace impurities of chlorine in zirconium-alloy matrices using neutron activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, H.; Nathaniel, T. Newton [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Sant, V.L. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.; Suryanarayana, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Physics Div.; Prajapati, P.M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Physics Design Div.

    2011-07-01

    Trace impurities of chlorine in the zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5% Nb alloy matrix have been determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometric technique. The results have been compared with the values obtained from pyrohydrolysis-IC and spark source mass spectrometric method. The limit of internal precision error from the neutron activation technique is 6.7% for zircaloy-2 and 9% for Zr-2.5% Nb alloy, which are lower than that of pyrohydrolysis-IC and spark source mass spectrometric measurements respectively. For both alloys the results from present work based on NAA technique are slightly higher than the results based on the other two methods but are comparable within the uncertainty. Read More: http://www.oldenbourg-link.com/doi/abs/10.1524/ract.2011.1863 (orig.)

  5. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  7. Studies of trace element imbalances in Alzheimer's disease using sequential NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence has accumulated in the literature that trace elements may be implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurological diseases. Even if elemental imbalances do not prove to be causative factors, observed perturbations may be markers that could aid in diagnosis, or help elucidate pathological processes. In this paper the authors present new data for trace element levels in three areas of the human brain most severely affected by AD (hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus basalis) and in AD hair and nail samples. In some cases the specific imbalances seen previously in the bulk brain analyses are amplified in these regions. Elevated bromine levels seen in AD brain are also observed in AD hair and nail. Significant alkali metal and mercury imbalances with respect to controls occur in AD nail samples. The role of these trace element alterations in the etiology of AD has still not been determined. However, some possible physiological effects include: membrane dysfunction (alkali metals), enzyme inhibition (mercury and bromine), and interference with neurotransmitter functions (mercury, bromine, and alkali metals). The simultaneous multielement capability of this sequential NAA procedure also permits interelement correlation studies. Elemental associations may help identify potential environmental factors that could contribute to the observed trace element imbalances

  8. Characterization of inorganic components in nutritional supplements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of element composition in nutritional supplements is of great interest due to increasingly high consumption and a large diversity and brands of these products offered in market. Therefore, there is the necessity to evaluate the element contents in the supplements and to compare with those values declared on the labels. In this study neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied to evaluate the element composition of 11 commercial nutritional supplement brands bought in natural product drugstores and pharmacies. These samples acquired in capsule or tablet forms were ground to a homogeneous powder. The samples were irradiated together with the elemental standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Irradiations of 8 h under a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 1012n cm-2s-1 were carried out for Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Se and Zn determinations. For Cu, K and Na determinations thermal neutron flux of 1 x 1012n cm-s-1 was used and, the exposure time was 1h. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyper pure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. The obtained results compared with the values of the labels of nutritional supplements presented good agreement for most of the elements. Toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg and Sb were not detected in the samples. For quality control of the analytical data, certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology were also analysed. Accuracy and precision of these results were evaluated. The obtained Z score values were lower than 2 indicating that the data are within the ranges of certified values at 95% confidence level (author)

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Nano zeolite NaA from Rice Husk at Room Temperature without Organic Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano zeolite NaA was synthesized by the hydrothermal method with silica extracted from rice husk as silica source. Amorphous silica with 87.988 wt%SiO2 was extracted from rice husk ash by a suitable alkali solution. The effect of the crystallization time and the ratio of Na2O/SiO2 on the properties of the final product was investigated. The synthesized nano zeolite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. Results revealed that the crystallization time and alkalinity have significant effects on the structural properties of nano zeolite. Nano crystals NaA with crystal sizes ranging from 50 to 120 nm were synthesized at room temperature with 3 days aging, without adding any organic additives.

  10. Neutron Self-decay Characteristic Study on Big Sample by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Hong-chao; YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Zi-zhu; YANG; Wei; JIN; Xiang-chun; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>The advantages of the neutron activation analysis are non-destructive, multielement and high accuracy, but there are many difficulties on the study for the big sample so far. IAEA organized a CRP cooperative item to find the solutions for big sample analysis. In this study, we analyzed the horizontal beam neutron self-decay characteristics of in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) when it irradiates high purity zinc (Zn) and zirconium (Zr) plates.

  11. Applications of XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic techniques in the study of body composition and diseased tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. A.; Ng, K. H.; Green, S.; Mountford, P. J.; Shukri, A.; Evans, J.

    1996-05-01

    Members of this group have responded to a number of challenging health issues by attempting to devise sensitive XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic measurement systems foboth in vivo and in vitro applications. These studies are generally either of toxicological importance, examine potential for diagnosing the presence of disease, or offer effective means for monitoring potentially harmful side-effects of therapy. Particular examples include the in vivo XRF investigation of human skeletal uptake of Pb in working and living environments, in vivo XRF monitoring of elevated levels of Fe in skin (indicating the presence of an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of thalassaemia), in vivo NAA monitoring of elevated levels of Al in bone (indicating an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of chronic renal failure) and in vitro characterization, by means of low-kV imaging, of a range of calcification parameters in healthy and diseased breast tissue. The latter investigation has been conducted in association with an in vitro NAA study of concentrations of trace elements in the same types of tissue. Figures of merit for the various measurement systems have been obtained in terms of minimum detectable levels and concentrations (MDL's and MDC's) and where applicable, image related parameters.

  12. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  13. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  14. Nuclear methodology development for clinical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the viability of using the neutron activation analysis to perform urine and blood clinical analysis was checked. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological behavior of animals that has been fed with chow doped by natural uranium for a long period. Aiming at time and cost reduction, the absolute method was applied to determine element concentration on biological samples. The quantitative results of urine sediment using NAA were compared with the conventional clinical analysis and the results were compatible. This methodology was also used on bone and body organs such as liver and muscles to help the interpretation of possible anomalies. (author)

  15. Nuclear analysis methods in monitoring occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing industrialisation of the world has come an increase in exposure to hazardous chemicals. Their effect on the body depends upon the concentration of the element in the work environment; its chemical form; the possible different routes of intake; and the individual's biological response to the chemical. Nuclear techniques of analysis such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), have played an important role in understanding the effects hazardous chemicals can have on occupationally exposed workers. In this review, examples of their application, mainly in monitoring exposure to heavy metals is discussed

  16. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  17. The Ko - standardization method of NAA as a tool for studying environmental pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing interest has been manifested during recent years in the determination of trace elements in environmental materials in relation to ecological studies. In this respect NAA plays an important role due its accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. However, in most cases the relative method is used, requiring standards for each element determined. The demand for multielement analyses enhanced the need for an absolute method. Unfortunately, this requires an arbitrarily selected nuclear data set, thus introducing corresponding uncertainties in the results. In the period 1973-1987 a new approach, named the K0 - method, was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent, Belgium. It is essentially an absolute technique where the uncertain nuclear constants are replaced by compound nuclear constants, the K0 - factors. These factors, which characterize the nuclides, were experimentally determined with high accuracy by the authors of the method. During 1987/1988, the K0 - standardization method was implemented at the ''J. Stefan'' Institute in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia. Investigation of NIST standard reference materials SRM 1570 Spinach, SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves showed that the systematic error in determining twelve certified elements was less than 8 %. IAEA CRM SL1 Lake Sediment, NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment and SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash were also analysed. A series of environmental samples such as sediments, soils, electrostatically separated fly ash and selected lichens as biological indicators for atmospheric pollution were analysed for approximately 50 elements, and some of the results will be presented. (author). 3 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, J., E-mail: jonathan.hampel@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Boldt, F.M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Gerstenberg, H. [ZWE FRM-II der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Reber, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Wiehl, N. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: > We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. > We make first experiments of

  19. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  20. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.3) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-04-15

    A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.3) involving a manual system and an semi-automatic system were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor and NAA laboratory of RI building in 2006. In this technical report, the design, operation and control of these system (PTS no.3) was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured from a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  1. Study of non-1/ ν reaction nuclides using k0 - Neutron Activation Analysis at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified spectral index r(α); the Westcott gLu(Tn) factor and absolute neutron temperature Tn were determined for the handling of non-1/ ν (n, γ) reaction based on the Westcott formalism using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA) method at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA) research reactor. The r(α) was determined by the bare bi-isotopic monitor method using measurement of radionuclides of 97Zr and 95Zr. The 176Lu as non-1/ ν and 197Au as 1/ ν monitors were utilized for determination of gLu(Tn). The r(α) and gLu(Tn) values ranged from 0.0715 to 0.1417 with a RSD of 15.24 % and from 1.7832 to 2.0149 with a RSD of 3.58 %, respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated based on the calculated absolute neutron temperature (Tn) value. The calculated average value of Tn was 40.56 ± 9.32 degree Celsius while the value reported by MNA was 40 degree Celsius, which represents an acceptable level of consistency. (author)

  2. Broad scope educational role of a midsize university reactor NAA laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad scope educational activities at the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (NAAL) associated with the 100 kW University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) have been implemented to serve a deserve and multidisciplinary academic clientele to meet a wide spectrum of educational needs for students at all academic levels. Educational usage of the complementary laboratory facilities is described and the importance of such academic experimental experience is emphasized for developing and maintaining a cadre of professionals in the analytical applications of nuclear energy. The synergistic operation of the NAAL and the reactor at the University of Florida to serve as a model worthy of emulation for other similar facilities is emphasized. (author)

  3. Application of NAA Method to Study Chromium Uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kalabegishvili, T L; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pomyakushina, E V; Pavlov, S S

    2002-01-01

    To study chromium uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans (Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from Columbia basalt rocks, USA) instrumental neutron activation analysis method was applied. It was established that chromate accumulation is dose-dependent and it is more intesive in the interval of concentrations of Cr(VI) (10-50 mg/l). At low concentrations of Cr(VI) (up to 50 mg/l) the most intensive formation of Cr(V) was also found (using ESR method). Besides, it was estimated that reduction from Cr(VI) to Cr(V) is faster process than the uptake of Cr(VI). According to ENAA measurements Cr(III), in constant to Cr(VI), is not accumulated in Arthrobacter oxydans cells up to concentration of 200 mg/l. Using epithermal neutron activation analysis the background levels of 17 major, minor and trace elements were determined in Arthrobacter oxydans.

