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Sample records for activation analysis naa

  1. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  2. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmer, W.E.; Schramel, P.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to its particular properties, the main field of application of NAA so far has been research. Its application for clinical routine examinations is limited to centres where dose cooperation between clinicians and analysts can be guaranteed. In the near future, in-vivo NAA and NAA coupled with enriched inactive isotopes will probably be used more frequently. (orig.) [de

  3. Workbook on reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) of airborne particulate matter (APM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2000-01-01

    This publication presents general aspects of reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to measurement of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter. It presents an introduction to the NAA, its' basic principles and brief history of the method and discusses its' advantages and disadvantages. This publication also presents experimental procedures of NAA including sampling and sample preparation; preparation of calibration standard samples; reactor neutron irradiation; gamma-spectroscopy of the irradiated samples; quantification and presentation of analytical results. The publication pays attention to the quality assurance and quality control procedures including internal quality control, analysis of certified reference materials, and interlaboratory and multi-method comparison studies, control charts

  4. Principles and methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in improved water resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dim, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    The methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as it applies to water resources exploration, exploitation and management has been reviewed and its capabilities demonstrated. NAA has been found to be superior and offer higher sensitivity to many other analytical techniques in analysis of water. The implications of chemical and element concentrations (water pollution and quality) determined in water on environmental impact assessment to aquatic life and human health are briefly highlighted

  5. Application of neuro-fuzzy model for neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafi, H.; Terman, M.S.; Rahmani, F.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a precise chemical multielemental method of analysis which is satisfactorily used for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Repeated irradiation is needed because of mal-determination of some elements due to peak overlap in qualitative analysis. In this study, NAA procedure has been modified using a neuro-fuzzy model to avoid repeated irradiation based on multilayer perceptrons network trained by the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. This method increases the precision of spectrum analysis in the case of strong background and peak overlap. (authors)

  6. The k0-based neutron activation analysis: a mono standard to standardless approach of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) uses neutron flux parameters, detection efficiency and nuclear constants namely k 0 and Q 0 for the determination of concentration of elements. Gold ( 197 Au) or any other element having suitable nuclear properties is used as external or internal single comparator. This article describes the principle of k 0 -NAA and standardization of method by characterization of reactor irradiation sites and calibration of efficiency of the detector and applications. The method was validated using CRMs obtained from USGS, IAEA and NIST. The applications of method includes samples like gemstones (ruby, beryl and emerald), sediments, manganese nodules and encrustations, cereals, and medicinal and edible leaves. Recently, a k-o-based internal mono standard INAA (IM-NAA) method using in-situ relative efficiency has been standardized by us for the analysis of small and large samples of different shapes and sizes. The method was applied to a new meteorite sample and large size wheat samples. Non-standard size and shape samples of nuclear cladding materials namely zircaloy 2 and 4, stainless steels (SS 316M and D9) and 1S aluminium were analysed. Standard-less analysis of these cladding materials was possible by mass balance approach since all the major and minor elements were amenable to NAA. (author)

  7. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-29

    Nov 29, 2017 ... measurement, sample is subjected to an excitation. ChemSearch Journal 8(2): ... elements and transformed to radioactive isotopes. Then the activated ... reference material IAEA – soil - 7 was used as the standard, while other ...

  8. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  9. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity

  10. Neutron activation analysis - NAA: studies of environmental pollution in Steel Valley region, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide R.V.; Queiroz, Marluce A.T.; Costa, Alex A., E-mail: mariavasc@unilestemg.b, E-mail: marluce.queiroz@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: alexaderson@ig.com.b [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UNILESTE-MG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Industrial; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Steel Valley region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, receives intense waste from anthropogenic activities: industries (steel, cellulose, ore mining); untreated domestic; sewage and agricultural discharges. This work presents results obtained from analysis of air quality (Ipatinga, Santana do Paraiso, Coronel Fabriciano Timoteo and Marlieria cities) and by the Piracicaba River (surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle - Acara (Geophagus Brasiliensis). Concentrations of Al, Mn, V, As, Br, K, La, Na, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th and Zn were determined for Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA. High concentrations were found in sediment and water (Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Al, Mn, V) and in fish muscle (As, Cr, Hg). Results were compared to the maximum limits for metal set by 357/2005 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA). Terrestrial epiphytic community samples have been used as biomonitor of air pollution. The samples were collected in trees Oiti (Licania tomentosa) and Angico (Piptadenia rigida), very common in studied region. The samples were collected in 17 points and two weather stations: January (rainy) and June (dried) of 2007. The results indicate high concentrations of the elements Al, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mg, Zn, V and Th when compared with the values cited in the literature. The biomonitor used in this work, terrestrial epiphytic community, showed an excellent capacity for metals retention by atmospheric contamination. (author)

  11. Determination of iodine in biological samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, P.V.; Karunakara, N.; Prabhu, Ujwal; Yashodhara, I.; Ravi, P.M.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, Nicy; Swain, K.K.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    During normal operating conditions of a nuclear reactor, the release of radionuclides to the environment will be extremely low and well within the limits. Radioiodine ( 131 I) is one of the radionuclides likely to get released into the atmosphere in case of a reactor accident. During the short initial phase of release of radioactivity, 131 I is rapidly transferred to milk, leading to significant thyroid dose to those consuming milk, especially infant and children. Hence, studies on Iodine transfer through grass-cow-milk is very important. Extensive studies on transfer for 131 I through grass-cow-milk pathway after Chernobyl accident has been reported. But, under normal operational conditions of the power reactor, 131 I is not present in measurable concentration in environmental matrices of a nuclear power generating station. Stable iodine is present in all environmental samples and from the concentration of stable iodine in grass and milk, one can estimate the transfer factor. The measurement of stable iodine in environmental sample is very challenging because of its extremely low concentration. Neutron activation analysis can be used for estimation of stable iodine in the environment after suitably optimizing the condition to minimize interferences. A method has been developed based on thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to estimate the iodine concentration present in grass and cow milk

  12. Study of bioavailability of Mn in soil manured with bio solids using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This work evaluated, using neutron activation analysis (NAA), the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus manured with bio solids. Manganese is an important micro nutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxy reduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. Its lack causes a decrease in photosynthesis, which reduces growth and productivity. In alkaline soils there is manganese deficiency. The critical level of Mn is 675 μg:g -1 , above this value manganese is toxic to the plant, but the bio solids applied had a concentration of 300 μg:g -1 , below the critical level. 16 samples were analyzed, and various elements were detected. But the interest in this work was to evaluate the behavior of Mn with increasing the amount of bio solids used as manure. Three different concentrations of bio solids: 10 kg:ha -1 ; 20 kg:ha -1 and 40 kg:ha -1 were applied. Alkaline bio solids provides an increase of the soil pH, which cause the reduction of the manganese availability. The bio solid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown into sanitary lands. The level of pH above 5.5 causes the Mn reduction. The values obtained showed this reduction of Mn phytoavailability with the bio solids increase. (author)

  13. Study of bioavailability of Mn in soil manured with bio solids using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima [Secretaria da Educacao do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Madi Filho, Tufic [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This work evaluated, using neutron activation analysis (NAA), the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus manured with bio solids. Manganese is an important micro nutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxy reduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. Its lack causes a decrease in photosynthesis, which reduces growth and productivity. In alkaline soils there is manganese deficiency. The critical level of Mn is 675 {mu}g:g{sup -1}, above this value manganese is toxic to the plant, but the bio solids applied had a concentration of 300 {mu}g:g{sup -1}, below the critical level. 16 samples were analyzed, and various elements were detected. But the interest in this work was to evaluate the behavior of Mn with increasing the amount of bio solids used as manure. Three different concentrations of bio solids: 10 kg:ha{sup -1}; 20 kg:ha{sup -1} and 40 kg:ha{sup -1} were applied. Alkaline bio solids provides an increase of the soil pH, which cause the reduction of the manganese availability. The bio solid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown into sanitary lands. The level of pH above 5.5 causes the Mn reduction. The values obtained showed this reduction of Mn phytoavailability with the bio solids increase. (author)

  14. Determination of rare earth contents in plant and soil by neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafka, B.; Lin, X.L.; Henkelmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The results presented are typical analytical results for Bavarian soils and plants. Plants and soils collected from identical sites are used to quantify the ratios of rare earth contents. This work has been in close cooperation with several governmental institutions, who are responsible for the protection and surveillance of agricultural sites and wooded areas. Routine sampling takes place on selected areas in the federal state of Bavaria, and the samples (soil and plants as wheat, corn or needles) are analysed with use of AAS, ICP-OES or ICP-MS techniques. INAA as an alternative method is in this context very interesting because it does not involve any sample pretreatment, prior to irradiation. It could be shown for chosen elements (K, Cr, Zn etc.), that incomplete digestion can lead to results which are remarkably lower than the total content in the sample. INAA also is an excellent technique to analyse rare earth elements. The advantage of analysing the original material, which only needs to be dried and homogenized, allows the determination of total values for most of the elements, independent of the chemical binding state of the atoms. Due to this reason, INAA is often called 'independent of matrix'. Only when the g-spectroscopy after activation is carried out, the main components may disturb the determination of trace elements. In soils, the matrix allows the pure instrumental determination of 9 rare earth elements (Ce, Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb). In plant material, the rare earth concentrations are much lower, so a chemical separation is needed in order to remove or reduce the main interferences like Na, K, Br etc. This combination of NAA with radiochemical separation is called Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) and allows to determine the same elements as in soils, except Dy

  15. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah [Division of Waste and Environmental Technology, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Nadiah Binti [Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, UiTM Pulau Pinang, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on ‘Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)’. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  16. Sample registration software for process automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia nuclear agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Yussup, Nolida; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Bt. Abdullah; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B.; Soh@Shaari, Syirrazie Bin Che; Azman, Azraf B.; Ismail, Nadiah Binti

    2015-04-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) had been established in Nuclear Malaysia since 1980s. Most of the procedures established were done manually including sample registration. The samples were recorded manually in a logbook and given ID number. Then all samples, standards, SRM and blank were recorded on the irradiation vial and several forms prior to irradiation. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel were time consuming and not efficient. Sample registration software is developed as part of IAEA/CRP project on `Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Facility in Malaysia Nuclear Agency (RC17399)'. The objective of the project is to create a pc-based data entry software during sample preparation stage. This is an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries that needs to be completed by laboratory personnel. The software developed will automatically generate sample code for each sample in one batch, create printable registration forms for administration purpose, and store selected parameters that will be passed to sample analysis program. The software is developed by using National Instruments Labview 8.6.

  17. Role of neutron activation analysis in metrology of modern inorganic trace analysis. Pt.3: NAA in characterization of sampling behavior for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Chen Xilin; Huang Donghui; Zhang Guiying; Zhang Lanzhi; Liu Cunxiong; Liu Likun

    2005-01-01

    The necessity of the development of new generation of certified reference materials (CEMs) and the role that NAA will play in the certification of those CRMs are discussed. In conclusion, the major role of NAA in the metrology of contemporary inorganic trace analysis is summarized: the international recognition of NAA as a primary ratio method will imply a major contribution to the improvement of CEMs: the concurrent use of k 0 -NAA will further strengthen the position of relative NAA as a primary ratio method; and NAA will play an irreplaceable role in the creation of new generation of CRMs, that will eventually lead the establishment of quality control system for microanalysis. (authors)

  18. NAA analysis of enriched Zn-68 by

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Mirzaei, M.; Mirzajani, N.; Sardari, D.; Shahabi, I.; Majedi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Excessive application of enriched isotopes in various fields of sciences and industry necessitates measuring their abundant by a precise and rapid methos. Beside the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the thermal neutron activation analysis, NAA, is an alternative method, which is capable to determine trace amounts of elements as well as the elemental abundance. In this article the enrichment of Zn-68 in two different samples has been studied by mean of NAA. One sample was separated by an electromagnetic system in our center and the other was purchased from a French company, Cortecnet. The neutron irradiation was took place in MNSR reactor by flux 10 1 1n/cm 2 sec. for 30 min. and the produced radioactivity from Zn-69 m was measured one day after irradiation by HPGe detector. The results shows a good agreement with the reported ones and its low derivation of about ±3.05 indicates that the NAA is a precise, rapid, and supplemental method for analyzing enriched Zn-68

  19. A comparative study of 232Th and 238U activity estimation in soil samples by gamma spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekha, A.K.; Anilkumar, S.; Narayani, K.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity in the environment is mainly due to the naturally occurring radionuclides like uranium, thorium with their daughter products and potassium. Even though Gamma spectrometry is the most commonly used non destructive method for the quantification of these naturally occurring radionuclides, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), a well established analytical technique, can also be used. But the NAA technique is a time consuming process and needs proper standards, proper sample preparation etc. In this paper, the 232 Th and 238 U activity estimated using gamma ray spectrometry and NAA technique are compared. In the case of direct gamma spectrometry method, the samples were analysed after sealing in a 250 ml container. Whereas for the NAA, about 300 mg of each sample, after irradiation were subjected to gamma spectrometry. The 238 U and 232 Th activities (in Bq/kg) in samples were estimated after the proper efficiency correction and were compared. The estimated activities by these two methods are in good agreement. The variation in 238 U and 232 Th activity values are within ± 15% which are acceptable for environmental samples

  20. Analysis of toxical element in the whitening cream cosmetic samples using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th Rina M; Sunarko

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been done to analyze of toxical elements that is not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. These samples have been randomly selected from the cosmetic market. The samples were irradiated at thermal neutron flux of 10"1"33n.cm"-"2s"-"1 in the irradiation facility of rabbit system in the RSG-GAS reactor Serpong. Counting of irradiated samples have been done by a high resolution HPGe detector couple to multichannel analyzer. Data have been analyzed by GENIE 2000. The sample have been qualitatively determined up to 19 elements. These elements are: As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Rb, Th, IV, and Zn. The result of qualitative analysis showed that the toxical elements present in the samples are Hg, As, Cr and Sb with the following concentration ranges in μg/g 25.2-65.1, 1.0-6.3, 30.5-89.1 and 2.9-5.3, respectively and these element not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. Besides that, the others elements have been detected in the samples are Br, Fe, Zn, Sc and Co, with concentration ranges, 13.1-36.4, 65.6-159.3, 0.79-77.1, 0.5-19.5, and 6.8-31.7 μg/g, respectively, in the sample whitening cream cosmetic. (author)

  1. Current status of research and related activities in NAA application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalik bin Haji Wood

    1999-01-01

    Current activities of Analytical Chemistry Group of MINT (Malaysia Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) laboratory for elemental analysis of trace amounts in environmental samples such as air particulate matter (on air filter), soils/sediments, water, flora/fauna, oil sludge/waste sludge, and tailing/blasting slag and others, utilizing particularly NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) method are reviewed. The laboratory participates in the IAEA-organized Interlaboratory Comparison Studies to ensure the analytical system. Other activities include analytical chemistry services with ICP-mass spectrometry and GC/GCMS to compliment the NAA and, moreover, air and marine pollution studies with participation in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (S. Ohno)

  2. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  3. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  4. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  5. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Marcelino, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  6. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, J.R. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  7. Elemental analysis by IBA and NAA — A critical comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, J. I. W.

    1988-12-01

    In this review neutron activation analysis (NAA) and ion beam analysis (IBA) have been compared in the context of the entire field of analytical science using the discipline of scientometrics, as developed by Braun and Lyon. This perspective on the relative achievements of the two methods is modified by considering and comparing their particular attributes and characteristics, particularly in relation to their differing degree of maturity. This assessment shows that NAA, as the more mature method, is the most widely applied nuclear technique, but the special capabilities of IBA give it the ability to provide information about surface composition and elemental distribution that is unique, while it is still relatively immature and it is not yet possible to define its ultimate role with any confidence.

  8. Improvements in an in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) method for the measurement of fluorine in human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Prestwich, W V

    2013-10-01

    We previously published a method for the in vivo measurement of bone fluoride using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and demonstrated the utility of the technique in a pilot study of environmentally exposed people. The method involved activation of the hand in an irradiation cavity at the McMaster University Accelerator Laboratory and acquisition of the resultant γ-ray signals in a '4π' NaI(Tl) detector array of nine detectors. In this paper we describe a series of improvements to the method. This was investigated via measurement of hand simulating phantoms doped with varying levels of fluorine and fixed amounts of sodium, chlorine and calcium. Four improvements to the technique were tested since our first publication. The previously published detection limit for phantom measurements using this system was 0.66 mg F/g Ca. The accelerator irradiation and detection facilities were relocated to a new section of the laboratory and one more detector was added to the detection system. This was found to reduce the detection limit (possibly because of better detection shielding and additional detector) to 0.59 mg F/g Ca, a factor of 1.12. A new set of phantoms was developed and in this work we show that they improved the minimum detectable limit for fluoride in phantoms irradiated using neutrons produced by 2.15 MeV protons on lithium by a factor of 1.55. We compared the detection limits previously obtained using a summed signal from the nine detectors with the detection limit obtained by acquiring the spectra in anticoincidence mode for reduction of the disturbing signal from chlorine in bone. This was found to improve the ratio of the detection of fluorine to chlorine (an interfering signal) by a factor of 2.8 and the resultant minimum detection limit was found to be reduced by a factor of 1.2. We studied the effects of changing the timing of γ-ray acquisition. Our previously published data used a series of three 10 s acquisitions followed by a 300 s count

  9. Improvements in an in vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) method for the measurement of fluorine in human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Prestwich, W V

    2013-01-01

    We previously published a method for the in vivo measurement of bone fluoride using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and demonstrated the utility of the technique in a pilot study of environmentally exposed people. The method involved activation of the hand in an irradiation cavity at the McMaster University Accelerator Laboratory and acquisition of the resultant γ-ray signals in a ‘4π’ NaI(Tl) detector array of nine detectors. In this paper we describe a series of improvements to the method. This was investigated via measurement of hand simulating phantoms doped with varying levels of fluorine and fixed amounts of sodium, chlorine and calcium. Four improvements to the technique were tested since our first publication. The previously published detection limit for phantom measurements using this system was 0.66 mg F/g Ca. The accelerator irradiation and detection facilities were relocated to a new section of the laboratory and one more detector was added to the detection system. This was found to reduce the detection limit (possibly because of better detection shielding and additional detector) to 0.59 mg F/g Ca, a factor of 1.12. A new set of phantoms was developed and in this work we show that they improved the minimum detectable limit for fluoride in phantoms irradiated using neutrons produced by 2.15 MeV protons on lithium by a factor of 1.55. We compared the detection limits previously obtained using a summed signal from the nine detectors with the detection limit obtained by acquiring the spectra in anticoincidence mode for reduction of the disturbing signal from chlorine in bone. This was found to improve the ratio of the detection of fluorine to chlorine (an interfering signal) by a factor of 2.8 and the resultant minimum detection limit was found to be reduced by a factor of 1.2. We studied the effects of changing the timing of γ-ray acquisition. Our previously published data used a series of three 10 s acquisitions followed by a 300 s count

  10. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, G; Dias, C S B; Foerster, B; Li, L M; Covolan, R J M

    2012-11-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  11. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B.; Foerster, B.; Li, L.M.; Covolan, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate

  12. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  13. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeggeler, H W [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  14. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  15. Determining the amount of Br, Na and K in six wheat samples with neutron activation analysis (NAA) method in Arak, I.R. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Pourimani; Khatoon Abasnejad; Khadijeh Ghanbarzadeh; Mohammad Reza Zare; Mahdi Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the trace elemental concentrations in wheat and its products is of great importance from a nutritional point of view. In this study, six wheat samples were prepared from the agriculture research center of Arak named Sardari, Amir, MV-17, Batava, Karaj-2 and Alvand; they were analyzed by neutron activation method (NAA). In this method, Isfahan miniature reactor as a neutron source and relative NAA method has been used as the analysis type. In this design in order to record gamma spectrum the MCA system and high purity germanium detector were used. Finally, the concentration of the trace elements such as Br, K and Na value was determined for the Sardari, Amir, Alvand, MV-17, Batava, Karaj-2 wheat samples. The average concentration of trace elements in all wheat samples in the studied area are 2.41(0.8597-6.1175) mg kg -1 for Br, 13.42(8.7063-24.696) mg kg -1 for Na and 463.30(434.22-505.45) mg kg -1 for K, respectively. These were compared with other reports results. This study has been conducted as the first time for this region. (author)

  16. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis - Development of the precise analysis method for plastic materials by the use of NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Sim, Sang Kwan; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The demand for inorganic analysis of plastics has significantly increased in the fields of microelectronic, environmental, nuclear and resource recycling. The difficulties of chemical analysis methods have led to the application of NAA which has great advantages of non-destructivity, freedom from blank, high sensitivity. The goal of the present work is to optimize and to develop the NAA procedures for the inorganic analysis of plastics. Even though NAA has unique advantages, it has two problems for plastics. One is the contamination by metallic utensils during sample treatment and the other is destruction of sample ampule due to pressure build-up by hydrogen and methane gas formed from oxyhydrogenation reaction with neutrons. For the first problem, large plastics were cut to pieces after immersion in liquid nitrogen. And the second problem has been solved by making an aperture on top side of sample ampule. These research results have been applied to analysis of various plastic materials which were used in food, drug containers and toys for children. Moreover, korean irradiation rabbit could be produced by the application of the results and standard reference materials of plastics which were used for the analysis in XRF and ICP could be produced. 36 refs., 6 figs., 37 tabs (Author)

  17. Uncertainty budget in internal monostandard NAA for small and large size samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Total uncertainty budget evaluation on determined concentration value is important under quality assurance programme. Concentration calculation in NAA or carried out by relative NAA and k0 based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method. IM-NAA method has been used for small and large sample analysis of clay potteries. An attempt was made to identify the uncertainty components in IM-NAA and uncertainty budget for La in both small and large size samples has been evaluated and compared. (author)

  18. Analysis of Cl and Na in Hyperimmune Sera by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, T. S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Marcelino, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Cl and Na concentration values in four types of hyperimmune sera (anti-Bothrops, anti-Diphtheria, anti-Rabies and anti-Tetanus) used for immunological therapy were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). These data were compatible with the specifications established by the Word Health Organization (WHO-OMS) and with the Brazilian Official Pharmacopea (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country). These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil), responsible for supplying the Brazilian market.

  19. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Castellano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s, followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s and another rest period (10 min and 40 s. MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  20. Basic study on neutron activation analysis measuring short-lived nuclides (half-lives 0.7 to 100 s) using JRR-3M NAA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-11-01

    Analytical basis for neutron activation analysis (NAA) measuring nuclides of second order half-life produced by (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron activation analysis facility of JRR-3M. Basic experimental conditions such as high count rate gamma-ray measurement, effects of irradiation capsule material and stability of neutron flux were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclides have half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, Hf, Dy and In were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, of which determination by other methods is difficult, can be detected in more than 530 ng. Determination of ppm levels of F in silicon nitride powder using a single and cyclic activation methods were performed. Accuracy and precision for F determination were verified by analyzing reference materials of Opal Glass (NIST SRM91) and Oyster Tissue (NIST SRM1566a). The relationship between the detection limit of F and Al contents was also clarified. Analytical applications of high sensitive elements such as Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials, were also examined and the accuracy, precision and detection limits of the present method were evaluated. (author)

  1. Multielement analysis of foods and related materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, W.C.; Anderson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents FDA's use of prompt- and delayed-gamma thermal neutron activation analysis (PGAA and INAA, respectively), collectively referred to here is NAA, for the analysis of foods. Several elements of nutritional or toxicological importance can be simultaneously determined at levels ranging from trace to percent. Concentrations of aluminum, boron, bromine, calcium, chlorine, hydrogen, potassium, magnesium, manganese, nitrogen, sodium, and sulfur can be determined in < 1 day in most foods. For INAA, after a few weeks of decay following irradiation, cobalt, cesium, iron, rubidium, scandium, and zinc can also be determined. Other elements that are detectable in only some food types include cadmium, chromium, copper, iodine, phosphorus, antimony, selenium, titanium, and vanadium

  2. Dust Full Study In The Surrounding Area Of A Cement Factory And Determination Of The Major Elements Of The Dust Fall Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslmani, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dust fall of the Tartous cement factory and the surrounding area at the Syrian coast were measured. The results show that the dust fall concentrations were higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard in the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 5 to 6 km in the diameter. The value of the dust fall at the Reference sites was abut 4.5 t/km 2 /month and in the surrounding area of the factory values reached between 18 and 120 t/km 2 /month. This means the values exceed the standard around 3 and 13 times. The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of cement dust showed a percentage of 27.5% ± 1.6 of calcium. By the presence of humidity calcium silicate occurs, which immediately dries and becomes a hard salt crust. Therefore in the regions near by the factory cement dust formed this kind of salt coat on the surface of the leaves. (Authors)

  3. The use of hogdahl convention k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) standardization method and atomic absortion spectroscopy (ASS) for determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiamadie, H.

    2008-06-01

    Copper, cadmium, tin, chromium, arsenic, antimony, vanadium and mercury contents were determined in various foodstuffs (Mussa paradisiaca (plantains), Manihot esculentus (cassavas), Vantosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam). Vantosoma sagittifolium leaves (kontomire), Lycopersicum esculentus (tomatoes), Capsicum species (peppers), Solanum melongena (garden eggs), Nbelmoschus esculentus (okro), and Colocasia esculenta (kooko or taro)) produced in the Wassa West District, Ghana. These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. These elements were determined using Hogdahl convention k 0 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Standardization Method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements in the various foodstuffs and their concentration ranges were Cu (16.87-180.06) mg/kg, As (2.68-9.84) µg/g, Cd (0.63-5.64) µg/g, Hg (0.01-67) ng/g, Cr (0.03-3.66) µg/g, Sb (1.1- 18.6) ng/g, Sn (3.4-58.4) ng/g, and V (12-99) ng/g. The study showed that there are high levels of toxic elements in the foodstuffs grown in the mining areas as compared to that of the non-mining area (i.e., control area). This could be attributed to gold mines pollution. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible levels of toxic elements in foods, Cu, Cr and Hg were above the permissible levels whereas the concentrations of As, Cd. Sb, Sn and V fall within the permissible levels. (au)

  4. Gamma spectrum analysis including NAA with SAMPO for Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Nikkinen, M.T.; Routti, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    SAMPO for Windows is a high performance gamma spectrum analysis program. All the measurement, analysis and NAA phases can be done either under full interactive use control or user defined tasks can be used for automated measurement and analysis sequences including control of MCAs and sample changers. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy together with the possibility to resolve complex multiplets with high accuracy makes SAMPO very suitable for INAA. On the other hand, the possibility to automate analysis sequences allows it use effectively also in all routine NAA measurements. NAA in SAMPO is accomplished using comparative methods. Spectra of standards, flux monitors, controls and actual samples are analyzed normally to obtain the peak areas which are optionally corrected for decay. In the comparison the flux monitor results are used to correct for variations in the effective neutron flux. An optional irradiation position correction can also be applied. The controls are used to alarm for possible deviations in the results. The sophisticated spectrum analysis methods used together with the comparative NAA and monitors give accurate results limited by the systematic effects only. The Windows environment provides ease of use and further processing power is available through the interface to expert system identification of nuclides. (author) 19 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Application of ko-NAA technique on Dalat research reactor for human hair analysis in environmental pollution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Mai Van Nhon

    2006-01-01

    The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) has recently been developed on Dalat research reactor. However, in order to apply the k o -NAA technique for practical research objects, it is necessary to establish different experimental procedures for each object. This work is aiming at establishing such a k o -NAA procedure on Dalat research reactor for human hair samples to solve the environmental pollution study prob;em. Therefore, the sample collection and preparation, irradiation, gamma-ray spectrum measurement and data processing, as well as quality assurance and quality control of the k o -NAA procedure for human hair samples have been assessed by comparing with elemental concentrations in terms of the experimental to certified values ratio and U-score. The experimental results showed that the k o -NAA for multi-element in human hair sample analysis is able to apply on Dalat research reactor with a rather good analytical quality. (author)

  6. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2011-01-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL -1 ), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL -1 ), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL -1 ), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL -1 ), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL -1 ), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL -1 ) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL -1 ). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few μL) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  7. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  8. Study of the levels of air pollution by heavy metals on an urban site of Algiers using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Z.; Nedjar, A.; Azli, T.; Zergoug, Z.; Mouhouche, F.; Belamri, M.; Omari, L.; Lakhdar, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Today, the high threshold reached by air pollution makes us become aware of the importance of the problem and the dangers which it represents for the health of the living beings and man in particular. The list of the atmospheric pollutants is long. To traditional usual but always real pollutants such as dust, SO 2 , Nox, CO, heavy metals, etc came to be added gradually to other substances such as gases for greenhouse effect: C0 2 , the CH 4 , the N 2 0, CFC, HFC, PFC and SF 6 and other substances such as ozone, the organochlorinated ones (dioxanes and furans), the HAP (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), etc. In Algeria, the lack of relative data to air quality makes that the impact of this form of pollution on the environment very badly known. The sources of pollution are numerous and the harmful effects are already perceived, but their direct relationship or indirect with the environmental pollution is not established. It is in this context and in continuity with work under development at the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers that we propose by this study the levels of air pollution by the fine particles and more particularly by heavy metals on the level of an urban site of Algiers with force directly exposed population density with the transmitting sources of pollution. We have used a nuclear method: neutron activation analysis technique (NAA), for the detection of traces of heavy metals in our samples of filters collected throughout one year at a rate of approximately a sample per week. One will note that this pollution varies considerably according to the components, in particular for Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg) and Cobalt (Co). The results were compared with other results obtained with other techniques and show a better sensitivity.

  9. Analysis of Ca and Mg in blood of golden hamster using NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo O.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine simultaneously Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood of Golden Hamster. The reference values for Ca (0.17 - 0.29 gL -1 ) and Mg (0.042 - 0.074 gL -1 ) can be used to performed biochemistry investigation using whole blood. (author)

  10. Analysis of Ca and Mg in blood of golden hamster using NAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo O.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rodrigoaguiar@usp.br, e-mail: czamboni@ipen.br, e-mail: jageiros@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine simultaneously Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood of Golden Hamster. The reference values for Ca (0.17 - 0.29 gL{sup -1} ) and Mg (0.042 - 0.074 gL{sup -1} ) can be used to performed biochemistry investigation using whole blood. (author)

  11. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  12. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  13. Fluorine determination in diet samples using cyclic NAA and PIGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, A.S.; Arshed, W.; Akanle, O.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Fluorine is an important trace element for life and human well-being. Food, in general, provides about 40% of the fluorine intake in the human body. In order to measure fluorine levels in human diet samples, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE) analysis were used. Thermal and epithermal cyclic NAA methods were applied, employing the 19 F(n,γ) 20 F and 19 F(n,p) 19 O nuclear reactions for the determination of fluorine, respectively. Corrections were made for the sodium matrix interference caused by the 23 Na(n,α) 20 F threshold reaction in the case of thermal cyclic NAA and for the oxygen interference via 18 O(n,γ) 19 O reaction when using the epithermal cyclic NAA method. The fluorine contents of diet samples were also determined by PIGE analysis making use of the resonance reaction 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O at 872 KeV. Thermal cyclic NAA was found to be most suitable for the determination of low concentrations of fluorine in the diet samples, with a detection limit of less than 10 μg/g

  14. Proceedings of DAE-BRNS discussion meet on current trends and future perspectives of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The theme of the meet includes: Development of Neutron Activation Analysis (Naca) methods : k o -based NAA, Chemical NAA, Short-lived NAA, Prompt Gamma ray NAA (PGNAA), Fast neutron NAA using reactor and 14 MeV neutrons, Applications of NAA methods in various fields, Gamma ray spectrometry, An in-sight to data analysis in NAA, Position of NAA in comparison to other Nuclear Analytical Techniques (NATs) and Future perspectives in a panel discussion. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. The NAA system at the reactor BER II clinical analysis of fluorine, calcium, phosphorus and aluminium in bone biopsies, comparison with photon activation analysis and ion sensitive electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlik, D.; Gatschke, W.; Behne, D.; Braetter, P.

    1981-01-01

    Over the past few years an irradiation and measuring system has been developed for the reactor BER II at the Hahn-Meitner-Institute. It was to be suited in particular to the neutron activation analysis of biological material via short lived radionuclides. The general characteristics of this equipment and some experimental details as the recycling facility and the device used for measuring the irradiation time, the waiting time and the neutron fluency are described. This equipment was used to determine physiological concentrations of the elements sodium, chlorine, aluminium, phosphorus, fluorine, calcium, copper and selenium in biological material. The results have been compared with those obtained by photon activation analysis or ion sensitive electrode. As an example of the application of the apparatus the authors report on the clinical analysis of Ca, F, P and Al in the control of the treatment of patients suffering from osteoporosis. (author)

  16. Development and applications of k0 based NAA and prompt gamma-ray NAA methods at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2008-01-01

    A summary of k 0 -based R and D work on neutron activation analysis (NAA), internal mono standard NAA (IM-NAA) and prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA) is presented. The k 0 -based NAA was standardized by characterizing irradiation sites of research reactors, validated using reference materials and applied to samples of different origin. Recently IM-NAA method was developed, validated for small and large size samples and applied for the analysis of large size as well as non-standard geometry samples. Studies on PGNAA included characterization of neutron beam, determinations of detection efficiency and prompt k 0 -factors, and analytical applications. (author)

  17. Analysis of some herbal plants from India used in the control of diabetes mellitus by NAA and AAS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Pardeshi, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the control of diabetes has been done by the techniques of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ca, Zn and Hg are found to be present in different plants in various proportions. (Author)

  18. Analysis of soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Wo, Yii Mei; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Azman, Muhamad Azfar; Hashim, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated).

  19. PIXE: early NAA revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    A short, comparative evaluation of the methods of neutron activation analysis (NAA), and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is given based on the Proc. of the 2nd international conference on PIXE and its analytical applications. The conference took place June 9-12, 1980, Lund, Sweden. 'The PIXE people have paralleled NAA people - in work, problems and mistakes, summarises the author, but PIXE was proved and established as a standard analytical method.' The method has proved extremely valuable in microprobe applications. (Sz.J.)

  20. Composition analysis of Ta-W alloy using NAA and EDXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, K.K.; Remya Devi, P.S.; Chavan, Trupti A.; Verma, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Tantalum-Tungsten (Ta-W) alloy is a high strength alloy and is used in corrosion resistant chemical process equipment's including heat exchangers, condensers, heating and cooling coils and reaction vessels. Ta-W alloy is also used as ion extraction plate during laser Isotope separation of uranium and hence the composition is critical for its optimal application. The composition of the alloy was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) techniques. Ta-W alloy sample was received from Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad. For NAA, samples (50 - 500 mg) were sealed in polyethylene. High purity Ta foil (30 - 40 mg) and W foil (10 - 20 mg) were packed and used as comparators. Samples and standards were irradiated in the graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai for 4 hours. After suitable decay period, radioactivity assay was carried out using a 45% relative efficiency high purity germanium (HPGe) detector coupled to MCA with 8 k conversion gain

  1. Test Capability of Comparative NAA Method in Analysis of Long Lived Element in SRM 1648

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Wardani

    2005-01-01

    The comparative NAA method had been examine on the analysis of long-lived elements content in air particulate sample of NIST.SRM 1648 for evaluation of a capability of comparative NAA method that used at P2TRR. From the result of analysis it could be determined analysis elements contained in the sample, namely: Sc, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Sb, Hf and Th with optimum results in bias of 10%. The optimum result of long-lived elements obtained on a good accuracy and precision. From the analysis data obtained showed that the comparative NAA method with Gamma Trac and APTEC software capable to analyze several kinds of elements in environmental samples. Therefore, this method could be implement in biological and healthy samples. (author)

  2. Bronze analysis by k0-NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, G.; Waetjen, U.; Ingelbrecht, C.; Robouch, P.

    2003-01-01

    Five copper alloys were prepared with modern powder metallurgical processes in the frame of the European project 'Improvement of Means of Measurement on Archaeological Copper-Alloys for Characterisation and Conservation (IMMACO)' and certified for As, Pb, Sn and Zn mass fractions. Similar in their composition to archaeological bronze alloys, these Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are to be used for calibration of XRF instruments for characterization of archaeological samples either in the laboratory or in the field. Successful contribution of non-destructive analytical methods (k 0 -NAA and PIXE) to the IMMACO project and to the certification of the five reference materials is presented. (author)

  3. The study of in vivo quantification of aluminum (Al) in human bone with a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Mostafaei, Farshad; Liu, Yingzi; Blake, Scott P; Koltick, David; Nie, Linda H

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility and methodology of using a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis system to measure aluminum in hand bone has been investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate the moderator, reflector, and shielding assembly and to estimate the radiation dose. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to detect the Al gamma ray signals. The minimum detectable limit (MDL) was found to be 11.13 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm). An additional HPGe detector would improve the MDL by a factor of 1.4, to 7.9 ppm. The equivalent dose delivered to the irradiated hand was calculated by Monte Carlo to be 11.9 mSv. In vivo bone aluminum measurement with the DD generator was found to be feasible among general population with an acceptable dose to the subject.