  4. NAA of ion exchanged sodium polyacrylate for monitoring air quality in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium polyacrylate is a superabsorbent polymer (SAP) which is widely used in the manufacturing of disposable diapers. Workplace exposure to respirable dust produced from the handling of these polymers is becoming more of a concern as more data relating occupational exposures to health effects are becoming available. An approach that utilizes the fundamental ion exchange properties of the polymer combined with the sensitivity of instrumental neutron activation analysis has been developed which eliminates interferences from sodium species that are ubiquitous to manufacturing facilities. The technique involves exchanging the sodium that is associated with the polymer with europium and analyzing the exchanged polymer by neutron activation analysis. The technique is simple to run, provides excellent sensitivity and is specific to sodium polyacrylate. (author)

  5. Substoichiometric radiochemical separation and their application to neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemistry is the chemistry of substances which are detected by their nuclear radiations. The first radiochemical separation was used by Marie and Pierre Curie. The present paper discusses the concept of purity and the importance of various radiochemical separation methods such as precipitation, volatilization, high vacuum distillation, ring oven technique, ion exchange, solvent extraction, etc. NAA can be carried out by comparator or absolute method. Comparator method can be performed by radiochemical or instrumental technique. Radiochemical separation for NAA requires that the final product must be in well-defined chemical form, so as to obtain correct chemical yield. The chemical yield determination is time-consuming and important, especially when the product of activation has a short half-life. Ruzika and Star/proposed a substoichiometric procedure which uses subequivalent amount of the reagent corresponding to the amount of carrier added. If the carrier and reagent added to the sample and standard are the same, and the same fraction is isolated free from other activation products, the chemical yield determination is not required. The process becomes quantitative and time saving. The present paper discusses some new, rapid and selective method developed for the substoichiometric radiochemical separation and estimation of some elements

  6. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  7. Total activation analysis of large samples using short- and medium-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace- and minor-element content of various samples, especially of organic material, is not always investigated sufficiently. TRIGA and small research reactors with a neutron flux of approximately 1012/ s cm2 offer the opportunity to study this field effectively. The sensitivity of determination by NAA depends mainly on the activities induced. This activity is proportional to neutron flux and sample weight. A lower flux was therefore compensated by irradiation of larger samples (up to 250 times the weight of the usual 100 mg samples) with the distinct advantage of a better sample representation and a much lower radiation degradation compared to the irradiation of a small sample in a high-flux reactor. As shown in the previous papers, Total Activation Analysis (TAA) is especially useful for AA with short-lived nuclides. TAA, the continuous registration of up to several hundred LFC- and pileup corrected and uncorrected γ-spectra, enables the selection of the optimal time interval for spectra-summing so that each element can be evaluated under optimal conditions. Quality assurance is possible by decay plots. Starting TAA with the expelling signal, the irradiation time is registered by the incoming rise of activity. TAA of the well-known standards Bowen's Kale, NBS-SRM-1572 Citrus Leaves, and samples of yellow peas and oats allows the determination of many short and medium lived elements. With 15 s activation of roughly 25 g samples the oxygen content of yellow peas and oats can be determined by the O-19 and N-16 activities together with Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, Cu and their detection limits. Even the sulphur content can roughly be estimated in the same run. The measurements were performed using the General Atomic rabbit system together with the new inexpensive measurement system: an n-type HP-Ge detector with resetting pre-amplifier, digital-preloaded filter amplifier and a software based PC-MCA with real time correction of dead-time and pile-up losses. The

  8. Expanded uncertainties of preconcentration neutron activation measurements of extractable organo-chlorine, bromine and iodine compounds in bovine milk lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milk is known to contain organohalogen compounds. A mixture of hexane and isopropanol was used to extract lipids from bovine milk and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure extractable organohalogens in the lipids. The samples were irradiated in a neutron flux of 2.5 × 1011 cm2 s-1 for 10 min, allowed to decay for 2 min, and counted for 10 min. Uncertainties associated with the preconcentration NAA measurements were investigated in detail. The mass fractions of halogens in mg kg-1 and their relative expanded uncertainties in percent in bovine milk lipids were: 32 (8.4 %), 2.65 (9.8 %) and 0.211 (6.6 %) for Cl, Br and I, respectively. (author)

  9. Determination of rare earth and uranium in reference biological materials certified by the method of neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de terras raras e de uranio em materiais biologicos de referencia certificados pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Lais H.P.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: laispaciulli@gmail.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the determinations of Sc, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu and U in certified reference materials (CRMs). To solve the problem of interference from fission products of U in the determination of lanthanides were obtained correction factors for this interference for {sup 140}La, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 147}Nd. The experimental procedure of Neutron Activation Analysis consisted of irradiating aliquots of each of the CRMs with synthetic standards of elements under thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, followed by gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-resolution hyperpurity GE detector. The analyzes of CRMs indicate good accuracy and precision of results, demonstrating the feasibility of applying of established procedure in NAA of elements studied in organic vegetable matrices.

  10. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  11. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  12. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  13. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents dev...... population globally sensitive to specific world issues. The models discuss the dynamics of population in response to such issues. All the models presented in the thesis can be combined for a systematic analysis of illicit activities.......Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis...

  14. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  15. Synthetic multi-element standards for QC/QA of k0-NAA: study of composition, doping procedure and homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim to demonstrate the quality of the implementation of k0-NAA in a laboratory, synthetic multi-element standards (SMELS) are being developed consisting of an inert material doped with a variety of analytically interesting elements. In the present paper, an outline is given of the results obtained thus far in the development of the SMELS. These results are related to the choice of the doping elements and their optimum concentrations, the selection of the matrix components, the doping procedure itself and the therefrom resulting homogeneity. Further work envisaged is the refinement and optimisation of the above steps, followed by the final preparation, homogeneity control and characterisation of the SMELS

  16. Neutron activation analysis application to the study of air pollution bio monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work has been done within the IAEA Research Contract Arg 9929, Research Co-ordinated Programme on Validation and application of plants as bio monitors of trace-element atmospheric pollution, analysed using nuclear and related techniques. Knowledge on air pollution levels and identification of polluted areas and potential emission sources are of increasing concern all over the world. Chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosol, especially its heavy metal contents, is therefore of great importance and neutron activation analysis is a powerful technique for its determination. The advantages of using bio monitors instead of direct sampling lies not only on its lower cost but also on the possibility of using them to measure and/or evaluate deposition over large areas. The general objective of this project is the use of lichen to evaluate pollution levels in an area of Cordoba province (Argentina) and to establish baseline levels and temporal trends and draw distribution maps of pollutants. Based on lichen distribution maps, two species were selected: Raumalina ecklonii and Usnea amblyoclada. Different tests were done to adjust sample preparation methodologies previous to irradiation. The tests included grinding and drying assays to investigate their influence on the following determination using NAA. Sample grinding with and without the addition of liquid nitrogen was tried and oven-dry and freeze-dry were tried on samples of the two selected species. Elemental determination was done using instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Samples were irradiated for 5 hours at the RA-3 reactor of the Ezeiza Atomic Center (thermal flux 3.1013cm-2-2.s-1-1, 4.5 M w), and measured twice with different decay times 86 and 30 days) for the determination of medium and long-lived nuclides. The measurements were done using GeHP detectors (30 % efficiency, resolution 1.9 keV for 6060Co 1332.5 keV peak) coupled to a Canberra Series 85 multichannel analyser

  17. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  18. Development of Commercial Neutron Activation Analysis Service with a Small Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that with sufficient motivation the staff of a SLOWPOKE type reactor facility can develop a commercial NAA service generating enough revenues to pay the salaries of all those involved as well as reactor maintenance costs. The NAA service should be fast and continuously available; industry often requires a turn-around time of one day. At the École Polytechnique NAA Laboratory, years of work have led to the successful development of a hybrid NAA method combining the k0 method and the improved relative method. It offers large savings in time as well as improved flexibility and accuracy. (author)

  19. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  20. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Oh, M.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk.

  1. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk

  2. Applications of XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic techniques in the study of body composition and diseased tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A. [Asia Lab (Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ng, K.H. [Malaya Univ., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mountford, P.J.; Evans, J. [Queen Elizabeth Medical Centre, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics and Bioengineering; Shukri, A. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Physics

    1996-05-01

    These studies are generally either of toxicological importance, examine potential for diagnosing the presence of disease, or offer effective means for monitoring potentially harmful side-effects of therapy. Particular examples include the in vivo XRF investigation of human skeletal uptake of Pb in working and living environments, in vivo XRF monitoring of elevated levels of Fe in skin (indicating the presence of an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of thalassaemia), in vivo NAA monitoring of elevated levels of Al in bone (indicating an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of chronic renal failure) and in vitro characterization, by means of low-kV imaging, of a range of calcification parameters in healthy and diseased breast tissue. The latter investigation has been conducted in association with an in vitro NAA study of concentrations of trace elements in the same type of tissue. Figures of merit for the various measurement systems have been obtained in terms of minimum detectable levels and concentrations (MDL`s and MDC`s) and where applicable, image related parameters. (author).

  3. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  4. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  5. The feasibility of in vivo quantification of bone-gadolinium in humans by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) following gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Noseworthy, M. D.; Prestwich, W. V.

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of using a 238Pu/Be-based in vivo prompt γ-ray neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) system, previously successfully used for measurements of muscle, for the detection of gadolinium (Gd) in bone was presented. Gd is extensively used in contrast agents in MR imaging. We present phantom measurement data for the measurement of Gd in the tibia. Gd has seven naturally occurring isotopes, of which two have extremely large neutron capture cross sections; 155Gd (14.8% natural abundance (NA), σ= 60,900 barns) and 157Gd (15.65% NA, σ= 254,000 barns). Our previous work focused on muscle but this only informs about the short term kinetics of Gd. We studied the possibility of measuring bone, as it may be a long term storage site for Gd. A human simulating bone phantom set was developed. The phantoms were doped with seven concentrations of Gd of concentrations 0.0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 120 and 150 ppm. Additional elements important for neutron activation analysis, Na, Cl and Ca, were also included to create an overall elemental composition consistent with Reference Man. The overall conclusion is that the potential application of this Pu-Be-based prompt in vivo NAA for the monitoring of the storage and retention of Gd in bone is not feasible.

  6. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: thalitapsanches@usp.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO{sub 3} solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in

  7. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO3 solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in replicate. A comparison

  8. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  9. NAA与BA对康乃馨愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of NAA and BA on Callus Induction of Dianthus Caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允威; 刁毅

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, effects of NAA and BA on callus induction of Dianthus Caryophyllus was studied to provide the theoretical basis for tissue culture of Dianthus Cao'ophyllus. As a result, the media with NAA or BA was in favor of the induction of callu, while media adding NAA 0.2 mg/L and BA 2 mg/L was the best hormone combination, induction rate was best, and callus grew well.%文章主要研究了NAA与BA对康乃馨愈伤组织诱导的影响,结果表明:单独使用NAA或BA时,能够诱导出愈伤组织;NAA浓度为0.2mg/L,BA浓度为2mg/L时,产生愈伤组织比例最高,生长状态最好。

  10. Preliminary study on air pollution source identification in Xinzhen, Beijing, using NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 178 aerosol samples in two size fractions, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine), were collected on nucleopore films using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler at the Graduate School of China Nuclear Industrial Group during May 2007 to November of 2009. Black carbon was determined by a reflectometer. A total of 16 elements, Mg, Al, S, Si, P, Cl, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb, were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Mg, Al, Ca, K and Mn were also determined by Neutron Activation Analysis. Concentrations of all these elements were used to identify possible pollution sources and directions of the airborne particulate matter by means of softwares PMF and CPF. Some extraordinary events, such as sandstorms, firework and transboundary fire smoke were pinpointed by a combination of time series of multielement, relevant meteorological data and softwares Wind rose, Hysplit, and Google earth. (author)

  11. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  12. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University

    1972-01-01

    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  13. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  14. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  15. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  16. M073: Monte Carlo generated spectra for QA/QC of automated NAA routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, K. R. (Kevin R.); Biegalski, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    A quality check for an automated system of analyzing large sets of neutron activated samples has been developed. Activated samples are counted with an HPGe detector, in conjunction with an automated sample changer and spectral analysis tools, controlled by the Canberra GENIE 2K and REXX software. After each sample is acquired and analyzed, a Microsoft Visual Basic program imports the results into a template Microsoft Excel file where the final concentrations, uncertainties, and detection limits are determined. Standard reference materials are included in each set of 40 samples as a standard quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) test. A select group of sample spectra are also visually reviewed to check the peak fitting routines. A reference spectrum was generated in MCNP 4c2 using an F8, pulse height, tally with a detector model of the actual detector used in counting. The detector model matches the detector resolution, energy calibration, and counting geometry. The generated spectrum also contained a radioisotope matrix that was similar to what was expected in the samples. This spectrum can then be put through the automated system and analyzed along with the other samples. The automated results are then compared to expected results for QA/QC assurance.

  17. Determination of iodine species in cow milk by preconcentration epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Iodine is an essential trace element for human beings. The main source of iodine is generally food items such as fish and milk. Either the lack or the excess of iodine can cause health problems. Iodine deficiency disorder is fairly common in many countries of Africa and Asia. There exists an increasing interest in the determination of total iodine as well as various species of iodine in milk. One of the problems in the analysis of iodine is the lack of highly sensitive methods. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of the techniques, particularly when the irradiation is done using epithermal neutrons which is called ENAA, that can provide low detection limits. These limits can be further improved when ENAA is used in conjunction with an anti-coincidence (ENAA-AC) counting system. We have developed an ENAA-AC method for the determination of ppb levels of iodine. We have also employed chemical separation methods prior to ENAA-AC to measure the species-specific concentrations of iodine in cow milk. We have separated lipid-bound iodine using solvent extraction followed by further fractionation using a silica gel column. We have used ammonium sulfate precipitation to separate protein-bound iodine. We precipitated whole casein-bound iodine at pH=4.6. We separated the inorganic species, such as iodide and iodate, using ion exchange chromatography. We have measured the following iodine concentrations in homogenized milk (milk fat 3.25%): 0.475±0.005 μg mL-1 of total iodine, 0.432 ±0.003 μg mL-1 iodide, 0.016±0.005 μg mL-1 iodate, 0.013±0.003 μg mL-1 of lipid-bound iodine, 0.032±0.002 μg mL-1 protein-bound iodine, and 0.026±0.001 μg mL-1 casein-bound iodine. We have observed that ENAA-AC is a powerful technique for the determination of iodine and its species when used in conjunction with chemical separation methods. The detection limits are low and the precision and accuracy are high. (author)

  18. NAA BA KT对麝香石竹不定芽形成的影响%The Effect of NAA BA KT on the Forming of the Adventitious Bud of Dianthus Caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新祥

    2001-01-01

    研究NAA,BA,KT对麝香石竹茎段外植体不定芽形成的影响.结果表明它们都能有效地诱导麝香石竹茎段外植体不定芽的形成,其中以BA诱导的芽的分化频率最高,生长素和细胞分裂素配合能进一步提高芽的分化频率.BA在高频率诱导不定芽形成的同时,对分化芽的伸长生长、鲜干重的增长、干重百分率的提高和叶绿素水平的增加均有明显的促进作用,而KT,NAA则不然.

  19. A re-evaluation of k sub 0 and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-line emitted by the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair for use in NAA

    CERN Document Server

    Corte, F D; Simonits, A; Bossus, D; Sluijs, R V; Pommé, S

    1999-01-01

    A re-evaluation is made of the k sub 0 -factor and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-ray of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair that are important in neutron activation analysis (NAA). This study considers that the relevant level is also fed by the 4.34 min sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh mother (with an absolute gamma-ray emission probability gamma sub 2 =0.13%) and not only, as assumed in former work, by the 42.3 s sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh daughter isotope (with gamma sub 3 =2.0%). In view of this, generalised equations were developed for both the experimental determination and the analytical use of the k sub 0 -factor and of the associated parameters k sub 0 (m)/k sub 0 (g), Q sub 0 (m) and Q sub 0 (g) [(m): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh; (g): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh], requiring the introduction of the gamma sub 2 and gamma sub 3 data and also of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh-> sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh fractional decay factor F sub 2 (=0.9987). The experimental determinations...

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  1. Analysis by neutron activation analysis a some ancient Dacian ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Dacian ceramics, from three different establishments from Romanian territory have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements has been determined: Ba, Eu, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm. Ba is the element that could be considered to differentiate relatively the three groups of ceramics.

  2. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  3. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  4. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  5. Computer-assisted reactor NAA of geological and other reference materials, using the ksub(o)-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    USGS BCR-1 and G-2, NBS 1633a Coal Fly-Ash and a 7-element synthetic standard for biological materials were analyzed by reactor NAA, using the ksub(o)-standardization method. The analyses were performed independently in the analytical laboratories of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences (INW), Gent, and the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI), Budapest. This procedure allowed not only a comparison with the specified data or with other published values, but enabled a check of the consistency of our own results obtained in largely different experimental conditions. As concluded, the ksub(o)-standardization method combines general versatility (with respect to irradiation and counting conditions) with good accuracy, while the experimental work remains as simple as possible. Since the ksub(o) method is a computer-oriented technique, a FORTRAN IV program was designed and applied on a VAX 11/780 machine. (author)

  6. Some results of NAA collaborative study in white rice performed at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White rice is a main food for Asian people. In the framework of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), therefore, the eight Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam selected white rice as a common target sample for a collaboration study since 2008. Accordingly, rice samples were purchased and prepared by following a protocol that had been proposed for this study. The groups of elements that were analyzed by using neutron activation analysis in the white rice samples were toxic elements and nutrient elements, including: Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn. The analytical results were compared between the different countries and evaluated by using the Tolerable Intake Level of World Health Organization (WHO) and Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake (AI) of the U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) guideline values. These data will be very useful in the monitoring of the levels of food contamination and in the evaluation of the nutritional status for people living in Vietnam and other Asian countries. (author)

  7. Nondestructive gamma activation analysis of mineral materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic problems are described related to the use of gamma activation analysis. The applicability was studied of instrumental gamma activation analysis (IGAA) in geology. A number of minerals, rocks, marine sediments and reference materials were studied. For irradiation a betatron and a microtron were used. The results show that IGAA allows the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements at concentrations of tenths of ppm. The results are given of comparisons made of the analytical possibilities of microtron IGAA and reactor INAA in geology. Tables show the results of the application of IGAA, the main products and parameters of photoexcitation reactions and graphically represented are the gamma spectra of measured materials. (J.B.)

  8. KFUPM fast neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly established Fast Neutron Activation Analysis facility at the Energy Research Laboratory is described. The facility mainly consists of a fast neutron irradiation station and a gamma ray counting station. Both stations are connected by a fast pneumatic sample transfer system which transports the sample from the irradiation station to the counting station in a short time of 3 s. The fast neutron activation analysis facility has been tested by measuring the 27A(n, α)24Na and 115In(n, n')115mIn cross sections at 14.8 and 2.5 MeV neutron energies, respectively. Within the experimental uncertainties, the measured cross sections for these elements agree with the published values. (orig.)

  9. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  10. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  11. Neutron activation analysis: study of primary interference on determination of aluminium, magnesium, manganese and sodium; Analise por ativacao neutronica: estudo de interferencias primarias nas determinacoes de aluminio, magnesio e sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Leonardo Alves da

    2007-07-01

    The neutron activation (NAA) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elementary chemical composition. It is based on the induction of artificial radioactivity in a sample by neutrons and the resulting activity is usually measured, by gamma spectrometry. Its more relevant characteristics are the high sensibility ({mu}g.g{sup -1} - ng.g{sup -1}), accuracy and precision, capability of multi elementary analysis, low detection limits and its non destructive nature. These properties classify NAA as a very powerful analytical technique. In spite of being a versatile technique, the NAA presents limitations, one of them is related to the primary interference reactions that occur during the irradiation. The calculation of the concentration is usually based on the main reaction under thermal neutrons {sup n}X(n{sub th}, y){sup n+1}X but under fast flux, the reactions {sup n+1} Y(n{sub r}, p) {sup n+1}X e {sup n+4}Y(n{sub r}, {alpha}){sup n+1}X can take place. The consequence of this interference is that the final elemental concentration will be the sum of results of the reactions and it is not possible to distinguish the real concentration. Therefore, the impact of this interference depends on the contribution of the fast neutron flux on the total neutron flux in the local irradiation channel. It means that the interference depends on how much the irradiation channel is thermalized and it is a characteristic of the reactor. In this research, several interference reactions were studied: {sup 28}Si(n{sub f},p) Al on the aluminium determination; {sup 27}Al(n{sub f},p){sup 27}Mg, on the determination of magnesium; {sup 27}Al(n{sub f}, {alpha}) Na, on the determination of sodium and {sup 56}Fe(n{sub f},p){sup 56}Mn on the determination of manganese. Two procedures were adopted: Method I, in which using pure standards of the elements, the 'apparent' masses of Al, Mg, Mn and Na from interfering reactions were evaluated and a ratio between the interference

  12. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  13. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  14. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Rui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Results Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ, sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. Conclusions This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible

  15. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. under In Vitro Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Metin Kumlay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the effects of 1.0×MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3 in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0×MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0×MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3+1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm, maximum number of nodes (13.50, and maximum number of leaves (11.00 were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0×MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA+0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  16. Environmental pollution studies. Quantitative determination of elements in the air particulate matter by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding to the 2002 PNCA Program for the Utilization of INAA in the Environmental Study, the elemental determination of air particulate matter have been done. Two sampling site were chosen to collect a PMs samples, i.e. Lembang and Bandung that represent the rural and the urban region respectively. The period of sampling was January 2002 to November 2002. Air sample was collect by GANT Stacked air sampler using 47 mm diameter cellulose filter which have a pore size of 0.45 μm and 8 μm for fine and coarse particle respectively. Quantitative elemental determination has been done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis based on a comparative method. The elemental distributions on fine and coarse fraction of air particulate matter have been analyzed for both sampling sites as well as the enrichment factor (EF) for all elements interest. The result shows that the average annual concentrations of fine and coarse PMs in the Lembang sampling site were 7.8 μg.m-3 and 1.6 μg.m-3 respectively. Meanwhile at Bandung sampling site, the PMs are higher than that a Lembang sampling site, i.e. 14.4 μg.m-3 and 22.5 μg.m-3 for fine and coarse PMs respectively. The fine fraction was higher than the coarse fraction at Lembang sampling site, but at Bandung sampling site the fine fraction was lower than the coarse fraction. Fifteen elements of Na, Al, V, Mn, Br, I, Cl, Sc, Co, Fe, Cr, Zn, La, Sb and Sm were analyzed for both sampling site. Among those elements concerned, Na, Al, Br, Cl and Fe were major constituent elements in all fractions that have a concentration more than 40 ng.cm-3. Generally, the concentration of elements determined in the urban sampling site was higher than that in the rural site. Al, V, Mn, Sc, Co and Fe are relatively higher in concentration in coarse fraction of urban site. Br element concentration was not significantly different for both sampling site. The EF values of most elements concerned are generally also higher for the fine fraction than

  17. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  18. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  19. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of IAEA research project, ''Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants'', a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentration in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and amoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. (author)

  20. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents' material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  1. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides

  2. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  3. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  4. Application of the INAA technique for elemental analysis of metallic biomaterials used in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cincu, Em [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Research and Development in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele, 407 Atomistilor Street, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania)], E-mail: cincue@nipne.ro; Craciun, L.; Manea-Grigore, Ioana; Cazan, I.L.; Manu, V. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Research and Development in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele, 407 Atomistilor Street, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Barbos, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Mioveni, 1Campului Street, P. O. Box 78, Bucharest 115400 (Romania); Cocis, A. [Dental Surgery Clinic PANA-DANIELA, Bucharest, 6 Intrarea Buzesti Street (Romania)

    2009-12-15

    The sensitive nuclear analytical technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied on several types of metallic biomaterials (Heraenium CE, Ventura Nibon, Wiron 99 and Ducinox which are currently used for restoration in the dental clinics) to study its performance in elemental analysis and identify eventual limitations. The investigation has been performed by two NAA Laboratories and aimed at getting an answer to the question on how the biomaterials compositions influence the patients' health over the course of time, taking into account the EC Directive 94/27/EC recommendations concerning Ni toxicity.

  5. Determination and Certification of Multielements in 6 Biological Reference Materials by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Food safety has been a problem of global concern. The insufficient availability of certificated reference materials (CRM) used for food analysis has resulted in a lack of internal quality control in food

  6. Determination of trace elements in bottled water in Greece by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four different bottled water brands sold in Greece in the winter of 2001-2002 were analyzed for a wide range of chemical elements, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The elements Na and Br were determined instrumentally (INAA), whereas the other metals and trace elements radiochemically (RNAA). The results indicated that the mean level of all the elements determined in the samples were well within the European Union (EU) directive on drinking water and accomplish the drinking water standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as well as of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  7. Research Activities involving Radioactivation Analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Triga Mark-II Research Reactor was installed at this institute in 1960, it was furnished with a pneumatic tube, a fume hood, and a laboratory bench for the purpose of developing the utilization of the research reactor in this country. This marked the commencement of research activity in radioactivation analysis in Korea. Since the output of the reactor was not sufficient enough to perform any sophisticated fundamental research work in nuclear science, radioactivation analysis was considered as one of the most promising means of utilising the reactor. Various requests for routine analysis of the trace elements contained in Korean mineral ores, archaeological materials, domestic industrial samples, native medicinal plants, and criminological samples had been filed at this institute. Fortunately, a well trained scientist and technician for the radioactivation work had been working at this division and hence these requests from the public had been well worked out to receive much recognition of scientists and engineers both in this country and overseas. A brief summary of the research work accomplished is presented in this paper and a brief outline of the routine analytical work is also described on the basis of local situations

  8. Use of NAA in geochemical and geobotanical prospecting for minerals. Part of a coordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of gold in plants has been used as an indicator in the prospecting for gold. For this purpose non-destructive neutron activation analytical methods have been developed. In the humid mild zone - where the process of weathering is of a kaolinitic character - there is practically no migration of gold, and consequently its increased content indicates the presence of a gold deposit

  9. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  10. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRI BRAHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  11. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  12. Solar active regions: a nonparametric statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pelt, J; Tuominen, I

    2009-01-01

    The sunspots and other solar activity indicators tend to cluster on the surface of the Sun.These clusters very often occur at certain longitudes that persist in time.It is of general interest to find new and simple ways to characterize the observed distributions of different indicators and their behaviour in time. In the present work we use Greenwich sunspot data to evaluate statistical but not totally coherent stability of sunspot distribution along latitudes as well as longitudes. The aim was to obtain information on the longitudinal distribution of the underlying spot-generating mechanism rather than on the distribution and migration of sunspots or sunspot groups on the solar surface. Therefore only sunspot groups were included in the analysis, and only the time of their first appearance was used. We use simple nonparametric approach to reveal sunspot migration patterns and their persistency. Our analysis shows that regions where spots are generated tend to rotate differentially as the spots and spot group...

  13. Exit reactor Thetis/Ghent (1967-2003). A recollection of its significant contribution to NAA and its leading role in the development of the k0-standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 36 years of operation, reactor Thetis at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences (Ghent University) was decommissioned in December 2003. On this occasion, a survey is presented of the characteristics and features of Thetis, which were opening the way to its significant contribution to NAA and its leading role in the development of the k0-standardization. A summary is given, including a few specific examples, of fundamental analytical developments and practical applications based on irradiations in the reactor Thetis. (author)

  14. Analysis of Uranium and Thorium in Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Fuel Cycle Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of analysis method for uranium and thorium in radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel cycle process have been carried out. The uranium and thorium analysis methods in the assessment are consist of Titrimetry, UV-VIS Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, HPLC, Polarography, Emission Spectrograph, XRF, AAS, Alpha Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry methods. From the assessment can be concluded that the analysis methods of uranium and thorium content in radioactive waste for low concentration level using UV-VIS Spectrometry is better than Titrimetry method. While for very low concentration level in part per billion (ppb) can be used by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Alpha Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry. Laser Fluorimetry is the best method of uranium analysis for very low concentration level. Alpha Spectrometry and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) methods for isotopic analysis are favourable in the precision and accuracy aspects. Comparison of the ICP-MS and Alpha Spectrometry methods shows that the both of methods have capability to determining of uranium and thorium isotopes content in the waste samples with results comparable very well, but the time of its analysis using ICP-MS method is faster than the Alpha Spectrometry, and also the cost of analysis for ICP-MS method is cheaper. NAA method can also be used to analyze the uranium and thorium isotopes, but this method needs the reactor facility and also the time of its analysis is very long. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  16. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  17. Neutron activation analyses and half-life measurements at the usgs triga reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert E.

    Neutron activation of materials followed by gamma spectroscopy using high-purity germanium detectors is an effective method for making measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives and for detecting trace amounts of elements present in materials. This research explores applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two parts. Part 1. High Precision Methods for Measuring Decay Half-Lives, Chapters 1 through 8 Part one develops research methods and data analysis techniques for making high precision measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives. The change in the electron capture half-life of 51Cr in pure chromium versus chromium mixed in a gold lattice structure is explored, and the 97Ru electron capture decay half-life are compared for ruthenium in a pure crystal versus ruthenium in a rutile oxide state, RuO2. In addition, the beta-minus decay half-life of 71mZn is measured and compared with new high precision findings. Density Functional Theory is used to explain the measured magnitude of changes in electron capture half-life from changes in the surrounding lattice electron configuration. Part 2. Debris Collection Nuclear Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility, Chapters 9 through 11 Part two explores the design and development of a solid debris collector for use as a diagnostic tool at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NAA measurements are performed on NIF post-shot debris collected on witness plates in the NIF chamber. In this application NAA is used to detect and quantify the amount of trace amounts of gold from the hohlraum and germanium from the pellet present in the debris collected after a NIF shot. The design of a solid debris collector based on material x-ray ablation properties is given, and calculations are done to predict performance and results for the collection and measurements of trace amounts of gold and germanium from dissociated hohlraum debris.

  18. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the μg g-1 levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  19. Activation analysis for the Ignitor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Ignitor experiment is to produce DT plasma regimes where ignition can take place. From the neutronics point of view, after a first period of machine set up and tuning in aneutronic operation, a second phase of 2.5 MeV neutron production with pure deuterium plasmas at increasing density is anticipated. After that, a transition phase to increasing percentage of tritium will be followed by several years of operations with 50% of tritium leading to short but intense 14-MeV neutron emission. To deal with the concerns due to the strong neutron emission, a detailed description of the actual Ignitor machine is implemented in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code to calculate the neutron fluxes in all machine components, taking in account the streaming through the ports. These fluxes are then used as input for the FISPACT-97 code for the analysis of the activation at the end of life and at intermediate times for safety assessment purposes. The resulting dose rate outside the device is also studied. The results point out that remote handling is needed for repair/maintenance of inner components following the DD operations, and that the access in the hall near the device could be restricted from the beginning of DT operations. The requirements on additional shield are discussed

  20. Study of provenance properties on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Si-long-kou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese ancient porcelain history has lasted about three thousands years from Shang Dynasty (1100∼1600 BC). A large amount of ancient porcelain sherds with accuracy provenance and ages were excavated from a lot of kiln sites in China. Archaeologists and ceramic experts have recognized and researched it with excavated stratum, utensil shape, body quality, glaze color and painting pattern. However, the appearance characteristic of some ancient porcelain manufactured in different kilns is similar. Therefore, it is still difficult to identify the provenance and ages of the samples excavated from some sites using traditional methods. Up, to now, many problems of Chinese ancient porcelain are confused for archaeologist and collecting experts. The elemental composition of ancient porcelain shows certain information of provenance and age. Especially, the sorts and contents of the elements in porcelain didn't change, so it is very useful to determine the provenance of ancient porcelain with elemental composition characteristics. Provenance characteristic is the important scientific information to identify ancient porcelain wares excavated from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln in Zhejiang Province of china have been analyzed with NAA in this paper. The provenance characteristic was compared with it of Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shan-Xi Province. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was been able identified. The porcelain body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference.