  4. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  5. Application of PIXE and NAA methods to the analysis of lichens from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Popescu, I.V.; Cojocaru, V.; Olariu, A.; Stefanescu, I.; Petre, M.; Pantelica, A.; Salajan, M.; Balabanski, D.; Gourev, V.; Chipev, N.

    1999-01-01

    Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have emerged as powerful analytical techniques for the detection of trace elements in environmental samples, especially in the antarctic environmental, because of its multielemental character and high sensitivity. This methods of analysis have been used to find the concentration of trace elements in the lichens collected from Antarctica zone. Trace contents of elements like As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sm, Sr, Ti, Tb, Th, U, Zn and Yb have been determined. Preliminary data suggest that nuclear methods may be useful in elucidating element absorption and transport mechanisms in lichens as a sensitive indicator of the species growing in the environmental polluted sites. (authors)

  6. k0-NAA implementation and application at IPEN neutron activation laboratory by using the k0-IAEA software: application to geological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Davi Brigatto

    2011-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples such as rocks, soils and sediments, for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k 0 -standardization method at LAN - IPEN, for geological sample analysis, by using the program k 0 - IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor α of the epithermal flux distribution of the IPEN IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'are triple-monitor' method with 197 Au- 96 Zr- 94 Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST - BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned values, with bias less than 10% except for Zn in AGV-1 (11.4%) and Mg in GS-N (13.4%). Three different scores were used to evaluate the results: z-score, zeta-score and Uscore. The z-score showed that the results can be considered satisfactory (z 3) for Mn in BE-N, Mg, Ce and La in GS-N, Mg in JB-1, and Th and Eu in Buffalo River Sediment. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, were within 95% confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geological samples analysis in geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

  7. Speciation of As(III) and As(V) in water and sediment using reverse-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography-neutron activation analysis (HPLC-NAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulasi, Delali; Adotey, Dennis; Affum, Andrews; Carboo, Derick; Serfor-Armah, Yaw

    2013-10-01

    Total As content and the As species distribution in water and sediments from the Kwabrafo stream, a major water body draining the Obuasi gold mining community in southwestern Ghana, have been investigated. Total As content was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Ion-pair reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography-neutron activation analysis (HPLC-NAA) was used for speciation of As species. Solid phase extraction with phosphate buffer was used to extract soluble As species from lyophilized sediment. The mass balance after phosphate extraction of soluble As species in sediment varied from 89 to 96 %. Compositionally appropriate reference material International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-Lake Sediment (SL)-1 was used to check the validity of INAA method for total As determination. The measured values are in good agreement with the IAEA recommended value and also within the 95 % confidence interval. The accuracy of the measurement in terms of relative deviation from the IAEA recommended value was ±0.83 %. "In-house" prepared As(III) and As(V) standards were used to validate the HPLC-INAA method used for the As species determination. Total As concentration in the water samples ranged from 1.15 to 9.20 mg/L. As(III) species in water varied from 0.13 to 0.7 mg/L, while As(V) species varied from 0.79 to 3.85 mg/L. Total As content in sediment ranged from 2,134 to 3,596 mg/kg dry mass. The levels of As(III) and As(V) species in the sediment ranges from 138 to 506 mg/kg dry mass and 156 to 385 mg/kg dry mass, respectively.

  8. Analysis of ZDDP Content and Thermal Decomposition in Motor Oils Using NAA and NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, S.; Johnson, J.; Gonzales, D.; Hobbs, C.; Allen, C.; Williams, S.

    Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) are one of the most common anti-wear additives present in commercially-available motor oils. The ZDDP concentrations of motor oils are most commonly determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). As part of an undergraduate research project, we have determined the Zn concentrations of eight commercially-available motor oils and one oil additive using neutron activation analysis (NAA), which has potential for greater accuracy and less sensitivity to matrix effects as compared to ICP-AES. The 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectra were also obtained for several oil additive samples which have been heated to various temperatures in order to study the thermal decomposition of ZDDPs.

  9. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-10-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the (19)F(n,γ)(20)F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10(8) n s(-1) and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure.

  10. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-01-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the "1"9F(n,γ)"2"0F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10"8 n s"−"1 and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure. (paper)

  11. Application of Conventional and K0-Based Internal Monostandard NAA Using Reactor Neutrons for Compositional Analysis of Large Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Swain, K. K.; Pujari, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) work was carried out for samples of coal, uranium ore, stainless steel, ancient and new clay potteries, dross and clay pottery replica from Peru using low flux high thermalized irradiation sites. Large as well as non-standard geometry samples (1 g - 0.5 kg) were irradiated using thermal column (TC) facility of Apsara reactor as well as graphite reflector position of critical facility (CF) at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. Small size (10 - 500 mg) samples were also irradiated at core position of Apsara reactor, pneumatic carrier facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor and pneumatic fast transfer facility (PFTS) of KAMINI reactor. Irradiation positions were characterized using indium flux monitor for TC and CF whereas multi monitors were used at other positions. Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The k0-based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method was used to determine elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na in coal and uranium ore samples, Sc in pottery samples and Fe in stainless steel. Insitu relative detection efficiency for each irradiated sample was obtained using γ rays of activation products in the required energy range. Representative sample sizes were arrived at for coal and uranium ore from the plots of La/Na ratios as a function of the mass of the sample. For stainless steel sample of SS 304L, the absolute concentrations were calculated from concentration ratios by mass balance approach since all the major elements (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn) were amenable to NAA. Concentration ratios obtained by IM-NAA were used for provenance study of 30 clay potteries, obtained from excavated Buddhist sites of AP, India. The La to Ce concentration ratios were used for preliminary grouping and concentration ratios of 15 elements with respect to Sc were used by statistical cluster analysis for confirmation of grouping. Concentrations of Au and Ag were determined in not so

  12. k0 and comparator NAA. Influences and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.

    2000-01-01

    A discussion is held on mutual influences and interactions between k 0 - and (relative) comparator-type NAA. Examples are given concerning: (1) the application of comparator-type NAA in the quality control/quality assurance of the IRMM-530 Al-0.1%Au neutron flux monitor developed for use in k 0 -NAA, (2) the utilization of the k 0 -method of calibration as a tool for the quality assurance of comparator-type NAA (3) the introduction of corrections for detection efficiency and true-coincidence (of primordial importance in k 0 -NAA) in comparator-type NAA, (4) the development of k 0 -type standardization for use in prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, and (5) the renewal of insights in the traceability of k 0 - and comparator-type NAA. (author)

  13. Semi-parametrical NAA method for paper analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Cruz, Manuel T.F. da; Morel, Jose C.O.; Park, Song W.

    2007-01-01

    The semi-parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique, using Au as flux monitor, was applied to determine element concentrations in white paper, usually commercialized, aiming to check the quality control of its production in industrial process. (author)

  14. Research reactor operations for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tv'ehlov, Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA Special Manual devoted to quality control during neutron activation analysis (NAA) on research and test reactors is discussed. Three parts of the publication involve presentation of common rules for performance of NAA, quantitative and qualitative analyses, statistic and systematic errors, safety regulations and radioactive waste management. Besides, the publication contains practical manual for the performance of NAA, and examples of different NAA regulating registration forms are presented [ru

  15. Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taure, I.; Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Latvia began to develop after 1961 when nuclear reactor in Salaspils started to work. It provided a powerful neuron source, which is necessary for this analytical method. In 1963 at Institute of Physics of the Latvian Academy of Sciences the Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis was formed. At the first stage of development the main tasks were of theoretical and technical aspects of NAA. Later the NAA was used to solve problems in technology, biology, and medicine. In the beginning of the 80-ties more attention was focussed to the use of NAA in the environmental research. Environmental problems stayed the main task till the closing the nuclear reactor in Salaspils in 1998 that ceased the main the existence of the laboratory and of NAA, this significant and powerful analytical method in Latvia and Baltic in general. (authors)

  16. Neutron activation analysis: recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of major to trace elemental concentrations in diverse matrices. NAA is associated with high analytical sensitivities and low detection limits (ppm to ppb) due to utilization of high neutron flux from research reactors and high efficiency high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Elemental concentrations are determined either by conventional NAA using relative method or by single comparator method of NAA (k 0 -NAA). Since 1994, Radiochemistry Division is actively engaged in developments and applications of k 0 -based NAA and Prompt Gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) methods for compositional characterization of materials, in addition to conventional instrumental NAA (INAA) and chemical NAA (CNAA) methods for total as well as speciation studies. The article briefly summarizes developments of k 0 based method of NAA using an external single comparator (k 0 -NAA) and an internal monostandard (lM-NAA) and PGNAA and their applications to small as well as large size samples. The article also briefly highlights the application of INAA and chemical NAA (CNAA) for speciation studies of arsenic and iodine in environmental and food samples respectively and bioaccesibility of selenium in food samples and trace elements wheatgrass samples

  17. The performance test of NAA laboratory at radionuclide measure with low activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Sukirno

    2016-01-01

    The performance test to measure the I-131 radionuclide activity has been carried out at CAST-NAA laboratory. The purpose of this activity is to know the performance of a laboratory in the testing of low radioactivity sample. The tested sample consists of the form I-131 radionuclide sources shaped thin plastic disk with a certain weight. Evaluation of laboratory performance test results carried out by the organizer of the program test appeal (PTKMR-BATAN). Evaluation results showed that testing of point source of the I-131 radionuclide with comparative method gives a good enough results with errors below 10%. The results of the performance test evaluation are useful as the external quality control to a testing method that is expected in NAA laboratory. (author)

  18. Determination of trace metal concentration in compost, DAP, and TSP fertilizers by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and insights from density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Sajjadur; Hossain, Syed Mohammod; Rahman, Mir Tamzid; Halim, Mohammad A; Ishtiak, Mohammad Niaz; Kabir, Mahbub

    2017-11-08

    Leaching of toxic metals from fertilizers is a growing concern in an agricultural country like Bangladesh due to the serious consequences in health and food chain. Fertilizers used in farming fields and nurseries (plant sales outlet) in the mid-southern part of Bangladesh were collected for the determination of toxic metals. This study employed the neutron activation method and a relative standardization approach. Three standard/certified reference materials, namely NIST coal fly ash 1633b, IAEA-Soil-7, and IAEA-SL-1 (lake sediment), were considered for elemental quantification. Concentration of As (2.63-16.73 mg/kg), Cr (40.93-261.77 mg/kg), Sb (0.47-63.58 mg/kg), Th (1.44-19.16 mg/kg), and U (1.90-209.41 mg/kg) were determined in fertilizers. High concentrations of Cr, Sb, and U were detected in some compost and phosphate fertilizers (TSP and diammonium phosphate (DAP)) in comparison with the IAEA/European market standard and other studies. Quantum mechanical calculations were performed to understand the molecular level interaction of CrO 3 , Sb 2 O 3 , and AsO 3 , with DAP by employing density functional theory with the B3LYP/SDD level of theory. Our results indicated that CrO 3 and Sb 2 O 3 have strong binding affinity with DAP compared to AsO 3 , which supports the experimental results. These compounds attached to the phosphate group through covalent-like bonding with oxygen. The frontier molecular orbital calculation indicated that HOMO-LUMO gap of the AsO 3 -DAP (5.46 eV) and Sb 2 O 3 -DAP (6.48 eV) complexes are relatively lower than the CrO 3 -DAP, which indicates that As and Sb oxides are chemically more prone to attach with the phosphate group of DAP fertilizer.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of atmospheric aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a modern analytical method well suited for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols. Particular steps of the NAA procedure and especially different types of aerosol sampling and sample preparation for analysis are discussed in detail. Several possible NAA techniques are described and the advantages of a purely instrumental technique with short and long irradiation are pointed out. Important performance characteristics of the NAA method such as precision, accuracy, sensitivity and detection limits are also discussed. Different applications of NAA in environmental studies are reviewed. (author)

  20. Analytical service by neutron activation analysis for promoting science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has outstanding qualities as an analytical technique. As it requiers a research reactor it will never be every laboratoies' technique, but rather NAA laboratories should offer service are discussed under the titles, advantages of NAA, applications of NAA, organization of the work, pricing and funding the customers

  1. Research and development work on NAA at RCD, BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Burte, P.P.; Sudarshan, K.; Pandey, A.K.; Scindia, Y.M.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemistry Division is engaged in R and D using NAA. They have standardized single comparator method of NAA called k 0 -based NAA using different irradiation sites of reactors at BARC Trombay. In addition, methodologies for large sample analysis, internal mono standard NAA and chemical NAA namely radiochemical, derivative and speciation NAA have been developed and are being used in different R and D works. The work on k 0 NAA and chemical NAA carried out till date are described in brief

  2. Pushing the limits of NAA. Accuracy, uncertainty and detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes some highlights from the author's efforts to improve neutron activation analysis (NAA) detection limits through development and optimization of radiochemical separations, as well as to improve the overall accuracy of NAA measurements by identifying, quantifying and reducing measurement biases and uncertainties. Efforts to demonstrate the metrological basis of NAA, and to establish it as a 'Primary Method of Measurement' will be discussed. (author)

  3. Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases by NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Damame, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis of some herbal plants used in the ayurveda for curing of cardiovascular diseases has been performed using the techniques of neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentration of elements Mn, Na, K and Cl has been estimated by NAA using a 252 Cf neutron source and a high purity germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer, while the elements, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg were analysed by ASS using a Perkin Elmer 3100 instrument. (author)

  4. Comparative analysis of elemental components in airborne particulate matter by k0-NAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Sam; Moon, Jong-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Je; Kim, Young-Jin

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the analytical data obtained by three k 0 -NAA software programs was carried out using both the airborne particulate matter collected from an urban site and the certified reference materials of the air filter and urban dust to evaluate the performance of the analysis. The individual k 0 -NAA standardization methods of three countries, Korea, China and Vietnam which had been modified from the well established k 0 -program were used for the comparative analysis. The measured concentrations of 30 elements from the two kinds of air samples based on this software were in agreement with each other within about 20% analytical error except for a few elements. By contrast, the results of China and Vietnam were moderately higher than that of Korea due to a systematic error associated with the detection efficiency, gamma peak analysis and geometric effect

  5. Precision and Accuracy of k0-NAA Method for Analysis of Multi Elements in Reference Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Wardani

    2004-01-01

    Accuracy and precision of k 0 -NAA method could determine in the analysis of multi elements contained in reference samples. The analyzed results of multi elements in SRM 1633b sample were obtained with optimum results in bias of 20% but it is in a good accuracy and precision. The analyzed results of As, Cd and Zn in CCQM-P29 rice flour sample were obtained with very good result in bias of 0.5 - 5.6%. (author)

  6. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang

    2003-01-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  7. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiyong, Zhang; Zhifang, Chai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  8. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de

    2011-01-01

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 ± 0.04 gkg -1 ) and raisin (0.30 ± 0.08 gkg -1 ) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 ± 0.12 gkg -1 ). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  9. Analysis of sulfur in dried fruits using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Universidade Cidade de Sao Paulo, UNICID, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this study the amount of elemental sulfur in some dried fruits, available commercially, was analyzed using INAA. Apple, apricot and raisin (dried fruits) were investigated due the application of sulfur dioxide for keeping the color and to protect the flavor from oxidation. The samples of dried fruits (apple, apricot and raisin) that are consumed by local population were obtained from the supermarket of Sao Paulo city (SP, Brazil). The sulfur concentration values for apple (0.32 {+-} 0.04 gkg{sup -1}) and raisin (0.30 {+-} 0.08 gkg{sup -1}) are similar but they are significantly lower when compared with the apricot (1.55 {+-} 0.12 gkg{sup -1}). This analysis is important due to an increase in the consumption of dried fruit by Brazilian population and also for its nutritional relevancy. (author)

  10. Application of k0-based internal monostandard NAA for large sample analysis of clay pottery. As a part of inter comparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Shinde, A.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of inter comparison exercise of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project on large sample neutron activation analysis, a large size and non standard geometry size pottery replica (obtained from Peru) was analyzed by k 0 -based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). Two large size sub samples (0.40 and 0.25 kg) were irradiated at graphite reflector position of AHWR Critical Facility in BARC, Trombay, Mumbai, India. Small samples (100-200 mg) were also analyzed by IM-NAA for comparison purpose. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40 % relative efficiency HPGe detector. To examine homogeneity of the sample, counting was also carried out using X-Z rotary scanning unit. In situ relative detection efficiency was evaluated using gamma rays of the activation products in the irradiated sample in the energy range of 122-2,754 keV. Elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na of small size (100 mg mass) as well as large size (15 and 400 g) samples were used to check the homogeneity of the samples. Concentration ratios of 18 elements such as K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf and Th with respect to Na (internal mono standard) were calculated using IM-NAA. Absolute concentrations were arrived at for both large and small samples using Na concentration, obtained from relative method of NAA. The percentage combined uncertainties at ±1 s confidence limit on the determined values were in the range of 3-9 %. Two IAEA reference materials SL-1 and SL-3 were analyzed by IM-NAA to evaluate accuracy of the method. (author)

  11. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  12. Low thalamic NAA-concentration corresponds to strong neural activation in working memory in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigren, Patrick; Tisell, Anders; Engström, Maria; Karlsson, Thomas; Leinhard Dahlqvist, Olof; Lundberg, Peter; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Kleine Levin Syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder of periodic hypersomnia and behavioural disturbances in young individuals. It has previously been shown to be associated with disturbances of working memory (WM), which, in turn, was associated with higher activation of the thalamus with increasing WM load, demonstrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this study we aimed to further elucidate how these findings are related to the metabolism of the thalamus. fMRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied while performing a WM task. Standard metabolites were examined: n-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol, choline, creatine and glutamate-glutamine. Fourteen KLS-patients and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. The patients with active disease were examined in asymptomatic periods. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between thalamic fMRI-activation and thalamic NAA, i.e., high fMRI-activation corresponded to low NAA-levels. This correlation was not seen in healthy controls. Thalamic levels of NAA in patients and controls showed no significant differences between the groups. None of the other metabolites showed any co-variation with fMRI-activation. This study shows negative correlation between NAA-levels and fMRI-activity in the left thalamus of KLS-patients while performing a WM task. This correlation could not be found in healthy control subjects, primarily interpreted as an effect of increased effort in the patient group upon performing the task. It might indicate a disturbance in the neuronal networks responsible for WM in KLS patients, resulting in higher effort at lower WM load, compared with healthy subjects. The general relationship between NAA and BOLD-signal is also discussed in the article.

  13. Analysis of Angolan human hair samples by the k0-NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, P.C.D; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Mong Sinh

    2006-01-01

    There is personal difference in concentrations of trace elements in the human hair according to human life or history such as occupation, sex, age, food, habit, social condition and so on. It is also found that the individual's deviation of elemental concentrations reflecting the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to the human body, intakes of food and metabolism. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on research reactor has been recommended by WHO and IAEA as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multi-element and routine. This report presents the results of determination of about 20 elements in 23 human hair samples, which have been collected from different places in Angola by using k 0 -NAA technique on Dalat nuclear research reactor. Accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of two human hair certified reference materials (CRMs), i.e. NIES-5 and GBW-09101 and assessed by the deviation of experiment to certified values generally within 10% and U-score values mostly lower 2. (author)

  14. Application of nuclear activation analysis (NAA) and low-level gamma counting to determine the radionuclide and trace element pollutant releases from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduong, P.; Thanh, V.T.; Dien, P.Q.; Binh, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Results are reported of the application of NAA using research reactors TRIGA II in Dalat, Vietnam, and Vienna, Austria (with pyrolysis separation for Hg, Se, and As before irradiation), to determine As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Co, Pb, Sn and Zn. Low-level gamma counting was used to measure Ra-226, Th-228 and K-40, released from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam. Results showed that: (1) the content of the air pollutants in the vicinity of the operating power plants (in 1991, the Phalai plant produced 1700 million kWh, and the Ninhbinh plant 100 million kWh) depends on the coal combustion which is used for their applied operation technology, both plants used Quangninh anthracite as fuel. The content of trace elements pollutants (TEP) in the environment of the Ninhbinh plant is higher than in the Phalai plant. (2) In the vicinity of both plants, rain water is highly polluted by trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cd, Se, U, Th and sulphuric acid. Therefore, this kind of water is not acceptable for human consumption. (3) The algae growing in the waterfield in the vicinity of the power plants can be used to monitor TEP. Four NAA methods, in combination with low-level gamma counting and AAS, can be successfully used to monitor TEP released from power plants

  15. Application of nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamonov, E.I.; Khlystova, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the applications of nuclear-activation analysis (NAA) as discussed at the International Conference of 1977. One of the new results in the present-day NAA practices is the growing number of elements detected in samples without using a destructive radiochemical separation. An essential feature in this context is the development of the system automation of control and information NAA operations through the use computers. In biological medicine a multicomponent NAA is employed to determine the concentration of elements in various human organs and objects, in metabolic studies and for diagnostic purposes. In agriculture NAA finds applications in the evaluation of grain protein, analysis of element feed composition, soil and fertilizers. The application of this method to the environmental monitoring is considered with particular reference to the element analysis of water (especially drinking water), air, plant residues. Data are presented for the use of NAA in metallurgy, geology, archaeology and criminal law. Tables are provided to illustrate the uses of NAA in various fields

  16. Rapid growth, maturity, current problems, future prospects of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The early rapid growth, the attainment of maturity, current problems, and future prospects of NAA (neutron activation analysis) are discussed, each in reasonable detail. In particular, the nature and causes of its current problems are examined, and suggestions are presented for the solution of these problems. The author believes that vigorous action in suggested areas of concentration can reinvigorate the status of NAA as an important method of elemental analysis. (author)

  17. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k 0 -standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  18. Neutron activation analysis: principle and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful isotope specific nuclear analytical technique for simultaneous determination of elemental composition of major, minor and trace elements in diverse matrices. The technique is capable of yielding high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). Due to high penetration power of neutrons and gamma rays, NAA experiences negligible matrix effects in the samples of different origins. Depending on the sample matrix and element of interest NAA technique is used non-destructively, known as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), or through chemical NAA methods. The present article describes principle of NAA, different methods and gives a overview some applications in the fields like environment, biology, geology, material sciences, nuclear technology and forensic sciences. (author)

  19. The evaluation of accuracy of NAA method used by P2TRR laboratory with food standard reference material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina M, Th.; Sri-Wardhani; Sunarko

    2003-01-01

    The NAA method is the analysis method with high precision and accuracy level. The precision and accuracy of NAA laboratory in P2TRR had been evaluated with SRM 1573a Tomato Leaf and CRM No.9 Sargasso. Samples were irradiated in RSG-GAS's rabbit system and counted with gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from this research are for the SRM 1573a sample the test could analyze 17 elements of the 40 certified elements, and for CRM No.9 sample the test could analyze 16 elements of the 30 certified elements. The result of quantitative analysis indicate the different deviation of each element between 2 -10.5 % compared to the certificate data. This deviation value <15%, this value shows that the precision and accuracy level is good enough

  20. Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yukiko

    2005-01-01

    Trends and progress in neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the period starting in 1999 to 2003 are presented. Numbers of published reports on NAA are decreasing year by year as investigated from the database JST and NUCLEN. Summary reports on the international conferences held on NAA are followed by classifying according to the fields: various measurement techniques and application fields. Specially focused topics are newly developed techniques for measuring trace elements with high sensitivity and high accuracy such as (1) by diminishing the Compton-background gamma-rays using anti-coincidence technique, (2) by using prompt-gamma rays measurement method (PGAA) and (3) by using a gamma-ray detector array (GEMINI), which has succeeded in a simultaneous quantification of 27 elements from a standard rock sample having a weight of only 10 milligrams, and others. These techniques will be applied in the space and earth sciences and medical fields. (S. Ohno)

  1. Manufacturing of NAA laboratory clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Hasibuan, Djaruddin

    2001-01-01

    The ''NAA laboratory clean room'' has been built in the Reactor Serba Guna G.A. Siwabessy building. The erection of ''AAN laboratory clean room'' doing by started of preparation of the ''manufacturing procedure'' refer to ''Design and manufacturing neutron activation analysis clean room laboratory''. Manufacturing process and erection doing refer to procedures makes. By providing of the ''AAN laboratory clean room'' can be cocluded that the research activity and the user sevises in P2TRR well meet to be done

  2. Activation analysis in food analysis. Pt. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented on the application of activation analysis (AA) techniques for food analysis, as reflected at a recent international conference titled Activation Analysis and its Applications. The most popular analytical techniques include instrumental neutron AA, (INAA or NAA), radiochemical NAA (RNAA), X-ray fluorescence analysis and mass spectrometry. Data are presented for the multielemental NAA of instant soups, for elemental composition of drinking water in Iraq, for Na, K, Mn contents of various Indian rices, for As, Hg, Sb and Se determination in various seafoods, for daily microelement takeup in China, for the elemental composition of Chinese teas. Expected development trends in AA are outlined. (R.P.) 24 refs.; 8 tabs

  3. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA); Identificacion de procedencia para obsidianas de Cantona, Puebla, por el metodo de analisis por activacion neutronica (AAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-07-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  4. The activation analysis of gold in small refractory pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibby, D.M.; Chaix, R.P.

    1975-08-01

    The gold content of a suite of small pebbles, residual to the milling and leach of a gold bearing ore, has been investigated by means of neutron activation analysis (NAA). An NAA technique presenting a sensitivity of 0.02μgm gold, was used as being appropriate to the samples under investigation. An alternative NAA technique developed with the same sample suite showed a sensitivity of the order of 10 -4 to 10 -5 μgm gold. The NAA techniques developed, are appropriate to the determination of gold in small samples of ore not normally amenable to milling and/or dissolution

  5. Analysis of inorganic elements in blood of albino rabbit using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations in albino rabbit blood were determinate using NAA. They are the first indicative interval for reference values in whole blood and they could be used for checking the clinical status of this specie when it will be used was animal model. The results when compared with human whole blood estimation suggest compatibility for Br, Cl and K considering 95% of confidence interval but, for Na the levels are altered, suggesting physiologic differences. (author)

  6. Some remarks on NAA in geochemical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, M.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of certain applications of NAA in geology. The emphasis is placed on reactor activation and the efficiency of NAA in gelogical research. The statements made are illustrated by a few examples showing the determination of rare elements in granites and fluorites, measurement of osmium and intercomparisons of accuracy of NAA by comparing results of the same sample analyzed by several laboratories

  7. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewgoy, Hugo R., E-mail: hugorl@usp.br [Universidade Bandeirante Anhanguera (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  8. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewgoy, Hugo R.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  9. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  10. Applicability of neutron activation analysis to geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of neutron activation analysis (NAA) to geological samples in space is discussed by referring to future space mission programs, by which the extraterrestrial samples are to be delivered to the earth for scientific inspections. It is concluded that both destructive and non-destructive NAA are highly effective in analyzing these samples. (author)

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis in study of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    2000-01-01

    Trace-elements in ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram is obtained. The raw material sources of ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics are determined. The path for improving quality of imitative ancient ceramics is found

  12. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  13. Quantitative determination of α and f parameters for κo NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, Y. S.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis as a representative method of nuclear analytical techniques, has advantages of non-destructive, simultaneous multi-element analysis with the characteristics of absolute measurement. Recently, use of κ o quantitative method which is accurate, convenient and user-friendly has been generalized world-widely. In this study, α and f parameters which is indispensable to implement κ o NAA were experimentally measured at NAA No.1-irradiation hole of HANARO research reactor. In addition, it was intended to apply routine analysis by the establishment of reliable and effective procedure of the measurement

  14. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, S.

    1983-01-01

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  15. Preconcentration NAA for simultaneous multielemental determination in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Environment concerns with water, air, land and their interrelationship viz., human beings, fauna and flora. One of the important environmental compartments is water. Elements present in water might face a whole lot of physico-chemical conditions. This poses challenges to measure their total concentrations as well as different species. Preconcentration of the elements present in water samples is a necessary requisites in water analysis. For multi elements concentration measurements, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of the preferred analytical techniques due to its sensitivity and selectivity. In this talk preconcentration NAA for multielemental determination in water sample determination will be discussed

  16. The neuronal metabolite NAA regulates histone H3 methylation in oligodendrocytes and myelin lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N K; Huang, H; Li, S; Clements, R; Gadd, J; Daniels, A; Kooijman, E E; Bannerman, P; Burns, T; Guo, F; Pleasure, D; Freeman, E; Shriver, L; McDonough, J

    2017-01-01

    The neuronal mitochondrial metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is decreased in the multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. NAA is synthesized in neurons by the enzyme N-acetyltransferase-8-like (NAT8L) and broken down in oligodendrocytes by aspartoacylase (ASPA) into acetate and aspartate. We have hypothesized that NAA links the metabolism of axons with oligodendrocytes to support myelination. To test this hypothesis, we performed lipidomic analyses using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to identify changes in myelin lipid composition in postmortem MS brains and in NAT8L knockout (NAT8L -/- ) mice which do not synthesize NAA. We found reduced levels of sphingomyelin in MS normal appearing white matter that mirrored decreased levels of NAA. We also discovered decreases in the amounts of sphingomyelin and sulfatide lipids in the brains of NAT8L -/- mice compared to controls. Metabolomic analysis of primary cultures of oligodendrocytes treated with NAA revealed increased levels of α-ketoglutarate, which has been reported to regulate histone demethylase activity. Consistent with this, NAA treatment resulted in alterations in the levels of histone H3 methylation, including H3K4me3, H3K9me2, and H3K9me3. The H3K4me3 histone mark regulates cellular energetics, metabolism, and growth, while H3K9me3 has been linked to alterations in transcriptional repression in developing oligodendrocytes. We also noted the NAA treatment was associated with increases in the expression of genes involved in sulfatide and sphingomyelin synthesis in cultured oligodendrocytes. This is the first report demonstrating that neuronal-derived NAA can signal to the oligodendrocyte nucleus. These data suggest that neuronal-derived NAA signals through epigenetic mechanisms in oligodendrocytes to support or maintain myelination.

  17. Chemistry and crime detection: application to NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Swain, K.K.; Kayasth, S.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is extensively used for the analysis of gun shot residues (GSR). But the analysis becomes increasingly difficult when the exhibits collected from the scene of crime are contaminated with various contaminants. During this work, systematic experiments were carried out to study the interferences from various common contaminants like soil, rust, grease, blood, etc., along with difficulties in the determination of GSR elements in presence of these contaminants. An attempt has been made to demonstrate in this paper how contaminations can mislead the investigation. In such cases careful analysis followed by proper evaluation of the analytical data of control and also exhibits can provide meaningful results

  18. Methodological developments and applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the author's experience acquired and achievements made in methodological developments of neutron activation analysis (NAA) of mostly biological materials. These involve epithermal neutron activation analysis, radiochemical neutron activation analysis using both single- and multi-element separation procedures, use of various counting modes, and the development and use of the self-verification principle. The role of NAA in the detection of analytical errors is discussed and examples of applications of the procedures developed are given. (author)

  19. Status of uncertainty assessment in k0-NAA measurement. Anything still missing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borut Smodis; Tinkara Bucar

    2014-01-01

    Several approaches to quantifying measurement uncertainty in k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) are reviewed, comprising the original approach, the spreadsheet approach, the dedicated computer program involving analytical calculations and the two k 0 -NAA programs available on the market. Two imperfectness in the dedicated programs are identified, their impact assessed and possible improvements presented for a concrete experimental situation. The status of uncertainty assessment in k 0 -NAA is discussed and steps for improvement are recommended. It is concluded that the present magnitude of measurement uncertainty should further be improved by making additional efforts in reducing uncertainties of the relevant nuclear constants used. (author)

  20. A new facility for rapid neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Makarewicz, M.; Grass, F.; Casta, J.

    1996-01-01

    Many research groups have undertaken efforts on the utilization of short-lived nuclides in a broad spectrum of neutron activation analysis (NAA) applications. The advantages of these approaches are obvious because the information on the sample can be extracted more rapidly. In addition to its other advantages, NAA can become extremely competitive in price and analysis time. Nevertheless, NAA with short-lived nuclides has not gained broad popularity, perhaps because of some difficulties in accuracy and the availability of suitable irradiation facilities. This report discusses the ASTRA reactor for neutron activation analysis capabilities

  1. Characterization of kidney stones using NAA and other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Bhardwaj, S.; Vashisht, B.; Swain, K.K.; Ajith, Nicy; Chavan, T.; Wagh, D.N.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Mete, U.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Six kidney stone samples were collected from patients treated in the Advance Urology Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. The samples were characterized using neutron activation analysis (NAA), Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. For NAA, samples were irradiated in Tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, Mumbai. Radioactive assay was carried out using high purity germanium detector coupled to 8k channel analyzer. The elements determined in the samples by NAA are Zn, Sr, Co, Fe, Cr, Sc, Se and Th. ED-XRF was used for quantification of Ca. The concentrations of trace elements like Zn, Sr, Fe and Cr were found to be lower in uric acid composite stones as compared to calcium based stones. (author)

  2. NAA using Cf-252 after preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyo, O.; Moebius, S.; Keller, C.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) with thermal neutron using Cf-252 sources was applied to elemental analysis of elements in water samples. A high-resolution Ge(Li) detector was employed for gamma-radiation detection. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction were investigated after filtration. Preconcentration method by co-precipitation using iron (III) hydroxide and oxine were chosen for use. Elements which were considered to be able to detect in the present study are Al, As, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, Ti, U, V and Zn

  3. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  4. Neutron activation analysis in reconnaissance geochemical survey of Northwestern Mindoro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique was used to analyze stream sediments collected in Northwestern Mindoro. The concentration levels of 18 elements were determined. It was noted that NAA is suitable for the determination of rare earth, gold, arsenic and cobalt among others because of favorable high neutron cross sections. Samples collected in regional reconnaissance geochemical surveys could be analyzed usng NAA technique to complement other non-nuclear techniques, such as atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author). 11 figs.; 2 tabs.; 12 refs

  5. Application of neutron activation analysis for determination of elements in field of public health science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Ikuyo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and application examples of this method to ensure safety of food and environment are explained. It consists of four chapters such as introduction, what is NAA, quality control of NAA, application examples of NAA for determination of the elements in the field of public health science. The quality control of NAA is carried out by using certified reference materials, identification of individual difference of sample, and homogeneity of samples. Some application examples of NAA for determination Cd in rice, Hg and As in fish, U in soil, food and aerosol, 128 I and 129 I in environment, Cs and 133 Cs in mushroom, the essential elements and trace elements in food are reported. Analytical results of elements in certified reference materials, content of elements in ashed samples (carrots and bamboo shoots), average use frequency of ingredients in a sample, and correlation between Cs and 137 Cs in mushroom are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  6. Uncertainty analysis in comparative NAA applied to geological and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Lange, Camila N.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G., E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Comparative nuclear activation analysis is a multielemental primary analytical technique that may be used in a rather broad spectrum of matrices with minimal-to-none sample preprocessing. Although the total activation of a chemical element in a sample depends on a rather large set of parameters, when the sample is irradiated together with a well-known comparator, most of these parameters are crossed out and the concentration of that element can be determined simply by using the activities and masses of the comparator and the sample, the concentration of this chemical element in the sample, the half-life of the formed radionuclide and the time between counting the sample and the comparator. This simplification greatly reduces not only the calculations required, but also the uncertainty associated with the measurement; nevertheless, a cautious analysis must be carried out in order to make sure all relevant uncertainties are properly treated, so that the final result can be as representative of the measurement as possible. In this work, this analysis was performed for geological matrices, where concentrations of the interest nuclides are rather high, but so is the density and average atomic number of the sample, as well as for a biological matrix, in order to allow for a comparison. The results show that the largest part of the uncertainty comes from the activity measurements and from the concentration of the comparator, and that while the influence of time-related terms in the final uncertainty can be safely neglected, the uncertainty in the masses may be relevant under specific circumstances. (author)

  7. Uncertainty analysis in comparative NAA applied to geological and biological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Lange, Camila N.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative nuclear activation analysis is a multielemental primary analytical technique that may be used in a rather broad spectrum of matrices with minimal-to-none sample preprocessing. Although the total activation of a chemical element in a sample depends on a rather large set of parameters, when the sample is irradiated together with a well-known comparator, most of these parameters are crossed out and the concentration of that element can be determined simply by using the activities and masses of the comparator and the sample, the concentration of this chemical element in the sample, the half-life of the formed radionuclide and the time between counting the sample and the comparator. This simplification greatly reduces not only the calculations required, but also the uncertainty associated with the measurement; nevertheless, a cautious analysis must be carried out in order to make sure all relevant uncertainties are properly treated, so that the final result can be as representative of the measurement as possible. In this work, this analysis was performed for geological matrices, where concentrations of the interest nuclides are rather high, but so is the density and average atomic number of the sample, as well as for a biological matrix, in order to allow for a comparison. The results show that the largest part of the uncertainty comes from the activity measurements and from the concentration of the comparator, and that while the influence of time-related terms in the final uncertainty can be safely neglected, the uncertainty in the masses may be relevant under specific circumstances. (author)

  8. The effect of uncertainty of reactor parameters obtained using k0-NAA on result of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis using the k 0 method is a useful method allowing convenient and accurate simultaneous analysis of plural elements, eliminating the need for the use of comparative reference samples. As already well known, it is essential for the correct result of an analysis to obtain the α-factor and f-factor for a neutron spectrum in an irradiation field accurately when an attempt is made to use the k 0 method. For this reason, based on data obtained from the experiment conducted in the JRR-3 PN-3 system, how uncertainty of the measured values for α-factor and f-factor affects the result of an analysis was evaluated. The process of evaluation involved intentionally varying the values for reactor parameters followed by making an analysis of environmental reference samples (NIST SRM-1632c) using the k 0 method to examine the effect of these factors on the concentrations of 19 elements. The result of the evaluation revealed that the degree of the effect of uncertainty on the concentrations of 19 elements was at best approx. 1% under the condition of this experiment assuming that the factor α, a reactor parameter, had uncertainty of approx. 200%. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis of absolutely-dated tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenlue, K.; Hauck, D.K.; Kuniholm, P.I.; Chiment, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Gold concentration was determined for dendrochronologically-dated wood samples using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and correlation sought with known environmental changes, e.g., volcanic activities, during historic periods. Uptake of gold is sensitive to soil pH for many plants. Data presented are from a single, cross-dated tree that grew in Greece. Using NAA, gold was measured with parts-per-billion sensitivity in individual tree rings from 1411 to 1988 AD. (author)

  10. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, T.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252 Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  11. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, A.