  1. Fuzzy cluster analysis on trace elements of Hangzhou Jiaotan Guan Porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty samples of South Song 'Jiaotan Guankiln' are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The 36 trace element contents in every sample are determined. This trace elements are analyzed by fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that the source of glaze raw material of South Song Guan porcelain is clearly different from that of the body raw material. For Guan kiln of South Song dynasty there was a very stable and lasting source of raw material of glaze and body. The archaeological problems are clarified. The glaze material and body material of modern Guan porcelain are different from those of the ancient Guan Porcelain

  2. Application of Data Mining methods in analysis of company's activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyurina Dina N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers expediency of application of Data Mining means along with traditional statistical methods of analysis of financial and economic activity of a company for revealing all possible factors that influence upon effectiveness of its functioning by means of solving clusterisation tasks. It shows main advantages of application of Data Mining means in analysis of company's activity. It offers an algorithm of conduction analysis of company's activity, which facilitates significant ...

  3. Neutron activation analysis for determination of selected trace elements responsible for immunity in foodstuffs and water in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V) in 28 types of Egyptian common foodstuffs as well as drinking and irrigation water samples were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The samples were collected from 74 sites over 13 governorates as well as the Nile river, wells and tap water in the regions of the Nile Delta, Sinai, the east and west desert, and north and south Egypt. These trace elements were chosen according to international references, which show the close relationship of their deficiencies to immunity-related diseases. Calculation values of daily uptake per capita were made with the results of analysis. The results, as calculated per 100 g dry weight, showed that some Egyptian foods are rich in Se including such fish (0.94 μg), sesame (0.88 μg), beef meat (0.48 μg), instant tea (0.42 μg), mushroom (0.34 μg) and eggs (0.3 μg), whereas the vegetables contained less than 0.3 μg. Also, soybean, cabbage, beef meat and eggs were rich in Zn (8.0, 3.0, 2.0, 2.0 mg, respectively). At the same time, vegetables and fruits can be considered major sources for Mg, Mo and V for Egyptians International Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). We calculated a notable shortage of Se and Zn in Egyptian meals, whereas Mg, Mo and V were present in large enough amounts to satisfy the RDA. Water analyses showed that drinking or irrigation water provided safe levels of trace elements in most of the governorates, except desert regions like Sinai especially in the case of Taba, Nuweiba, Dakhla and Paris oases in New Valley whose tap water offered little Se and Zn. Therefore, we conclude that supplementation of all Egyptian diets with Se and Zn is very important in preventing heart and immunity diseases especially for those who live in the desert and depend completely on well water for drinking and irrigation. Similar recommendations have-already been implemented in the USA, Finland and

  4. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  5. Study of gunshot residue by NAA and ESEM/EDX using several kinds of weapon and ammunition

    OpenAIRE

    M. Chohra; B. Beladel; L. Baba Ahmed; M. Mouzai; D. Akretche; A. Zeghdaoui; Mansouri, A; M.E.A. Benamar

    2015-01-01

    This work is realized in view to determine appropriate techniques for the revelation of mineral gun shoot residues. Picked up from the crime scene, these indicial traces are used as material proofs for helping and guiding judicial investigations. As achievement of this process, two (02) technics were employed for mineral gun shoot residues, namely; Neutron Activation Analysis, and scanning electron microscopy/EDX. Samples of metallic powder residue were realized after several shoots by differ...

  6. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  7. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  8. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  9. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳

    2014-01-01

    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  10. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  11. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  12. International conference activation analysis and its applications (ICAAA): abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International conference on the Activation Analysis and its Applications was hold in Beijing of China on October 15-19, 1990. It was organized and co-sponsored by Division of Activation Analysis and Radioanalysis, National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Nuclear Society, etc.. 159 pieces of Articles in the field were received in the conference, from many countries

  13. Trace Analysis of Ancient Gold Objects Using Radiochemical Neutron Activation

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A; Constantinescu, O; Badica, T; Popescu, I V; Besliu, C; Leahu, D; Olariu, Agata; Constantinescu, Mioara; Leahu, Doina

    1999-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been applied to investigate the microelements in gold samples with archaeological importance. Chemical separation has allowed the determination of traces of Ir, Os, Sb, Zn, Co, Fe, Ni. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the determination of Cu.

  14. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2000-08-01

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  15. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis

  16. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  17. Measurements of fluorine in contemporary urban Canadians: a comparison of the levels found in human bone using in vivo and ex vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasive in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the fluorine concentration in 35 people in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Measurement and precision data of this second generation NAA system were determined in 2013, and the results were compared with the performance of a first generation system used in a pilot study of 33 participants from the Hamilton area in 2008. Improvements in precision in line with those predicted by phantom studies were observed, but the use of fewer technicians during measurement seemed adversely to affect performance. We compared the levels of fluorine observed in people between the two studies and found them to be comparable. The average fluorine concentration in bone was found to be 3  ±  0.3 mg and 3.5  ±  0.4 mg F/g Ca for 2013 and 2008 measurements respectively. Ten people were measured in both studies; the observed average change in bone fluorine in this subgroup was consistent with that predicted by the observation of the relationship between bone fluorine and age in the wider group. In addition, we observed differences in the relationship between bone fluorine level and age between men and women, which may be attributable either to sex or gender differences. The rate of increase in fluorine content for men was found to be 0.096  ±  0.022 mg F/g Ca per year while the rate of increase for women was found to be slightly less than half that of men, 0.041  ±  0.017 mg F/g Ca per year. A discontinuity in the rate of increase in fluorine content with age was observed in women at around age 50. Bone fluorine content was significantly lower (p<0.01) in women age 50 to 59 than in women age 40 to 49, which we suggest may be attributable to bone metabolism changes associated with menopause. We also observed increased fluorine levels in tea drinkers as compared to non-tea drinkers, suggesting tea may be a significant source of exposure in Canada. The rate of increase in fluorine content

  18. Research activities at the TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental programme at the TRIGA Mainz covers a wide range of applications in different fields. Two of the four beam tubes are used for the development of fast and mainly continuous chemical separation procedures. These procedures are applied for the investigation of short-lived nuclides and for studies of the chemical behaviour of the heaviest elements. At the third beam tube an on-line mass-separator facility with a microwave-induced plasma as an ion source is installed. Very recently the fourth beam tube has been modified for the production of polarized neutrons by interaction with optically pumped 3He atoms. The other irradiation facilities are used for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of different samples, among them geological and environmental ones, tracer production for chemical investigations, neutron irradiations of rat brain tissue to explore the utility of 157Gd for cancer therapy and γ-ray irradiations for biological purposes. (author)

  19. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a ceramic vase

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Tzika, F.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) was applied to perform non-destructive elemental analysis of a ceramic vase. Appropriate neutron self-shielding and gamma ray detection efficiency calibration factors were derived using Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results of LSNAA were compared against Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) results and a satisfactory agreement between the two methods was observed. The ratio of derived concentrations between the two methods was within 0...

  20. Teaching-Learning Activity Modeling Based on Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungrog Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.

  1. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavono...

  2. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  3. Quantification of chlorine in zirconium oxide and biological samples by instrumental NAA utilizing PCF of Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently studies on chlorine contents in various samples are being pursued due to its corrosive nature. Chlorine present at trace level in various finished products as well as powder is used as a raw material for production of different types of zircaloys used as structural materials in nuclear technology. As a part of quality assurance program, it is necessary to quantify chlorine accurately with suitable and simple technique. In the present work we have applied instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) utilizing its short-lived activation product (38Cl, 37 min, 1642 and 2168 keV) for its estimation. Pneumatic Carrier Facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor, BARC was used sample irradiation of zirconium oxide dry powder, synthetic wax and IAEA RMs 1515 (Apple leaves) and Lichen 336. (author)

  4. Insurer’s activity as object of economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Poplavskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of theoretical fundamentals of insurer’s analysis and peculiarities of its implementation. The attention has been focused on the important role of economic analysis in economic science which is confirmed by its active use in research and practical orientation. The author summarizes the classification and principles of insurer’s activity analysis, supplements it with specific principles for insurer’s environment, publicity and risk-orientation which enable increasingly to take into account the peculiarities of insurance relations. The paper pays attention to the specification of elements of analysis and its key directions including the analysis of insurer’s financing, the analysis of insurance operations and the analysis of investment activity which will allow the effective functioning of risk management system.

  5. Síntese de zeólita tipo NaA a partir de caulim para obtenção de zeólita 5A através de troca iônica Synthesis of NaA zeolites from kaolin for obtaining 5A zeolites through ion exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A síntese de zeólitas com o intuito de utilizá-las posteriormente como materiais adsorventes exige rigoroso controle das variáveis de processamento. Para cada tipo diferente de zeólita, existem variáveis de processo distintas para obtenção do tipo específico desejado. Neste trabalho os objetivos foram obter zeólita NaA partindo de caulim, para posteriormente obter zeólita 5A por meio de troca iônica com esta zeólita anteriormente sintetizada. Estas zeólitas, por sua vez, podem ser usadas como adsorventes altamente seletivos para adsorver, por exemplo, metais pesados de efluentes industriais. Os resultados obtidos foram satisfatórios, a metodologia utilizada mostrou-se eficiente. A partir do metacaulim comercial utilizado, obteve-se com sucesso zeólita tipo NaA, e por meio de trocas iônicas obteve-se zeólita 5A. A porcentagem de sódio trocada na zeólita final foi 61,4%.Zeolites synthesis as adsorbing materials requires accurate control of the variables. There are distinct process variables for obtaining specific desired types depending on each different kind of zeolite to be synthesized. This paper was aimed at obtaining NaA zeolites from kaolin in order to obtain zeolites A afterwards through ionic exchange with the previously synthesized zeolite. These zeolites can then be used as highly selective adsorbents to adsorb, for instance, heavy metals in industrial effluents. The results obtained were satisfactory, the methodology was efficient. From the commercial metakaolin used NaA zeolite was obtained successfully, and through ionic exchanges 5A zeolite was obtained. The exchangeable sodium percentage in the final zeolite was 61.4%.

  6. Introduction of Prompt Gamma Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xing-hua; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Gui-ying; YAO; Yong-gang; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; HUA; Long; NI; Bang-fa

    2013-01-01

    CARR will provide with maximal neutron flux in Asia,the third of the world.By using the high quality neutron beam and the advanced international experience,Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis(PGNAA)facility will be setup at high level.PGNAA on CARR will promote the development of nuclear analysis technology and improve Chinese status in the nuclear analysis field.

  7. Study of some marine bivalves as the biomonitor candidates for environmental assessment of the Jianzhou Bay by NAA and AAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangPei-Qun; WangWen-Qi; 等

    1998-01-01

    Some kinds of marine bivalves were selected as the biomonitor candidates to study the possibility of the environmentalassessmentof the jiaozhou Bay with biomonitors.The contents of 29 elements in bivalve samples were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry.It is found that clam is a suitable kind of marine bivalves as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental quality of the Jiaozhou Bay.the environmental status of some sampling sites in this marine area wastentatively assessed by the biomonitors of calm and mussel.

  8. Study into the accuracy of a remote-controlled system for multielement determination in foodstuffs using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More accurate information on the trace element composition of foodstuffs is important in the field of nutrition. An appropriate approach to this problem is the application of neutron activation analysis for simultaneous multielement determination using high resolution gamma spectrometry. A system has been developed permitting determination of at least 28 elements, utilizing remote controlled radiochemical processing of irradiated biological samples. The reliability of the method has been ascertained by participation in inter-laboratory comparisons organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Results for multielement determinations are given for potatoes (peeled), milk powder, fish solubles and algae

  9. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Souza Libanio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  10. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  11. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven;

    2003-01-01

    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel Ac...

  12. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PODLASIE PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kisło; Iwona Skoczko

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability crit...

  13. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  14. Effects of IAA and NAA on germination of white clover%IAA、NAA对白三叶种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽芳; 朱永友; 王义彰

    2000-01-01

    用吲哚乙酸、萘乙酸对白三叶种子进行了发芽试验。结果表明,用20 mg/L的吲哚乙酸和2mg/L的萘乙酸处理,不仅可提高白三叶种子的发芽率,而且可促进种子早期萌发及胚根胚芽生长,有利于在短时间内快速成坪。但吲哚乙酸易被破坏,故使用萘乙酸效果最佳。%The rate of seed germination of white clover could be increased, and the growth of roots and shoots could be promoted by both IAA(20 mg/L) and NAA(2 mg/L). Because the IAA was easy to be destroyed, the NAA was the first choice.

  15. A Novel Seeding Method of Interfacial Polymerization-Assisted Dip Coating for the Preparation of Zeolite NaA Membranes on Ceramic Hollow Fiber Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Ming; Xu, Zhen-Liang; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Xue, Shuang-Mei

    2016-09-28

    A novel seeding method combining interfacial polymerization (IP) technique with dip-coating operation was designed for directly coating nanosized NaA seed crystals (150 nm) onto the micrometer-sized α-Al2O3 hollow fiber support, in which the polyamide (PA) produced by IP acted as an effective medium to freeze and fix seed crystals at the proper position so that the controlled seed layer could be accomplished. While a coating suspension with only 0.5 wt % seed content was used, a very thin seed layer with high quality and good adhesion was achieved through dip coating twice without drying between, and the whole seeding process was operated at ambient conditions. The resulting zeolite NaA membranes not only exhibited high pervaporation (PV) performance with an average separation factor above 10000 and flux nearly 9.0 kg/m(2)·h in dehydration of 90 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 348 K but also demonstrated great reproducibility by testing more than eight batches of zeolite membranes. In addition, this seeding strategy could be readily extended to the preparation of other supported zeolite membranes for a wide range of separation applications.

  16. Rapid radiochemical separations in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid radiochemical separation procedures based on the removal of metal ions by columns of C18-bonded silica gel after selective complexation are examined and the simplicity of the method demonstrated by its application to the determination of Mn, Cu and Zn in neutron-activated biological material. The method is rapid and reliable and readily adaptable in all radiochemical laboratories. An alternative separation procedure for selenium in blood plasma involving desalination and concentration of the selenium protein complex by gel filtration or ultrafiltration is briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  18. A statistical analysis of electrical cerebral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the statistical properties of the amplitude of the electroencephalographic signal. The experimental method is described (implantation of electrodes, acquisition and treatment of data). The program of the mathematical analysis is given (calculation of probability density functions, study of stationarity) and the validity of the tests discussed. The results concerned ten rabbits. Trips of EEG were sampled during 40 s. with very short intervals (500 μs). The probability density functions established for different brain structures (especially the dorsal hippocampus) and areas, were compared during sleep, arousal and visual stimulus. Using a Χ2 test, it was found that the Gaussian distribution assumption was rejected in 96.7 per cent of the cases. For a given physiological state, there was no mathematical reason to reject the assumption of stationarity (in 96 per cent of the cases). (author)

  19. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  20. SYNTHESIS OF NaA ZEOLITE MEMBRANE FROM CLEAR SOLUTION AND ITS GAS PERMEATION PROPERTIES%澄清溶液中NaA型分子筛膜的合成及气体渗透性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓春; 刘杰; 朱兵; 房廉清; 杨维慎; 熊国兴; 林励吾

    1999-01-01

    @@ The use of zeolite membranes in separation or combined reaction and separation processes is very attractive. Advantages of using such a type of membranes include their ability to discriminate molecules based on the molecular size and their stability[1]. In the past ten years, most efforts were involved in the synthesis and permeation studies of MFI zeolite membrane[2, 3]. Recently, NaA zeolite membrane has attracted much attention because of its high potential in the dehydration of organic liquids[4]. However, few gas permeation results were reported[5]. Furthermore, most of the NaA zeolite membrane was synthesized from gel[4]. In this letter, the synthesis of NaA zeolite membrane from clear solution and its gas permeation properties are reported.

  1. 6-BA和NAA对无花果组织培养的影响%Effect of 6-BA and NAA Fig on the Tissue Culture of Ficus carica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪春艳; 薛朝阳; 王詝

    2009-01-01

    采用常规组织培养方法取无花果幼嫩枝条为外植体进行快繁研究.结果表明:MS+6-BA 1.0~1.2 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L和MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.05 mg/L为愈伤组织和芽分化的最适宜培养基;1/2 Ms+NAA 0.3 mg/L为适宜生根培养培养基,生根率达95%以上.

  2. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author)

  3. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  4. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PODLASIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kisło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability criterion, which is distinguished by inexhaustible and exhaustible resources. Exhaustible resources may include solar, wind, energy, ocean currents and the energy of the Earth. Exhaustible resources, however, are the elements of nature that as a result of the operation can be completely depleted or destroyed. These resources include: water, soil, plant world, animal world natural resources. The greater the intensity of acquiring human resources, the faster will be the depleted. There is also a very important division of exhaustible resources: non-renewable resources, renewable and very difficult reproducible (living areas. Non-renewable resources are mainly minerals, such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, sulfur, natural gas, useful stones, limestone, salt, and many other minerals. After extraction resources are processed, and the bed from which they were extracted can no longer be used. It is different from renewable resources; they are characterized by the fact that over time they are reconstituted, although, for this to happen balance of the environment through the rational use must be maintained. These resources include, among others, soil, water, flora and fauna, as well as atmospheric air.

  5. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v). PMID:24792543

  6. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  7. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  8. Performance analysis of active schedules in identical parallel machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changjun WANG; Yugeng XI

    2007-01-01

    Active schedule is one of the most basic and popular concepts in production scheduling research. For identical parallel machine scheduling with jobs' dynamic arrivals, the tight performance bounds of active schedules under the measurement of four popular objectives are respectively given in this paper. Similar analysis method and conclusions can be generalized to static identical parallel machine and single machine scheduling problem.

  9. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  10. Intercomparison and certification of some Chinese and international food and biological matrix CRMs for several uncertified ultratrace elements by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used for determinations of 8 rare elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in two Chinese CRMs, GBW 08503 (wheat) and GBW 09101 (hair), and Cs, Sr, Th and U in five NIST SRMs, 1548 (Total Diet), 1486 (Bone Meal), 8414 (Bovine Muscle), 1566a (Oyster Powder ) and 1575 (Pine Needles). These determinations are for eventual certification of above ultratrace elements so far not certified. The radiochemical separation scheme used in RNAA of NIST SRMs is an anion exchange followed by the coprecipitation by (REE)F3 for U and Th, and SrSo4 precipitation for Sr and Cs. For RNAA of the two Chinese CRMs, a one step (REE)F3 precipitation was used. Chemical yields were determined for all relevant elements by tracer experiments. All these materials were also analyzed by ICPMS, that offered an opportunity to compare the two major trace analytical techniques on their merits and drawbacks for these particular cases. RNAA is proven to be one of the important techniques in ultratrace analysis, especially in certification of some ultratrace elements. Determination of elements in sub-ng/g level is still an area to be further investigated because: (1) some such elements are important in food and health related environmental studies, (2) many of these elements have no (or very few) certified values in existing biological CRMs, (3) reliable techniques qualified for ultratrace analysis are needed to be established, and (4) sampling behavior of elements at these levels is still not very well known (recommended minimum sample size may not be adequate). (author)

  11. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in selected region

    OpenAIRE

    Helcl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis on the topic "Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in the region," focuses on the forms of spending free time in the selected region. The theoretical part deals with the study of scientific publications focusing on leisure and leisure education. The economic concepts are examined to define the work, factors affecting leisure adults and content of leisure activities and leisure educational activities. The legal system of the Czech Republic defining the possibilities of a...

  13. Fuzzy cluster analysis of the provenance of ancient Yaozhou porcelain body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the sample of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. Then a fuzzy cluster analysis has been conducted to the NAA data and a diagram of the dynamic fuzzy cluster analysis has been achieved. The results indicate that the batch of ancient Yaozhou porcelain bodies, which were of different overglaze color and were produced by different kilns during a period of over 800 years from the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) to the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.), has shared a stable and concentrated raw material source. Provenances of porcelain bodies from different times, though having their specific independence, enjoy a close relationship and are not far from one another. Provenances of porcelain bodies made during the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) are found to be closer to one another, while those of the Song (960-1279 A.D.) and the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 A.D.) are comparatively concentrated in certain areas and are different from those of the Tang Dynasty. Both the tri-colored glazed pottery made in Yaozhou kilns during the Tang Dynasty and the Yaozhou porcelain bodies of the Tang period are from the same provenance.