    2003-01-01

    Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a technique for the analysis of elements present in solid, liquid and gaseous samples by measuring the capture gamma rays emitted from the sample during neutron irradiation. The technique is complementary to conventional neutron activation analysis (NAA) as it can be used in number of cases where NAA fails. Though the technique was first used in sixties, the advantage of the technique was first highlighted by Lindstrom and Anderson. PGNAA is increasingly being used as a rapid, instrumental, nondestructive and multielement analysis technique. A monograph and several excellent reviews on this topic have appeared recently. In this review, an attempt has been made to bring out the essential aspects of the technique, experimental arrangement and instrumentation involved, and areas of application. Some of the results will also be presented

  12. The application of radiotracer technique for preconcentration neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Chen Yinliang; Sun Ying; Fu Yibei

    1995-01-01

    The application of radiotracer technique for preconcentration neutron activation analysis (Pre-NAA) are studied and the method for determination of chemical yield of Pre-NAA is developed. This method has been applied to determination of gold, iridium and rhenium in steel and rock samples and the contents of noble metal are in the range of 1-20 ng·g -1 (sample). In addition, the accuracy difference caused by determination of chemical yield between RNAA and Pre-NAA are also discussed

  13. Activation analysis of gold in geological samples (Paper No. RA-24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.; Bhattacharyya, S.N.

    1990-02-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been applied to study the distribution of gold in some geological samples. Traces of gold in the samples were preconcentrated in a solid matrix through a chemical procedure involving solvent extraction using MIBK and coprecipitation with PbS. Gold contents in the samples as determined by NAA vary from ppb to ppm levels. (author)

  14. Comparison of 14 MeV-NAA, k0-NAA and ED-XRF for air pollution bio-monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Lferde, M.; Elyahyaoui, A.; Bertho, X.; Gaudry, A.; Ayrault, S.; Piccot, D.

    2002-01-01

    Performances and the limitations of three multi-elementary analysis techniques are compared applied to a study of air pollution biomonitoring in Morocco. These techniques are: 14 MeV neutron activation analysis (14 MeV-NAA), thermal neutron activation analysis using the k 0 quasi-absolute method (k 0 -NAA) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (ED-XRF). The experimental procedures and the control of the analytical results using certified reference materials are described and discussed. The three methods were confronted for the analysis of lichens, mosses and tree-barks. The complementarity of these methods enabled us to determine 43 elements in different samples. The most suitable method for each element was selected according to the sensitivity and selectivity necessitating the minimum corrections of the matrix effects and/or the interfering reactions. (author)

  15. The NAA method at Polytechnique Montreal. An efficient alternative way to use the k0 NAA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilian, C.; Kennedy, G.

    2014-01-01

    At Ecole Polytechnique Montreal, the philosophy in performing neutron activation analysis (NAA) is long-term and application oriented. Thinking long-term implies a good understanding of the fundamentals of the method, of the samples, of the tools, reactor and detectors, and there must be constant innovation that is experimentally validated with extensive measurements. Application oriented means a NAA method developed to provide users with fast, sensitive, accurate and reliable analyses for various types of materials. This philosophy dictates the manner in which the developments in the areas of NAA software, peak-area calculation, dead-time correction, detection efficiency model, k 0 and Q 0 values, neutron moderation and neutron self-shielding are carried out. This paper presents a survey of the Laboratory’s methodology, reviewing a few of its unique features such as detector efficiency calibration and sample related perturbations of the neutron activation. These features are used as examples to provide the reader with an understanding of the philosophy and the evolution of the NAA method at Ecole Polytechnique. (author)

  16. Neutron activation analysis of artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abd Rahman

    2004-01-01

    The paper discussed the utilization of neutron activation analysis in this field. NAA, an analytical technique which analyzing the elements in the sample without any chemical treatment. It is sensitive and accurate. Archaeological objects i.e. ceramics, historical building materials, metals, etc can be analyze with this technique. The analysis results were presented in form of characterization of the artefacts in chemical profiles, which can present the information of the origin of the artefacts as well as it originality. (Author)

  17. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung

    2003-05-01

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology

  18. A study of air monitoring at an urban region in Korea and a comparative analysis by the three k0-NAA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-Sam; Cho, Hyun-Je; Moon, Jong-Hwa

    2006-01-01

    For the study on air pollution, airborne particulate matter (APM) for the fine ( 2.5 ) and coarse particle (2.5-10 μm EAD: PM 2.5-10 ) fractions were collected using the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters. Air samples were collected twice a month at two regions (suburban and industrial site of Daejeon city in the Republic of Korea) from January to December 2002. Monthly mass concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 were measured and the concentrations of 10 elements such as Al, Sc, Ti (indices for silicates); Na, Cl (sea salts); As, V, Sb, Br, Se (pollutants) were determined by an Instrumental NAA at the HANARO research reactor, Korea. Analytical quality control was carried out using three certified reference materials (CRM). Enrichment factors were also calculated from the monitoring data to classify the anthropogenic and crustal origins. A comparison of the analytical data determined by the three K 0 -NAA software was carried out using a part of the air monitoring sample and the CRM of the air filter to evaluate the accuracy as well as the convenience and simplicity of analysis. The k 0 -NAA method of three countries, Korea, China and Vietnam were used for the comparative analysis. The results obtained from this project can be used to investigate the source identification and its trends, and to establish a more cost-effective method for national air quality management. (author)

  19. The use of high accuracy NAA for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Greenberg, R.R.; Stone, S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is only one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). We compete daily against all of the other available analytical techniques in terms of accuracy, precision, and the cost required to obtain that requisite accuracy and precision. Over the years, the authors have found that NAA can and does compete favorably with these other techniques because of its' unique capabilities for redundancy and quality assurance. Good examples are the two new NIST leaf SRMs, Apple Leaves (SRM 1515) and Peach Leaves (SRM 1547). INAA was used to measure the homogeneity of 12 elements in 15 samples of each material at the 100 mg sample size. In addition, instrumental and radiochemical NAA combined for 27 elemental determinations, out of a total of 54 elemental determinations made on each material with all NIST techniques combined. This paper describes the NIST NAA procedures used in these analyses, the quality assurance techniques employed, and the analytical results for the 24 elements determined by NAA in these new botanical SRMs. The NAA results are also compared to the final certified values for these SRMs

  20. Status of neutron activation analysis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1996-01-01

    The 60th anniversary of the discovery of neutron activation analysis (NAA) by Hevesy and Levi is being celebrated in 1996. With the availability of nuclear reactors capable of producing fluxes of the order of 10 12 to 10 14 n/cm 2 s, the development of high-resolution and high-efficiency conventional and anticoincidence gamma-ray detectors, multichannel pulse-height analyzers, and personal computer-based softwares, NAA has become an extremely valuable analytical technique, especially for the simultaneous determinations of multielement concentrations. This technique can be used in a number of ways, depending on the nature of the matrix, the major elements in the sample, and on the elements of interest. In most cases, several elements can be determined without any chemical pretreatment of the sample; the technique is then called instrumental NAA (INAA). In other cases, an element can be concentrated from an interfering matrix prior to irradiation; the technique is then termed preconcentration NAA (PNAA). In opposite instances, the irradiation is followed by a chemical separation of the desired element; the technique is then called radiochemical NAA (RNAA). All three forms of NAA can provide elemental concentrations of high accuracy and precision with excellent sensitivity. The number of research reactors in developing countries has increased steadily from 17 in 1955 through 71 in 1975 to 89 in 1995. Low flux reactors such as SLOWPOKE and the Chinese MNSR are primarily used for NAA

  1. Analysis of SMELS and reference materials for validation of the k0-based internal monostandard NAA method using in-situ detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, R.; Swain, K. K.; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Three synthetic multielement standards (SMELS I, II and III) and two reference materials (RMs), SL-3 and Soil-7 of IAEA were analyzed for validation of the k0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA) method utilizing in-situ relative detection efficiency. The internal monostandards used in SMELS and RMs were Au and Sc, respectively. The samples were irradiated in Apsara and Dhruva reactors, BARC and radioactive assay was carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to an 8 k MCA. Concentrations of 23 elements were determined in both SMELS and RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could also be determined. The % deviations for the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values and RMs with respect to certified values were within ±8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within ±1.

  2. Differential effects of NAA and 2,4-D in reducing floret abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers are associated with their differential activation of Aux/IAA homologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebie, Bekele; Lers, Amnon; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Goren, Raphael; Riov, Joseph; Meir, Shimon

    2008-01-01

    A previous study showed that the relative effectiveness of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) compared with that of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in reducing floret bud abscission in cestrum (Cestrum elegans) cut flowers was due to its acropetal transport. The aim of the present study was to examine if the differential effect of these auxins on floret abscission is reflected in the expression of Aux/IAA genes in the floret abscission zone (AZ). cDNAs were isolated by PCR-based cloning from the floret AZ of auxin-treated cut flowers. The expression patterns of the cDNAs in various tissues and the effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), applied with or without cycloheximide, on their expression in the floret AZ were examined by northern blot analysis. The regulation of transcript accumulation in the floret AZ in response to NAA or 2,4-D was measured by real-time PCR during auxin pulsing of cut flowers and vase life, concomitantly with floret abscission. Six isolated cDNAs were identified to represent Aux/IAA homologous genes, designated as Cestrum elegans (Ce)-IAA1 to Ce-IAA6. Four Ce-IAA genes were characterized as early auxin-responsive genes (ARGs), and two (Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5) as late ARGs. Only Ce-IAA5 was AZ-specific in floret buds. A temporal regulation of Ce-IAA transcript levels in the floret AZ was found, with 2,4-D inducing higher expression levels than NAA in floret buds. These Ce-IAA expression levels were negatively correlated with floret abscission. The differential transport characteristics of NAA and 2,4-D in cestrum cut flowers were reflected in differential activation of the Ce-IAA genes identified in the floret AZ. Therefore, Aux/IAA genes can be used as molecular markers to measure auxin activity, which reflects free auxin level in the AZ. Two of the identified genes, Ce-IAA1 and Ce-IAA5, may also have a regulatory role in abscission.

  3. Opportunities for innovation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Bode

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation laboratories worldwide are at a turning point at which new staff has to be found for the retiring pioneers from the 1960s-1970s. A scientific career in a well-understood technique, often characterized as 'mature' may only be attractive to young scientists if still challenges for further improvement and inspiring new applications can be offered. The strengths and weaknesses of neutron activation analysis (NAA) are revisited to identify opportunities for innovation. Position-sensitive detection of elements in large samples, Monte Carlo calculations replacing the use of standards, use of scintillator detectors and new deconvolution techniques for increasing the sensitivity are examples of challenging new roads in NAA. Material science provides challenges for the application of NAA in both bulk samples, ultrathin layers and ultrapure materials. (author)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of high purity substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'bert, Eh.N.

    1987-01-01

    Peculiarities of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of high purity substances are considered. Simultaneous determination of a wide series of elements, high sensitivity (the lower bound of determined contents 10 -9 -10 -10 %), high selectivity and accuracy (Sr=0.10-0.15, and may be decreased up to 0.001), possibility of analysis of the samples from several micrograms to hundreds of grams, simplicity of calibration may be thought NAA advantages. Questions of accounting of NAA systematic errors associated with the neutron flux screening by the analysed matrix and with production of radionuclides of determined elements from accompanying elements according to concurrent nuclear reactions, as well as accounting of errors due to self-absorption of recorded radiation by compact samples, are considered

  5. NAA for applied investigations at FLNP JINR. Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Shvetsov, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    Experience in applying conventional and epithermal neutron activation analysis for some challenging areas of life sciences and material science is reviewed. For more than 30 years of its operation the radioanalytical complex REGATA at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna has become a source of analytical data for the environmental studies, marine geology, biotechnology and medicine, technological process of diamond and boron nitride synthesis, archaeology, nanomaterials, etc. In spite of competing non-nuclear analytical techniques (AAS, ICP-ES, ICP-MS, etc.), the reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a primary (ratio) method continues to be the most powerful multielement analytical technique providing quantification of trace elements at ultralow levels. Combined with modern statistical data treatment of large arrays of data, GIS (geographic information system) technologies, electron scanning microscopy, tomography, and others, NAA serves to obtain actual, practical results resumed in the review. The perspectives of using the upgraded reactor IBR-2M for analytical investigations are discussed. (author)

  6. Different methodologies in neutron activation to approach the full analysis of environmental and nutritional samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.; Dionisio, I.; Dung, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Different methodologies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) are now available at the Technological and Nuclear Institute (Sacavem, Portugal), namely Compton suppression, epithermal activation, replicate and cyclic activation, and low energy photon measurement. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) will be implemented soon. Results by instrumental NAA and PGAA on environmental and nutritional samples are discussed herein, showing that PGAA - carried out at the Institute of Isotope Research (Budapest, Hungary) - brings about an effective input to assessing relevant elements. Sensitivity enhancement in NAA by Compton suppression is also illustrated. Through a judicious combination of methodologies, practically all elements of interest in pollution and nutrition terms can be determined. (author)

  7. Suitability of NAA for certification of reference materials for multielements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    2000-01-01

    Certifications of trace elements in existing CRMs, especially biological CRMs, are far from satisfactory. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) for its inherent advantages combined with newly established parametric standardization, may contribute to improve this situation. The continuing progress of the hybrid extended k 0 -relative NAA technique developed in our laboratory is discussed. Examples are given to show the reliability of the method in certification of multielements. RNAA is still one of the best methods, or even the method of choice, in analysis at sub-μg/g concentration levels. The suitability of the technique for this purpose has been studied through the determination of rare earth elements at ng/g concentration level in two Chinese biological CRMs using both RNAA and ICPMS. Sampling behaviors of multielements in CRMs have been studied by INAA in an effort to develop CRMs suitable for analysis with small sample sizes. (author)

  8. Neutron activation analysis of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Simkova, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of usino. NAA (neutron activation analysis) for determining element traces in foodstuffs and their intake by organisms, for monitoring changes in the content of important trace elements in tissues and body fluids owing to environmental pollution, for verifying the results of other analytical techniques and for certifying the content of element traces in reference materials. Examples are given of the use of NAA, and the results are summed up of the determination of Cd, Mn and Zn in biological reference materials NBS SRM-1577, Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale, IAEA Milk Powder A-11 and IAEA Animal Muscle H-4. (E.S.)

  9. Support system for Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Fumio; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Sakurai, Fumio; Onizawa, Koji

    1999-01-01

    In the research reactor of JAERI, the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been utilized as a major part of an irradiation usage. To utilize NAA, research participants are always required to learn necessary technique. Therefore, we started to examine a support system that will enable to carry out INAA easily even by beginners. The system is composed of irradiation device, gamma-ray spectrometer and data analyzing instruments. The element concentration is calculated by using KAYZERO/SOLCOI software with the K 0 standardization method. In this paper, we review on a construction of this INAA support system in JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  10. Fast neutron activation analysis in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterlinski, S.

    1981-01-01

    Article discusses the usage of a 14 MeV neutron generator for producing fast neutrons of different energies and intensities. A complete instrumental set-up for the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is given. In metallurgy the device is mainly used in the determination of oxygen and silicon in steel and non-ferrous metal, including different alloys

  11. Study of comparison between neutron activation analysis and the other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsuka, Sumiko

    1986-01-01

    The neutron activation analysis (NAA) is compared with other analytical methods based on various data. It is concluded that NAA is most frequently used for the analysis of NBS environmental standard samples. NAA is suitable for the analysis of trace elements contained in environmental samples since non-destructive quantitative determination can be carried out simultaneously for different elements. NAA and XRF are the only methods which can be used for analyzing oil samples. This also indicates the usefulness of non-destructive techniques. In any standard sample, NAA can achieve a high accuracy for more than 90 % of the elements contained. On the other hand, the accuracy varies depending on the type of sample in the case of the other analytical methods examined. Regarding the prescision, NAA for any standard sample is the smallest in the proportion of the number of elements determined with C.V. (coefficient of variation) of less than 10 % to the total number of elements contained. However, the total number of elements which can be determined by NAA with C.V. of less than 10 % is greater than that by any of the other four methods examined. It should be noticed that there are some elements which can be determined only by NAA. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Body composition of two human cadavers by neutron activation and chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.S.; Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis (NAA) is currently used to measure body composition in metabolic and nutritional studies in many clinical situations, but has not previously been validated by comparison with chemical analysis of human cadavers. Total body nitrogen (TBN) and chlorine (TBCl) were measured in two human cadavers by NAA before homogenization and chemical analysis (CHEM) after (cadaver 1: TBN, 1.47 NAA, 1.51 CHEM; TBCl, 0.144 NAA, 0.147 CHEM; cadaver 2: TBN, 0.576 NAA, 0.572 CHEM; TBCl, 0.0227 NAA, 0.0250 CHEM). The homogenates were also analyzed by NAA, and no significant differences were found, indicating that the effects of elemental inhomogeneity on the measurement of TBN and TBCl are insignificant. Total body water, fat, protein, minerals, and carbohydrates were measured chemically for each cadaver and compared with estimates for these compartments obtained from a body composition model, which when used in vivo involves NAA and tritium dilution. The agreement found justifies the use of the model for the measurement of changes in total body protein, water, and fat in sequential studies in groups of patients

  13. Application of neutron activation analysis in determining the mineral contents of the olive fruit fly and its food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukas, A.G.; Grimanis, A.

    1978-01-01

    The composition of the olive fruit mesocarp and of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae, pupae in Na, K, Ca, Mg and Mn determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is reported. The AAS was used as a standard method to evaluate the results obtained by NAA because of problems encountered with this method. (Auth.)

  14. Development of Process Automation in the Neutron Activation Analysis Facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussup, N.; Azman, A.; Ibrahim, M.M.; Rahman, N.A.A.; Che Sohashaari, S.; Atan, M.N.; Hamzah, M.A.; Mokhtar, M.; Khalid, M.A.; Salim, N.A.A.; Hamzah, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been established in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) since 1980s. Most of the procedures established from sample registration to analysis are performed manually. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel are time consuming and inefficient. Hence, system automation is developed in order to provide an effective method to replace redundant manual data entries and produce faster sample analysis and calculation process. This report explains NAA process in Nuclear Malaysia and describes the automation development in detail which includes sample registration software, automatic sample changer system which consists of hardware and software; and sample analysis software. (author)

  15. Software for NAA sample changer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra Neto, Aimore; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: dutraa@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-RJ), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In CDTN/CNEN laboratories, the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique routinely employed. The irradiation is performed in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor. After irradiated, the samples depend of an operator to be changed, creating a bottle neck in the process. To optimize the whole process, an automation of the changing samples is necessary. In order to achieve this goal, it was developed a software to control a sample changer under construction at CDTN laboratories. Two programs, running in two different environments, manages the entire acquisition process and performs all activities necessary to move the motors to positioning the samples and control the vacuum to grip the vials. The high level routine communicates with Genie 2000 software to control a Canberra Multiport II, while a low level program controls the physical assemble. (author)

  16. Software for NAA sample changer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra Neto, Aimore; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.

    2015-01-01

    In CDTN/CNEN laboratories, the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique routinely employed. The irradiation is performed in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor. After irradiated, the samples depend of an operator to be changed, creating a bottle neck in the process. To optimize the whole process, an automation of the changing samples is necessary. In order to achieve this goal, it was developed a software to control a sample changer under construction at CDTN laboratories. Two programs, running in two different environments, manages the entire acquisition process and performs all activities necessary to move the motors to positioning the samples and control the vacuum to grip the vials. The high level routine communicates with Genie 2000 software to control a Canberra Multiport II, while a low level program controls the physical assemble. (author)

  17. NAA characterization of the new Bovine Liver SRM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Mackey, E.A.; Spatz, R.O.; Greenberg, R.R.; James, W.D.

    2008-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is preparing a freeze-dried powdered bovine liver tissue Standard Reference Material (SRM) to replace SRM 1577b Bovine Liver as the stock of this material was exhausted during 2006. Like the original SRM 1577 issued in 1972, this renewal focuses on the key elements for diagnostic, nutritional, and toxicological measurements that are important to medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences investigations. NIST's approach for value assignment included extensive characterization by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Difficulties in the determination of some elements present at very low levels were overcome by use of radiochemical separations. Twentyone elements were characterized in SRM 1577c by NAA. The previous materials, SRM 1577 and 1577b, served as quality control. (author)

  18. Provenance study of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.W.; Zhao, W.J.; Li, G.X.; Xie, J.Z.; Guo, M.; Gao, Z.Y.; Feng, S.L.; Fan, D.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z.F.; Zhuo, Z.X.

    2004-01-01

    The glaze samples of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The contents of 29 elements for each sample were measured. the scattergram of the coloring elements shows some informations of soueces of raw materials. (authors)

  19. Performance of NAA methods in an International Interlaboratory Reference Material Characterization Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihnat, M.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database of analytical results from a recent biological matrix Reference Material Characterization Campaign permitted an intercomparison of the performances of various methods among each other and with 'true' best estimate concentration values established for these materials. Six different variants of neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods were employed including: instrumental neutron activation analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis with acid digestion, neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation, neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis, epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis, and neutron activation analysis with preconcentration. The precision and accuracy performance of NAA-based analytical methods are compared with three other major techniques, atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES) and mass spectrometry (MS) for 28 elements in 10 natural matrix materials. (author)

  20. Application of high resolution x-ray spectrometry preceded by neutron activation for elemental analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Rivero, A.; Capote Rodriguez, G.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Herrera Peraza, E.

    1997-01-01

    Utilization of High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry preceded by activation of the samples by irradiation with neutron fluxes (NAA-RX) is a relatively modern trend in application of nuclear techniques. This method may complement advantageously the usual Neutron Activation Analysis by means of Gamma Spectrometry (NAA-G). In this work results obtained by the application of NAA-RX for non-destructive analysis of Cuban soil samples are discussed. The samples were irradiated with reactor neutron fluxes and the induced characteristic X-rays were measured by using Si(Li)-detector. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Eu as determined by NAA-RX are compared with both NAA-G and XRF data. For the elaboration of X-Ray and Gamma Spectra the computer programs AXIL and ACTAN were used respectively. (author) [es

  1. Application of high resolution x-ray spectrometry preceded by neutron activation for elemental analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Rivero, A.; Capote Rodriguez, G.; Herrera Peraza, E.

    1996-01-01

    Utilization of High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry preceded by activation of the samples by irradiation with neutron fluxes (NAA R X) is a relatively modern trend in application of nuclear techniques. This method may complement advantageously the usual Neutron Activation Analysis by means of Gamma Spectrometry (NAA-G) In this work results obtained by the application of NAA-RX for non-destructive analysis of Cuban soil samples are discussed. The samples were irradiated with reactor neutron fluxes and the induced characteristic X-rays were measured by using Si(li)-detector. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Eu as determined by NAA-RX are compared with both NAA-G and XRF data. For the elaboration of X-ray and Gamma Spectra the computer programs AXIL and ACTAN were used respectively

  2. Present status of neutron activation analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, in spite of its many advantageous features, is less widely used than some alternative trace element techniques, and has been losing ground during the last decade. In the environmental field however there are still many problems which can be solved in a better way by the contribution of NAA. The combination of multi-element capability and high accuracy is of great importance in many studies related to atmospheric trace elements. Also in aquatic studies NAA still has a significant role to play. Applications to soils, sediments, and plant material have so far been limited, but there is a place for further development. The scope of NAA in environmental research may be extended by further use of pre-irradiation separations. NAA is particularly important in the certification of analytical reference materials in the environmental field. In future applications of NAA an appropriate combination with other analytical techniques will often be a requisite for success. The general future of NAA is dependent on the availability of nuclear reactors, radiochemical laboratoties and appropriate competence. 21 references

  3. The use of high accuracy NAA for the certification of NIST botanical standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.; Greenberg, R.R.; Stone, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). NAA competes favorably with all other techniques because of it's unique capabilities for high accuracy even at very low concentrations for many elements. In this paper, instrumental and radiochemical NAA results are described for 25 elements in two new NIST SRMs, SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and SRM 1547 (Peach Leaves), and are compared to the certified values for 19 elements in these two new botanical reference materials. (author) 7 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Determination of U, Th and K for optically stimulated luminescence dating by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yali; Chen Zhe; Wu Weiming

    2010-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques have been widely used in northern Loess ancient soil series and recorded climate environment change, ancient earthquake, the ancients site and archaeology research. The determination of U, Th and K using neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been optimized for the samples related to OSL dating research. The procedure for determination of U, Th, K in loess have been fixed by using Miniature neutron source reactor. This procedure of NAA will provide a reliable data base for optically stimulated luminescence dating research. (authors)

  5. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  6. Naa Technique for Clinical Investigation of Mice Immunized with BOTHROP Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Aguiar, R. O.; Kovacs, L.; Suzuki, M.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  7. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahovschi, V; Zamboni, C B; Silva, L F F Lopes; Metairon, S; Medeiros, I M M A

    2015-01-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities. (paper)

  8. Differences in iron concentration in whole blood of animal models using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahovschi, V.; Zamboni, C. B.; Lopes Silva, L. F. F.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA) was applied to determine Fe concentration in whole blood samples of several animal models such as: mice (Mus musculus), Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Wistar rats, Albinic Rabbits of New Zealand, Golden Retriever dogs and Crioulabreed horses. These results were compared with human whole blood estimation to check their similarities.

  9. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  10. Study of some environmental problem in egypt using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Karim, A.H.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    this thesis deals with the investigation of the possibility of using the new (second) egyptian research reactor (ETRR-2) at Inshas (22 MW) for the neutron activation analysis (ANN) of trace elements, particularly in air dust, collected from cairo and some other cities of egypt. in this concern chapter 1 gives an introduction about the activation methods in general, describing the various techniques used and a comparison of the methods with other instrumental methods of analysis . as a main classification, the neutron activation methods involve prompt γ-ray NAA and delayed γ-ray NAA; cyclic NAA (repeated activation) was also outlined. the methodology of NAA involves the absolute method, the relative method and the mono standard (single comparator) method , which is in between the absolute and relative methods

  11. Validation of NAA Method for Urban Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Muhayatun; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques have been applied in many countries for determination of environmental pollutant. Method of NAA (neutron activation analysis) representing one of nuclear analytical technique of that has low detection limits, high specificity, high precision, and accuracy for large majority of naturally occurring elements, and ability of non-destructive and simultaneous determination of multi-elemental, and can handle small sample size (< 1 mg). To ensure quality and reliability of the method, validation are needed to be done. A standard reference material, SRM NIST 1648 Urban Particulate Matter, has been used to validate NAA method. Accuracy and precision test were used as validation parameters. Particulate matter were validated for 18 elements: Ti, I, V, Br, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Al, As, Fe, Co, Zn, Ag, La, Cr, and Sm,. The result showed that the percent relative standard deviation of the measured elemental concentrations are found to be within ranged from 2 to 14,8% for most of the elements analyzed whereas Hor rat value in range 0,3-1,3. Accuracy test results showed that relative bias ranged from -11,1 to 3,6%. Based on validation results, it can be stated that NAA method is reliable for characterization particulate matter and other similar matrix samples to support air quality monitoring. (author)

  12. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  13. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  14. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J.

    2007-06-01

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  15. Study on neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Cho, Seung Yeon

    1993-01-01

    Environmental samples were analyzed quantitatively by neutron activation analysis using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the method were checked by the analysis of reference materials, Urban Particulate Matter (NBS SRM 1648) and Coalfly ash (NBS SRM 1633a). Airborne particulates collected for 6 months with low volume air sampler at the outer area of Seoul were analyzed as the start of full scale airborne particulates research. We analyzed 19 trace elements from the samples and the NAA method was confirmed to be utilized for environmental pollution research. (Author)

  16. NAA in characterization of matrices at ACD, BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan A, Nicy; Swain, Kallola K.; Kayasth, Satish

    2006-01-01

    The use of characterization in material science means an approach that indicates those features of materials related to its composition and structure. In simple terms, characterization of a material means what atoms are present and where they are. In general characterization deals with the complete and accurate information of composition of the material (major, minor, trace elements) for specific application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is identified as one of the most powerful analytical technique useful for performing both qualitative and quantitative multi-element analysis of major, minor, and trace elements in almost every conceivable field of scientific/technical interest and is extensively used for wide variety of materials

  17. Neutron activation analysis as analytical tool of environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) ia applicable to the sample of wide range of research fields, such as material science, biology, geochemistry and so on. However, respecting the advantages of NAA, a sample with small amounts or a precious sample is the most suitable samples for NAA, because NAA is capable of trace analysis and non-destructive determination. In this paper, among these fields, NAA of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sample is discussed emphasizing on the use of obtained data as an analytical tool of environmental issue. Concentration of PM in air is usually very low, and it is not easy to get vast amount of sample even using a high volume air sampling devise. Therefore, high sensitive NAA is suitable to determine elements in PM samples. Main components of PM is crust oriented silicate, and so on in rural/remote area, and carbonic materials and heavy metals are concentrated in PM in urban area, because of automobile exhaust and other anthropogenic emission source. Elemental pattern of PM reflects a condition of air around the monitoring site. Trends of air pollution can be traced by periodical monitoring of PM by NAA method. Elemental concentrations in air change by season. For example, crustal elements increase in dry season, and sea salts components increase their concentration when wind direction from sea is dominant. Elements that emitted from anthropogenic sources are mainly contained in fine portion of PM, and increase their concentration during winter season, when emission from heating system is high and air is stable. For further analysis and understanding of environmental issues, indicator elements for various emission sources, and elemental concentration ratios of some environmental samples and source portion assignment techniques are useful. (author)

  18. Practical aspects of operating a neutron activation analysis laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This book is intended to advise in everyday practical problems related to operating a neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory. It gives answers to questions like ''what to use NAA for'', ''how to find relevant research problems'', ''how to find users for the technique'', ''how to estimate the cost of the analysis and how to finance the work'', ''how to organize the work in a rational way'' and ''how to perform the quality control''. It gives advice in choosing staff, equipment, and consumables and how to design facilities and procedures according to need and available resources. Potential applications of economic or environmental importance, reactor facilities, counting and measuring equipment of the lab, cooperation with other analytical groups and competitiveness of NAA are discussed by experienced analysts. The compiled 8 tables of data useful for neutron activation analysts are a valuable asset for research labs as well as industrial quality control units. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Identification of unknown sample using NAA, EDXRF, XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, Aditi A.; Swain, K.K.; Chavan, Trupti; Remya Devi, P.S.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) receives samples from law enforcement agencies such as Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs for analysis. Five unknown grey powdered samples were received for identification and were suspected to be Iridium (Ir). Identification of unknown sample is always a challenging task and suitable analytical techniques have to be judiciously utilized for arriving at the conclusion. Qualitative analysis was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer at ACD, BARC. A SLP series LEO Si (Li) detector (active area: 30 mm 2 ; thickness: 3.5 mm; resolution: 140 eV at 5.9 keV of Mn K X-ray) was used during the measurement and only characteristic X-rays of Ir (Lα: 9.17 keV and Lβ: 10.70 keV) was seen in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results indicated that the Ir was in the form of metal. To confirm the XRD data, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out by irradiating samples and elemental standards (as comparator) in graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After suitable decay period, gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. Characteristic gamma line at 328.4 keV of the activation product 194 Ir was used for quantification of iridium and relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. NAA results confirmed that all the samples were Iridium metal. (author)

  20. A software architectural framework specification for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.A.; Grant, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is a sensitive multi-element nuclear analytical technique that has been routinely applied by research reactor (RR) facilities to environmental, nutritional, health related, geological and geochemical studies. As RR facilities face calls to increase their research output and impact, with existing or reducing budgets, automation of NAA offers a possible solution. However, automation has many challenges, not the least of which is a lack of system architecture standards to establish acceptable mechanisms for the various hardware/software and software/software interactions among data acquisition systems, specialised hardware such as sample changers, sample loaders, and data processing modules. This lack of standardization often results in automation hardware and software being incompatible with existing system components, in a facility looking to automate its NAA operations. This limits the availability of automation to a few RR facilities with adequate budgets or in-house engineering resources. What is needed is a modern open system architecture for NAA, that provides the required set of functionalities. This paper describes such an 'architectural framework' (OpenNAA), and portions of a reference implementation. As an example of the benefits, calculations indicate that applying this architecture to the compilation and QA steps associated with the analysis of 35 elements in 140 samples, with 14 SRM's, can reduce the time required by over 80 %. The adoption of open standards in the nuclear industry has been very successful over the years in promoting interchangeability and maximising the lifetime and output of nuclear measurement systems. OpenNAA will provide similar benefits within the NAA application space, safeguarding user investments in their current system, while providing a solid path for development into the future. (author)

  1. Determination of organic fluorine in aqueous samples with neutron activation analysis in comparison with the DIN method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollinger, D. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Kratz, K.L. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been used as detection technique for adsorbable organic fluorine in aqueous samples. The results have been compared with the standardized DIN method which uses a fluoride-ion-selective electrode (ISE). (orig.). With 3 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of relative comparator and k0-NAA for characterization of Aboriginal Australian ochre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popelka-Filcoff, R.S.; Lenehan, C.E.; Quinton, J.S.; Bennett, J.W.; Stopic, A.; Allan Pring; Keryn Walshe

    2012-01-01

    Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical 'fingerprint'. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity (sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k 0 -NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in 'fingerprinting' the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed. (author)

  3. Optimization of information properties of NAA with respect to information content and profitability of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Eckschlager, K.

    1986-01-01

    Information properties of analytical results together with other important parameters especially economic ones can be used for the optimization of analytical procedures. Therefore, we have proposed a computational technique for the optimization of multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) based on the information content and profitability. The optimization starts with the prediction of the γ-ray spectra to be expected during analysis under given experimental conditions (sample size, irradiation, decay and counting times etc.) and with the calculation of detection and determination limits. In the next step, the information contents for the determination of particular elements and for the simultaneous determination of element groups are computed. The information content depends or is closely connected with such properties of the method as selectivity, snesitivity, precision, accuracy and, as in the other cases of trace analysis, also with the detection limit. Then, the information profitability (IP) taking into account the information content and relevance (appreciation of specific information according to its contribution to the solution of a given problem) together wit economic aspects can be calculated. This function can be used for the optimization of a particular NAA procedure, for the mutual comparison of different variants of NAA and also for the comparison with other analytical methods. The use of information profitability for the optimization of NAA is shown on a practical example of the INAA analysis of urban particulate matter SRN 1648 produced by NBS (USA). (author)

  4. Automatic sample changer for neutron activation analysis at CDTN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimore Dutra Neto; Oliveira Pelaes, Ana Clara; Jacimovic, Radojko

    2018-01-01

    An automatic sample changer was recently developed and installed in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory. The certified reference material BCR-320R, Channel Sediment, was analysed in order to verify the reliability of the results obtained by NAA, k 0 -standardisation method, using this automatic system during the gamma-ray measurement step. The results were compared to those manually obtained. The values pointed out that the automatic sample changer is working properly. This changer will increase the productiveness of the neutron activation technique applied at Nuclear Technology Development Centre, CDTN/CNEN expanding its competitiveness as an analytical technique in relation to other techniques. (author)

  5. Activities of the neutron activation analysis laboratory of the radiochemistry division of IPEN - CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of the relevant applications of nuclear research reactors. Due to the high neutron fluxes available in these reactors, an excellent sensitivity of analysis is attained for many elements. NAA is one of the most sensitive, precise and accurate analytical methods for trace element determination. NAA has been one of the main activities of the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN, since the beginning of the operation of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1. Most of the effort was devoted to research work, aimed to improvements in the method as well as to its applications to several kinds of matrixes (geological, biological, metallic, environmental, forensic). Besides, analytical services were also offered, to the CNEN, to industries, universities, mining companies and research institutes. In the present paper, a review is made of the research work being developed presently at the Radiochesmitry Division of IPEN. A discussion is also made of the planned expansion of the analytical services offered [pt

  6. Development of the NAA Laboratory for an Accreditation Obtains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Wardani; Rina M, Th.; Sunarko, M.; Ratnawati, E.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of capability of the neutron activation analysis comparative method and laboratory equipment at P2TRR have been performed by analyzed a reference standard materials prepared by NIST, namely: SRM 1646a and SRM 1648 by a both of comparative and ko- NAA methods. From the analysis results used a comparative method shown that the method and laboratory equipment used at P2TRR obtained in a good precision, accuracy and high sensitivity. In this experiments a few elements could analyzed, namely: V, Ti, Mn, Cl, As, Sm, La, Na, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Se, Br, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, Ce, W, U, and Zn. The deviation values results compared with certificate values (NIST) obtained in a range 2 - 12.5% with confidence levels in range 68 - 98%. While, a reference standard material of SRM 1648 analyzed by k 0 -NAA method shown that the method need more research and study continued. From the qualitatively analysis results for short-lived nuclides category analysis by k 0 -NAA could identified a few elements, namely: V, Cu, Na, As and U with standard deviation values in range 1- 11% and limit detection values are 1.6 (U), 6.4 (Cu), 11.2 (V), 73.3 (As) and 199.9 (Na) μg/g for a SRM 1648. For analysis of CRM 8 the results obtained on standard deviation values in range 1 - 13 % and limit detection of 0.71 (Cu), 1.2 (As), 2.4 (V) and 375.9 (Na) μg/g. (author)

  7. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de; Avegliano, Roseane P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  8. Neutron activation analysis is 60 years old: Is it time for retirement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the past 60 yr, NAA (neutron activation analysis) has become an outstanding analytical technique for quite a few elements. In earlier days, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) with postirradiation radiochemical separations was the dominant version. In the last 25 yr, after introduction of high-resolution germanium semiconductor detectors in combination with sophisticated electronics and software, instrumental NAA (INAA) became the predominant version. The characteristic features of NAA are (a) multielement capability; (b) generally good selectivity; (c) low determination limits for quite a few elements; (d) no effect of the chemical state of the analyte; (e) relatively small matrix effects; (f) absence or minimization of the blank value; (g) simple calibration; (h) analysis of samples up to kilograms, physically independent method compared to other trace-element techniques; and (h) easily definable sources of systematic or random errors

  9. Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Zhu; Wentao Hao; Jianming Zhen; Tongxiu Zhen; Glascock, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an important technique to determine the provenance of ancient ceramics. The most common technique used for preparing ancient samples for NAA is to grind them into a powder and then encapsulate them before neutron irradiation. Unfortunately, ceramic materials are typically very hard making it a challenge to grind them into a powder. In this study we utilize bulk porcelain samples cut from ancient shards. The bulk samples are irradiated by neutrons alongside samples that have been conventionally ground into a powder. The NAA for both the bulk samples and powders are compared and shown to provide equivalent information regarding their chemical composition. Also, the multivariate statistical have been employed to the analysis data for check the consistency. The findings suggest that NAA results are less dependent on the state of the porcelain sample, and thus bulk samples cut from shards may be used to effectively determine their provenance. (author)

  10. Activation analysis of ground water of Chandigarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water samples from Chandigarh were analysed for 22 trace elements using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. These samples were drawn from shallow aquifers using hand pumps. It was found that for most of the elements the concentrations were well within the ISI/WHO recommended values. However, samples collected from the industrial belt of the city showed higher concentrations of trace elements, particularly some toxic ones. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  11. New opportunities for the enhanced NAA services through the research reactor coalitions and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danas Ridikas; Pablo Adelfang; Kevin Alldred; Marta Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of research reactors (RRs) is steadily decreasing, more than half of the operational RRs are still heavily underutilized, and in most cases, underfunded. The decreasing and rather old fleet of RRs needs to ensure the provision of useful services to the community, in some cases with adequate revenue generation for reliable, safe and secure facility management and operations. Enhancement of low and medium power research reactor (RR) utilization is often pursued by increasing the neutron activation analysis (NAA) activities. In this paper we will present the strategy and concrete actions how NAA as one of the most popular RR applications can contribute to the above goals in particular through (a) RR coalitions and networks, (b) implementation of automation in different stages of NAA, (c) QA/QC, including skills improvement of involved personnel, (d) dedicated proficiency tests performed by a number of targeted analytical laboratories. We also show that despite the IAEA's efforts, some of the NAA laboratories still perform badly in proficiency tests, do not have formal QA/QC procedures implemented, have not implemented automation to process large number of samples or lack of clear marketing strategies. Some concrete actions are proposed and outlined to address these issues in the near future. (author)

  12. Certification of standard reference materials employing neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Molina Insfran, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Santana Encinosa, C.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (Naa) is used extensively as one of the analytical techniques in the certification of standard reference materials (Srm). Characteristics of Naa which make it valuable in this role are: accuracy; multielemental capability; ability to assess homogeneity; high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially non-destructive method. This paper reports the concentrations of thirty elements (major, minor and trace elements) in four Cuban Srm's. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 -10 13 neutrons.cm -2 .s -1 . The gamma-ray spectra were measured by HPGe detectors and were analysed using ACTAN program, developed in CEADEN. (author) [es

  13. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading.

  14. Control of pneumatic transfer system for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Wu, J. S.; Kim, H. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Baek, S. Y.

    2000-06-01

    Pneumatic transfer system(PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in irradiation of target materials for neutron activation analysis(NAA) in the research reactor. There are two systems the manual and the automatic system in PTS of HANARO research reactor. The pneumatic transfer system consists of many devices, sends and loads the capsules from NAA laboratory into three holes in the reflector tank of reactor and retrieves irradiated capsules after irradiation. This report describes the part's design, control system and the operation procedures. All the algorithm described in the text will be used for maintenance and upgrading

  15. Principle of neutron activation analysis and its use for determination of trace elements in sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Neutron Activation analysis (NAA) is a multi element analysis technique, often non-destructive in nature where approximately 75 elements can be measured with the detection limits ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -12 g of element in a sample. Typical sample sizes range from 1 mg to 1 g, however in principle much larger samples can be activated and the size is only limited by the capacity of the neutron irradiation facility. In NAA, a sample (solid or liquid or gas) is exposed to neutrons and radiations emitted by the radioactive products, formed during the nuclear reaction, are measured using a suitable detector. The energy of the emitted radiation is a characteristic of a radioisotope whereas the intensity of the emitted radiation is proportional to the mass of the analyte. NAA can be carried out by measurement of (i) prompt gamma rays emitted by compound nucleus, called prompt gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) and (ii) β rays emitted from radioactive product or delayed gamma rays emitted subsequent to β decay, called conventional NAA or simply NAA. PGNAA is an online measurement method. PGNAA is complementary to conventional NAA in terms of analyzing low Z elements. Conventional NAA is an offline method and is easy to perform. Depending upon the nature of matrix and analyte to be determined, three approaches are possible in NAA namely, (i) instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), (ii) radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), and (iii) chemical neutron activation analysis (CNAA). Quantification is accomplished by any of the three standardisation methodologies namely (i) absolute method (ii) relative method and (iii) single comparator method. The relative method is most precise and simple to perform. Natural processes responsible for the formation of bottom sediments can be altered by anthropogenic activities. Bottom sediments are a sink as well as a source of contaminants in the aquatic environment. Analysis of-sediments provides environmentally significant

  16. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, N.; Basu, A.K.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Shukla, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  17. Improving the effectiveness of geological prospecting with neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Two examples of the use of neutron activation analysis to improve the effectiveness of geological prospecting are examined. The first is application to the direct hydrogeochemical prospecting for gold in surface waters. The second shows how multielement data banks produced by NAA for a geological formation provide a powerful method for the classification of ore bodies and sedimentary materials

  18. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Espen, P. van; Torres, P.P. Godo

    2006-01-01

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a 241 Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery

  19. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  20. NAA of organohalogens in air particles and precipitation in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinnian; Yu Tailiu; Guo Junpeng; Xiong Youyou; Luo Wenyun

    2006-01-01

    Organohalogens are ubiquitous pollutants which are especially controlled in many countries and their behaviors in environment become the hot topic in environment science. By the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) combined with chemical separation, the extractable organohalogens (EOX) in environmental samples were determined. NAA is a nuclear analysis method, which has high sensibility and high precision. The detection limits were 50ng, 8ng, 3.5ng for Cl, Br, I, respectively. The principle is that when the sample was irradiated by thermal neutron, the energies and the intensities of γ ray of halogen nuclides ( 38 Cl, E γ =1642keV, t 1/2 =37.24min; 80 Br,E γ =617keV, t 1/2 =17.68min; 128 I, E γ =443keV, t 1/2 =24.99min)produced by nuclear reaction can be measured. Total content of halogens were analyzed and the organochlorines, organobromines and organoiodines in the samples were detected. In this paper, NAA and gas chromatography (GC) were used to determine organohalogens in air particles and precipitation samples in Jiading District, Shanghai, collected between December 2004 and August 2005. Extractable organohalogens (EOX), extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs) in atmosphere were analyzed. The effect of preference for absorbance of organohalogens in fine air particles has been found. The sources for organochlorines in atmospheres are miscellaneous, while organobromine unitary and its possible souce is PBDEs. The contamination levels of HCH and DDT that are forbidden from 1983 in our country are coming down every year, but still being affected by transfusing of pesticides. The migration of lower chloro-diphenyls and HCH in ecosphere is larger than higher chloro-diphenyls, DDT and its metabolites. This work is supported by Foundation of Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. K117). (authors)

  1. NaA zeolite derived from blast furnace slag: its application for ammonium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwei; Tang, Lizhen; Yan, Bingji; Wan, Kang; Li, Peng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, high value added NaA zeolite material was prepared from blast furnace (BF) slag by hydrothermal method and its adsorption behavior on the removal of ammonium ion was investigated. It was found out that the synthetic NaA cubic zeolite with smaller crystal size obtained at nSiO 2 /nAl 2 O 3 = 2 and nH 2 O/nNaOH = 20 showed better adsorption performance. The kinetics of the adsorption of ammonium ion by synthesized NaA zeolite was fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intra-particle diffusion modeling reveals that two mixed rate-controlling mechanisms were involved in the adsorption process. The relatively high value of activation energy of 92.3 kJ·mol -1 indicates a high impact of temperature on the adsorption rate, and the nature of ammonium adsorption is chemical reaction rather than physisorption. Based on the thermodynamics calculations, the adsorption of ammonium was found to be an endothermic, spontaneous process. The adsorption isothermal analysis showed that the Langmuir model could be well fitted and a maximum adsorption capacity of 83.3 mg·g -1 of NH 4 + was obtained. Thus, it was demonstrated that by forming low cost NaA zeolite and using it for environmental remediation, the synchronous minimization of BF slag and ammonia nitrogen contamination could be achieved.

  2. Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausova, Ivana; Kucera, Jan; Dostalek, Pavel; Potesil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29 Si(n,p) 29 Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)

  3. Determination of Sr, Ba, Rb, and Cs in biological reference materials using a radiochemical NAA group separation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizera, J.; Randa, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Strontium, barium, rubidium, and cesium in selected, predominantly biological, reference materials (NIST 1515, 1547, 1549, 1566a, 1571, 1577b, 2704, CTA-OTL-1, and Bowen's Kale) were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two different analytical modes - instrumental NAA with epithermal neutrons (ENAA), and NAA with radiochemical group separation of Sr-Ba and Rb-Cs (RNAA). The ENAA mode was based on long-term (5 h) irradiation of samples in a Cd shielding. The RNAA procedure was based on long-term (20 h) irradiation of samples, their decomposition / dissolution by alkaline-oxidative fusion, and precipitation of Sr and Ba sulfates, and sorption of Rb and Cs onto ammonium phosphomolybdate (APM). Both methods provided element contents in the analyzed reference materials consistent with certified and/or literature values. (author)

  4. k0-NAA past the turn of the century: problems, concepts, insights, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, F. De

    2002-01-01

    For the k 0 -standardization of NAA, the transition to the 21st century was marked by two important events. In 2000: MARC-V (Kona, HI, USA), which offered the opportunity to present a retrospective lecture on 'The standardization of standardless NAA'; and, in 2001: the 3rd International k 0 Users Workshop (Bruges, Belgium), providing a survey of recent and ongoing projects related to both fundamental developments and applications. These two turn-of-the-century happenings paved the way to gain a broader and deeper insight in the past, present and future developments of the k 0 -standardization, thus allowing to make in the present paper an evaluation of the path that the k 0 -method is expected to follow in the years to come. Topics highlighted are: (i) the elimination of a few but important inaccuracies observed (as a feedback from actual analysis results) in the nuclear data library; (ii) the refinement to be made in the calibration of the irradiation facility, especially in the characterisation of the epithermal neutron flux shape factor alpha; (iii) the continuation of the development and use of the k 0 -concept in prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis; (iv) the increased communication and interaction of (k 0 ) NAA-users via the re-born k 0 -website; (v) the dissemination (via IRMM, EC, Geel, Belgium) and use of the recently issued SMELS materials, synthetic multi-element standards for QC/QA and validation of k 0 -NAA after its implementation in a laboratory; and (vi) the further growth of the use of the k 0 -calibration in NAA, with emphasis on the developing countries. (author)

  5. Implementation of κ0-NAA at the NAA No.1 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    κ 0 -NAA is known as one of the most remarkable progresses of the NAA with it's many advantages. Efforts have been made to implement of κ 0 -NAA method at the NAA No.1 irradiation position where the neutrons are well thermalized in the HANARO research reactor, KAERI, Korea. For this objective, the α and f values were measured and the values were 0.127 and 1014, respectively. To evaluate the applicability of κ 0 -NAA in our analytical system, the analysis of three kinds of SRMs was executed. The analytical results showed that the relative error of most of the elements was less than 10 % and the U-scores were within 2. In addition, for a routine analysis by κ 0 -NAA, an attempt was made to apply a program called 'ADVNAA' developed by the China Institute of Atomic Energy, China. Consequently, the ADVNAA program which was modified for our measurement system turned out to be available for a practical application of air particulates

  6. The evaluation of accuracy of NAA method used by P2TRR laboratory with food standard reference material analysis; Evaluasi akurasi lab. AAN P2TRR dengan analisis cuplikan standar acuan bahan makanan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rina M, Th; Sri-Wardhani,; Sunarko, [Center for Development of Research Reactor Technology (Indonesia)

    2003-05-15

    The NAA method is the analysis method with high precision and accuracy level. The precision and accuracy of NAA laboratory in P2TRR had been evaluated with SRM 1573a Tomato Leaf and CRM No.9 Sargasso. Samples were irradiated in RSG-GAS's rabbit system and counted with gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from this research are for the SRM 1573a sample the test could analyze 17 elements of the 40 certified elements, and for CRM No.9 sample the test could analyze 16 elements of the 30 certified elements. The result of quantitative analysis indicate the different deviation of each element between 2 -10.5 % compared to the certificate data. This deviation value <15%, this value shows that the precision and accuracy level is good enough.

  7. Analysis of consumed fish species by neutron activation analysis in six Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Ni, B.F.; Theresia, R.M.; Salim, N.A.A.; Arporn, B.; Vu, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Fish were selected as a common target sample for a collaborative study of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia)-NAA (neutron activation analysis) project in 2011. Six Asian countries took part in this work. Fish samples were purchased from commercial markets and prepared by following an agreed protocol. Toxic and essential elements in the prepared samples were determined by NAA. The concentration levels of As, Hg in many fish samples have higher values than the regulation ones. The fish contamination by heavy metals should be monitored continuously for human health. (author)

  8. Neutron activation analysis of gold and prospectiveness of its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Chunhan.

    1988-01-01

    NAA of gold is a method of high sensitivity and high percision, especially when epithermal neutron activation is applied. NAA is particularly emphasized in the process of gold reference standards preparation. In addition to the pure instrumental NAA, the NAA with pre-enrichment before sctivation is developed. This technque has been successfully used in assessment of micro and fine grained Au-Ag-phlymetal ores in Guixian, Guangxi. Through this example, prospectiveness of NAA application in Au-Ag-prospecting, fast assessment and trace element geochemistry investigation is seen

  9. Utilization and facility of neutron activation analysis in HANARO research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.S.; Chung, Y.J.; Moon, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The facilities of neutron activation analysis within a multi-purpose research reactor (HANARO) are described and the main applications of Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Korea are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system, are installed at three irradiation holes. One irradiation hole is lined with a cadmium tube for epithermal-nal NAA. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of tube transfer system, irradiation sites and polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron flux with each irradiation site are in the range of 3.9x10 13 -1.6x10 14 n/cm 2 ·s and cadmium ratios are 15-250. Neutron activation analysis has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials and various polymers for research and development. Analytical services and the latest analytical results are summarized. (author)

  10. Utilization and facility of neutron activation analysis in HANARO research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y S; Chung, Y J; Moon, J H [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 105 Yusong, 305-600, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    The facilities of neutron activation analysis within a multi-purpose research reactor (HANARO) are described and the main applications of Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Korea are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system, are installed at three irradiation holes. One irradiation hole is lined with a cadmium tube for epithermal-nal NAA. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of tube transfer system, irradiation sites and polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron flux with each irradiation site are in the range of 3.9x10{sup 13}-1.6x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are 15-250. Neutron activation analysis has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials and various polymers for research and development. Analytical services and the latest analytical results are summarized. (author)

  11. NAA using the photoneutrons of a Linac as a neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera P, E.; De Leon M, H. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Soto B, T.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2012-10-01

    Linear accelerators working above 8 MV produce photoneutrons that represent a radiological risk in the patient and hospital staff. In this work a moderator has been designed in the aim to use the photoneutron field to perform neutron activation analysis (NAA) of small samples. The moderator has been designed using Monte Carlo methods, here the photoneutron spectrum is modified by the moderator having the maximum thermal neutron flux in the moderator cavity where the sample to be analyzed is located. (Author)

  12. Role of NAA in characterizations of sampling behaviors of multiple elements in CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    1997-01-01

    Taking the advantage of high precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis (NAA), sampling constants have been determined for multielements in several international and Chinese reference materials. The suggested technique may be used for finding elements in existing CRMs qualified for quality control (QC) of small size samples (several mg or less), and characterizing sampling behaviors of multielements in new CRMs specifically made for QC of microanalysis

  13. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  14. Role of NAA in determination and characterisation of sampling behaviours of multiple elements in CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    2002-01-01

    Taking the advantage of high precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis (NAA), sampling constants have been determined for multielements in several international and Chinese reference materials. The suggested technique may be used for finding elements in existing CRMs qualified for quality control (QC) of small size samples (several mg or less), and characterizing sampling behaviors of multielements in new CRMs specifically made for QC of microanalysis. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis. Criterion method for evaluation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.; Schoknecht, P.; Pond, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    Total body neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to examine the elemental composition of 22 piglets in the weight range 0.7 kg to 3.4 kg. The accuracy of the NAA technique, compared to direct chemical carcass analysis, established it as an equivalent chemical criterion (reference) method. The body composition of 14 human infant cadavers was also examined by NAA and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The DXA-derived lean, fat, and bone compartments were compared with an NAA chemical model of composition. Each of the three compartments was significantly correlated (r=0.85-0.95.p<0.001) for the two independent assay, although there were substantial differences for the estimated size of the compartments for individual infants. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future

  17. Activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis in the Radiochemistry Division - IPEN/CNEN/SP/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of the relevant applications of nuclear research reactors. Due to the high neutron fluxes available in these reactors, an excellent sensitivity of analysis is attained for many elements. NAA is one of the most sensitive, precise and accurate analytical methods for trace element determination. NAA has been one of the main activities of the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN, since the befinning of the operation of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1. Most of the effort was devoted to research work, aimed to improvements in the method as well as to its applications to several kinds of matrixes (geological, biological, metallic, environmental, forensic). Besides, analytical services were also offered, to the CNEN, to industries, universities, mining companies and research institutes. In the present paper, a review is made of the research work being developed presently at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN. A discussion is also made of the planned expansion of the analytical services offered. (author) [pt

  18. Neutron activation analysis of high pure uranium using preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Rakhimov, A.V.; Salimov, M.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Uranium and its compounds are used as nuclear fuel, and requirements for purity of initial uranium are very high. Therefore highly sensitive and multielemental analysis of uranium is required. One of such methods is neutron activation analysis (NAA). During irradiation of uranium by nuclear reactor neutrons the induced radioactivity of a sample is formed by uranium radionuclide 239 U (T 1/2 = 23,4 min.) and its daughter radionuclide 239 Np (T 1/2 = 2,39 d). Short-lived 239 U almost completely decays in 24 hours after irradiation and the radioactivity of the sample is mainly due to 239 Np and is more than 10 9 Bq for 0.1 g of uranium sample (F = 1*10 14 cm -2 s -1 , t irr . = 5 h). That is why nondestructive determination of the impurities is impossible and they should be separated from 239 Np. When irradiated uranium yields fission products - radionuclides of some elements with mass numbers 91-104 and 131-144. The main problem in NAA of uranium is to take into account correctly the influence of fission products on the analysis results. We have developed a radiochemical separation procedure for RNAA of uranium [1]. Comparing the results of analysis carried out by radiochemical NAA and instrumental NAA with preconcentration of trace elements can be used for evaluating the interference of fission products on uranium analysis results. Preconcentration of trace elements have been carried out by extraction chromatography in 'TBP - 6M HNO 3 ' system [1]. Experiments have shown that if 0.1 g uranium sample is taken for analysis (F = 1*10 14 cm -2 s -1 , t irr . =5 h) the apparent concentration of Y, Zr, Mo, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd exceeds the true concentration by 2500-3000 times and so determination of these elements is not possible by radiochemical NAA. (author)

  19. The provenance investigation on ancient chinese Ru porcelains by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua

    1997-01-01

    The 28 samples of glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelains are analyzed by neutron activation. The 36 element contents in each sample are determined. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) data are analyzed by fuzzy cluster. The trend cluster diagram is obtained. The result shows that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelains were most probably from the same raw material source though they were from different time, fired in different kilns and in different colors. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. The two modern Ru porcelains approximate to ancient Ru porcelains, one becomes estranged from ancient Ru porcelains. Jingdezhen porcelain is unconcerned with Ru porcelains

  20. Neutron activation analysis detection limits using 252Cf sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPrete, D.P.; Sigg, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) developed a neutron activation analysis (NAA) facility several decades ago using low-flux 252 Cf neutron sources. Through this time, the facility has addressed areas of applied interest in managing the Savannah River Site (SRS). Some applications are unique because of the site's operating history and its chemical-processing facilities. Because sensitivity needs for many applications are not severe, they can be accomplished using an ∼6-mg 252 Cf NAA facility. The SRTC 252 Cf facility continues to support applied research programs at SRTC as well as other SRS programs for environmental and waste management customers. Samples analyzed by NAA include organic compounds, metal alloys, sediments, site process solutions, and many other materials. Numerous radiochemical analyses also rely on the facility for production of short-lived tracers, yielding by activation of carriers and small-scale isotope production for separation methods testing. These applications are more fully reviewed in Ref. 1. Although the flux [approximately2 x 10 7 n/cm 2 ·s] is low relative to reactor facilities, more than 40 elements can be detected at low and sub-part-per-million levels. Detection limits provided by the facility are adequate for many analytical projects. Other multielement analysis methods, particularly inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, can now provide sensitivities on dissolved samples that are often better than those available by NAA using low-flux isotopic sources. Because NAA allows analysis of bulk samples, (a) it is a more cost-effective choice when its sensitivity is adequate than methods that require digestion and (b) it eliminates uncertainties that can be introduced by digestion processes

  1. Activation analysis in Europe: present and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.; Hoste, J.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the present-day European contribution to activation analysis, covering neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Attention is paid to the available irradiation facilities, in particular nuclear reactors, cyclotrons and Van de Graaff accelerators, and linear electron accelerators. Mention is made of progress in fundamental fields, but the attention is especially focussed on practical applications: environmental, geochemical/cosmochemical, biological/medical, and high-purity materials. Eventually, the role of activation analysis in research projects of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and in the Reference Materials program of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is emphasized

  2. A study of environmental polluting factors by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)

  3. The Comparison Study of Neutron Activation Analysis and Fission Track Technique for Uranium Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirinuntavid, Alice; Rodthongkom, Chouvana

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Comparison between Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and fission track technique for uranium determination in solid samples was studied by use of standard reference materials, i.e., ore, coal fly ash, soil. For NAA, the epithermal neutron was applied for activated irradiation. Then, the 74.5 keV gamma from U-239 or 277.7 keV gamma from Np-239 was measured. For high Uranium content samples, NAA method with 74.5 keV gamma measurement, gave higher precision result than the 277.7 keV gamma measurement method. NAA method with 277.7 keV gamma measurement, gave higher sensitivity and precision result for low Uranium content samples and the uranium contained less than 10 ppm samples. Nevertheless, the latter procedure needed longer time for neutron irradiation and analysis procedure. In comparison the results of Uranium analysis between NAA and fission track, it was found that no significant difference within 95 % of confidence level

  4. Atomic and nuclear analytical methods. XRF, Moessbauer, XPS, NAA and ion-beam spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories. (orig.)

  5. On multielement analysis of biological samples with the aid of neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    A main objective of this study was elucidation of problems of sampling and sample preparation methods for multielement analysis of environmental and biological specimens. Another was assessment of the potentials of multielement neutron activation analysis (NAA) in environmental and biological research. In an attempt to explain the great differences in the elemental concentration ranges between biopsy and autopsy samples as reported in the literature, it was shown that post mortem changes induce great variations in the apparent elemental composition of autopsy specimens resulting in serious systematic errors. Applications of NAA to analysis of tissues of experimental animals, human tissues in health and disease, and environmental samples are illustrated with several examples. The suitability of NAA for routine analysis of elements such as Cr, Mo and Se, which are difficult to determine by other methods has been specially discussed. (author)

  6. Neutron activation analysis - an old technique but is it still useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a non-destructive technique of analysis making it particularly suitable to analyse certain types of samples or particular elements, such as diamonds, black precious opal and ancient fish fossil bones. It is particularly suited to analysing solid samples since no sample dissolution, with its associated problems, prior to analysis is necessary. NAA is remarkably free of matrix effects essentially eliminating complex pre analysis procedures. It is uniquely suited to determining low levels of certain elements such as Cl, Br and I, particularly in organic samples. Its ability to determine sub-ppm levels of Cl in transformer oils has greatly assisted in the development of a patented method for the destruction of PCB ' s. It is possible to analyse large samples in order to overcome homogeneity problems, which is particularly useful in the precious metals industry. Radiochemical NAA enables the determination of very low levels of particular elements (eg Ta) in samples traditionally difficult to dissolve (author)

  7. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis of zeolite NaA membranes on porous alumina tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyotani, Tomohiro

    2006-07-01

    Zeolite NaA-type membranes hydrothermally synthesized on porous alumina tubes, for dehydration process, were characterized by grazing incidence 2 theta scan X-ray diffraction analysis (GIXRD). The fine structure of the membrane was studied fractionally for surface layer and for materials embedded in the porous alumina tube. The thickness of the surface layer on the porous alumina tube in the membranes used in this study was approximately 2-3 microm as determined from transmission electron microscopy with focused ion beam thin-layer specimen preparation technique (FIB-TEM). To discuss the effects of the membrane surface morphology on the GIXRD measurements, CaA-type membrane prepared by ion exchange from the NaA-type membrane and surface-damaged NaA-type membrane prepared by water leaching were also studied. For the original NaA-type membrane, 2 theta scan GIXRD patterns could be clearly measured at X-ray incidence angles (alpha) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 deg in increments of 0.1 deg. The surface layers of the 2 - 3 microm on the porous alumina tube correspond to the alpha values up to ca. 0.2 deg. For the CaA-type and the surface-damaged NaA-type membranes, however, diffraction patterns from the surface layer could not be successfully detected and the others were somewhat broad. For all the three samples, diffraction intensities of both zeolite and alumina increased with depth (X-ray incidence angle, alpha) in the porous alumina tube region. The depth profile analysis of the membranes based on the GIXRD first revealed that amount of zeolite crystal embedded in the porous alumina tube is much larger than that in the surface layer. Thus, the 2 theta scan GIXRD is a useful method to study zeolite crystal growth mechanism around (both inside and outside) the porous alumina support during hydrothermal synthesis and to study water permeation behavior in the dehydration process.

  8. The Analysis of Heavy Metal in Sea Water and Sediment from MuriaPeninsula Coastal Area by NAA Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TS, Susanna; Sukirno

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of heavy metal in sea water and sediment taken from Muriacoastal sites in Central Java has been carried out. This research aimed tosupport the EMSB and Ocean Radioecology programme. The sea water sample wasdried with electrical brazier till crystal form, and balanced. Whereas thesediment sample was cleaned, dried at opened air, powdered, screened andhomogenized. Irradiation of samples and standard were done for twelve hoursusing Lazy Susan facility, Kartini reactor with neutron flux of 5.85 x10 10 .n.cm -2 .s -1 . Comparative method of measurements was used foravoiding the effects of neutron flux parameters on the results. Using gammaspectrometer equipment with a Ge(Li) detector and multi channel analyzer with4096 channels, 7 elements were concealed in the sea water; i.e. Fe, Se, Co,Cr, Ce, Sm and Sc were detected, whereas in the sediment sample concealed 10elements were detected, i.e. Fe, Se, Co, Cr, As, Ce, Sm, Th, U and Sc. It wasfound that the elements concentrations in the sediment sample from Muria baywere higher than those elements concentrations in the sea water sample. Theconcentrations of Fe, Se, Co, Cr, Ce, Sm and Sc in the sediment sample fromMuria peninsula coastal area were Fe = 19.923 ± 2.162%, Se = 1.320 ±0.141 ppm, Co = 0.570 ± 0.066 ppm, Cr = 0.410 ± 0.031 ppm, As = 0.500± 0.043 ppm, Ce = 0.774 ± 0.210 ppm, Sm = 1.860 ± 0.210 ppm, Th1.930 ± 0.173 ppm, U = 0.663 ± 0.027 ppm, dan Sc = 0.190 ± 0.003ppm, whereas the concentration elements in the sea water sample were Fe 0.112± 0.007%, Se = 0.305 ± 0.008 ppm, Co = 0.047 ± 0.002 ppm, Cr 0.023± 0.001 ppm, Ce = 0.022 ± 0.001 ppm, Sm = 14 ± 0.8 ppb dan Sc = 2.4ppb, respectively. (author)

  9. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Segebade, C.; Green, J.

    2011-06-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  10. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-01-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  11. Investigation of environmental pollution with pine needles by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Yang, Myung Kwon; Shim, Sang Kwon; Seo, Bum Kyoung [Korea Inst. of Geosience and Mineral Resources, Environmental Geology Division, Daejeon (Korea); Chung, Yong Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., HANARO Center, Daejeon (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    NAA was studied to precision analysis of metallic elements in pine needle. The pine needle was investigated whether it can be feasible or not as a bio-monitor. Only one year old needle was taken from three different regions of urban, suburban and rural area in four seasons. The needle sample was divided with two aliquots, and then one was cleaned and the other was not. Loss and contamination of analytes were cautiously minimized when the needle was sample and transferred from mountain to laboratory and prepared for NAA. Some elements such as As, Br, Ce, W, Zn have shown different characteristics with regions and seasons as well as surface cleaning. It is found that about twenty elements in pine needle could be simply analyzed by NAA and the pine needle could be suitable as a bio-monitor for the monitoring of environmental pollution in Korea. (author)

  12. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  13. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  14. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  15. Implementation of the k0-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k0-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho; Ho, Manh Dung

    2006-03-01

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k o -NAA procedure.The k o -standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k o -NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k o -IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used

  16. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  17. Certified reference materials for analytical quality control in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Abdul Khalik Wood; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdul Salim

    2007-01-01

    Analytical quality control in neutron activation analysis (NAA) requires the use of certified reference materials (CRM) in order to produce reliable analytical results. It is essential to evaluate the performance of NAA method when analyzing various sample matrices. Therefore, the CRM selected for an analysis should be suitable for the type of samples. There are many aspects such as concentration range, matrix match, sample size and uncertainty, which need to be considered when selecting a suitable CRM. Eventually, results of analysis of CRM were plotted into control charts in order to evaluate the qualify of the data. This is to ensure that the results are within the 95 % confidence interval as stipulated in the certificate of CRM. Thus, this article aims to discuss the uses of certified reference materials for quality control purposes in NAA involving various sample matrices. (author)

  18. Limits of detection in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Lower limits of detection (LLODs), frequently referred to simply as limits of detection and abbreviated as LODs, often appear in the literature of analytical chemistry - for numerous different methods of elemental and/or molecular analysis. In this chapter, one particular method of quantitative elemental analysis, that of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), is the subject discussed, with reference to LODs. Particularly in the literature of neutron activation analysis (NAA), many tables of 'interference-free' NAA LODs are available. Not all of these are of much use, because (1) for many the definition used for LOD is not clear, or reasonable, (2) for many, the analysis conditions used are not clearly specified, and (3) for many, the analysis conditions used are specified, but not very practicable for most laboratories. For NAA work, such tables of interference-free LODs are, in any case, only applicable to samples in which, at the time of counting, only one radionuclide is present to any significant extent in the activated sample. It is important to note that tables of INAA LODs, per se, do not exist - since the LOD for a given element, under stated analysis conditions, can vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. For any given element, its INAA LOD will always be as large as, and usually much larger than, its tabulated 'interference-free' NAA LOD - how much larger depending upon the elemental composition of the matrix in which it is present. As discussed in this chapter, however, an INAA computer program exists that can calculate realistic INAA LODs for any elements of interest, in any kind of specified sample matrix, under any given set of analysis conditions

  19. Ir and Rare Earth's Elements determination by Neutron Activation Analysis and ICP - MS in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, A.; Cattadori, C.; Broggini, C.; Cagnazzo, M.; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Nisi, S.; Borio, A.; Manera, S.

    2006-05-01

    The platinum metals depleted in the earth's crust are relative to their cosmic abundance; concentration of these elements in sediments may thus indicate influxes of extraterrestrial material. Analysis of these parameters are done easily by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and comparative results with ICP-MS technique show a good match. Results, adjust parameters and limits of this method will be displayed in tables.

  20. The role of neutron activation analysis at The Dow Chemical Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigot, W.L.; Buchmann, M.E.; Quinn, T.J.; Romick, J.D.; Yusuf, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    The role of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at The Dow Chemical Company has not changed significantly since the first operations, which were conducted in July, 1967. That role is threefold; provide results with appropriate precision, accuracy and sensitivity; provide results in a timely manner; and provide results for a reasonable cost. What has changed, are the requirements for satisfying each of the three components of the role. In a business-focused environment, analyses need to be performed faster with better sensitivity and/or precision and be more cost efficient. In order to meet these requirements, operations at The Dow TRIGA Research Reactor are devoted to NAA activities. (author)

  1. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.; Silverman, A.; Ouellet, C.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  2. Automation of registration of sample weights for high-volume neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor of FLNP, JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Weight' software tool was created at FLNP JINR to automate the reading of analytical balance readouts and saving these values in the NAA database. The analytical balance connected to the personal computer is used to measure weight values. The 'Weight' software tool controls the reading of weight values and the exchange of information with the NAA database. The weighing process of a large amount of samples is reliably provided during high-volume neutron activation analysis. [ru

  3. Multivariate Associations of Fluid Intelligence and NAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Aki; Baniqued, Pauline L; Kranz, Michael B; Scavuzzo, Claire J; Barbey, Aron K; Kramer, Arthur F; Larsen, Ryan J

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the neural and metabolic correlates of fluid intelligence not only aids scientists in characterizing cognitive processes involved in intelligence, but it also offers insight into intervention methods to improve fluid intelligence. Here we use magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a biochemical marker of neural energy production and efficiency. We use principal components analysis (PCA) to examine how the distribution of NAA in the frontal and parietal lobes relates to fluid intelligence. We find that a left lateralized frontal-parietal component predicts fluid intelligence, and it does so independently of brain size, another significant predictor of fluid intelligence. These results suggest that the left motor regions play a key role in the visualization and planning necessary for spatial cognition and reasoning, and we discuss these findings in the context of the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. An E-learning Tool as Living Book for Knowledge Preservation in Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; Landsberger, S.; Ridikas, D.; Iunikova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of the most common activities in research reactors, irrespective of their power size. Although being a well-established technique, it has been observed that retirement and/or departure of experienced staff often results in gaps in knowledge of methodological principles and metrological aspects of the NAA technique employed, both within the remaining NAA team and for new recruits. Existing books are apparently not sufficient to timely transfer the knowledge on the practice of NAA. As such, the IAEA has launched a project resulting in an E-learning tool for NAA, consisting of lecture noes, animations, practical exercises and self-assessments. The tool includes more than 30 modules and has been reviewed and tested during an IAEA workshop by experienced and new coming practitioners. It is expected that the tool will be developed as a ‘living book’ which can be permanently updated and extended and serve as an archive, fostering unpublished experimental experiences. (author

  5. Self-sustainability of a research reactor facility with neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilian, C.; Kennedy, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term self-sustainability of a small reactor facility is possible because there is a large demand for non-destructive chemical analysis of bulk materials that can only be achieved with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The Ecole Polytechnique Montreal SLOWPOKE Reactor Facility has achieved self-sustainability for over twenty years, benefiting from the extreme reliability, ease of use and stable neutron flux of the SLOWPOKE reactor. The industrial clientele developed slowly over the years, mainly because of research users of the facility. A reliable NAA service with flexibility, high accuracy and fast turn-around time was achieved by developing an efficient NAA system, using a combination of the relative and k0 standardisation methods. The techniques were optimized to meet the specific needs of the client, such as low detection limit or high accuracy at high concentration. New marketing strategies are presented, which aim at a more rapid expansion. (author)

  6. Development of an Integrated Approach to Routine Automation of Neutron Activation Analysis. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful technique for determining bulk composition of major and trace elements. Automation may contribute significantly to keep NAA competitive for end-users. It provides opportunities for a larger analytical capacity and a shorter overall turnaround time if large series of samples have to be analysed. This publication documents and disseminates the expertise generated on automation in NAA during a coordinated research project (CRP). The CRP participants presented different cost-effective designs of sample changers for gamma-ray spectrometry as well as irradiation devices, and were able to construct and successfully test these systems. They also implemented, expanded and improved quality control and quality assurance as cross-cutting topical area of their automated NAA procedures. The publication serves as a reference of interest to NAA practitioners, experts, and research reactor personnel, but also to various stakeholders and users interested in basic research and/or services provided by NAA. The individual country reports are available on the CD-ROM attached to this publication.