  14. Provenance Study of the Terracotta Army of Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum by Fuzzy Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongwu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 20 samples and 44 samples of terracotta warriors and horses from the 1st and 3rd pits of Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clay near Qin’s Mausoleum, and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies are obtained to determine the contents of 32 elements in each of them by neutron activation analysis (NAA. The NAA data are further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the fuzzy cluster trend diagram. The analysis shows that the origins of the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses from 1st and 3rd pits are not exactly the same but are closely related to the loam soil layer near Qin’s Mausoleum while distant from the loess layers in the same area and remotely related to the Yaozhou porcelain bodies. It can be concluded that the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from certain loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum and the kiln sites might be located nearby.

  15. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Sumitra, Tatchai [Chulalongkorn Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  16. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  17. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  18. Characterization of typical irradiation channels of CNESTEN's TRIGA MARK II reactor (Rabat, Morocco) using NAA k0-Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the use of neutron activation analysis using k0-standardization method to characterize some typical irradiation channels of the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The two parameters of neutron flux in the selected irradiation channels used for elemental concentration calculation, f (thermal-to-epithermal ratio) and α (deviation from the 1/E distribution), have been determined as well in the pneumatic tube (PT) as in the carousel facility (CR1) using a set of Al (99.9%), Au (0.l %), Zn (99.99%) and Zr (99.8%) monitors. Results obtained for f and α in two irradiation channels show that f parameter determined in this way is different in the carousel facility (CRl) and the PT channel. This can be explained by the fact that the CR1 channel is situated in a graphite reflector and is relatively far from the reactor core, while the PT is in the core. Parameter α in the CR1 has a positive value, as expected, indicating that the neut ron spectrum is relatively well thermalized. Parameter α in the PT has a negative value, which is very small and can not significantly influence the final result obtained by k0-method. The method in our laboratory is validated by analyzing the elemental concentrations of the IAEA Standard Reference Material (Soil-7). All calculations were performed using Kay Win Software.

  19. Determination of elements in blood of golden hamster by NAA; Determinacao de elementos em sangue de hamster dourado usando AAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo Oliveira de

    2009-07-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of golden hamster. The normal range for Br, Ca, Cl K, Mg, Na and S considering 2 {sigma} (Two Standard deviations) was 0.011 0.047 gL{sup -1} (Br); 0.11 0.35 gL{sup -1} (Ca); 2.11 3.75 gL{sup -1} (Cl); 1.35 2.79 gL{sup -1} (K), 0.026 0.090 gL{sup -1} (Mg), 1.03 2.51 gL{sup -1} (Na) e 0.97 2.01 gL{sup -1} (S). The knowledge of these limits became possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood. The comparison with the results from human being whole blood estimation (Hamster and human) became possible to check the similarities or physiologic differences, an important data for animal experimentation. (author)

  20. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  1. A package for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M E Medhat; A Abdel-Hafiez; Z Awaad; M A Ali

    2005-08-01

    A package for gamma spectrum analysis (PGSA) was developed using object oriented Borland C++ design for MS-windows. This package consists of five programs which can be used for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis. The advantages of PGSA are its simple algorithms and its need for only minimum amount of input information.

  2. Analysis of nuclear activity of ten polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas-Lemes, P; Dors, O L; Faúndez-Abans, M

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of mass from the interaction process that forms the polar ring galaxies is a factor that favors the conditions necessary to trigger nonthermal nuclear activities.. This fact encouraged the chemical analysis of ten polar ring galaxies. In order to verify the presence of an active nucleus in these galaxias, we built diagnostic diagrams using lines H{\\beta}, [OIII], [HI], H{\\alpha}, [NII], and [SII] and classified the type of nuclear activity. For galaxies that do not show shock, the parameters N2 and O3N2 were also determined. From this sample, we identified seven galaxies with an active nucleus and three that behave as HII regions. One galaxy with an active nucleus was classified as Seyfert. Although our data do not provide a statistically significant sample, we can speculate that polar ring galaxies are a setting conducive to trigger non-thermal nuclear activities.

  3. Status Report on the Neutron Activation Analysis Activities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippines has a one megawatt open-pool type nuclear research reactor which is presently utilized in the conduct of nuclear research and development activities. The reactor is operated by the Philippine Atomic Research Center, the research arm of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The reactor is presently utilized in the production of some radioisotopes, nuclear physics experiments and neutron activation analysis. For activation analysis the facilities available include the two 2 inch pneumatic tubes and a 2-inch central core dry-pipe. Although the reactor has been operative since 1963 it was only in the latter part of 1966 that a neutron activation analysis group was organized and almost immediately the training of personnel and setting up of a radiochemical laboratory and nucleonic counting assembly were initiated. Today, the counting system include a 100 channel analyzer with a 3 x 3 inch Nal(Tl) crystal

  4. Survey on Neutron Activation Analysis Activities at the Dalat Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Centre (D.N.R.C.) during the past few years has been involved in conducting an activation analysis service. Work has been carried out in collaboration with other organizations. However, no rigid research programme of our own has been established and thus the Radiochemistry Division of the D.N.R.C. has no personnel and special facilities permanently engaged in this field. The equipment and facilities used are shared with other activities within the Division and the whole Centre. The activities in neutron activation analysis at the D.N.R.C. are sporadically revived by requests for analysis. Up to now, such analyses have been performed free of charge. Most of the work was carried out on biological materials such as vegetables, raw natural rubber (RES smoked sheets of different qualities, crepes and dried rubber films obtained from concentrated natural latex) from hevea tree leaves from various clones

  5. Performance Analysis for Dispensing Mechanism of Active Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The dispensing mechanism of active code is a key technology in an active network. Conventional capsule and programmable switch approaches have their own shortcomings. The DCCAN(distributed code caching for active network) mechanism presented in this paper overcomes these shortcomings. In this paper, capsule and programmable switch approaches are introduced, and their shortcomings are analyzed. The principle of the DCCAN mechanism is described. The theory analysis in transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism and capsule approach are described. The theory analysis shows that the DCCAN mechanism has many good characteristics and can improve the efficiency of an active network. Key factors which affect the transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism are discussed. The using condition of the DCCAN mechanism is also discussed.

  6. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  7. Neutron Activation Analysis for investigation of elemental composition of Amarantus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied for the characterization of the elemental composition of Amaranthus seeds, known in the prehistorical period, a tropical plant with promising nutritional and economic value. The characterization is enriched by the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for cobalt, molybdenum and uranium content. The comparison of the results, for three sorts of edible flour, commercially available: Soya Flour, Corn Bean Flour and Amaranthus Flour, is presented. The validation of the analytical methods used was carried out on the basis of participation in the interlaboratory comparison organized by the INCT (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) and by NIST (SRM 1575a). (author)

  8. Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing a better understanding of xenon transport through porous systems is critical to predicting how this gas will enter the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System. This work details the development of prompt gamma activation analysis for measuring the diffusion rates of xenon and argon gases through a porous medium. The University of Texas at Austin maintains a prompt gamma activation analysis facility with a peak neutron flux of ∼ 1.5 x 107 cm-2 s-1 and a beam diameter of 1 cm. Due to the relatively large prompt gamma cross sections of many stable xenon isotopes at thermal and sub-thermal neutron energies, prompt gamma activation analysis is a suitable technique for in situ non-destructive analysis of natural xenon. A test chamber has been designed and constructed to utilize prompt gamma activation analysis to measure xenon and argon diffusion through geological materials (e.g., sand, soil, etc.). Initial experiments have been conducted to determine the detection limits for stable gas measurements. The results from these experiments will be utilized to benchmark parts of a xenon transport model that is being used to determine diffusion coefficients for xenon and argon. (author)

  9. The influence of human physical activity and contaminated clothing type on particle resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, A; Byrne, M A

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to experimentally quantify the influence of three variables on the level of resuspension of hazardous aerosol particles from clothing. Variables investigated include physical activity level (two levels, low and high), surface type (four different clothing material types), and time i.e. the rate at which particles resuspend. A mixture of three monodisperse tracer-labelled powders, with median diameters of 3, 5, and 10 microns, was used to "contaminate" the samples, and the resuspended particles were analysed in real-time using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and also by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The overall finding was that physical activity resulted in up to 67% of the contamination deposited on clothing being resuspended back into the air. A detailed examination of the influence of physical activity level on resuspension, from NAA, revealed that the average resuspended fraction (RF) of particles at low physical activity was 28 ± 8%, and at high physical activity was 30 ± 7%, while the APS data revealed a tenfold increase in the cumulative mass of airborne particles during high physical activity in comparison to that during low physical activity. The results also suggest that it is not the contaminated clothing's fibre type which influences particle resuspension, but the material's weave pattern (and hence the material's surface texture). Investigation of the time variation in resuspended particle concentrations indicated that the data were separable into two distinct regimes: the first (occurring within the first 1.5 min) having a high, positive rate of change of airborne particle concentration relative to the second regime. The second regime revealed a slower rate of change of particle concentration and remained relatively unchanged for the remainder of each resuspension event.

  10. DNQAA program to be used in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of the analysed elements were calculated by the program, based on the instrumental technique of analysis by activation. The DNQAA corrects due to the radioactive decay and to the neutron flow variation or carried particles and too the error propagation involved in the analysis. It is written in ORACL to be used in the ORTEC 6240-42 system. (L.M.J.)

  11. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  12. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Isolability of faults is a key issue in fault diagnosis whether the aim is maintenance or active fault-tolerant control. It is often encountered that while faults are detectable, they are only group-wise isolable from a usual diagnostic point of view. However, active injection of test signals on...... system inputs can considerably enhance fault isolability. This paper investigates this possibility of active fault isolation from a structural point of view. While such extension of the structural analysis approach was suggested earlier, algorithms and case studies were needed to explore this theory. The...

  13. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.;

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...

  14. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A;

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  15. IN VITRO ANALYSIS OF MIGRATION ACTIVITY OF ENCEPHALYTOGENIC T CEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in an adoptive transfer model is caused by injecting animal with activated T cells specific for a CNS antigen, e.g., basic myelin protein. Development of autimmune inflammation in such a model is connected with changed functional stateof encephalytogenic (EG T cells in the coure of disease progression, as reflected by changes in their activation, proliferation and motility levels. Present work describes an original technique allowing for in vitro analysis of encephalytogenic T cell motility, and studying effects of certain compomemts of extracellular matrix upon migration and functional activities of EG T cells.