  7. IRMM Certified Reference Materials and k0-NAA: an important role for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Pauwels, J.; Pomm, S.

    1998-01-01

    The k 0 -Neutron Activation Analysis method was introduced at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) and the Belgian nuclear research centre (SCK CEN) in 1994. This analytical technique is routinely used at IRMM for the production control, homogeneity and stability tests and/or for certification of metallic, biological and environmental reference materials. The successful implementation of k 0 -NAA was proven at several certification exercises - such as ISS Antarctic Sediment, BCR Mussel Tissue and BCR Bovine Liver, SMU Bovine Blood - where all our results were accepted for certification. Responding to regulatory and/or scientific demands, IRMM is collaborating with national institutes to develop new high quality reference materials: (i) in the field of Neutron dosimetry: high purity nickel, Al-Ag or Zr-Au-Lu alloys; (ii) for environmental and industrial monitoring: Antarctic krill, doped plastics or catalytic converters; (iii) synthetic multi-element standard for the accreditation of k 0 -NAA laboratories. Far from being exhaustive, this list highlights the important role that k 0 -NAA will play in the certification of reference materials in the years 2000. (author)

  8. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min

    2003-01-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10 13 - 1 x 10 14 n/cm 2 ·s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  9. Current status of neutron activation analysis in HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Sohn, Jae Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea)

    2003-03-01

    The facilities for neutron activation analysis in the HANARO (Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Research Reactor) are described and the main applications of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) are reviewed. The sample irradiation tube, automatic and manual pneumatic transfer system were installed at three irradiation holes of HANARO at the end of 1995. The performance of the NAA facility was examined to identify the characteristics of the tube transfer system, irradiation sites and custom-made polyethylene irradiation capsule. The available thermal neutron fluxes at irradiation sites are in the range of 3 x 10{sup 13} - 1 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s and cadmium ratios are in 15 - 250. For an automatic sample changer for gamma-ray counting, a domestic product was designed and manufactured. An integrated computer program (Labview) to analyse the content was developed. In 2001, PGNAA (Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis) facility has been installed using a diffracted neutron beam of ST1. NAA has been applied in the trace component analysis of nuclear, geological, biological, environmental and high purity materials, and various polymers for research and development. The improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of an analytical quality control and assurance system were studied. Applied research and development for the environment, industry and human health by NAA and its standardization were carried out. For the application of the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme), evaluation of measurement uncertainty and proficiency testing of reference materials were performed. Also to verify the reliability and to validate analytical results, intercomparison studies between laboratories were carried out. (author)

  10. Cum grano salis - NAA of selected salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, G.; Sterba, J.H.; Poljanc, K.; Bichler, M.; Buchtela, K.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the trace element concentrations of salt samples from different regions, in particular Austria, Germany, Pakistan, Poland, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Investigated types of salt were Rock-, Sea-, Lake-, and Evaporated Salt. The main objective was to find out whether the consumption of salt can contribute significantly to the daily human requirements of trace elements. Therefore, trace element concentrations in the untreated samples were compared to those of specially treated samples, simulating digestive uptake using a simple model. Salt is a non-trivial matrix for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) because of very high background activities from 38 Cl and 24 Na, as well as the bremsstrahlung of 32 P (originating from 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P). Because of this fact, detection limits in salt are higher compared to other matrices. Nevertheless, several elements could be detected, namely Al, Ba, Br, (Ca), Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, and Zn, some of them only in single samples. In most samples the concentrations of trace elements in salt were too low to show biological effects. Salt can therefore only significantly contribute the essential elements sodium, chlorine, and, if added on purpose, fluorine and iodine to human nutrition. The contribution of all other traces in salt to the average daily human requirements can be neglected. Thus, from an analytical point of view, there is no health reason to use unpurified salt. There are, however, a few drawbacks to the use of unpurified salt, as hygroscopic compounds like MgCl 2 , and even toxic heavy metals like chromium or thorium. Especially rare earth element (REE) concentrations can often be used to obtain a chemical fingerprint, which can be used to identify the origin of an unknown sample. In the case of this study, the sample number from each region was too small to collect significant data. Therefore more analytical information is needed

  11. PIXE and neutron activation analysis: intercomparison in the elemental concentration of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Gras, N.; Chuaqui, L.; Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.; Llona, F.; Romo-Kroeger, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two nuclear analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), were used to determine major and trace elements in airborne particulate matter collected during the first fortnight of June 1991 at the La Reina Nuclear Center. NAA detected the presence of 15 elements in the samples. PIXE, for the same samples, allowed the detection of 12 elements. The elements determined by both techniques were Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. A good correlation between results for these elements for each of the two techniques was demonstrated. (author)

  12. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio; Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in μg/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university

  13. Epithermal neutron flux distribution and its impact on (n, γ) activation analysis result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovich, S.; Pukotich, P.; Zejnilovich, R.; Corte, F. de; Moens, L.; Hoste, J.; Simonitis, A.

    1985-01-01

    The differences are discussed between the simplified model, introduced to derive the generally accepted ideal 1/E - law, and the conditions existing in an actual reactor. For absolute and comparator types of (n, γ) activation analysis (NAA), the semiempirical 1/Esup(1+α) form is a better approximation - necessary to introduce, but sufficient for practical purposes. Parameter α, being a measure of the epithermal nonideality, is a characteristics of the reactor site. The impact of this nonideality on NAA result is outlined, together with the method for appropriate correction

  14. Use of some nuclear methods for materials analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbani, Farouk

    1994-01-01

    A review is given about the use of two nuclear-related analytical methods, namely: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), for the determination of elemental composition of various materials. Special emphasis is given to the use of XRF for the analysis of geological samples, and NAA for the analysis of food - stuffs for their protein content. (Author)

  15. Contribution of NAA and other techniques to the certification of two new Polish CRMs prepared by INCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Kulisa, K.; Maleszewska, E.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Two new reference materials of biological origin, namely Tea Leaves (INCTTL-1 ) and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2), were prepared, and a worldwide interlaboratory comparison in which more than 100 laboratories participated was organized with the aim to certify these materials for the content of possibly a great number of trace elements. In this paper a preliminary analysis of the contribution of various analytical techniques to the certification of the new reference materials is presented and discussed with special emphasis on the role played by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and other radiometric techniques. The significance of 'very accurate methods' by radiochemical NAA in the certification process is pointed out. An attempt is made to compare the outcome of the present intercomparison with those formerly organized by INCT as well as with some earlier IAEA intercomparisons in order to demonstrate similarities, differences and trends in the use of the various analytical techniques in trace analysis as a function of time. (author)

  16. Study of trace impurities in heroin by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Yang, J.H.; Ouyang, H.; Li, Z.J.; Chai, Z.F.; Zhu, J.; Xi'an JiaoTong Univ., Shaanxi; Zhao, J.Z.; Yu, Z.S.; Wang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two heroin samples were analyzed for their contents of 15 trace elements (Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Large variations of elemental concentrations between samples were found to possess statistical significance. Of all the elements calcium was the most abundant element, followed by zinc and sodium. The concentrations of Au, Ce, Co, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, and Th in all the samples were below 1 μg x g -1 . Classification of these heroin samples was achieved by the application of hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that NAA can provide useful information on the origin of the illicit drugs. (author)

  17. Air pollution studies in Tianjing city using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Nie Nuiling; Wang Pingsheng

    1999-01-01

    Two sites of airborne sampling from industrial and residential areas were made in Tianjing city during February and June using PM-10 sampler and analyzed by NAA techniques; Comparison of air pollution between urban and rural area in Tianjing city was made using neutron activation analysis techniques and some other data analyzing techniques. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis in an industrial laboratory using an off-site nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, T.W.; Broering, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    A multifunctional research laboratory, such as Procter and Gamble's Miami Valley Laboratories, requires elemental analyses on many materials. A general survey technique is important even if the information it provides is incomplete or is less precise than single element analyses. Procter and Gamble has developed neutron activation analysis (NAA) capabilities using a nuclear reactor several hundred miles away. The concentration of 40 to 50 elements can be determined in a variety of matrices. We have found NAA to be a powerful supplement to some of the more classical analytical techniques even without having an on-site neutron source. We have also found an automated data acquisition system to be essential for the successful application of NAA in an industrial laboratory

  19. Automatic sample changer control software for automation of neutron activation analysis process in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussup, N.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Rahman, N. A. A.; Mokhtar, M.; Salim, N. A. A.; Soh@Shaari, S. C.; Azman, A.; Lombigit, L.; Azman, A.; Omar, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Most of the procedures in neutron activation analysis (NAA) process that has been established in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) since 1980s were performed manually. These manual procedures carried out by the NAA laboratory personnel are time consuming and inefficient especially for sample counting and measurement process. The sample needs to be changed and the measurement software needs to be setup for every one hour counting time. Both of these procedures are performed manually for every sample. Hence, an automatic sample changer system (ASC) that consists of hardware and software is developed to automate sample counting process for up to 30 samples consecutively. This paper describes the ASC control software for NAA process which is designed and developed to control the ASC hardware and call GammaVision software for sample measurement. The software is developed by using National Instrument LabVIEW development package.

  20. Development Of The Computer Code For Comparative Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwadi, Mohammad Dhandhang

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an importance utilization of a nuclear research reactor, and this should be accelerated and promoted in application and its development to raise the utilization of the reactor. The application of Comparative NAA technique in GA Siwabessy Multi Purpose Reactor (RSG-GAS) needs special (not commercially available yet) soft wares for analyzing the spectrum of multiple elements in the analysis at once. The application carried out using a single spectrum software analyzer, and comparing each result manually. This method really degrades the quality of the analysis significantly. To solve the problem, a computer code was designed and developed for comparative NAA. Spectrum analysis in the code is carried out using a non-linear fitting method. Before the spectrum analyzed, it was passed to the numerical filter which improves the signal to noise ratio to do the deconvolution operation. The software was developed using the G language and named as PASAN-K The testing result of the developed software was benchmark with the IAEA spectrum and well operated with less than 10 % deviation

  1. Applications of neutron activation analysis in determination of natural and man-made radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A. R.; Benedik, L.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), being essentially an isotopic and not an elemental method of analysis, is capable of determining a number of important radionuclides of radioecological interest with good precision and accuracy, by transformation into another, more easily quantifiable radionuclide. The nuclear characteristics which favour this technique may be summarized in an advantage factor relative to radiometric analysis of the original radioanalyte. Well known or hardly known examples include 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 129 I, 99 Tc, 237 Np and 231 Pa; a number of these are discussed and illustrated in analysis of real samples of environmental and biological origin. The advantages and drawbacks of this technique relative to conventional radiometric analysis and newer, mass spectrometric methods is also discussed. The value of NAA as an independent method in certification of radionuclide reference materials (where much remains to be done) is stressed. Where direct sample analysis is possible, NAA retains the important advantage of being essentially blank-free. Where pre-separation of the analyte is necessary, some suggestions for improving the reliability of pre-separation yields using internal, activable tracers are proposed. The use of NAA to allow 238 U and 232 Th to be used as endogenous (internal) radiotracers in alpha spectrometric analyses of uranium and thorium radioisotopes in radioecological studies is described, also allowing independent data sets to be obtained, of great value in quality control. (author)

  2. The discrimination of some dermal dischromias using the ESR and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, Rodica; Saidel, Alice; Cristodulo, Tania; Saidel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The information provided by the electron spin resonance (ESR) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) seem to complete each other most of time. ESR is applied in biology, due to its significant sensitivity and selectivity in the detection of paramagnetic states of free radicals implied in many physiological processes. Many enzymatic systems, photosynthesis intermediates or electrons transporting chain species are paramagnetic. On the other hand, free radicals are involved in the protection against ionic radiation, in immunity reactions and pathological processes including the oncogenesis. ESR spectroscopy informs about the quantity, interactions and dynamics of paramagnetic centres of the systems through spectral parameters as: the intensity, the g factor, the form and the width of line, hyperfine splitting, etc. NAA allows simultaneous determination of the concentration of essential microelements in tissues involved in the major biological pathways. In the present work we have tested the possibility of using the ESR and NAA investigations techniques combined with the factorial statistic analysis of the data, in the aim to discriminate some dermal dischromias of human skin. Having in view that the hyper- and hipochromia are due to an excess and deficit in melanin, respectively, we used ESR to observe the radical species from the skin samples. We studied the skin samples that represent different dischromias (malign melanoma, epithelioma, pigmentary nevus, vitiligo) in comparison with normal skin. On the same samples we have determined by NAA the concentrations of elements (Cu, Na, Mg, Mn, and Al) which could be involved in the mechanisms of producing and releasing the melanin. The signal ESR intensities and widths and the NAA elemental concentration values of the skin samples have been processed by a STATCF program to develop differences between dischromic and normal skin. The signification level of the differences observed among the sample groups has been evaluated

  3. Analytical basis for neutron-activation analysis measuring nuclides with a half-life of second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-01-01

    An analytical basis for a neutron-activation analysis (NAA) for measuring nuclides of second-order half-lives produced by the (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron-activation analysis facility (PN-3) of JRR-3M. The NAA facility, comprising a fast pneumatic irradiation system and a high count-rate gamma-ray spectrometer, is able to automatically conduct NAA with short-lived nuclides. Basic experimental conditions, such as a high count-rate gamma-ray measurement, the effects of irradiation-capsule material and the stability of the neutron flux, were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclide having half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, In, Dy and Hf were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, which is difficult to determine by other methods, can be detected at above 530 ng. Analytical applications of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been carried out for F, Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials. The accuracy, precision and detection limits of NAA with short-lived nuclides have been evaluated. (author)

  4. Evaluation of NAA laboratory results in inter-comparison on determination of trace elements in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Syukria Kurniawati; Natalia Adventini

    2012-01-01

    Inter-comparison program is a good tool for improving quality and to enhance the accuracy and precision of the analytical techniques. By participating in this program, laboratories could demonstrate their capability and ensuring the quality of analysis results generated by analytical laboratories. The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry-PTNBR laboratory participated in inter-comparison tests organized by NAA working group. Inter-comparison BATAN 2009 was the third inter-laboratory analysis test within that project. The participating laboratories were asked to analyze for trace elements using neutron activation analysis as the primary technique. Three materials were distributed to the participants representing foodstuff, and environmental material samples. Samples were irradiated in rabbit facility of G.A. Siwabessy reactor with neutron flux ~ 10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 , and counted with HPGe detector of gamma spectrometry. Several trace elements in these samples were detected. The accuracy and precision evaluation based on International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) criteria was applied. In this paper the PTNBR NAA laboratory results is evaluated. (author)

  5. Testing the applicability of the k 0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k 0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA (k 0 -NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k 0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k 0 -NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters (α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k 0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k 0 -NAA method at the MINT

  6. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  7. The fire assay preconcentration of the platinum group elements for the neutron activation analysis of geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the work that has been carried out using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to develop a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the platinum group elements (PGE: Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Os) and Au in geological, environmental and industrial samples. The method is based on the now established method of preconcentration with fire assay, followed by NAA of the separated PGE and Au. Recent developments have seen improvements in the technique to eliminate losses due to dissolution procedures, and complete recovery of the elements prior to analysis. The method is now being used to validate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy methods for analysis of the PGE

  8. Pollution studies of Saronikos Gulf, Greece, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) with its great sensitivity for a large number of elements has been widely used for marine environmental studies Saronikos Gulf receives combined domestic and industrial effluents of the grater Athens area through the Athens sewage outfall (ASO) at Keratsini Bay, which also receives wastes from discrete industrial sources including a fertilizer plant. Such discharges usually contain high concentrations of heavy metals, which can be dangerous to marine ecosystems and humans. This paper is a review of research and monitoring studies of toxic and other trace elements in marine organisms, seawater, and sediments of Saronikos Gulf by NAA performed over the last 15 yr. The objectives of these studies were (a) to find the fates and pathways of toxic and other trace elements, (b) to estimate the extent of pollution, and (c) to pinpoint and distinguish pollution sources

  9. Neutron activation analysis of new botanical reference materials. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Soukal, L.

    1993-01-01

    The certified, information, and other values of elemental contents were compared with results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the new Czechoslovak botanical reference materials (RMs) Green Algae 12-02-02, Lucerne 12-02-03, Wheat Bread Fluor 12-02-04, and Rye Bread Flour 12-02-05. These were prepared by the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques (IRANT), Kosice, and statistically evaluated after interlaboratory comparisons. For the majority of elements, a very good agreement was found between the IRANT values and the results of NAA. In several cases, however, significant differences were detected; possible analytical reasons for the differences and the suitability of a purely statistical evaluation of intercomparison results without analytical considerations for RM certification are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Neutron activation analysis: A primary method of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Robert R., E-mail: robert.greenberg@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8395 (United States); Bode, Peter, E-mail: p.bode@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A., E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere - Metrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance - Metrology in Chemistry). This thesis is evidenced in this paper in three chapters by: demonstration that the method is fully physically and chemically understood; that a measurement equation can be written down in which the values of all parameters have dimensions in SI units and thus having the potential for metrological traceability to these units; that all contributions to uncertainty of measurement can be quantitatively evaluated, underpinning the metrological traceability; and that the performance of NAA in CCQM key-comparisons of trace elements in complex matrices between 2000 and 2007 is similar to the performance of Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS), which had been formerly designated by the CCQM as a primary ratio method.

  11. Review of neutron activation analysis in the standardization and study of reference materials, including its application to radionuclide reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) plays a very important role in the certification of reference materials (RMs) and their characterization, including homogeneity testing. The features of the method are briefly reviewed, particularly aspects relating to its completely independent nuclear basis, its virtual freedom from blank problems, and its capacity for self-verification. This last aspect, arising from the essentially isotopic character of NAA, can be exploited by using different nuclear reactions and induced nuclides, and the possibility of employing two modes, one instrumental (nondestructive), the other radiochemical (destructive). This enables the derivation of essentially independent analytical information and the unique capacity of NAA for selfvalidation. The application of NAA to quantify natural or man-made radionuclides such as uranium, thorium, 237 Np, 129 I and 230 Th is discussed, including its advantages over conventional radiometric methods and its usefulness in providing independent data for nuclides where other confirmatory analyses are impossible, or are only recently becoming available through newer 'atom counting' techniques. Certain additional, prospective uses of NAA in the study of RMs and potential RMs are mentioned, including transmutation reactions, creation of endogenously radiolabelled matrices for production and study of RMs (such as dissolution and leaching tests, use as incorporated radiotracers for chemical recovery correction), and the possibility of molecular activation analysis for specification. (orig.)

  12. Study of organohalogen contaminants in yogurt by NAA and GC-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Shenzen Univ.; Sun, H.B.; Zhang, J.L.; Ouyang, H.; Xin, L.; Chuai, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of total halogen (TX), extractable organohalogen (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogen (EPOX) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Chinese supermarkets using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatography equipped with a 63 Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that the halogens in yogurt mainly existed as non-extractable organohalogen compounds. About 25-30% of EOX was EPOX. EOCl and EPOCl were the main organohalogen species in yogurt. The average concentration of the identified organochlorine, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was below 4% of EPOCl. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis of arsenic in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Arsenic is considered a toxic trace element for plant, animal, and human organisms. Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as carcinogens by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic is emitted in appreciable quantities into the atmosphere by coal combustion and the production of cement. Arsenic enters the aquatic environment through industrial activities such as smelting of metallic ores, metallurgical glassware, and ceramics as well as insecticide production and use. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very sensitive, precise, and accurate method for determining arsenic. This paper is a review of research studies of arsenic in the Greek environment by NAA performed at our radioanalytical laboratory. The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine levels of arsenic concentrations in environmental materials, (b) to pinpoint arsenic pollution sources and estimate the extent of arsenic pollution, and (c) to find out whether edible marine organisms from the gulfs of Greece receiving domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastes have elevated concentrations of arsenic in their tissues that could render them dangerous for human consumption

  14. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R

    2007-01-15

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future.

  15. Age-modulated association between prefrontal NAA and the BDNF gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Basira; Preuss, Nora; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Shen, Jun; Neumeister, Alexander; Drevets, Wayne C; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Wendland, Jens R; Singleton, Andrew; Gibbs, Jesse R; Cookson, Mark R; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders and in the mechanisms of antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Psychiatric and neurological conditions have also been associated with reduced brain levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), which has been used as a putative marker of neural integrity. However, few studies have explored the relationship between BDNF polymorphisms and NAA levels directly. Here, we present data from a single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of 64 individuals and explore the relationship between BDNF polymorphisms and prefrontal NAA level. Our results indicate an association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within BDNF, known as rs1519480, and reduced NAA level (p = 0.023). NAA levels were further predicted by age and Asian ancestry. There was a significant rs1519480 × age interaction on NAA level (p = 0.031). Specifically, the effect of rs1519480 on NAA level became significant at age ⩾34.17 yr. NAA level decreased with advancing age for genotype TT (p = 0.001) but not for genotype CT (p = 0.82) or CC (p = 0.34). Additional in silico analysis of 142 post-mortem brain samples revealed an association between the same SNP and reduced BDNF mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex. The rs1519480 SNP influences BDNF mRNA expression and has an impact on prefrontal NAA level over time. This genetic mechanism may contribute to inter-individual variation in cognitive performance seen during normal ageing, as well as contributing to the risk for developing psychiatric and neurological conditions.

  16. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  17. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research are: (1) to develop and implement the k0 standardisation method for neutron activation analysis in close collaboration with scientific partners; (2) to exploit fully the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers; (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements in 1997 related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  18. Short-time activation analysis with and without a 6LiD converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Holzner, H.; Ritschel, A.; Ismail, S.S.; Dorner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at various irradiation and measurement systems of the Institute's TRIGA mark II reactor provides a choice of sample oriented analyzing systems. This is demonstrated on the analysis of waste products, on an analysis of the phase content of a high-T c superconductor and on a fluorine analysis in a standard reference material. (author) 17 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  19. Preliminary homogeneity study of in-house reference material using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, N.; Munoz, L.; Cassorla, V.; Castillo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Although many biological reference materials for quality control of trace element analysis are commercially available, there is still a need for additional local materials for special matrices. In the Latin American region a preliminary study has been commenced involving analytical strategies for the characterization of in-house reference material. A biological sample, prepared in Brazil, constitutes the first regional attempt to prepare reference material. It was analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to verify its homogeneity. The determination of the trace elements and certain major elements was carried out by instrumental NAA. Trace elements such as Cd, Mn, Mo and Cu were determined using NAA with radiochemical separations to improve the sensitivity and precision. XRF was applied only to major constituents and some trace elements with concentration of more than 10 μg/g. From a total of 18 elements analyzed, only Fe, Cr and Sc were not homogeneously distributed. (orig.)

  20. Development of an Integrated Approach to Routine Automation of Neutron Activation Analysis. Results of a Coordinated Research Project. Companion CD-ROM. Annex II: Country Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful technique for determining bulk composition of major and trace elements. Automation may contribute significantly to keep NAA competitive for end-users. It provides opportunities for a larger analytical capacity and a shorter overall turnaround time if large series of samples have to be analysed. This publication documents and disseminates the expertise generated on automation in NAA during a coordinated research project (CRP). The CRP participants presented different cost-effective designs of sample changers for gamma-ray spectrometry as well as irradiation devices, and were able to construct and successfully test these systems. They also implemented, expanded and improved quality control and quality assurance as cross-cutting topical area of their automated NAA procedures. The publication serves as a reference of interest to NAA practitioners, experts, and research reactor personnel, but also to various stakeholders and users interested in basic research and/or services provided by NAA. This CD-ROM contains the individual country reports

  1. Concentration of Ca in blood of amateur runners using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN / CNEN - SP) - Centro do Reator de Pesquisas Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242 - 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L. A. S.; Lourenco, T. F.; Macedo, D. V. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP - Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - LABEX Cidade Universitaria 13083-970 - Campinas, SP Brazil - Caixa-Postal: 6109 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the Ca levels were determined in amateur runners blood at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil), using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The range established at rest (162 - 410 mgL{sup -1}) when compared with control group (51 - 439 mgL{sup -1}) suggests that there is a dependency of these limits in the function of the adopted physical training.

  2. Use of research reactors for neutron activation analysis. Report of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique based on the measurement of characteristic radiation from radionuclides formed directly or indirectly by neutron irradiation of the material of interest. In the last three decades, neutron activation analysis has been found to be extremely useful in the determination of trace and minor elements in many disciplines. These include environmental analysis applications, nutritional and health related studies, geological as well as material sciences. The most suitable source of neutrons for NAA is a research reactor. There are several application fields in which NAA has a superior position compared to other analytical methods, and there are good prospects in developing countries for long term growth. Therefore, the IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote neutron activation analysis and at the same time to assist developing Member States in better utilization of their research reactors. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the benefits and the role of NAA in applications and research areas that may contribute towards improving utilization of research reactors. The participants focused on five specific topics: (1) Current trends in NAA; (2) The role of NAA compared to other methods of chemical analysis; (3) How to increase the number of NAA users through interaction with industries, research institutes, universities and medical institutions; (4) How to reduce costs and to maintain quality and reliability; (5) NAA using low power research reactors. Neutron activation analysis in its various forms is still active and there are good prospects in developing countries for long-term growth. This can be achieved by a more effective use of existing irradiation and counting facilities, a better end-user focus, and perhaps marginal improvements in equipment and techniques. Therefore, it is recommended that the Member States provide financial and other assistance to enhance the effectiveness of their laboratories

  3. Optimized data evaluation for k0-based NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sluijs, R.; Bossus, D.A.W.

    1999-01-01

    k 0 -NAA allows the simultaneous analysis of up-to 67 elements. The k 0 method is based on calculations using a special library instead of measuring standards. For an efficient use of the method, the calculations and resulting raw data require optimized evaluation procedures. In this paper two efficient procedures for nuclide identification and gamma interference correction are outlined. For a fast computation of the source-detector efficiency and coincidence correction factors the matrix interpolation technique is introduced. (author)

  4. Utilization of AHWR critical facility for research and development work on large sample NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Verma, S.K.; De, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    The graphite reflector position of AHWR critical facility (CF) was utilized for analysis of large size (g-kg scale) samples using internal mono standard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). The reactor position was characterized by cadmium ratio method using In monitor for total flux and sub cadmium to epithermal flux ratio (f). Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) work was carried out for samples of stainless steel, ancient and new clay potteries and dross. Large as well as non-standard geometry samples (1 g - 0.5 kg) were irradiated. Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Concentration ratios obtained by IM-NAA were used for provenance study of 30 clay potteries, obtained from excavated Buddhist sites of AP, India. Concentrations of Au and Ag were determined in not so homogeneous three large size samples of dross. An X-Z rotary scanning unit has been installed for counting large and not so homogeneous samples. (author)

  5. Elemental investigation of (Al-Cu) alloys and some geological samples using neutron activation and XRF analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, E.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) using k 0 - standardization (k 0 -NAA) is well known method for multi-elemental analysis. The method is used to analyze different samples belonging to different fields. In addition, X- ray fluorescence (XRF) is also used for multi-elemental analysis. XRF complements NAA methods. Both methods were used for investigation of some iron ores and aluminum- cupper alloy (Al-Cu) samples. Elemental concentration of Iron ores and Al-Cu alloy samples were determined by k 0 - NAA and XRF methods. The iron ore samples were collected from Wadi Kareim and Umm Nar sites (the Eastern desert of Egypt). Six and two samples representing the ores of Wadi Kareim and Umm Nar, respectively altogether with the standard samples consisting of Fe, Au , Zr and W and the certified reference sample IAEA Soil-7 were irradiated in one of the irradiated boxes at the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR- 2). The induced activities were counted using an efficiency calibrated HPGe detector systems. The neutron spectrum parameters α and f characterizing the neutron irradiation position that are needed in applying k 0 -NAA method were determined using the activation product of Zr , Au, Fe and W and found α≅ - 0.048 ±0.002 and f ≅ 38± k 0 -NAA method was applied to determine the elemental concentrations in the two iron ore samples. The concentrations determined were found to vary erratically form one sample to another. The results were discussed and compared with similar results in literature. The accuracy of the k 0 - NAA method was checked by determining the elemental concentration in the IAEA-Soil 7 reference sample. The obtained results are compared with the recommended values. Good agreements were found within 10 %. Short time neutron activation analysis (STNAA) was carried out to determine concentration of major elements in Al-Cu alloy samples. Three (Al-Cu) alloys samples with different concentrations of Cu (2, 3.5 and 5 %) altogether. Au standard sample

  6. Combined neutron activation analysis techniques for multiple purposes at Portuguese research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Beasley, D.; Almeida, S.M.; Dionisio, I; Canha, N.H.; Galinha, C.; Marques, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Developments of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques using Compton suppression system (CSS), fast pneumatic irradiation facility (SIPRA), epithermal neutron and automatic sample changers (ASCs) associated with the traditional NAA for trace element determination in various sample types are described with reference to specific conditions at the 1 MW Portuguese research reactor (RPI). Experiences in application of k o -IAEA software for data processing in order to deduce the results are also discussed. A selected number of sample types which are intended to the application in biological and environmental areas as well as industrial and material samples are demonstrated which provide challenges in the irradiation, measurement and the interpretation of data to which in most cases a combined solution should be made. The role that each NAA technique can play in the combined scheme along with their optimized characteristics has been studied and shown. The combined NAA techniques at RPI established for on-going and potential projects as well as analysis service with respect to the element scope (48), typically Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, CI, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, I, In, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Vb, Zn and Zr along with detection limits, accuracies and precision's have been evaluated as a trace analysis method meeting the requirements of the intended applications

  7. The role of NAA in nuclear chemistry education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Vivier, A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the missions of our Institute is the promotion of basic nuclear teaching for students as well as professional teaching for workers in nuclear industry and research. For nuclear chemistry education, we present here a one day teaching course on radioactive decay and nuclear reactions, and a two or three days course based on reactor irradiation of uranium oxide, instrumental and radiochemical analysis of fission products. In the first experiment, the neutron capture is presented as an example of nuclear reaction; the neutron activation of a silver coin with a Am-Be neutron source, followed by γ-ray spectrometry, is used to identify three radionuclides of silver and to calculate their half-lives. In the second experiment, our teaching reactor is used as a neutron source with a flux about 10 10 n x cm -2 x s -1 at a low thermal power (10 kW). This low flux allows us to irradiate a small uranium sample which is usable for spectrometry after a short cooling time of about two hours. The first day is reserved for instrumental analysis of the fission products and a second day for the radiochemical separation of a fission radionuclides. With these experimental results, the students have to calculate the number of fissions in the irradiated sample. On optional third day for postgraduate students is devoted to the presentation of NAA and some applications as uranium determination by the fission product spectrometry. (author)

  8. Experience with NAA and radionuclides in an industrial laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossus, D.A.W.; Sluijs, R. van

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used in a wide variety of industrial applications since the early 1950s. At DSM, a Dutch chemicals and materials group, the first applications were introduced around 1955. These applications mainly concerned on-line density measurements for process-control purposes. Besides process control, the following main applications of radioisotopes can be distinguished: (i) Column scanning: a technique using sealed 60 Co, 137 Cs and 252 Cf sources for on-line troubleshooting in distillation columns and other process equipment; this technique allows investigations to be performed at very short notice, saving production time and therefore money. (ii) The radiotracer technique: used as a tool for troubleshooting, for flow measurements, for determining process parameters and for in-line corrosion studies. Short-lived radionuclides typically used in this field are 56Mn, 24Na, 82Br, 113mIn, 81mKr and 99mTc; (iii) Neutron activation analysis based on the k 0 -standardization method. The NAA technique, which was originally introduced for trace element analysis in high-purity silica, has evolved into a key analytical technique at DSM Research besides ICP-MS, ICP-AES and other sophisticated in-house methods

  9. NAA of an egyptian ceramic electric insulator sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASHMAWY, L.S.; EISSA, E.A.; ROFAIL, N.B.; HASSAN, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work a sample of a ceramic electric insulator material used in Egypt in the production of transformers and indoor electric equipment has been elementally analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The Pneumatic Rabbit Transfer System (PRTS) of the 10 MW Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) was used, for short time irradiation of 120 s. Long time irradiation was performed at the reactor core periphery for 24 hours, The thermal neutron fluxes at full reactor power in both cases were 6 x 1013 n/cm 2.s and 3 x 1013 n/cm 2 .s, respectively. The gamma-ray spectra obtained have been measured for several times by means of the Hyper Pure Germanium Detection System (HPGe). The ko computer programs were used for data analysis. A total of 42 elements have been identified as: Na, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Au, Th and U

  10. Application Of NAA And AAS In Environmental Research In Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Meresova, J.; Sykora, I.; Frontasveva, M. V.; Ermakova, E.E.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mankovska, B.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in Bratislava. The obtained results confirm the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities, including Cairo. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. Results on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements in the whole territory Slovakia using the moss bio monitoring technique are presented, too. The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian moss. The marginal hot spots were revealed near nonferrous ores processing and factories and dumps of stone chips. The trans-boundary contamination by Hg through dry and wet deposition from Czech Republic and Polish is evident in the bordering territory in the north-west part of Slovakia (The Small Black Triangle), known for metallurgical works, coal processing and chemical industries

  11. Recent applications of neutron activation analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myung; Kim Young Jin

    2004-01-01

    There are two purposes in this research; first aim is to promote the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a utilization of nuclear research reactor in the field of air pollution studies through a routine and long-term monitoring. Other is to improve NAA with an experimental simplicity, high accuracy, excellent flexibility with respect to irradiation and counting conditions. For the study on air pollution, airborne particulate matter (APM) for the fine (< 2.5 μm EAD) and coarse particle (2.5-10 μm EAD) fractions were collected using the Gent stacked filter unit low volume sampler and two types of Nuclepore polycarbonate filters. Air samples were collected at two regions (suburban and industrial site of Daejeon city in the Republic of Korea) from January to December 2002. Mass concentration and elemental black carbon of APM were measured and the concentration of 25 elements were determined by Instrumental NAA. Analytical quality control is carried out using three certified reference materials (CRM). The monitoring data were treated statistically to assess air pollution source and source apportionment. The results obtained from this project can be used to investigate source identification and apportionment and its trends, and to establish a more cost-effective method for national air quality management. Preliminary experiment for application of ko-standardization method has been carried out to determine the reactor neutron spectrum parameters, i.e.a and f-values as the main factors of irradiation quality at NAA no.1 irradiation hole on HANARO research reactor, to determine peak detection efficiency for the HP Ge(EG and G ORTEC, GEM 35185) detector for the use in the ko-experiments and to compare the measured concentration results with the certified values of some CRMs applying the experimentally determined ko-parameters. (author)

  12. Determination of the origin of the medieval glass bracelets discovered in Dubna (Moscow Region, Russia), using the neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrieva, S.O.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to the determination of the origin of archaeological finds from medieval glass using the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Among such objects we can discover things not only produced in ancient Russian glassmaking workshops but also brought from Byzantium. The authors substantiate the ancient Russian origin of the medieval glass bracelets of pre-Mongol period, found on the ancient Dubna settlement. The conclusions are based on the data about the glass chemical composition obtained as a result of NAA of ten fragments of bracelets at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP, JINR. [ru

  13. Determination of the origin of the medieval glass bracelets discovered in Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia, using the neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrieva, S.O.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The work is dedicated to the determination of the origin of archaeological finds from medieval glass using the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Among such objects we can discover things not only produced in ancient Russian glassmaking workshops but also imported from Byzantium. The authors substantiate the ancient Russian origin of the medieval glass bracelets of pre-Mongol period, found on the ancient Dubna settlement. The conclusions are based on data on the glass chemical composition obtained as a result of NAA of 10 fragments of bracelets at the IBR-2 reactor, FLNP, JINR.