  16. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  17. Nondestructive multielemental analysis of ancient roman pottery using photon activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several analytical methods were tested for the multiparameter-analysis of ancient roman pottery in order to elaborate a procedure for their identification. Main constituents, minor and trace-elements have been analyzed by high-energy photon activation analysis, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The environmental influence on the concentrations of the minor constituents and trace elements during deposition of the sherds in the soil has been examined. A comparison has been made between analysis data of ancient pottery obtained by photon activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. Tables are given on the time dependence of the trace elements. The numerical data are summarized in several diagrams. (T.G.)

  18. Analysis by Neutron activation of the Calakmul jadeite mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to know the elemental composition of archaeological materials with the purpose to find relations that allow to establish their origin standards. the origin and present localization of pre hispanic archaeological pieces can lead to the determination of commercial routes and of technology transfer among different ancient cultures. In the present work it has been realized a systematic analysis using the Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique of three samples obtained from Calakmul jadeite mask, tomb I, that in addition to give a composition of constituent and trace elements detected by this technique it has leaded to establish an applicable methodology to the routine analysis of ceramics of historical interest. (Author)

  19. Statistical analysis of acoustic wave parameters near active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, M Cristina Rabello; Scherrer, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyse the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call `nearby regions'), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disc locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring diagram analysis of all active regions observed by HMI during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhancement (the `acoustic halo effect') is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes...

  20. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  1. Application of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Park, Kwang Won; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This technical report is written for the promotion to utilization of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis facility to be installed in HANARO reactor. It is described for a practical aspects including experiment and equipments, methodology, current status of the research and development and its applications. 102 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  2. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ayurvedic medicines: Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Vinchurkar, M.S. (Poona Univ., Pune (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-12-01

    Several medicines have been manufactured and prescribed to overcome mineral deficiencies in the human body. Such medicines are mixtures of several components. The present work is undertaken to analyze various Ayurvedic medicines, mainly of herbal origin and used for different purposes, for their elemental contents, by neutron activation analysis. (author).

  4. Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from the sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses samples from 74 factories were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The concentration values of the 35 elements was determined. The toxicity and the influence of the presence of theses elements in sugar loss in the molasses and fermentative process is discussed

  5. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  6. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rashed-Al-Mahfuz; Md. Rabiul Islam; Keikichi Hirose; Md. Khademul Islam Molla

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  7. Analysis of Some Egyptian Cosmetic Samples by Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Medhat, M E; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2001-01-01

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. In our work, the concentration of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe, were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CASIA OCCIDENTALIS (L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkanna Lunavath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of using natural products has increased and the active plant extracts are frequently screened for new drug discoveries. The present study deals with the screening of Casia occidentalis leaves for their antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria. Plant Cassia occidentalis belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae, is a diffuse offensively odorous under shrub. Casia occidentalis were shade dried, powered and was extracted using solvents Methanol. The antimicrobial activity test performed by the disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts fractions of HXF, CTF, CFF and AQF showed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, phytosterols, fixed oils and phenolic compounds. The AQF fraction of C. occidentalis showed high activity across pseudomonas aeuruginosa and staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of Casia occidentalis leaves in the treatment of various diseases caused by micro-organisms.

  9. Recent developments in environmental research using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies of the origin and fates of trace elements, it is advantageous to be able to analyze samples for a wide spectrum of elements with a high sensitivity and accuracy. This condition is best satisfied with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), since it is one of the most sensitive, selective, and reliable multielement analysis techniques available. In spite of these advantages in environmental studies, use of the technique has been generally limited to aerosol and source material analysis. Over the last few years, the trace analysis and radiochemistry group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Nuclear Reactor Laboratory has applied INAA to various environmental samples for methodology development and/or to provide more information on some important environmental processes. Some examples of these studies are provided in this paper

  10. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of optogenetic modulation of neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Gu, L.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    Here, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether optogenetically activated neuronal firing recordings could be characterized as multifractal series. Optogenetics is emerging as a valuable experimental tool and a promising approach for studying a variety of neurological disorders in animal models. The spiking patterns from cortical region of the brain of optogenetically-stimulated transgenic mice were analyzed using a sophisticated fluctuation analysis method known as multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). We observed that the optogenetically-stimulated neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process. Further, we used MFDFA to monitor the effect of chemically induced pain (formalin injection) and optogenetic treatment used to relieve the pain. In this case, dramatic changes in parameters characterizing a multifractal series were observed. Both the generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum effectively differentiates the neural activities during control and pain induction phases. The quantitative nature of the analysis equips us with better measures to quantify pain. Further, it provided a measure for effectiveness of the optogenetic stimulation in inhibiting pain. MFDFA-analysis of spiking data from other deep regions of the brain also turned out to be multifractal in nature, with subtle differences in the parameters during pain-induction by formalin injection and inhibition by optogenetic stimulation. Characterization of neuronal firing patterns using MFDFA will lead to better understanding of neuronal response to optogenetic activation and overall circuitry involved in the process.

  11. Development and validation of I-activation analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-Activation Analysis Code (IAAC) is a nuclear depletion code which solves coupled Bateman equations for radioactive-transmutation and growth-decay system for large numbers of isotopes to get time evolution of decay products and nuclear activity. It is currently being developed primarily for neutron activation and radiation waste analysis, as a part of the code development activities. The code functions by separating long and short-lived isotopes and then uses the well-known matrix exponential method to quickly solve a large system of coupled, linear, first-order ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients for long-lived isotopes. This method allows a faster treatment of complex decay and transmutation schemes. The short-lived isotopes are solved using approximated decay-chain method. FENDL 3.0 neutron activation files are used for data library. Separate set of code modules are designed to read, decode, convert and condense the continuous-energy ACE formatted data into 175 VITAMIN-J energy groups. The new compiled library that includes half-lives and neutron absorption cross sections is then used as input source for nuclear data. The code is readily suitable for calculations pertaining to nuclear transmutation, activation and decay studies in mainly fusion applications and activation analyses. Details of the code and its primary validation performed for various test cases and material compositions, largely related to current ITER project specific neutronic and radiation analyses will be presented. The nuclear activity calculations are validated against FISPACT, available under EASY code system. (author)

  12. Aspects of precision and accuracy in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical results without systematic errors and with accurately known random errors are normally distributed around their true values. Such results may be produced by means of neutron activation analysis both with and without radiochemical separation. When all sources of random variation are known a priori, their effect may be combined with the Poisson statistics characteristic of the counting process, and the standard deviation of a single analytical result may be estimated. The various steps of a complete neutron activation analytical procedure are therefore studied in detail with respect to determining their contribution to the overall variability of the final result. Verification of the estimated standard deviation is carried out by demonstrating the absence of significant unknown random errors through analysing, in replicate, samples covering the range of concentrations and matrices anticipated in actual use. Agreement between the estimated and the observed variability of replicate results is then tested by a simple statistic T based on the chi-square distribution. It is found that results from neutron activation analysis on biological samples can be brought into statistical control. In routine application of methods in statistical control the same statistical test may be used for quality control when some of the actual samples are analysed in duplicate. This analysis of precision serves to detect unknown or unexpected sources of variation of the analytical results, and both random and systematic errors have been discovered in practical trace element investigations in different areas of research. Particularly, at the ultratrace level of concentration where there are few or no standard reference materials for ascertaining the accuracy of results, the proposed quality control based on the analysis of precision combined with neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation, with an a priori precision independent of the level of concentration, becomes a

  13. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  14. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  15. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program

  16. k0-NAA中子活化分析方法在HANARO研究堆NAA3号辐照孔道的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Sam Chung; Ho Manh Dung; Jong Hwa Moon; Kwang Won Park; Hark Rho Kim; 邓才玉(译); 胡跃春(译); 海粟(校)

    2009-01-01

    韩国原子能研究院(KAERI)30MW的HANARO研究堆,其堆内中子活化分析辐照孔道NAA3号的热中子注量率为1.26×1014cm-2·s-1,可用作基于临界增殖系数%的中子活化分析(k0-NAA)。本工作的目的是:①通过确定该中子活化分析方法所需要的中子谱参数来描述NAA3号辐照孔道;②通过建立探测效率曲线来标定Y射线能谱仪系统;③通过分析6种认证参考物来评定k0-NAA中子活化分析方法的性能,其中3种为天然生物物料,另3种为环境物料。从获得的结果可以看出,对生物样品和环境样品采用k0-NAA方法,可以分别定量确定多达25或35种元素。已确定元素的实验值与认证值之间的偏差通常在12%以内,大部分考虑不确定度后实验值与认证参考值的估计偏差(u-score)值低于2。结果证明:HANARO研究堆上实施的k0-NAA中子活化分析方法适用于生物样品和环境样品的多元素分析,具有较高的分析精度,而且k0-NAA中子活化分析方法还可进一步获得实际应用。

  17. Teaching chemistry with neutron activation analysis at Dalhousie University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) has been operating since July 1976 and has proven to be an invaluable tool in many teaching programs. These reactors are inherently safe and are designed to serve teaching and research needs of the universities, research centers, hospitals, etc. Since the DUSR has been, from its inception, associated with the Trace Analysis Research Centre, which is the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Department of Chemistry, the main thrust of its use continues to be in the field of nuclear analytical chemistry. Both teaching and research programs involve trace element analysis by neutron activation

  18. Active Greens : An Analysis of the Determinants of Green Party Members' Activism in Environmental Movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; van Schuur, Wijbrandt

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates green party members' activism in the environmental movement and tests how a number of predictors, theoretically suggested in the past yet rarely empirically tested, can account for it. The authors' analysis is based on an extensive data set of members of 15 green parties in

  19. Some Applications of Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrang, Farshid

    2003-07-01

    illustrated how the activated water would propagate along that pipe. C) Combustion products. In order to investigate the oxidation in combustion products (deposits), the total amount of oxygen in the deposits collected from combustion chambers of a modern gasoline engine was measured, using cyclic fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). As a compartment, the organic compounds containing oxygen were identified using {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results of FNAA showed that the amount of oxygen in deposits varies depending on where the deposits have been formed. {sup 13}C NMR has showed that the carbon backbone of the deposits exists as highly oxidized poly aromatics and/or graphitic structure. D) On-line fast neutron activation analysis. On-line neutron activation analysis was used to detect the amount of oxygen in bulk liquids. The method was optimised for on-line detection of oxygen in rapeseed oil. The goal was to develop a non-intrusive method for measurement of the total amount of oxygen in oil during combustion/oxidation.

  20. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that