  14. A single dose of a neuron-binding human monoclonal antibody improves brainstem NAA concentrations, a biomarker for density of spinal cord axons, in a model of progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Watzlawik, Jens O; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-04-29

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible mouse strains with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) results in chronic demyelinating disease with progressive axonal loss and neurologic dysfunction similar to progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously showed that as the disease progresses, a marked decrease in brainstem N-acetyl aspartate (NAA; metabolite associated with neuronal integrity) concentrations, reflecting axon health, is measured. We also demonstrated stimulation of neurite outgrowth by a neuron-binding natural human antibody, IgM12. Treatment with either the serum-derived or recombinant human immunoglobulin M 12 (HIgM12) preserved functional motor activity in the TMEV model. In this study, we examined IgM-mediated changes in brainstem NAA concentrations and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) showed that treatment with HIgM12 significantly increased brainstem NAA concentrations compared to controls in TMEV-infected mice. Pathologic analysis demonstrated a significant preservation of axons in the spinal cord of animals treated with HIgM12. This study links drug efficacy of slowing deficits with axon preservation and NAA concentrations in the brainstem in a model of progressive MS. HIgM12-mediated changes of NAA concentrations in the brainstem are a surrogate marker of axon injury/preservation throughout the spinal cord. This study provides proof-of-concept that a neuron-reactive human IgM can be therapeutic and provides a biomarker for clinical trials.

  15. Possible applications of neutron activation analysis at the RB reactor for the environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, D.; Pesic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Dasic, N.; Antic, D.; Kostic, Lj.; Ljubenov, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the possibilities of performing neutron activation analysis in Yugoslavia for the purpose of environmental pollution monitoring. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an established method for the determination of trace elements in a broad range of samples. It is non-destructive method used in a routine manner with gamma-ray spectrometry for various applications in biology, environmental toxicology, radiation assessment, mineral exploration, trace elements monitoring regarding human health studies. As a complex, powerful analytical tool, it might give results even when other analytical methods fail. NAA has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (NET), the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, for various applications in the reactor physics research. The samples are irradiated in the RB research reactor, which is the zero-power, bear, heavy water critical facility utilising three fuel element types. The reactor system is very flexible and allows for different core configurations, resulting in various neutron fields, with energy spectra ranging from thermal to fast (in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE). There are several vertical and horizontal experimental channels available for sample's irradiation. The achievable thermal neutron flux is approximately 1 0 7 n/(cm 2 s) per 1 W of fission power. We believe the RB reactor could be successfully used for neutron activation analysis of trace elements in the environmental samples, comprising short-lived isotopes. Although the flux level and restricted irradiation time pose a certain limitation to NAA applications at the RB reactor, it can be compensated by the specific methodology advancement. That involves overcoming the main sources of error in the instrumental NAA evaluation methodology which utilises generally valid k 0 , and Q 0 factors. In particular, the computational accuracy of required nuclear parameters (e.g. neutron flux distribution, effective nuclear cross sections) can

  16. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  17. Neutron activation analysis of the rare earth elements in rocks from the earth's upper mantle and deep crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosch, H.-G.; Koetz, J.; Herpers, U.

    1986-01-01

    Three techniques for analyzing rare earth elements (REE) in geological materials are described, i.e. instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), neutron activation analysis with pre-irradiation chemical REE separation (PCS-NAA) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). The knowledge of REE concentrationd in eclogites, peridotites and minerals from the earth's lower crust and upper mantle is very useful in constraining their petrogenetic history. (author)

  18. Widespread extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) abnormalities in TLE with and without mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Susanne G; Ebel, Andreas; Barakos, Jerome; Scanlon, Cathy; Cheong, Ian; Finlay, Daniel; Garcia, Paul; Weiner, Michael W; Laxer, Kenneth D

    2011-04-01

    MR spectroscopy has demonstrated extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions in medial temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) mesial temporal sclerosis. Because of the limited brain coverage of those previous studies, it was, however, not possible to assess differences in the distribution and extent of these abnormalities between TLE-MTS and TLE-no. This study used a 3D whole brain echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence to address the following questions: (1) Do TLE-MTS and TLE-no differ regarding severity and distribution of extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions? (2) Do extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions provide additional information for focus lateralization? Forty-three subjects (12 TLE-MTS, 13 TLE-no, 18 controls) were studied with 3D EPSI. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was used to identify regions of significantly decreased NAA/(Cr+Cho) in TLE groups and in individual patients. TLE-MTS and TLE-no had widespread extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions. NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions had a bilateral fronto-temporal distribution in TLE-MTS and a more diffuse, less well defined distribution in TLE-no. Extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) decreases in the single subject analysis showed a large inter-individual variability and did not provide additional focus lateralizing information. Extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions in TLE-MTS and TLE-no are neither focal nor homogeneous. This reduces their value for focus lateralization and suggests a heterogeneous etiology of extrahippocampal spectroscopic metabolic abnormalities in TLE.

  19. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  20. Application of the k0-NAA method at the HANARO research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong-Hwa Moon; Sun-Ha Kim; Yong-Sam Chung; Young-Jin Kim

    2007-01-01

    The k 0 -standardization method (k 0 -NAA) is known as one of the most remarkable progresses of the NAA with its many advantages. For the application of k 0 -NAA method at the NAA 1 irradiation position where the neutrons are well thermalized in the HANARO research reactor, KAERI, Korea, the determination of the reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f have been carried out. The measured values of a and f using the 'Cd-ratio' triple monitor method were 0.127±0.022 and 1010±70, respectively. To evaluate the applicability of k 0 -NAA in our analytical system, the analysis of three kinds of SRMs was executed. The analytical results showed that the relative error of most of the elements was less than 10% and the U-scores were within 2. It is turned out that the procedure of the k 0 -NAA in the HANARO research reactor is available for a practical application in the environmental fields. (author)

  1. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  2. Development of Neutron Activation Analysis for Scientific Interpretation on Cultural Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Ho; Kim, Na Young; Ko, Min Chung; Kim, Min Ji; Cho, Su Mi; Kang, Ji Eun [Kongju National University, Gongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This research is tried to set up the application of neutron activation analysis and to evaluate the historical information about ceramics materials at production kilns for the standardized technology of NAA. This project is measured the 112 samples from Jijong-dong, Daejeon and 4 production kiln sites in Kyongsangdo by using NAA and XRF and classified as types and production site by PCA and applied of factor analysis, discruminant analysis and cluster analysis. As the results, we know that it is classified as pottery and roof tile as measured 11 elements and that it is not classified major and trace elements as the production kiln sites because raw materials is 2nd clay. At last, it is investigated the comparative evaluation of raw material as production kiln sites by cluster analysis as the basis of the data of NA

  3. Uncertainty budget for k0-NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Eguskiza, M.; Etxebarria, N.

    2000-01-01

    The concepts of the Guide to the expression of Uncertainties in Measurements for chemical measurements (GUM) and the recommendations of the Eurachem document 'Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Methods' are applied to set up the uncertainty budget for k 0 -NAA. The 'universally applicable spreadsheet technique', described by KRAGTEN, is applied to the k 0 -NAA basic equations for the computation of uncertainties. The variance components - individual standard uncertainties - highlight the contribution and the importance of the different parameters to be taken into account. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the uncertainty associated with sample holders in NAA measurements in LAN/IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: ticianelli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In IPEN's Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN/IPEN), thin stainless steel sample holders are used for gamma spectrometry in NAA measurements. This material is very practical, but its chemical composition may be troublesome, as it presents large amounts of elements with intermediate atomic number, with attenuation factors for low-energy gamma-rays that must not be neglected. In this study, count rates obtained using different sample holders were compared. To accomplish that, an Am-241 source, with 59-keV gamma emission, was used so that low-energy gamma attenuation differences can be determined. Moreover, in order to study the energy dependence of these differences, a Ho-166m source was also used. From these results, it was possible to analyze the experimental error associated to the variations between sample holders, with the aim of introducing an addictive term to the uncertainty analysis of comparative Neutron Activation Analysis results. (author)

  5. Determination of antimony in antimony oxide by EDXRF and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.; Swain, K.K.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed to use 124 Sb - 9 Be neutron source for starting Proto Type Fast Breeder Reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam. 124 Sb (γ-ray energy = 1.69 MeV; t 1/2 = 60 d) is obtained by irradiating antimony oxide and as per specification, antimony content in the oxide should be ≥ 83.0 % i.e antimony should be in the form of trioxide. Although gravimetry is the most precise and accurate method for % level analysis, it is tedious and time consuming. In this work, the study reported the determination of antimony by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and validation of the result by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. Antimony oxide encapsulated in stainless steel tube (internal diameter = 0.5 mm) was received from BHAVINI, Kalpakkam. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicated that the sample was antimony trioxide. For EDXRF analysis, calibration standards were prepared by mixing spectroscopic grade antimony trioxide with microcrystalline cellulose (2.5 to 20 mg g -1 of antimony) and pellets were made by using hydraulic press. Sample pellets were also prepared by mixing with microcrystalline cellulose. EDXRF measurement was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M spectrometer with a Rhodium X-ray source. Characteristic K α X-ray of Sb (26.35 keV) was used for quantification. A typical XRF spectrum of the sample is shown after XRF analysis, sample and standard pellets were sealed in clean polyethylene bags and were irradiated in AHWR critical facility reactor, BARC for 4 h. Gamma ray measurement of irradiated samples were carried out using HPGe detector and 564.2 keV gamma ray of 122 Sb was used for quantification

  6. Automation system for measurement of gamma-ray spectra of induced activity for multi-element high-volume neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor of FLNP at JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Chepurchenko, I.A.; Frontas'eva, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    The automation system for measurement of induced activity of gamma-ray spectra for multi-element high-volume neutron activation analysis (NAA) was designed, developed and implemented at the IBR-2 reactor. The system consists of three devices of automatic sample changers for three Canberra HPGe detector-based gamma spectrometry systems. Each sample changer consists of two-axis linear positioning module M202A by DriveSet (DriveSet.de) company and disk with 45 slots for containers with samples. Control of automatic sample changer is performed by the Xemo S360U controller by Systec (systec.de) company. Positioning accuracy can reach 0.1 mm. Special software performs automatic changing of samples and measurement of gamma spectra at constant interaction with the NAA database. The system is unique and can be recommended for other laboratories as one of the possible ways of the NAA integrated automation

  7. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  8. Activation and chemical analysis of drinking water from shallow aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.K.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    In most of the Indian cities drinking water is drawn from shallow aqiufers with the help of hand pumps. These shallow aquifers get easilyl polluted. In the present work we have measured 20 trace elements using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and 8 chemical parameters using standard chemical methods of drinking water drawn from Rajpura city. It was found that almost all water samples are highly polluted. We attribute this to unplaned disposal of industrial and domestic waste over a period of many decades. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Fast neutron activation analysis at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Fast neutron generators are used at Texas A and M University to provide a supply of high energy neutrons for nuclear analytical measurements. A series of neutron activation analysis procedures have been developed for determining various major, minor and trace constituents in a variety of materials. These procedures are primarily developed to compliment our reactor based NAA program, thereby expanding the list of determinable elements to include those difficult or impossible to measure using thermal neutrons. A few typical methods are discussed. The unique implementation of the methodologies at Texas A and M are explained. (author)

  10. Originating relation studies on ancient porcelains of chines Ru and Jun by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Weijuan; Xie Jianzhong; Gao Zhengyao; Li Guoxia; Li Rongwu; Zhang Bin

    2002-01-01

    50 samples of glazes and bodies of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, Jun porcelain and imitative ancient ceramics were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The contents of 36 elements in each sample were measured. The NAA data were statistically treated by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram was obtained. Their classes and raw material sources were determined. The results show that although these samples spanned hundreds of years, came from different kilns and had different glazes colors, the bodies of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain belong to the same kind, the glazes of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain is similar to the glazes of the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain. The originating places of the body raw material were concentrated, and that of the glaze raw materials were scattered, the source of the glaze raw material covered that the body raw material. The ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain have basically the same raw material sources and the sources of raw material are stable in long time. It is found that most modern Jun porcelain samples are similar to the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain. Two modern Ru porcelain samples are similar to the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, but another one drifts apart from the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain. Jingdezhen porcelain has no relation to Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain

  11. NAA study on homogeneity of reference materials and their suitability for microanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneity of the existing (Virginia Tobacco Leaves CTA-VTL-2 (ICHTJ), Apatite Concentrate CTA-AC-1 (ICHTJ), Fine Fly Ash CTA-FFA-1 (ICHTJ)) and candidate certified reference materials (CRMs) (IAEA-338 Lichen, IAEA-413 Algae, Spruce Shoots RMF II (Germany)) was studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Several samples of small mass (ca. 1 or 10 mg) taken from various containers were analyzed by instrumental NAA and the results for several elements were compared by Fishers's test and t-test with analogous series of results for samples taken from one container. In the second approach, sampling variance was estimated for some elements from overall variance and the components of analytical variance. The results were interpreted with the aid of Ingamells' sampling constant. Particle size distribution of the reference materials was also measured by several techniques. In addition quantitative determinations for some elements were performed and results compared with the certified values. The results of the present study were discussed with reference to suitability of CRMs to microanalytical techniques. It was pointed out that the term 'microanalysis' itself is not always unequivocally understood and used. (author)

  12. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k 0-NAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniel; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-01-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k 0 -NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF

  13. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Ricardo C G; Edden, Richard A E; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J M; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, pNAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Validation of NAA Method Used as Test Method in Serpong NAA Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina-Mulyaningsih, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The Validation Of NAA Method Used As Test Method In Serpong NAA Laboratory. NAA Method is a non standard testing method. The testing laboratory shall validate its using method to ensure and confirm that it is suitable with application. The validation of NAA methods have been done with the parameters of accuracy, precision, repeatability and selectivity. The NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIES 10C Rice flour unpolished and standard elements were used in this testing program. The result of testing with NIST 1573a showed that the elements of Na, Zn, Al and Mn are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, whereas Co is rejected. The result of testing with NIES 10C showed that Na and Zn elements are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, but Mn element is rejected. The result of selectivity test showed that the value of quantity is between 0.1-2.5 μg, depend on the elements. (author)

  15. A new microcomputer program for processing data in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, P.A.; Page, J.A.; Heimlich, M.S.; Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON; Edward, J.B.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1993-01-01

    A new utility program for processing data in neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been developed for use on MS-DOS microcomputers. Peak areas are read from ASCII data files of gamma-ray spectra which have been processed by a Gaussian peak fitting program, GAMANAL-PC. Elemental concentrations are then calculated by this new program, QUACANAL, via a semi-absolute algorithm that uses pre-determined activation constants. User-defined ASCII library files are employed to specify the elements of interest required for analysis, and (n, p) and (n, α) interferences are taken into account. The program has been written in turbo PASCAL, is menu driven and contains options for processing data from cyclic NAA. An interactive philosophy has been used in designing the program. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  16. On the role of neutron activation analysis in the certification of a new reference material for trace-element studies, mixed human diet, H-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A new biological reference material, which is representative of diets consumed in Finland, was characterized by means of an intercomparison exercise conducted by the IAEA in the second half of 1985 and in 1986. Results for 35 elements received from 79 participants in 33 countries were evaluated. A certificate of analysis was issued with provisional certified values for 22 elements and information values for 2 elements. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provided approximately one third of all the results reported. Instrumental NAA was used approximately 5 times as frequently as radiochemical NAA. Overall, NAA played an important role in providing useful data for the following 20 elements: Al, As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, F, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn. In comparison with the main competing non-nuclear method (usually atomic absorption spectrometry), NAA showed a larger dispersion of results for Cd, Cu, K and Mg, and a smaller degree of dispersion for Co, Cr, Hg and Se. (author) 17 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. The determination of the C, N, O and trace element content of Triticum aestivum by activation analysis, X-ray excitation and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Dahn, E.; Dietze, H.J.; Freyer, K.; Geisler, M.; Hartmann, G.; Jung, K.; Schelhorn, H.

    1979-01-01

    The results of determinations of the C, N, O and trace element content of grains, sprouts and leaves of Triticum aestivum by means of various methods of activation analysis, X-ray excitation and mass spectrometry are presented. The C and O contents were determined by X-ray excitation; the O, N, P and Si contents were measured by NAA with 14-MeV neutrons, and the trace elements were determined by NAA with thermal neutrons. A mass-spectrometric survey analysis confirmed the results obtained by NAA. The use of neutron-induced nuclear reactions together with autoradiography enabled a representative picture to be formed of the spatial distribution in two dimensions of 14 N in biological specimens. (author)

  18. Evaluation of 40K in vegetables collected Malaysia by determination total potassium using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafaei, M.A.; Saion, E.; Naghavi, K.; Wood, K.; Rezaee, Kh.

    2011-01-01

    Some vegetables of important nutritive requirements have been collected from Kuala Lumpur region capital of Malaysia. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine activity concentration level of potassium using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA results obtained showed the activity concentration of 40 K varied from 379 Bq/kg (Egg-plant) to 1585 Bq/kg (Spinach Red). These results are compared to other researches and are clear that the concentrations of K are relatively high in the Malaysia in compared to rather than vegetables of Pakistan and Jamaican. However, they are seen not to pose any serious internal health burden due to ingestion given the realities of vegetables choice by individuals in the study area. (author)

  19. A Brief overview of neutron activation analyses methodology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this talk is to present our new facility for Neutron Activation Analysis to the scientific and industrial societies and show its possibilities. Therefore my talk will handle the following main items: An overview of neutron activation analysis, The special interest of fast mono-energetic neutrons, The NAA method and its sensitivities, The Recent scientific and industrial applications using NAA, and o An illustrating example measured by using our facility is presented What is NAA? It is a sensitive analytical technique useful for performing both qualitative and quantitative multi-element analyses in samples. Worldwide application of NAA is so widespread; it is estimated that approximately several 10,000 samples undergo analysis each year from almost every conceivable field of scientific or technical interest. Why NAA? For many elements and applications, NAA: Offers sensitivities that are sometimes superior to those attainable by other methods, on the order of nano-gram level, It is accurate and reliable, NAA is generally recognized as the r eferee method o f choice when new procedures are being developed or when other methods yield results that do not agree. However, the activation analysis at En=14 MeV is limited by a few factors: Low value of flux, low cross-sections of threshold reactions, o Short irradiation time due to finite target life, Interfering reactions and gamma ray spectral interference

  20. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulski, P.; Moeller, P.

    1975-07-01

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH) [de

  1. A comparative study of 232Th and 238U activity estimation in soil samples by gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, Rekha; Anilkumar, S.; Narayani, K.; Babu, D.A.R.; Sharma, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well-established analytical technique. It has many advantages as compared to the other commonly used techniques. NAA can be performed in a variety of ways depending on the element, its activity level in the sample, interference from the sample matrix and other elements, etc. This technique is used to get high analytical sensitivity and low detection limits (ppm to ppb). The high sensitivity is due to the irradiation at high neutron flux available from the research reactors and the activity measurement is done using high resolution HPGe detectors. In this paper, the activity estimation of soil samples using neutron activation and direct gamma spectrometry methods are compared. Even though the weights of samples considered and samples preparation methods are different for these two methods, the estimated activity values are comparable. (author)

  2. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×10 8 cm −2 s −1 to 10 14 cm −2 s −1 . The 202 Hg(n,γ) 203 Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203 Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg 2 Cl 2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps. - Highlights: • Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. • Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in neutron fields in research reactor. • 203 Hg induced radionuclide activity was measured using gamma spectrometry. • Mercury mass in fluorescent lamps can be measured by neutron activation analysis.

  3. Derivative activation analysis of phosphorus at ppb levels in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; John, A.; Gangadharan, S.

    1991-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed for the indirect determination of phosphorus as orthophosphate at ppb levels, via the formation of antimonyl phosphomolybdic acid. The complex is adsorbed on Sephadex G-25 resin and the antimony is estimated through NAA, allowing the determination of phosphorus. The procedure provides an easy method to adopt for the routine determination of phosphorus at ≥ 10 ng ml -1 levels with good precision, in water samples. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  4. A comparative neutron activation analysis study of common generic manipulated and reference medicines commercialized in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, A.S.; Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Rodrigues, R.R.; Andonie, O.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed by the nuclear institutes: CDTN/CNEN-Brazil, CCHEN-Chile and the SCK.CEN-Belgium aiming to investigate some generic, manipulated and reference medicines largely commercialized in Brazil. Some impurities such as: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ti and Zn were found, and the heterogeneity of the samples pointed out the lack of an efficient public system of quality control

  5. Determination of Inorganic Elements in White Rice by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. M.; Lee, Y. N.; Chung, Y. S.

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food and provides an important information of mineral supplement as well as a large portion of calorie for Korean. As scientists have focused their researches on health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiency and hazardous elements, public concerns about mineral intake by dietary food is rising. The objectives of this study were to determine inorganic elemental contents in white rice by neutron activation analysis(NAA) and to assist the evaluation of nutritional and harmful status for Korean people

  6. Characterization of 'kayam churan', an ayurvedic medicine using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Kallola K.; Kayasth, Satish

    2004-01-01

    'Kayam Churan', a typical ayurvedic medicine, is used with specific compositions in various human body-disorders like, purgative in case of problems associated with constipation, acidity, headache, eye burning, hand and leg burning and other skin diseases. In the present work, this matrix has been characterized for possible inorganic elements using Neutron activation analysis (NAA). The possible effect of the different elements and its correlation for medicinal use of this matrix has been discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  8. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, L F F Lopes; Zamboni, C B; Bahovschi, V; Metairon, S; Suzuki, M F; Sant' Anna, O A; Rizzutto, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [H III line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms. (paper)

  9. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luten, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the

  11. Analysis of the posterior cingulate cortex with [18F]FDG-PET and Naa/mI in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Correlations and differences between the two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Artur M N; Porto, Fábio H G; Zampieri, Poliana F; Otaduy, Maria C; Perroco, Tíbor R; Oliveira, Maira O; Nunes, Rafael F; Pinheiro, Toulouse Leusin; Bottino, Cassio M C; Leite, Claudia C; Buchpiguel, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of regional brain glucose metabolism (rBGM) measured by [18F]FDG-PET in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has been associated with a higher conversion rate from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a potential biomarker that has disclosed Naa/mI reductions within the PCC in both MCI and AD. Studies investigating the relationships between the two modalities are scarce. To evaluate differences and possible correlations between the findings of rBGM and NAA/mI in the PCC of individuals with AD, MCI and of cognitively normal volunteers. Patients diagnosed with AD (N=32) or MCI (N=27) and cognitively normal older adults (CG, N=28), were submitted to [18F]FDG-PET and MRS to analyze the PCC. The two methods were compared and possible correlations between the modalities were investigated. The AD group exhibited rBGM reduction in the PCC when compared to the CG but not in the MCI group. MRS revealed lower NAA/mI values in the AD group compared to the CG but not in the MCI group. A positive correlation between rBGM and NAA/mI in the PCC was found. NAA/mI reduction in the PCC differentiated AD patients from control subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.70, while [18F]FDG-PET yielded a value of 0.93. rBGM and Naa/mI in the PCC were positively correlated in patients with MCI and AD. [18F]FDG-PET had greater accuracy than MRS for discriminating AD patients from controls.

  12. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenihan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  13. Determination of impurities in beryl by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, K.K.; Dalvi, Aditi A.; Ajith, Nicy

    2015-01-01

    Beryl is a chemically complex and highly compositionally variable gem-forming mineral found in a variety of locations worldwide. Pure beryl is colorless, but the presence of impurities imparts colors such as green, blue, yellow, red, and white. It is one of the most important gem minerals and the gems are named by their color. The impurities in beryl can be determined using various analytical techniques. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a sensitive technique for multielement analysis of geological samples. Four beryl samples, collected from Nayakund Mehandi Block, Parseoni, Maharashtra, were received from Geological Survey of India (GSI), Pune. Powdered samples (50-100 mg) along with comparators (IAEA Soil-7) were packed in aluminum foils, sealed in an aluminum container and irradiated for 7 days in tray rod facility of Dhruva reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After irradiation, samples were brought to laboratory. Samples were opened, transferred into polyethylene packets and weighed. Gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. For the determination of manganese, which produces relatively shorter lived activation product ( 56 Mn: T 1/2 = 2.56 h), samples were sealed in polyethylene pouches and irradiated in graphite reflector position of Critical facility reactor, BARC, Mumbai. Relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. IAEA reference material (RM), SL -1 (lake sediment) was analyzed for quality control. Percentage errors on the measured concentrations of the elements are within ± 8% with respect to the recommended/information values

  14. Determination of trace elements in wool fibre by instrumental neutron activation analysis and relation between trace element contents and quality of wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eozyol, H.

    1990-01-01

    Wool samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and 17 elements, Al, Ag, Au, As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Se and Zn were measured quantitatively. The presence of seven others, Ce, Eu, I, Mo, Te and W was noted. Since several elements, such as Cd, Hg and Pb could not be conveniently determined by NAA, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used instead. Cu and Zn were also analyzed by NAA and AAS to compare these two methods. Mechanical properties of samples were measured and the relations between the trace element contents and properties were investigated. (author) 16 refs.; 7 tabs

  15. Large sample NAA of a pottery replica utilizing thermal neutron flux at AHWR critical facility and X-Z rotary scanning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Shinde, A.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) of a clay pottery replica from Peru was carried out using low neutron flux graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) critical facility. This work was taken up as a part of inter-comparison exercise under IAEA CRP on LSNAA of archaeological objects. Irradiated large size sample, placed on an X-Z rotary scanning unit, was assayed using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The k 0 -based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) in conjunction with insitu relative detection efficiency was used to calculate concentration ratios of 12 elements with respect to Na. Analyses of both small and large size samples were carried out to check homogeneity and to arrive at absolute concentrations. (author)

  16. Spectroscopic imaging of the pilocarpine model of human epilepsy suggests that early NAA reduction predicts epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, W A; Lado, F A; de Lanerolle, N C; Takahashi, K; Pan, C; Hetherington, H P

    2007-08-01

    Reduced hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) is commonly observed in patients with advanced, chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). It is unclear, however, whether an NAA deficit is also present during the clinically quiescent latent period that characterizes early TLE. This question has important implications for the use of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the early identification of patients at risk for TLE. To determine whether NAA is diminished during the latent period, we obtained high-resolution (1)H spectroscopic imaging during the latent period of the rat pilocarpine model of human TLE. We used actively detuneable surface reception and volume transmission coils to enhance sensitivity and a semiautomated voxel shifting method to accurately position voxels within the hippocampi. During the latent period, 2 and 7 d following pilocarpine treatment, hippocampal NAA was significantly reduced by 27.5 +/- 6.9% (P NAA deficit is not due to neuron loss and therefore likely represents metabolic impairment of hippocampal neurons during the latent phase. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging provides an early marker for metabolic dysfunction in this model of TLE.

  17. APPLICATION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS IN CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SRM SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA is a nuclear technique that is excellent, multi-elemental, sensitive and has limit detection up to nanogram level. The application of NAA in analysis of Standard Reference Material (SRM National Institute of Standard Technology (NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash and SRM NIST 1646a Estuarine Sediment was carried out for NAA laboratory inter-comparison program. The samples were distributed by Technology Centre for Nuclear Industry Material, National Nuclear Energy Agency as a coordinator of the inter-comparison program. The samples were irradiated in rabbit facility of G.A. Siwabessy reactor with neutron flux ~ 1013 n.cm-2.s-1, and counted with HPGe spectrometry gamma detector. Several trace elements in these samples were detected. The concentration of Al, Mg, K, Na and Ti in SRM NIST 1633b were 15.11, 7.35, 2.09, 0.192 and 0.756% respectively and the concentration of As, Cr, Mn, Se, V, Sb, Co, Cs, La, Sc and Sm were 137.0, 195.6, 129.4, 9.61, 305.8, 5.45, 56.2, 11.18, 83.73, 41.1 and 19.13 mg/kg respectively. The analysis result in SRM NIST 1646a of the concentration of Al and Na were 2.15 and 0.70% and the concentration of As, Cr, Co, La and Sc were 5.75, 36.3, 4.58, 15.67 and 4.00 mg/kg respectively. These results analysis had relative bias and u-test ranged from 0.4-11.3% and 0.15-2.25. The accuracy and precision evaluation based on International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA criteria was also applied. The result showed that NAA technique is applicable for the environmental samples analysis, and it also showed that the NAA laboratory in BATAN Bandung has a good performance.   Keywords: NAA, inter-comparison, estuarine sediment, coal fly ash, environmental samples

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of marine sediment in-house reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Siong, W.B.; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Azian Hashim; Shakirah Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Reference materials play an important role in demonstrating the quality and reliability of analytical data. The advantage of using in-house reference materials is that they provide a relatively cheap option as compared to using commercially available certified reference material (CRM) and can closely resemble the laboratory routine test sample. A marine sediment sample was designed as an in-house reference material, in the framework of quality assurance and control (QA/QC) program of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory at Nuclear Malaysia. The NAA technique was solely used for the homogeneity test of the marine sediment sample. The CRM of IAEA- Soil 7 and IAEA- SL1 (Lake Sediment) were applied in the analysis as compatible matrix based reference materials for QA purposes. (Author)

  19. Trace impurities analysis determined by neutron activation in the PbI 2 crystal semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M. M.; Oliveira, I. B.; Armelin, M. J.; Mesquita, C. H.

    2003-06-01

    In this work, a methodology for impurity analysis of PbI 2 was studied to investigate the effectiveness of the purification. Commercial salts were purified by the multi passes zone refining and grown by the Bridgman method. To evaluate the purification efficiency, samples from the bottom, middle and upper sections of the ZR ingot were analyzed after 200, 300 and 500 purification passes, by measurements of the impurity concentrations, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. There was a significant reduction of the impurities according to the purification numbers. The reduction efficiency was different for each element, namely: Au>Mn>Co˜Ag>K˜Br. The impurity concentration of the crystals grown after 200, 300 and 500 passes and the PbI 2 starting material were analyzed by NAA and plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

  20. The application of computer technique in routine neutron activation analysis using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, Z.; Plejewska, M.; Staszelis, J.

    1982-01-01

    A full system of four computer programs for routine - qualitative and quantitative - neutron activation analysis (NAA) using high resolution gamma ray-spectrometry had been elaborated. The structure and possibilities of the ''data flow'' programs i.e. programs DIDPDP and DIDCDC, dedicated for fast and reliable ''off line'' data transfer between the buffer memory of the spectrometric line (9-track magnetic tape) and the fast access memory (disc) of the used computers PDP-11/45 and CYBER-73 had been presented. The structure and organization of the ''data processing'' programs i.e. programs SAWAPS and MAZYG had been presented as well. The utility and reliability of these programs in the case of the large-scale, routine NAA, exampled by analysis of filters with air polutants, had been tested and discussed. Programs are written mainly in FORTRAN. (author)

  1. International comparison of Cd content in a quality control material of Navajuelas (Tagelus dombeii) determined by anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queirolo, F.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz; Ostapczuk, P.; Valenta, P.; Stegen, S.; Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz; Marin, C.; Vinagre, F.; Sanchez, A.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of Cd was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame or in the electrothermal mode and anodic stripping voltammetry in the differential pulse mode (DPASV) and the square wave mode (SWASV). (orig./EF)

  2. Comparative studies for determining U-235/U-238 relation in solutions of natural and depleted uranium using gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla F, V.; Valle M, L.; Pena V, L.

    1988-01-01

    Two experimental methods were developed for determining U-235/U-238 ratio in uranium solutions. The isotopic was measured by high resolution ratio gamma-ray spectrometry (G.S.) and neutron activation analysis (N.A.A.). The precision obtained was similar for both methods, but better sensitivity was obtained by N.A.A. The accuracy in both cases was stablished by comparison with samples previously analyzed by mass spectrometry, the results were satisfactory for both techniques. Studies involving the influence of the nitric acid concentration on the isotopic ratio measurement, also were done. In addition, computer programs for faster data reduction were developped, in the case of N.A.A. (author)

  3. Concentrations of ions in blood or athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Luciana; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Loureno, Thiago F.; Nunes, Lazaro A.S.; Macedo, Denise V.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K) are widely distributed in the body and are the mainly of body fluids electrolytes. K is the major intracellular ion. Na and Cl are the major extracellular ions. Therefore, Na and Cl can be regarded as the most important osmotically active electrolytes. The concentrations of these ions in body fluids are very tightly controlled. These electrolytes play central roles in electrolytic balances and current, in osmotic control, in the transport of organic metabolites by cells, and stabilization of poly electrolytes in cells. In this study Na, Cl and K levels were investigated in blood of athletes submitted to physical exercise at Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio (LABEX/UNICAMP - Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The blood samples were collected from six male athletes, ranging from 18 to 26 years old, before and after the physical training. These results were compared with the rest condition (before start the physical exercise), as well as with the control group (subjects of same age but not involved with physical activities), for checking the performance of the athletes during and after the exercise. The nuclear procedure adopted as NAA, it can be an alternative procedure to perform biochemistry analyses in blood, mainly when the biological material is scarce. (author)

  4. Activation analysis in the Americas: recent and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 243 publications in the field of nuclear activation analysis and its applications during the period of 1977 through mid-1983, from laboratories in North, Central, and South America were reviewed. Various aspects of these populations are treated statistically, for indication of trends, and 146 of these are cited as publications that illustrate the extent of usage of various special forms of the nuclear activation analysis method (e.g., cyclic INAA, prompt-gamma INAA, epithermal NAA, the delayed-neutron method, the use of pre-irradiation chemical separations, etc.) - or that illustrate applications in such fields as archaeology, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, medicine, industry, and forensic chemistry. The overall conclusion is that the method of nuclear activation analysis continues to flourish in this region

  5. Study of provenance properties on ancient celadon of different kilns with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Fan Dongyu; Feng Xiangqian; Xu Qing; Cheng Lin; Lei Yong; Shen Yueming; Zhang Wenjiang; Zhua Zhenxi

    2005-01-01

    Provenance characteristic is an important scientific parameter to identify ancient porcelain wares unearthed from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln of Zhejiang Province, Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiangxi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shanxi Province have been analyzed with neutron activation analysis (NAA). The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was able to be identified. The body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiangxi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference. (authors)

  6. Quantitative study of non-stimulated human whole saliva using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewgoy, H.R.; Zamboni, C.B.; Sabrina Metairon; Medeiros, I.M.M.A.; Medeiros de, J.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, the use of saliva has increased as a method for diagnosis of a variety of diseases. Investigations of flow rates, pH, molecular components, hormones and proteins have presented significant progress in clinical testing as a diagnostic tool. Inorganic elements found in saliva also have important correlations that can assist in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, but these salivary components are still poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated non-stimulated whole saliva of 44 healthy subjects and 12 patients with periodontal disease, obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique, we found considerable metabolic changes in the salivary composition of periodontal patients: abnormal concentrations of Br, Ca, I, K, Mg and S that may be associated with periodontal, with the most effective indicator of periodontal disease being Ca concentration. The data from healthy donors also provide a scientific basis for biomedical researches of other oral diseases. (author)

  7. k0-NAA past the turn of the century: problems, concepts, insights, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.

    2003-01-01

    Based on experiences gained during two scientific meetings (MARC-V, Kona, HI, 2000 and 3rd k 0 Users Workshop, Bruges, 2001) that were marking the transition to the 21st century, a survey is given of recent and ongoing activities related to both fundamental developments and applications of k 0 -assisted NAA. Topics highlighted are: the nuclear data library, the calibration of the irradiation facility, the k 0 -concept in PGAA and the development of synthetic multi-element standards (SMELS) for QC/QA/validation of k 0 -NAA implemented in a laboratory. (author)

  8. Determination of multi-element in marine sediment samples collected in Angola by the k0-NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Ho Manh Dung; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Sy; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Vuong Huu Tan

    2006-01-01

    The marine sediment samples were designed to collect in Angola for marine environmental pollution study. The k 0 -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) on Dalat research reactor has been developed to determine of multi-element in the Angola marine sediment samples. The samples were irradiated in cell 7-1 for short- and middle-lived nuclides and rotary specimen rack for long-lived nuclides. The irradiation facilities were characterized for neutron spectrum parameters and post-activated samples were measured on the calibrated gamma-ray spectrometers using HPGe detectors. The analytical results for 9 marine sediment samples with 27 elements: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce,Cl, Co, Cs, Dy, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, U, V and Zn in term of mean concentration, standard deviation and their content range are shown in the report. The analytical quality assurance was done by analysis of a Japan's certified reference material namely marine sediment NMIJ-CRM-7302a. These preliminary results revealed that the k 0 -NAA technique on the Dalat research reactor is a good analytical technique for determination of multi-element in the marine sediment samples. Some heavy metals and trace elements determined in this work possibly connected to the human activities at the sampling region. (author)

  9. Analysis of the elementary composition of the phytoterapics Espinheira Santa and eggplant by the method of Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Luan M.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines has become quite popular in Brazil due to its vast flora and the belief that everything that is natural does not present harmful effects to human health. However, these products may contain toxic or excessively harmful to the human organism. The objective of this work was to analyze herbal medicine Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia) and Eggplant (Solanum melongena) by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Phytotherapeutic samples were obtained from drugstores in the form of capsules, and their contents were removed from the capsules for analysis. The NAA procedure consisted of irradiate phytotherapeutic aliquots and the synthetic neutron element patterns of the nuclear reactor IEAR-1 followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes formed were identified by half lives and gamma ray energies and the concentrations of the elements were calculated by the comparative method. For analytical quality control, the certified reference materials were analyzed and the results presented good accuracy and precision. In the phytoterapics, the elements K and Ca were found in higher concentrations, in the order of mg g -1 , Br, Fe, Rb and Zn of the order of μg g -1 and the elements Co, Cr, Cs, La and Sc of the order of ng g -1 . Results obtained in this work demonstrated the feasibility of applying the NAA procedure in the determination of the elemental composition of phytoterapics

  10. Past, present, future of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    Although the method of NAA was originated in 1936, use of the method was minimal for about the next ten years - due to the lack of a high-flux source of thermal neutrons. When such a copious source of neutrons - the nuclear reactor - became available, commencing in 1945, the power of the method to determine many elements, quantitatively, even though present in samples at concentrations as low as ppb, attracted many scientists. During about the next 20 years (1945-1965), NAA provided the first major results on trace elements (essential and toxic) in biomedical materials. These studies constituted the first major achievement of NAA - and such studies continue. Due to the initial lack of a high-efficiency detector of gamma radiation, work during the early part of this period had to be carried out by tedious radiochemical separations. Starting in the early 1950's, with the advent of the NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and multichannel pulse-height analyzers, the purely-instrumental form of the method (INAA) was born, and research and applications mushroomed. In the 1960s, two additional important applications of NAA were its vital use in the semiconductor industry and in the analysis of the lunar rocks. The INAA method in this period was greatly advanced by the availability of high-resolution germanium detectors. Applications in environmental studies, archaeology, and forensic chemistry were also of note. INAA is now a mature method, but still improving. As for the future, what is still needed are less expensive high-flux neutron sources, simple automated systems, gamma-ray detectors of even better resolution, and faster electronics. The field of NAA has been, and is, blessed by a large number of outstanding scientists, world-wide, all intrigued by the atomic nucleus and radioactive decay

  11. Recently-developed neutron activation analysis techniques utilizing the University of California at Irvine TRIGA Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Chambless, D.; Cortes T, E.; DeLancey, K.; Garzonov, E.; Miller, D.A.; Miller, G.E.; Purcell, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine (UCI) 250 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor is used extensively for neutron activation analysis (NAA) studies. These particularly include basic technique studies and application studies in the fields of environmental pollution, crime investigation, archaeology, oceanography, and geochemistry. In recent NAA studies at UCI, a number of techniques have been developed which considerably improve the usefulness of such a research reactor for NAA work, and which should be of interest and use to others. Six of these techniques will be described in further detail in the full paper. They are as follows: development and use of (1) an automated high-precision rapid transfer system for instrumental NAA measurements with induced activities having half lives as short as 0.5 second, (2) an automated measurement system and computer program for making accurate dead-time corrections under conditions where the Ge(Li) spectrometer deadtime is changing rapidly during the counting period, (3) a technique to minimize the loss of mercury from samples during reactor irradiation via the use of dry-ice-packed, vented TRIGA rotary rack tubes, (4) a technique for compacting powdered samples, by pre-irradiation treatment with a solution of paraffin in carbon disulfide, to provide reproducible irradiation and counting geometries, (5) a method utilizing hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) as a pre-irradiation treatment material for removal of sodium from aqueous and wet-ashed samples, and (6) a computerized system for predicting in advance of activation, from approximate known elemental compositions, the total counting rate, deadtime, spectrum shape, principal photopeaks, and approximate actual lower limits of instrumental NAA detection of designated elements for any selected irradiation and decay times. (author)

  12. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  13. Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.C.; Smith, E.H.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Marsh, D.L.; Zhao, L.

    1997-12-01

    The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252 Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252 Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ≤ 10 11 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 10 8 cm -2 s -1 at the sample. Total flux of ≥10 9 cm -2 s -1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252 Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

  14. Dating ancient Chinese celadon porcelain by neutron activation analysis and bayesian classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guoxi; Feng Songlin; Feng Xiangqian; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Dating ancient Chinese porcelain is one of the most important and difficult problems in porcelain archaeological field. Eighteen elements in bodies of ancient celadon porcelains fired in Southern Song to Yuan period (AD 1127-1368) and Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644), including La, Sm, U, Ce, etc., were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). After the outliers of experimental data were excluded and multivariate normal distribution was tested, and Bayesian classification was used for dating of 165 ancient celadon porcelain samples. The results show that 98.2% of total ancient celadon porcelain samples are classified correctly. It means that NAA and Bayesian classification are very useful for dating ancient porcelain. (authors)

  15. Collection of size fractionated particulate matter sample for neutron activation analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko; Nakamatsu, Hiroaki; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    According to the decision of the 2001 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactor (Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Section), size fractionated particulate matter collection for NAA was started from 2002 at two sites in Japan. The two monitoring sites, ''Tokyo'' and ''Sakata'', were classified into ''urban'' and ''rural''. In each site, two size fractions, namely PM 2-10 '' and PM 2 '' particles (aerodynamic particle size between 2 to 10 micrometer and less than 2 micrometer, respectively) were collected every month on polycarbonate membrane filters. Average concentrations of PM 10 (sum of PM 2-10 and PM 2 samples) during the common sampling period of August to November 2002 in each site were 0.031mg/m 3 in Tokyo, and 0.022mg/m 3 in Sakata. (author)

  16. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the 52 V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  17. Mercury mass measurement in fluorescent lamps via neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Fuksa, A.; Kučera, J.; Koleška, M.; Voljanskij, A.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury is an essential component of fluorescent lamps. Not all fluorescent lamps are recycled, resulting in contamination of the environment with toxic mercury, making measurement of the mercury mass used in fluorescent lamps important. Mercury mass measurement of lamps via instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) was tested under various conditions in the LVR-15 research reactor. Fluorescent lamps were irradiated in different positions in vertical irradiation channels and a horizontal channel in neutron fields with total fluence rates from 3×108 cm-2 s-1 to 1014 cm-2 s-1. The 202Hg(n,γ)203Hg nuclear reaction was used for mercury mass evaluation. Activities of 203Hg and others induced radionuclides were measured via gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector at various times after irradiation. Standards containing an Hg2Cl2 compound were used to determine mercury mass. Problems arise from the presence of elements with a large effective cross section in luminescent material (europium, antimony and gadolinium) and glass (boron). The paper describes optimization of the NAA procedure in the LVR-15 research reactor with particular attention to influence of neutron self-absorption in fluorescent lamps.

  18. Analysis of traces at ORNL's new high-flux neutron activation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Handley, T.H.; Dyer, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    The investigations are outlined, which are carried out in order to develop (preferably instrumental) methods for multielement analysis of various trace elements. For this reason a new High-Flux NAA Laboratory was constructed at ORNL's. A general review is given on the Laboratory, further some methods and applications are shown. In the field of comparator activation analysis comparative data are given on mercury determinations in various matrices, and on arsenic determination in grasshoppers. This later method was used to trace the transport of arsenic containing pesticides. Some data are given on absolute activation analysis of Na, Ci, Mn, Br, and Au, too. (K.A.)

  19. Neutron activation analysis: a powerful tool in provenance investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Sandro; Oddone, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that neutron activation analysis (NAA), both instrumental and destructive, allows the simultaneous determination of a number of elements, mostly trace elements, with high levels of precision and accuracy. These peculiar properties of NAA are very useful when applied to provenance studies, i.e. to the identification of the origin of raw materials with which artifacts had been manufactured in ancient times. Data reduction by statistical procedures, especially multivariate analysis techniques, provides a statistical 'fingerprint' of investigated materials, both raw materials and archaeological artifacts, that, upon comparison, allows the identification of the provenance of prime matters used for artifact manufacturing. Thus information on quarries and flows exploitation in the antiquity, on technological raw materials processing, on trade routes and about the circulation of fakes, can be obtained. In the present paper two case studies are reported. The first one deals with the identification of the provenance of clay used to make ceramic materials, mostly bricks and tiles, recovered from the excavation of a Roman 'villa' in Lomello (Roman name Laumellum) and of Roman settlings in Casteggio (Roman name Clastidium). Both sites are located in the Province of Pavia in areas called Lomellina and Oltrepo respectively. The second one investigates the origin of the white marble used to build medieval arks, Carolingian age, located in the church of San Felice, now property of the University of Pavia. Experimental set-up, analytical results and data reduction procedures are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. A study on provenance relation between Jiaotanxia ancient Guan porcelain and Qingliangsi ancient Ru porcelain by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongwu; Feng Songlin; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin

    2004-01-01

    11 samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain from Qingliangsi kiln, 23 samples of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain from Jiaotanxia kiln and 4 samples of modern archaized Guan porcelain were obtained to determine the contents of elements in each of them by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the fuzzy cluster trend diagrams for the bodies' samples and the glazes samples respectively. The analysis shows that the raw material origins of the Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain bodies samples are very concentrated; those of the Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies samples are a little dispersed; those of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are relatively concentrated; those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples are dispersed; and the origins of the raw material of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are obviously different from those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples. The bodies samples and glazes samples of Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain and those of Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain have some difference but can be compared with each other. (authors)

  1. The robustness of k0-NAA in large multi-purpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attila Stopic; Bennett, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The challenges and opportunities associated with performing k 0 -NAA in high-powered, multi-purpose research reactors are examined and recommendations are made concerning the conditions that need to be met in such facilities in order to allow the potential for this method of elemental analysis to be fully realised. (author)

  2. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  3. Analysis of zirconium and nickel based alloys and zirconium oxides by relative and internal monostandard neutron activation analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Acharya, Raghunath; Reddy, Annareddy V. R.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical characterization of metallic alloys and oxides is conventionally carried out by wet chemical analytical methods and/or instrumental methods. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is capable of analyzing samples nondestructively. As a part of a chemical quality control exercise, Zircaloys 2 and 4, nimonic alloy, and zirconium oxide samples were analyzed by two INAA methods. The samples of alloys and oxides were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and direct current Arc OES methods, respectively, for quality assurance purposes. The samples are important in various fields including nuclear technology. Samples were neutron irradiated using nuclear reactors, and the radioactive assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Major to trace mass fractions were determined using both relative and internal monostandard (IM) NAA methods as well as OES methods. In the case of alloys, compositional analyses as well as concentrations of some trace elements were determined, whereas in the case of zirconium oxides, six trace elements were determined. For method validation, British Chemical Standard (BCS)-certified reference material 310/1 (a nimonic alloy) was analyzed using both relative INAA and IM-NAA methods. The results showed that IM-NAA and relative INAA methods can be used for nondestructive chemical quality control of alloys and oxide samples

  4. Analysis of zirconium and nickel based alloys and zirconium oxides by relative and internal monostandard neutron activation analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Amol D.; Acharya, Raghunath; Reddy, Annareddy V. R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    The chemical characterization of metallic alloys and oxides is conventionally carried out by wet chemical analytical methods and/or instrumental methods. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is capable of analyzing samples nondestructively. As a part of a chemical quality control exercise, Zircaloys 2 and 4, nimonic alloy, and zirconium oxide samples were analyzed by two INAA methods. The samples of alloys and oxides were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and direct current Arc OES methods, respectively, for quality assurance purposes. The samples are important in various fields including nuclear technology. Samples were neutron irradiated using nuclear reactors, and the radioactive assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Major to trace mass fractions were determined using both relative and internal monostandard (IM) NAA methods as well as OES methods. In the case of alloys, compositional analyses as well as concentrations of some trace elements were determined, whereas in the case of zirconium oxides, six trace elements were determined. For method validation, British Chemical Standard (BCS)-certified reference material 310/1 (a nimonic alloy) was analyzed using both relative INAA and IM-NAA methods. The results showed that IM-NAA and relative INAA methods can be used for nondestructive chemical quality control of alloys and oxide samples.

  5. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis method of environmental samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, Sri; Rina M, Th.; L, Dyah

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of precision and accuracy of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used by P2TRR performed by analyzed the standard reference samples from the National Institute of Environmental Study of Japan (NIES-CRM No.10 (rice flour) and the National Bureau of USA (NBS-SRM 1573a (tomato leave) by NAA method. In analyze the environmental SRM No.10 by NAA method in qualitatively could identified multi elements of contents, namely: Br, Ca, Co, CI, Cs, Gd, I, K< La, Mg, Mn, Na, Pa, Sb, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Zn (19 elements) for SRM 1573a; As, Br, Cr, CI, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mn, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Se, Sc, Sb, Ti, and Zn, (25 elements) for CRM No.10a; Ag, As, Br, Cr, CI, Ce, Cd, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, TI, and Zn, (26 elements) for CRM No. 10b; As, Br, Co, CI, Ce, Cd, Ga, Hg, K, Mn, Mg, Mo, Na, Nb, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, TI, and Zn (20 elementary) for CRM No.10c. In the quantitatively analysis could determined only some element of sample contents, namely: As, Co, Cd, Mo, Mn, and Zn. From the result compared with NIES or NBS values attained with deviation of 3% ∼ 15%. Overall, the result shown that the method and facilities have a good capability, but the irradiation facility and the software of spectrometry gamma ray necessary to developing or seriously research perform

  6. Synthetic multi-element standards: a good tool for calibration and quality control of irradiation facilities used for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermaercke, P.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a physical technique used for the absolute measurement of the concentration of substances in solids and liquids. The method uses neutron irradiation which is commonly realised using a nuclear reactor in order to activate (make radioactive) different isotopes of the elements present in the sample. The radionuclides produced in this way emit gamma-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. Using gamma-ray spectrometry these radionuclides can then be identified and quantified, and hence their concentration in the sample can be determined. Although NAA is a straightforward method it requires a sound control of the many physical parameters involved to obtain accurate results and to guarantee a set accuracy in routine analysis. The accuracy of NAA depends on the specific measurement method used. One can perform NAA in a relative way by co-irradiating a known standard and the unknown sample in the same conditions and by comparing the ratio of gamma-rays they emit. Relative NAA has limited applicability since it requires reference standards with a comparable composition as the unknown. A more generally applicable method is the k0-NAA method. In the k0-NAA method all measurements are relative to the element Au resulting in 198Au when irradiated. The k0-NAA method further relies on the fact that the neutron energy spectrum produced in a given position in the reactor can be parameterised with two parameters: the shape factor of the epithermal neutron flux, indicating the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum from the ideal 1/E shape approximated by a 1/E1+a distribution, with E the neutron energy; f: the thermal-to-epithermal neutron flux ratio. The parameters f and a are characteristic for the irradiation facility (reactor and irradiation channels) and may change or fluctuate in time according to the irradiation conditions. The way elements activate (become radioactive) when interacting with neutrons is

  7. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wengfeng; Liu Puling; Yao Wenyi

    2006-01-01

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process

  8. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)]. E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ding Wengfeng [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Yangtse River' s Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan, Hubei 430010 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Key Laboratory of Yellow River Sediment Research of Ministry of Water Resources, Shunhelu 45, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)

    2006-03-15

    Spatially averaged soil erosion data provide little information on the process of rill erosion. The dynamically varied data on the temporal and spatial distributions in the rill erosion process are needed to better understand the erosion process and reveal its innate characteristics. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of rare earth element (REE) tracers and the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method on the study of the rill erosion process and to reveal quantitatively the relationships and characteristics of temporal and spatial distributions of sediment yield in rill erosion. Four REEs were used to study the changeable process of rill erosion at 4 slope positions. Four water inflow rates were applied to a 0.3x5 m soil bed at 3 slopes of 10.5%, 15.8% and 21.2% in scouring experiments. All of the runoff was collected in the experiment. Each sample was air-dried and well mixed. Then 20 g of each sample was sieved through 100-mesh and about a 50 mg sample was weighed for analysis of the four elemental compositions by NAA. Results indicate that the REE tracers and NAA method can be used to not only quantitatively determine soil erosion amounts on different slope segments, but also to reveal the changeable process of rill erosion amount. All of the relative errors of the experimental results were less than 25%, which is considered satisfactory on the study of rill erosion process.

  9. A comparative study of neutron activation analysis and proton-induced X-ray emission analysis for the determination of heavy metals in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, K.; Al-Jundi, J.; Mamas, C. J. V.; Sokhi, R. S.; Earwaker, L. G.

    1993-06-01

    Our work on heavy metals in the estuarine environment has involved the use of two multielement techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. As PIXE is essentially a surface analytical technique problems may arise due to sample inhomogeneity and surface roughness. In order to assess the contribution of these effects we have compared the results from PIXE analysis with those from a technique which analyzes a larger bulk sample rather than just the surface. An obvious method was NAA. A series of sediment samples containing particles of variable diameter were compared. Pellets containing a few mg of sediment were prepared from each sample and analyzed by the PIXE technique using both an absolute and a comparitive method. For INAA the rest of the sample was then irradiated with thermal neutrons and element concentrations determined from analyses of the subsequent gamma-ray spectrum. Results from the two methods are discussed.

  10. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Saunders, M.; Herrerra, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Mendoza, A.; Meneses, N.; Griffith, J.; Mesa, S.; Zhuk, L.I.; Danilova, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  11. Neutron activation analysis using Excel files and Canberra Genie-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Jackman, K.; Welch, L.

    2005-01-01

    A method for analyzing neutron activated sample data by using Microsoft Excel as the analysis engine has been developed. A simple technique for inputting data is based on report files generated by Canberra's Genie-2000 spectroscopy system but could be easily modified to support other vendors having report formats with consistent text placement. A batch program handles operating an automatic sample changer, acquiring the data, and analyzing the spectrum to create a report of the peak locations and net area. The entire report is then transferred to within an Excel spreadsheet as the source data for neutron activation analysis. Unique Excel templates have been designed, for example, to accommodate short-lived and long-lived isotopes. This process provides a largely integrated solution to NAA while providing the results in an industry standard spreadsheet format. This software is ideally suited for teaching and training purposes. (author)

  12. Freeze dried samples of volcanic gases - a new method for the determination of trace elements by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, M.; Sortino, F.

    1997-01-01

    A new routine technique for the determination of trace elements in volcanic gases by NAA is presented. For time and money saving reasons this method is applicable to samples, collected by the conventional method. This technique uses evacuated glass bottles, partly filled with NaOH solution to absorb acidic gas components and CO 2 , which is the main constituent of the incondensable gas fraction at ambient conditions. The application of NAA to samples collected by this method shows two main sources of difficulties: drying of NaOH without loosing volatile elements of interest (in particular Hg and Se) and the high activities of 24 Na after neutron irradiation. The first can be avoided by liquid irradiation, thereby limiting the irradiation time, the second excludes the determination of short and medium lived nuclides because of the high γ-background due to 24 Na. A new freeze drying technique enables the application of long irradiation times and therefore the use of long-lived activation products for analysis. The samples of volcanic gases were collected at the fumarole fields of La Fossa volcano on the island Vulcano. Southern Italy. This technique allows very sensitive determinations of trace elements in volcanic gases and adds highly valuable information to the understanding and modeling of volcanic gas sources. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  14. Trace element determination in soft tissues of marine bivalves by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements in soft tissues of marine bivalves were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Elemental levels of Ag, As, Br, Co, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Ni, Rb, Se, and Zn in the organs of giant ezoscallos, rock oysters, and giant crams were obtained. The metal-bound proteins were extracted from the mantles and hepatopancreases of rock oysters. By irradiating the fraction obtained by HPLC gel chromatography, the possibility for the existence of an Ag bound protein in the mantles was found. (author)

  15. Technical Aspect for Operating Portable Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) on Terengganu Inscribed Stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasif Mohd Zain; Hearie Hassan; Roslan Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation analysis (PGNAA) is a type of neutron activation analysis which can determined element with nearly no gamma ray decay after being irradiated by neutron sourced. Thus, element that cannot be determined by the conventional NAA for example H, B, N, Si and Cd, can be determine by PGNAA. This paper focuses on the technical working procedure for operating portable PGNAA in field work. The device is designed as a portable non-destructive investigation tool applying an isotopic neutron source (Cf-252) and a gamma-ray spectroscopy system for in-situ investigation. The studied have been carried out on Terengganu inscribed stone at Terengganu State Museum. (author)

  16. Determination of trace elements in Katana (Japanese sword) by neutron activation analysis with multidimensional γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Y.; Hirai, S.; Ohya, S.; Kimura, Atsushi; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Toh, Yosuke; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Oshima, Masumi

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we tried to measure trace elements (As and Sb) in Katana (Japanese swords) by multidimensional γ-ray spectrometry method (GEMINI-II) and conventional counting method for neutron activation analysis (NAA). The determined values by GEMINI-II and conventional counting were in good agreement with. Using the multidimensional γ-ray spectrometry (GEMINI-II) to determine As and Sb was improved by 7 times and 10 times compared with the conventional counting method. (author)

  17. Use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresedov, V.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Strelkova, L.P.; Chinaeva, V.P.; Gundorina, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The object of this work was the study of the possibilities of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for determination of elemental content of atmospheric aerosol. On examples of three Siberian regions it was shown that methodics of analysis allow to estimate the average level of suburban background (ALSB), scale of its regional, season and annual changes. Analysis of enrichment factors allows one to convince in presence of increased content of a row of heavy metals in atmospheric air of background regions what is the consequence of a global growing of technogenic impact

  18. Neutron activation analysis, gamma ray spectrometry and radiation environment monitoring instrument concept: GEORAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, R.M.; Talboys, D.L.; Sims, M.R.; Bannister, N.P.; Makarewicz, M.; Stevenson, T.; Hutchinson, I.B.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Lanza, R.C.; Richter, L.; Mills, A.; Fraser, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Geological processes on Earth can be related to those that may have occurred in past epochs on Mars, if analytical methods used on Earth can be operated remotely on the surface of the Red Planet. Nuclear analytical techniques commonly used in terrestrial geology are neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS), which determine the elemental composition, elemental concentration and stratigraphical distribution of water in rocks and soils. We describe a detector concept called GEORAD (GEOlogical and RADiation environment package) for the proposed ExoMars rover within the ESA's Aurora Programme for the exploration of the Solar System. GEORAD consists of a compact neutron source for the NAA of rocks and soils and a GRS. The GRS has a dual role since it can be used for natural radioactivity studies and NAA. A fully depleted silicon detector coupled to neutron sensitive converters measures the solar particle and neutron flux interacting with the Martian surface. We describe how the GEORAD detector suite could contribute to the geological and biological characterisation of Mars both for the detection of extinct or extant life and to evaluate potential hazards facing future manned missions. We show how GEORAD measurements complement the astrobiological objectives of the Aurora programme

  19. Study on Hongzhou kiln porcelains of successive dynasties by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangqian; Feng Songlin; Quan Kuishan

    2005-01-01

    400 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln covering 8 periods from Eastern Han to Late Tang Dynasty/the Five Dynasties and their bodies were analysed by NAA. The results show that the elemental contents in different samples are quite distinct, even for those in the same period. It means no single element can be used as 'fingerprint' to distinguish the period. The curves of the contents of Na, Rb, Ba and Fe varying with time are very similar, like 'U' shape. As a colorant element, the content of Fe is consistent with the color of the body. The higher content of Fe is, the more dark of the body is. The outcome of principal component analysis (PCA) indicates that most of the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (authors)

  20. Towards an international authoritative system for coordination and management of a unique recommended k0-NAA database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Corte, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the database in k 0 -standardized neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA), ranging from its full supervision by the founders of the k 0 -method at the Institute for Nuclear Sciences (INW)/Gent and the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI)/Budapest (from about the mid 1970s up to the early 1990s), to the present situation (roughly speaking starting with the first k 0 Users Workshop in 1992) where an increasing number of researchers from institutes allover the world are reporting on their experimental work aiming at the improvement and extension of the existing database. Although these individual contributions are undoubtedly commendable, the resulting fragmentary data sets leave behind important questions with respect to interpretation, evaluation, integration and recommendation, as illustrated with the (extreme) example of 131 Ba. This situation urgently calls for establishing and managing an international authoritative system for the coordination and quality control of a unique database with recommended data for k 0 -NAA, considering such parameters as accuracy, traceability and consistency. In the present paper, it is proposed to entrust this task to a standing 'Reference k 0 -Data Subcommittee' of the k 0 -ISC (k 0 International Scientific Committee).

  1. Evidence that the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate functions as the brain's "operating system": how NAA metabolism supports meaningful intercellular frequency-encoded communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H

    2010-11-01

    N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an acetylated derivative of L-aspartate (Asp), and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a derivative of NAA and L-glutamate (Glu), are synthesized by neurons in brain. However, neurons cannot catabolize either of these substances, and so their metabolism requires the participation of two other cell types. Neurons release both NAA and NAAG to extra-cellular fluid (ECF) upon stimulation, where astrocytes, the target cells for NAAG, hydrolyze it releasing NAA back into ECF, and oligodendrocytes, the target cells for NAA, hydrolyze it releasing Asp to ECF for recycling to neurons. This sequence is unique as it is the only known amino acid metabolic cycle in brain that requires three cell types for its completion. The results of this cycling are two-fold. First, neuronal metabolic water is transported to ECF for its removal from brain. Second, the rate of neuronal activity is coupled with focal hyperemia, providing stimulated neurons with the energy required for transmission of meaningful frequency-encoded messages. In this paper, it is proposed that the tri-cellular metabolism of NAA functions as the "operating system" of the brain, and is essential for normal cognitive and motor activities. Evidence in support of this hypothesis is provided by the outcomes of two human inborn errors in NAA metabolism.

  2. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  3. Neutron activation analysis of the arovenance relation of tang tri-color glazed potteryies of huangye kiln and yaozhou kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Guo Min

    2006-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln and Yaozhou kiln. Then a fuzzy cluster analysis has been conducted to the NAA data. The results indicate that the places of origin of raw materials of body samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln are very concentrated, and that the places of origin of raw materials of body and glaze samples are scattered the places of origin of raw materials of the body and glaze raw material cover that of the body raw material. The source of raw materials of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln is obviously different from that of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Yaozhou kiln. (authors)

  4. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological and solar energy research; Neutronenaktivierungsanalyse in Archaeometrie und Solarenergieforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieghorst, Christian

    2016-06-23

    For 80 years now, neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been providing reliable data of the elemental composition for different materials in various scientific fields. Today, there are still many applications for NAA, and new methods based on neutron activation were developed during the last couple of years. In this work the focus was on the precise elemental analysis of different materials. For the provenance studies of ancient Roman limestone objects the elemental composition of samples and quarries were compared by using geochemical indicators and multivariate statistics of the elemental composition dataset, which was previously produced by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples of this work originated from different archeological sites and quarries in the French region of Lorraine as well as samples from excavations in the Belgian city of Tongeren. Various objects could successfully assign to one of the Lorraine quarries via principle component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines (SVM).The aim of the co-operation between the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE in Freiburg, Germany, and the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, was to reduce the energy and cost consumption during the production process of multicrystalline solar cells at a constant efficiency level. The test ingots were produced at the ISE and measured with NAA. The colleagues' work on this topic was focused on INAA measurements of the 3d transition metals and a new developed method for phosphorus detection. In this work prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGAA) was used to measure the dopand boron as well as hydrogen. The PGAA facility of the FRM II reactor close to the city of Munich was used for this purposes. For the measurement of boron amounts below the PGAA detection limit in the medium ppb{sub w}-range a new method developed at the FRM II by Lichtinger was tested. A qualitative boron detection was successful.

  5. Study of dietary supplements compositions by neutron activation analysis at the VR-1 training reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Milan; Rataj, Jan; Huml, Ondrej; Sklenka, Lubomir

    2017-11-01

    The VR-1 training reactor operated by the Czech Technical University in Prague is utilized mainly for education of students and training of various reactor staff; however, R&D is also carried out at the reactor. The experimental instrumentation of the reactor can be used for the irradiation experiments and neutron activation analysis. In this paper, the neutron activation analysis (NAA) is used for a study of dietary supplements containing the zinc (one of the essential trace elements for the human body). This analysis includes the dietary supplement pills of different brands; each brand is represented by several different batches of pills. All pills were irradiated together with the standard activation etalons in the vertical channel of the VR-1 reactor at the nominal power (80 W). Activated samples were investigated by the nuclear gamma-ray spectrometry technique employing the semiconductor HPGe detector. From resulting saturated activities, the amount of mineral element (Zn) in the pills was determined using the comparative NAA method. The results show clearly that the VR-1 training reactor is utilizable for neutron activation analysis experiments.

  6. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Nieuwendijk, B.J.T.; Sloot, H.A. van der; Teunissen, G.J.A.; Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  7. Is NAA reduction in normal contralateral cerebral tissue in stroke patients dependent on underlying risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P M; Ben Salem, D; Giroud, M; Brunotte, F

    2006-05-01

    This retrospective study investigated the dependence of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) ratios on risk factors for cerebral vasculopathy such as sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, carotid stenosis, and dyslipidaemia, which may have affected brain vessels and induced metabolic brain abnormalities prior to stroke. We hypothesise that in stroke patients metabolic alterations in the apparently normal contralateral brain are dependent on the presence or not of such risk factors. Fifty nine patients (31 male, 28 female: 58.8+/-16.1 years old) with cortical middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction were included. Long echo time chemical shift imaging spectroscopy was carried out on a Siemens 1.5 T Magnetom Vision scanner using a multi-voxel PRESS technique. Metabolite ratios (NAA/choline, NAA/creatine, lactate/choline, etc) were studied using uni- and multivariate analyses with respect to common risk factors. The influence of age, stroke lesion size, and time since stroke was studied using a linear regression approach. Age, sex, and hypertension all appeared to individually influence metabolite ratios, although only hypertension was significant after multivariate analysis. In both basal ganglia and periventricular white matter regions in apparently normal contralateral brain, the NAA/choline ratio was significantly lower in hypertensive (1.37+/-0.16 and 1.50+/-0.19, respectively) than in normotensive patients (1.72+/-0.19 and 1.85+/-0.15, respectively). Regarding MCA infarction, contralateral tissue remote from the lesion behaves abnormally in the presence of hypertension, the NAA ratios in hypertensive patients being significantly lower. These data suggest that hypertension may compromise the use of contralateral tissue data as a reference for comparison with ischaemic tissue.

  8. Thermal neutron activation analysis of different varieties of mustard and sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhamare, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used for the estimation of Mn, Na and K in different varietes of oil seeds of mustard and sunflower in India. The samples were irradiated in a 252 Cf source with neutron flux of ∼10 9 n s -1 and the analysis was done using a multichannel analyzer (MCA) coupled to high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Different varieties of seeds are found to have different concentrations of tracer elements when compared among themselves. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutron activation analysis of the MIBI, MAG-3 and sodium fitate active principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Sayaz, G.; Moreno Bermudez, J.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Molina Insfran, J.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) both instrumental (INAA) and radiochemical (RNAA) are extensively applied for determination of minor and trace elements in samples of quite different origin and composition. Particularly, the application of INAA is well recognized for analysis of microquantitis of heavy metals as well as toxic elements in biological samples. In this work the possibility of the determination of MIBI, MAG-3 and sodium fitate elemental composition by INAA was investigated Analytical information about the concentration and/or detection limits of some toxic elements (Hg, Cd, As, Se, Sb) and other trace elements of interest (Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br) was obtained. The samples were irradiated in the CAb Ra-6 nuclear research reactor

  11. Multielement atmospheric deposition study in Croatia using moss biomonitoring, NAA, AAS and GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiric, Z.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Gundorina, S.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Stafilov, T.; Enimiteva, V.; Steinnes, E.; Bukovec, D.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique and two complementary analytical techniques - neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to study multielement atmospheric deposition in the Republic of Croatia. Moss samples were collected during the summer 2006 from 98 sites evenly distributed over the country. Sampling was performed in accordance with the LRTAP Convention - ICP Vegetation protocol and sampling strategy of the European Programme on Biomonitoring of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition. Conventional and epithermal neutron activation analyses made it possible to determine concentrations of 41 elements including key heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cu determined by AAS. Principal component analysis (factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation) was applied to distinguish elements mainly of anthropogenic origin from those predominantly originating from natural sources. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using GIS technology. The median values for Croatia are consistent with the corresponding values for all Europe for most elements. It was shown that the Adriatic coastline of Croatia may be considered as an environmentally pristine area. This study was conducted for providing reliable assessment of air quality throughout Croatia and producing information needed for better identification of pollution sources and improving the potential for assessing environmental and health risks in Croatia associated with toxic metals

  12. Air pollution studies in Bulgaria using the moss biomonitoring technique, NAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, S.; Karadzhinova, A.G.; Yurukova, L.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Strelkova, L.P.; Marinov, A.; Steinnes, E.

    2009-01-01

    The moss biomonitoring technique was used to study trace element atmospheric deposition in four areas of Bulgaria (the western Thracian-Rhodope, the eastern Thracian-Rhodope, the south-eastern and the northern central regions) during the European moss survey in 2005. A total of 41 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rd, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by instrumental epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) in 97 samples of terrestrial moss. The moss species used was Hypnum cupressiforme. Principal component analysis (factor analysis)was used to identify and characterize different pollution sources and to point out the most polluted areas. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural crust, marine, and vegetation components as well as to anthropogenic sources: ferrous (Plovdiv, Haskovo) and non-ferrous industries (Plovdiv, Kardzhali, Burgas); and central heating stations (Plovdiv, Haskovo, Stara Zagora, Burgas). Comparison of the medians of the elemental concentrations in moss samples collected in Bulgaria with those in the Balkan and other European countries reveals that the Balkan countries show considerably higher concentrations of most elements in moss than observed in other European countries where moss sampling has been employed

  13. Neutron activation analysis of minerals from Cuddapah basin geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra Kumar, P.V.; Suresh Kumar, N.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Krishna Reddy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Green and yellow serpentines along with two associated minerals namely dolomite and intrusive rock dolerite obtained from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India were analyzed by k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) method. Gold ( 197 Au) was used as the single comparator. Two reference materials namely USGS W-1 (geological) and IAEA Soil-7 (environmental) were analyzed as control samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A total of 21 elements present at major, minor and trace concentrations were determined in serpentines as well as associated minerals. The elemental concentrations were used for distinguishing and characterizing these minerals, and also to understand the extent of segregation of elements from the associated or host mineral rocks to serpentines. (author)

  14. Neutron activation analysis of organohalogens in Chinese human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun, H.B.; Xu, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    To effectively extract organohalogens from human hair, two factors, the extracting time and hair length on the extraction efficiency of organohalogens were studied by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in hair samples from angioma and control babies were also measured by the established method. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhlet-extraction time for EOX and EPOX in hair was from 8 to 11 hours, and the extraction efficiencies for organochlorine pesticides in hair were in the order of powder >2 mm>5 mm. Also, the mean levels of EOCl and EPOCl in hair of the angioma babies were significantly higher than those in the control babies (P EOCl EPOCl <0.05), which implied the possible relationship between the environmental pollution and angioma. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis of phytotherapic obtained from medicinal plants; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de fitoterapicos obtidos de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Henrique S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: hs_moreira@hotmail.com; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper determines the inorganic constituents in phytotherapic samples for posterior study of the relationship existent among the concentrations of the found elements and the their possible therapeutical effects. The samples of phytotherapic pills (Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba and Ginseng) were analysed by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn samples were determined in the phytotherapics, The Centella asiatica presented the higher concentrations of Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. In the sample of Ginko biloba, higher levels of As and Ca were found, while in the sample ol Ginseng the element As were not detected. The found results have shown the the NAA method is appropriated for analysing this type of materials due to his simplicity, multielemental capacity and quality of the results obtained. (author)

  16. Determination of iodine in diverse botanical and dietary matrices by pre-irradiation combustion followed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.R.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    The method chosen for determination of iodine in this investigation is an extension of an existing analytical technique to food samples which was developed for environmental samples. The method is based on pre-irradiation combustion of the sample to liberate iodine, trapping the iodine on charcoal, and quantitating the element by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Existing botanical and dietary reference materials were used to check the validity of the method. Several mixed diet samples with high fat content from the U.S. Total Diet Study and composites of cereals with both low and high iodine content were analyzed. This method of pre-irradiation combustion followed by NAA has been shown to be a viable technique for the determination of iodine in dietary samples. However, with a detection limit of about 50 ng of iodine, large amounts of sample (> 1 g) are typically required for each determination. (orig.)

  17. Proficiency Testing by Interlaboratory Comparison Performed in 2010-2015 for Neutron Activation Analysis and Other Analytical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    The IAEA supports its Member States to increase the utilization of their research reactors. Small and medium sized reactors are mostly used for neutron activation analysis (NAA). Although the markets for NAA laboratories have been identified, demonstration of valid analytical results and organizational quality of the work process are preconditions for expanding the stakeholder community, particularly in commercial routine application of this powerful technique. The IAEA has implemented a new mechanism for supporting NAA laboratories in demonstrating their analytical performance by participation in proficiency testing schemes by interlaboratory comparison. This activity makes possible the identification of deviations and non-conformities, their causes and the process to implement effective approaches to eliminate them. Over 30 laboratories participated between 2010 and 2015 in consecutive proficiency tests organized by the IAEA in conjunction with the Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL) to assess their analytical performances. This publication reports the findings and includes lessons learned of this activity. An attached CD-ROM contains many individual participating laboratory papers sharing their individual results and experience gained through this participation.

  18. Method Comparison of Neutron Activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Determination of Zinc in Food Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endah Damastuti; Syukria Kurniawati; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Zinc as a micro nutrient, has important roles in human metabolism system. It is required by the body in appropriate amount from food intake. Due to the very low concentration of Zinc in food, high selectivity and sensitivity analysis technique is required for the determination, such as Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In this experiment, both methods were compared in zinc analysis of food samples. The subject of this experiment is to examine of those methods conformity and improving the technique capability in zinc analysis in food sample. Those methods were validated by analyzing zinc in SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet and were tested its accuracy and precision. The results of Zn concentration were 25.1 ± 2.14 mg/kg by NAA and 24.1 ± 1.40 mg/kg by AAS while the certificate value was 24.6 ± 1.80 mg/kg. Percentage of relative bias, %CV, μ-test score and HORRAT(Horwitz ratio) value given by NAA were 2%, 8.5%, 0.18 and 0.9 respectively, while %relative bias, %CV, μ-test score and HORRAT value given by AAS were 2%, 5.8 %, 0.20 and 0.6 respectively. The result obtained for Zn concentration in various food samples by NAA and AAS were varied from 13.7 – 29.3 mg/kg with mean value 19.8 mg/kg and 11.2 – 26.0 mg/kg with mean value 17.3 mg/kg (author)

  19. Quality control and performance evaluation of k0-based neutron activation analysis at the Portuguese research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, H.M.; Freitas, M.C.; Blaauw, M.; Almeida, S.M.; Dionisio, I.; Canha, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    The quality control (QC) and performance evaluation for the k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI) has been developed with the intention of using the method to meet the demands of trace element analysis for the applications in environmental, epidemiological and nutritional studies amongst others. The QC and performance evaluation include the following aspects: (1) estimation of the overall/combined standard uncertainty from the primary uncertainty sources; (2) validation of the method using a synthetic multi-element standard (SMELS); and (3) analysis of the certified reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA): NIST-SRM-1633a and NIST-SRM-1648 and the reference material from the International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA-RM-336, for the purpose of controlling the overall accuracy and precision of the analytical results. The obtained results revealed that the k 0 -NAA method established at the RPI was fit for the purpose. The overall/combined standard uncertainty was estimated for elements of interest in the intended applications. The laboratory's analytical results as compared to the assigned values with the bias were less than 12% for most elements, except for a few elements which biased within 13-18%. The u-score values for most elements were less than |1.64|, except for Co, La and Ti within |1.64|-|1.96| and Sc, Cr, K and Sb within |1.96|-|2.58|. The NIST-1633a was also analyzed over 14 months for the purpose of evaluating the reproducibility of the method. The quality factors of k 0 -NAA established at RPI were evaluated, proving that the method meets the requirements of trace element analysis, which is also considering the method's performance for which the k 0 -NAA affords a specific, rapid and convenient capability for the intended applications.

  20. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TUNAS EKSPLAN TANAMAN PISANG CAVENDISH (Musa paradisiaca L. MELALUI KULTUR IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find the optimized combination micropropagation technique of Pisang “Cavendish” using Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Benzylaminopurin (BAP on culture in vitro. The research was conducted in Balai Benih Induk Hortikultura laboratorium (270 m upper sea level Salaman, Magelang, Central Java from November 2008 - Januari 2009. Design used was Complete Randomized Design. Experimental factor were concentration of NAA and BAP. NAA concentration comparised four levels (0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm. BAP concentration comparised four levels (0, 3, 6, and 9 ppm. Obtained data was analyzed by F test, when significantly different then followed by LSD test with 5% level. Observed variables is longest roots, total of buds, and total of roots. Statistic analysis result showed that concentration of BAP have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 0 ppm of BAP (B0 yielding optimalized on longest root ( 8,3 cm. Concentration of NAA have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 2 ppm of NAA (N2 yielding optimalized on longest root (6,0 cm. Concentration of BAP have significant effect on total buds. Concentration 9 ppm of BAP (B3 yielding optimalized on total of buds (2,5.

  1. Development of new techniques and enhancement of automatic capability of neutron activation analysis at the Dalat Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Ho Van Doanh; Tran Quang Thien; Pham Ngoc Tuan; Pham Ngoc Son; Tran Quoc Duong; Nguyen Van Cuong; Nguyen Minh Tuan; Nguyen Giang; Nguyen Thi Sy

    2017-01-01

    The techniques of neutron activation analysis (NAA) including cyclic, epithermal and prompt-gamma (CNAA, ENAA and PGNAA, respectively) have been developed at the Dalat research reactor (DRR). In addition, the efforts has been spent to improve the automatic capability of irradiation, measurement and data processing of NAA. The renewal of necessary devices/tools for sample preparation have also been done. Eventually, the performance and the utility in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and stability of the analytical results generated by NAA at DRR have significantly been improved. The main results of the project are: 1) Upgrading of the fast irradiation system on Channel 13-2/TC to allow the cyclic irradiations; 2) Development of CNAA; 3) Development of ENAA; 4) Application of k0-method for PGNAA; 5) Investigation of the automatic sample changer (ASC2); 6) Upgrading of Ko-DALAT software for ENAA and modification of k0-IAEA software for CNAA and PGNAA; and 7) Optimization of irradiation and measurement facilities as well as sample preparation devices/tools. A set of procedures of relevant developed techniques in the project were established. The procedures have been evaluated by analysis of the reference materials for which they are meeting the requirements of multi-element analysis for the intended applications. (author)

  2. Progress report on neutron activation analysis at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc

    2003-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of most powerful techniques for the simultaneous multi-elements analysis. This technique has been studied and applied to analyze major, minor and trace elements in Geological, Biological and Environmental samples at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. At the sixth Workshop, February 8-11, 1999, Yojakarta, Indonesia we had a report on Current Status of Neutron Activation Analysis using Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Another report on Neutron Activation Analysis at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor also was presented at the seventh Workshop in Taejon, Korea from November 20-24, 2000. So in this report, we would like to present the results obtained of the application of NAA at NRI for one year as follows: (1) Determination of the concentrations of noble, rare earth, uranium, thorium and other elements in Geological samples according to requirement of clients particularly the geologists, who want to find out the mineral resources. (2) The analysis of concentration of radionuclides and nutrient elements in foodstuffs to attend the program on Asian Reference Man. (3) The evaluation of the contents of trace elements in crude oil and basement rock samples to determine original source of the oil. (4) Determination of the elemental composition of airborne particle in the Ho Chi Minh City for studying air pollution. The analytical data of standard reference material, toxic elements and natural radionuclides in seawater are also presented. (author)

  3. Progress report on neutron activation analysis at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of most powerful techniques for the simultaneous multi-elements analysis. This technique has been studied and applied to analyze major, minor and trace elements in Geological, Biological and Environmental samples at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. At the sixth Workshop, February 8-11, 1999, Yojakarta, Indonesia we had a report on Current Status of Neutron Activation Analysis using Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Another report on Neutron Activation Analysis at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor also was presented at the seventh Workshop in Taejon, Korea from November 20-24, 2000. So in this report, we would like to present the results obtained of the application of NAA at NRI for one year as follows: (1) Determination of the concentrations of noble, rare earth, uranium, thorium and other elements in Geological samples according to requirement of clients particularly the geologists, who want to find out the mineral resources. (2) The analysis of concentration of radionuclides and nutrient elements in foodstuffs to attend the program on Asian Reference Man. (3) The evaluation of the contents of trace elements in crude oil and basement rock samples to determine original source of the oil. (4) Determination of the elemental composition of airborne particle in the Ho Chi Minh City for studying air pollution. The analytical data of standard reference material, toxic elements and natural radionuclides in seawater are also presented. (author)

  4. Selected environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    2001-01-01

    NAA is very useful for the determination of trace and minor elements in many environmental applications. While instrumental NAA (INAA) has a number of valid applications in this field, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) prior to, or post irradiation provides some significant advantages. One of the major focus points for environmental applications of NAA is to assess the magnitude of various pollutants. This paper discusses doing this via two methods, namely air monitoring and biological monitoring. (author)

  5. Study on the occurrence of platinum in Xinjie Cu-Ni sulfide deposits by a combination of SPM and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong; Gu Yingmei; Wu Xiankang; Chen Youhong

    1997-01-01

    A combination of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) and scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to study the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGEs) in rocks and ores from Xinjie Cu-Ni deposit. The minimum detection limits of PGEs by NAA had been much improved by means of a nickel-sulfide fire-assay technique for pre-concentration of PGEs in the ore samples. A simple and effective method was developed for true element mapping in SPM experiments. A pair of moveable absorption filters was set up in the target chamber for high sensitivities of both major and trace elements. The bulk analysis results by NNA indicated that the PGE mineralization occurred at the base of Xinjie layered intrusion in clino-pyroxenite rocks and the Cu-Ni sulfide minerals disseminated within the rocks had high abundance level of PGEs. However, the micro-PIXE analysis of the Cu-Ni sulfide mineral grains did not find PGEs above the MDL of (6-9) x 10 -6 for Rh, Ru and Pd, and 6- x 10 -6 for Pt. The search for platinum occurrence in sulfide minerals was followed by scanning analysis of SPM when some smaller platinum enriched grains were found in the sulfide minerals. The microscopic analysis results suggested that platinum occurred in the Cu-Ni sulfide matrix as independent arsenide mineral grains. The chemical formula of the arsenide sperrylite was PtAs2. The information of the platinum occurrence was helpful to future mineralogical research and mineral processing and beneficiation of the Cu-Ni deposit

  6. Study on the occurrence of platinum in Xinjie CuNi sulfide deposits by a combination of SPM and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jieqing; Lu, Rongrong; Gu, Yingmei; Wu, Xiankang; Chen, Youhong

    1997-07-01

    A combination of neutron-activation analysis (NAA) and scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to study the distribution of platinum-group elements (PGEs) in rocks and ores from Xinjie CuNi deposit. The minimum detection limits of PGEs by NAA had been much improved by means of a nickel-sulfide fire-assay technique for pre-concentration of PGEs in the ore samples. A simple and effective method was developed for true element mapping in SPM experiments. A pair of moveable absorption filters was set up in the target chamber for high sensitivities of both major and trace elements. The bulk analysis results by NNA indicated that the PGE mineralization occurred at the base of Xinjie layered intrusion in clinopyroxenite rocks and the CuNi sulfide minerals disseminated within the rocks had high abundance level of PGEs. However, the micro-PIXE analysis of the CuNi sulfide mineral grains did not find PGEs above the MDL of 6-9 ppm for Rh, Ru and Pd, and 60 ppm for Pt. The search for platinum occurrence in sulfide minerals was followed by scanning analysis of SPM when some smaller platinum enriched grains were found in the sulfide minerals. The microscopic analysis results suggested that platinum occurred in the CuNi sulfide matrix as independent arsenide mineral grains. The chemical formula of the arsenide sperrylite was PtAs 2. The information of the platinum occurrence was helpful to future mineralogical research and mineral processing and beneficiation of the CuNi deposit.

  7. Automation of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Ivanets, V.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The basic data on the methods and equipment of activation analysis are presented. Recommendations on the selection of activation analysis techniques, and especially the technique envisaging the use of short-lived isotopes, are given. The equipment possibilities to increase dataway carrying capacity, using modern computers for the automation of the analysis and data processing procedure, are shown

  8. Elemental analysis and plant samples at el-Manzala lake by neutron activation analysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, E A; Rofail, N B; Abdel-Haleem, A S; El-Abbady, W H; Hassan, A M [Arab Republic of Egypt, Atomic energy Authority, Reactor and Neutron Physiscs Department, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    A soil and a plant samples were taken from two locations, Bahr el-Bakar and Bahr Kados at the Manzala lake, where a high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1) and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for such a type of analysis. Among the 34 identified elements Fe, Co, As, Ru, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of their toxic deleterious impact to organisms. This work is a part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stand as a reference basic record for any future follow up of the contamination level. 1 tab.

  9. Elemental analysis and plant samples at el-Manzala lake by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; El-Abbady, W.H.; Hassan, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A soil and a plant samples were taken from two locations, Bahr el-Bakar and Bahr Kados at the Manzala lake, where a high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1) and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for such a type of analysis. Among the 34 identified elements Fe, Co, As, Ru, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of their toxic deleterious impact to organisms. This work is a part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stand as a reference basic record for any future follow up of the contamination level. 1 tab

  10. A multi-matrix HILIC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of endogenous small molecule neurological biomarker N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin K; Burgess, Braydon L; Dean, Brian; Ding, Xiao

    2017-06-05

    A multi-matrix hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitation of N-Acetyl Aspartic acid (NAA) using stable isotope labeled internal standard, D3-NAA in various biological matrices such as human plasma, human CSF, mouse plasma, brain and spinal cord. A high throughput 96-well plate format supported liquid extraction (SLE) procedure was developed and used for sample preparation. Mass spectrometric analysis of NAA was performed using selected reaction monitoring transitions in positive electrospray ionization mode. As NAA is endogenously present, a surrogate matrix approach was used for quantitation of NAA and the method was qualified over linear calibration curve range of 0.01-10μg/mL. Intra and inter assay precision indicated by percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) was less than 7.1% for low, medium, medium high and high QCs. The accuracy of the method ranged from 92.6-107.0% of nominal concentration for within-run and between-run for the same QCs. Extraction recovery of NAA and D3-NAA was greater than 76%. Stability of NAA was established in the above biological matrices under bench top (RT, 5h), freeze thaw (-20±10°C, 3 cycles) and moues/human plasma sample collection (Wet ice, RT) conditions. HILIC-MS/MS method was then used to quantify and compare the NAA levels in human plasma and CSF of ALS patients versus control human subjects. NAA CSF levels in control human subjects (73.3±31.0ng/mL,N=10) were found to be slightly higher than ALS patients (46.1±22.6ng/mL, N=10) (P=0.04). No differences were observed in NAA plasma levels in human control subjects (49.7±13.8ng/mL,N=9) as compared to ALS patients (49.6±8.1ng/mL, N=10) (P=0.983). NAA endogenous concentrations in mouse plasma, brain and spinal cord were found to be 243.8±56.8ng/mL (N=6), 1029.8±115.2μg/g tissue weight (N=5) and 487.6±178.4μg/g tissue weight (N=5) respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Neutron activation analysis of low-level element contents in silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, W [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Berger, A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Niese, S [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Koehler, M [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Matthes, M [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Gawlik, D [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Semiconductor silicon is among the purest materials having ever been produced by modern technology. Thus, it is quite suitable as a primary reference material validating the correctness and the detection capabilities of developed analytical methods. Among them neutron activation analysis plays a competitive role. The U.S. National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) has initiated and carried out an interlaboratory comparison in order to study the spread of analytical results worldwide evolved by several laboratories dealing with specimens of extreme purity. The outcome of the experiment was intended to review the capabilities of NAA as well as to differentiate between bulk and surface contamination. (orig./DG)

  12. Trace elements in precious and common opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 44 precious and 52 common opals sampled from a number of recognised fields within Australia. The purpose of this study was to determine if precious and common opals of the same colour and location have the same or a different trace element profile. Similar numbers of black, white and grey samples were studied in each case. In most cases, common opals had a significantly higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with precious opals. (author)

  13. Target preparation and neutron activation analysis a successful story at IRMM

    CERN Document Server

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Ingelbrecht, C

    2002-01-01

    The main task of a target producer is to make well characterized and homogeneous deposits on specific supports. Alpha and/or gamma spectrometry are traditionally used to monitor the quality of actinide deposits. With the increasing demand for enriched stable isotope targets, other analytical techniques, such as ICP-MS and NAA, are needed. This paper presents the application of neutron activation analysis to quality control of 'thin' targets, 'thicker' neutron dosimeters and 'thick' bronze disks prepared by the Reference Materials Unit at the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of chemical impurities in manipulated samples of omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepe, Fernanda Peixoto; Leal, Alexandre Soares; Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia; Silva, Maria Aparecida, E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br [Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, samples of Omeprazole (C{sub 17}H{sub 19}N{sub 3}O{sub 3}S), a largely used drug in the treatment of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer, were acquired from five different pharmacies of manipulation - or retail pharmacies which prepare personalized drugs under medical recommendation - in Belo Horizonte/Brazil and investigated using the k{sub 0} - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The preliminary results showed the presence of elements not foreseen in the original formula. It confirms the potential risk offered by medicines without suitable inspection. (author)

  15. Target preparation and neutron activation analysis: a successful story at IRMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Eguskiza, M.; Maguregui, M.I.; Pomme, S.; Ingelbrecht, C.

    2002-01-01

    The main task of a target producer is to make well characterized and homogeneous deposits on specific supports. Alpha and/or gamma spectrometry are traditionally used to monitor the quality of actinide deposits. With the increasing demand for enriched stable isotope targets, other analytical techniques, such as ICP-MS and NAA, are needed. This paper presents the application of neutron activation analysis to quality control of 'thin' targets, 'thicker' neutron dosimeters and 'thick' bronze disks prepared by the Reference Materials Unit at the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements

  16. Neutron activation analysis of chemical impurities in manipulated samples of omeprazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepe, Fernanda Peixoto; Leal, Alexandre Soares; Gomes, Tatiana Cristina Bomfim; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia; Silva, Maria Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    In this work, samples of Omeprazole (C 17 H 19 N 3 O 3 S), a largely used drug in the treatment of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer, were acquired from five different pharmacies of manipulation - or retail pharmacies which prepare personalized drugs under medical recommendation - in Belo Horizonte/Brazil and investigated using the k 0 - Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The preliminary results showed the presence of elements not foreseen in the original formula. It confirms the potential risk offered by medicines without suitable inspection. (author)

  17. Validation of the k0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubesova, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to validate the k 0 standardization method in neutron activation analysis for use by the Nuclear Physics Institute's NAA Laboratory. The precision and accuracy of the method were examined by using two types of reference materials: the one type comprised a set of synthetic materials and served to check the implementation of k 0 standardization, the other type consisted of matrix NIST SRMs comprising various different matrices. In general, a good agreement was obtained between the results of this work and the certified values, giving evidence of the accuracy of our results. In addition, the limits were evaluated for 61 elements

  18. Quality control in the neutron activation analysis of biological markers for selenium in epidemiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Ngwenyama, R.A.; Guthrie, J.M.; Brockman, J.D.; Spate, V.L.; Robertson, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is routinely used at the MURR to quantify selenium in prospectively-collected biologic markers including blood serum and toenails. These specimens are typically collected from well-defined cohort populations participating in investigations assessing selenium intake and incidence of chronic disease endpoints. These epidemiological investigations, whether observational (case-control) or clinical (intervention), typically generate thousands of samples. The purpose of this paper is to assess, through evaluation of quality control results, if the achievable accuracy and precision in the measurement of selenium using NAA is adequate to determine a relative risk of 1.2 at high confidence in epidemiological studies. (author)

  19. Health impacts of mercury cycling in contaminated environments of Central India studied by NAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Khageshwar Singh

    2002-01-01

    The environmental and atmospheric samples i.e. surface water, ground water, surface soil, sediment, rain and fog from various sites of contaminated environments of central India were collected in year, 2000-2001. The concentration levels of total-Hg in these samples were analyzed by using techniques i.e. cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CV-AAS), X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometer XFS). Further, the data base of total Hg in the environmental samples would be validated in other laboratories i.e. Prof Dr. Klaus Heumann (Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany), David Amouroux (University of Pau, France) and Dr Joerg Feldmann (University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK) for exploration of the Hg-contaminated environments by using techniques i.e. ICP-MS/GC, gas chromatography-induced couple atomic emission spectrophotometer (GC-ICP-AES), neutron activation analysis (NAA). (author)

  20. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and proteins in chromium-rich brewer's yeast by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.J.; Qian, Q.F.; Hou, X.L.; Feng, W.Y.; Chai, Z.F.

    2000-01-01

    The content of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results show that the extracted relative amounts and concentrations of DNA, RNA and proteins have no significant difference for two types of yeast, but the chromium content in DNA, RNA and proteins fractions extracted from the chromium-rich yeast are substantially higher than those from the normal. In addition, the concentration of chromium in DNA is much higher than that in RNA and proteins. It is evident that the inorganic chromium compounds can enter the yeast cell during the yeast cultivation in the chromium-containing culture medium and are converted into organic chromium species, which are combined with DNA, RNA and proteins. (author)

  1. Using robust statistics to improve neutron activation analysis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique where an unknown sample is submitted to a neutron flux in a nuclear reactor, and its elemental composition is calculated by measuring the induced activity produced. By using the relative NAA method, one or more well-characterized samples (usually certified reference materials - CRMs) are irradiated together with the unknown ones, and the concentration of each element is then calculated by comparing the areas of the gamma ray peaks related to that element. When two or more CRMs are used as reference, the concentration of each element can be determined by several different ways, either using more than one gamma ray peak for that element (when available), or using the results obtained in the comparison with each CRM. Therefore, determining the best estimate for the concentration of each element in the sample can be a delicate issue. In this work, samples from three CRMs were irradiated together and the elemental concentration in one of them was calculated using the other two as reference. Two sets of peaks were analyzed for each element: a smaller set containing only the literature-recommended gamma-ray peaks and a larger one containing all peaks related to that element that could be quantified in the gamma-ray spectra; the most recommended transition was also used as a benchmark. The resulting data for each element was then reduced using up to five different statistical approaches: the usual (and not robust) unweighted and weighted means, together with three robust means: the Limitation of Relative Statistical Weight, Normalized Residuals and Rajeval. The resulting concentration values were then compared to the certified value for each element, allowing for discussion on both the performance of each statistical tool and on the best choice of peaks for each element. (author)

  2. Confirmation of identity and detection limit in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustina Tri Handayani; Slamet Wiyuniati; Tulisna

    2010-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) based on neutron capture by nuclides. Of the various possibilities of radionuclides that occur, radionuclides and gamma radiation which provides the identity of the element were analyzed and the best sensitivity should be determined. Confirmation for elements in sediment samples was done theoretically and experimentally. The result of confirmation shows that Al, V, Cr K, Na, Ca and Zn were analyzed based on radionuclides of Al-28, V-52, Cr-51 , K-42, Na-24, Ca-48, Zn-65. Elements of Mg, Mn, Fe, Co were analyzed based on radionuclides of Mg-27, Mn-56, Fe-59, Co-60 through peak which the highest value of combined probability of radiation emission and efficiency. Cu can be analyzed through Cu-64 or Cu-66, but the second is more sensitive. Detection limit is determined at a certain measurement conditions carried out by a laboratory. Detection limit in the NAA is determined based on the Compton continue area by Curie method. The detection limit of Al, V, Ca, Mg, Mn, As, K, Na, Mg, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sc, and Zn in sediment samples are 240, 27, 4750, 2600, 21, 3.3 , 75, 1.4, 1.8, 0.5, 2.7, 29, 1, 0.05, and 37 ppm. Analysis of Cu in sediments which concentrations of 98.6 ppm, Cu-66 is not detected. Tests using pure standard solutions of Cu obtained detection limit of 0.12 µg, or 7.9 ppm in samples of 15 mg. In general, the detection limit obtained was higher than the detection limit of the reference, it was caused by the differences in the sample matrix and analytical conditions. (author)

  3. Investigation of selected trace elements in Sudanese patients with leukemia using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, M. M. M.

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Se, Zn in the serum of 103 adult patients with newly diagnosed of leukemia (before treatment) were studied. Samples were collected from Radiation of Isotopes Center-Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology-Aljazeera State. Samples were freeze-dried and analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Serum levels of these elements were compared with the contents found in healthy group samples. The patients were divided into 4 groups: 1- Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL), 2- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), 3- Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL), 4- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The control group was formed of 40 healthy subjects, data analysis was performed using the T-tests. partial correlation was used to study a relationship between two variables. It was found that, In group I (ALL ): higher concentration of Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Zn, were found in the serum of patients with significant difference as compared to healthy group (p 0.05), the level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p 0.05). Similar result was obtained in Co. The level of selenium was statistically lower than in the control group (p< 0.05). (Author)

  4. Software ASPRO-NUC. Gamma-ray spectrometry, routine NAA, isotope identification and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotov, V.P.; Atrashkevich, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The software ASPRO-NUC is based on new improved algorithms suggested and tested in the laboratory and intended for routine analysis. The package consists of the program ASPRO for gamma-ray spectra processing (peak search, multiplets deconvolution by means of method of moments, computation of correction coefficient for geometry and material of radioactive source), a program for isotope identification and a program for NAA by means of relative standardization. All output information is loaded into a data base (Paradox v.3.5 format) for supporting of queries, creation of reports, planning of routine analysis, estimation of expenses, supporting of network of analytical survey, etc. The ASPRO-NUC package also includes a vast nuclear data base containing evaluated decay and activation data (reactor, generator of fast neutrons, Cf-252 source). The data base environment allows for easy integration of a gamma spectrometer into a flexible information shell and the creation of a logical system for information management. (author) 15 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Evaluation of neutron sources for ISAGE-in-situ-NAA for a future lunar mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Breitkreutz, H.; Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H.-G.; Trieloff, M.; Hopp, J.; Jessberger, E.K.; Schwarz, W.H.; Hofmann, P.; Hiesinger, H.

    2011-01-01

    For a future Moon landing, a concept for an in-situ NAA involving age determination using the 40 Ar- 39 Ar method is developed. A neutron source 252 Cf is chosen for sample irradiation on the Moon. A special sample-in-source irradiation geometry is designed to provide a homogeneous distribution of neutron flux at the irradiation position. Using reflector, the neutron flux is likely to increase by almost 200%. Sample age of 1 Ga could be determined. Elemental analysis using INAA is discussed. - Highlights: → We developed a concept for an in-situ age determination on the Moon. → 252 Cf is chosen as the neutron source for the 40 Ar- 39 Ar-method. → A sample-in-source geometry is designed to provide homogeneous neutron flux. → Determination of U, Th, K and Ir using NAA on the Moon is possible.

  6. Evaluation of neutron sources for ISAGE-in-situ-NAA for a future lunar mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X., E-mail: xiaosong.li@frm2.tum.de [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Breitkreutz, H. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H.-G. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Trieloff, M.; Hopp, J. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, E.K. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Schwarz, W.H. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hofmann, P. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Hiesinger, H. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    For a future Moon landing, a concept for an in-situ NAA involving age determination using the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar method is developed. A neutron source {sup 252}Cf is chosen for sample irradiation on the Moon. A special sample-in-source irradiation geometry is designed to provide a homogeneous distribution of neutron flux at the irradiation position. Using reflector, the neutron flux is likely to increase by almost 200%. Sample age of 1 Ga could be determined. Elemental analysis using INAA is discussed. - Highlights: > We developed a concept for an in-situ age determination on the Moon. > {sup 252}Cf is chosen as the neutron source for the {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar-method. > A sample-in-source geometry is designed to provide homogeneous neutron flux. > Determination of U, Th, K and Ir using NAA on the Moon is possible.

  7. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  8. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, O., E-mail: osierra@sgc.gov.co; Parrado, G., E-mail: gparrado@sgc.gov.co; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M., E-mail: mlpena@sgc.gov.co; Orozco, J. [Colombian Geological Survey, Nuclear Affairs Technical Division, Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Bogota D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  9. An endogenous standard, radioisotopic ratio method in NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.

    1997-01-01

    A derivative form of NAA is proposed which is based on the use of an endogenous internal standard of already known concentration in the sample. If a comparator with a known ratio of the determinand and endogenous standard are co-irradiated with the sample, the determinand concentration is derived in terms of the endogenous standard concentration and the activity ratios of the two induced nuclides in the sample and comparator. As well as eliminating the sample mass and greatly reducing errors caused by pulse pile-up and geometrical differences, it was shown that in the radiochemical mode, if the endogenous standard is chosen so that the induced activity is radioisotopic with that from the determinand, the radiochemical yield is also eliminated and the risk non-achievement of isotopic exchange greatly reduced. The method is demonstrated with good results on reference materials for the determination of I, Mn and Ni. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. It is suggested that it may be of application in quality control and in extending the range of certified elements in reference materials. (author)

  10. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated {sup 42}K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  11. Potassium evaluation in blood of Brazilian athletes using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, L.; Zamboni, C.B.; Nunes, L.A.S.; Lourenco, T.F.; Macedo, D. Vaz de

    2010-01-01

    Full text: According to nutrition sources an athlete needs per day at least one gram of potassium for keeping the correct mineral balance in the organism. Its deficiency or even instantaneous low concentration in blood can diminish the athlete performance originating nervous irritability, muscular weakness, and mental disorientation and in more several causes cardiac arrhythmias. In this study the K levels in blood were determined in athletes submitted to constant load exercise at treadmill at LABEX (Laboratorio de Bioquimica do Exercicio - UNICAMP, Brazil) using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male athletes, age 18 to 26 years, before and after the physical training. Immediately after the collection an amount of 10 micro liters of whole blood was transferred to the filter paper and dried for a few minutes using an infrared lamp. To determine the concentration of potassium each sample was irradiated in the nuclear reactor (IEA-R1, 2-4MW, pool type) at IPEN and was gamma counted using an HPGe Spectrometer of High Energy Resolution. The concentrations of the selected element, 1525keV related to the potassium activated 42 K, were calculated using in -house software. The potassium levels were evaluated before and after the physical exercise and the data were compared with the normal range. (author)

  12. Large sample NAA facility and methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, C.; Gugiu, D.; Barbos, D.; Datcu, A.; Aioanei, L.; Dobrea, D.; Taroiu, I. E.; Bucsa, A.; Ghinescu, A.

    2013-01-01

    A Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) facility has been developed at the TRIGA- Annular Core Pulsed Reactor (ACPR) operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti, Romania. The central irradiation cavity of the ACPR core can accommodate a large irradiation device. The ACPR neutron flux characteristics are well known and spectrum adjustment techniques have been successfully applied to enhance the thermal component of the neutron flux in the central irradiation cavity. An analysis methodology was developed by using the MCNP code in order to estimate counting efficiency and correction factors for the major perturbing phenomena. Test experiments, comparison with classical instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods and international inter-comparison exercise have been performed to validate the new methodology. (authors)

  13. Oligodendrocytes Do Not Export NAA-Derived Aspartate In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Amaral, Ana; Hadera, Mussie Ghezu; Kotter, Mark; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2017-03-01

    Oligodendroglial cells are known to de-acetylate the N-acetylaspartate (NAA) synthesized and released by neurons and use it for lipid synthesis. However, the role of NAA regarding their intermediary metabolism remains poorly understood. Two hypotheses were proposed regarding the fate of aspartate after being released by de-acetylation: (1) aspartate is metabolized in the mitochondria of oligodendrocyte lineage cells; (2) aspartate is released to the medium. We report here that aspartoacylase mRNA expression increases when primary rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) differentiate into mature cells in culture. Moreover, characterising metabolic functions of acetyl coenzyme A and aspartate from NAA catabolism in mature oligodendrocyte cultures after 5 days using isotope-labelled glucose after 5-days of differentiation we found evidence of extensive NAA metabolism. Incubation with [1,6- 13 C]glucose followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analyses of cell extracts and media in the presence and absence of NAA established that the acetate moiety produced by hydrolysis of NAA does not enter mitochondrial metabolism in the form of acetyl coenzyme A. We also resolved the controversy concerning the possible release of aspartate to the medium: aspartate is not released to the medium by oligodendrocytes in amounts detectable by our methods. Therefore we propose that: aspartate released from NAA joins the cytosolic aspartate pool rapidly and takes part in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which transports reducing equivalents from glycolysis into the mitochondria for ATP production and enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle at a slow rate.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  15. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  16. Accuracy of noninvasive quantification of brain NAA concentrations using PRESS sequence: verification in a swine model with external standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R H; Lin, R; Li, H; Xiao, Z W; Rao, H B; Luo, W H; Guo, G; Huang, K; Zhang, X G; Lang, Z J

    2005-01-01

    The metabolite ratios had been employed in the field of MR spectroscopy (MRS) for a long period. The main drawback of metabolite ratio is that ratio results are not comparable with absolute metabolite concentration in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of noninvasive quantification of brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentrations using previously reported MR external standard method. Eight swine were scanned on a GE 1.5 T scanner with a standard head coil. The external standard method was utilized with a sphere filled with NAA, GABA, glutamine, glutamate, creatine, choline chloride, and myo-inositol. The position resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence was used with TE=135 msec, TR=1500 msec, and 128 scan averages. The analysis of MRS was done with SAGE/IDL program. In vivo NAA concentration was obtained using the equation S=N * e(-TE/T2) * [1-e(-TR/T1). In vitro NAA concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the MRS group, the mean concentration of NAA was 10.03 plusmn 0.74 mmol/kg. In the HPLC group, the mean concentration of NAA was 9.22 plusmn 0.55 mmol/kg. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.46). However, slightly higher value was observed in the MRS group (7/8 swine), compared with HPLC group. The range of differences was between 0.02~2.05 mmol/kg. MRS external reference method could be more accurate than internal reference method. 1H MRS does not distinguish between N-acetyl resonance frequencies and other N-acetylated amino acids.

  17. Fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981 numerous 14 MeV neutron activation analyses were performed at Korona. On the basis of that work the advantages of this analysis technique and therewith obtained results are compared with other analytical methods. The procedure of activation analysis, the characteristics of Korona, some analytical investigations in environmental research and material physics, as well as sources of systematic errors in trace analysis are described. (orig.) [de

  18. The role of neutron activation analysis for trace elements characterization, analysis and certification in atmospheric particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzio, Enrico; Gallorini, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) owns these requirements and is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultratrace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrate by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, the application of this nuclear technique, in solving a series of different analytical problems related to trace elements in air pollution processes is reported. Examples and results are given on the following topics: characterization of urban and rural airborne particulate samples; particles size distribution in the different inhalable and respirable fractions (PM10 and PM 2.5); certification of related Standard Reference Materials for data quality assurance. (author)

  19. Determination of elementary composition of medicinal plants by Neutron Activation Analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamoto, Árissa; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    The analyzes of medicinal plants are of great interest for the study of the correlation between elements present in them with their therapeutic activities, as well as to identify the toxic elements harmful to health human. In the work, applying the method of analysis by activation with neutrons (NAA), the medicinal plants: Aloe vera (Babosa), Morus nigra sp. (Amoreira) and Moringa oleifera (Moringa) were analysed. The samples were collected in different locations and purchased in a natural products store. The preparation consisted in the cleaning, drying and milling of the leaves. Aliquots of the samples were irradiated with synthetic elements over a period of 16 h and under thermal neutron flux of 5 x 1012 n cm -2 s -1 of the nuclear reactor IEAR-1. The gamma-induced activities were measured on a gamma-ray spectrometer coupled to a detector high resolution. The radioisotopes formed were identified by half-life and energy of the gamma rays and the concentrations of the elements were calculated by the comparative method. The results of the certified reference materials INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves and INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs showed good precision and accuracy. In the analyzed plants, toxic elements such as Cu and Cd were not detected. Already the As and Sb were detected, but at very low concentrations, on the order of ng g -1 . By NAA method it was possible to determine the concentration of elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn. Results obtained in this work demonstrated the feasibility of applying NAA in the study of medicinal plants

  20. INDUKSI PERTUMBUHAN TUNAS DARI EKSPLAN ANGGREK Dendrobium Heterocarpum Lindl. DENGAN PEMBERIAN HORMON ZEATIN DAN NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Kayika Febryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium heterocarpum Lindl. is a native orchid in Indonesia. Its population continue to decline due to unsustainable exploitation. One solution to increase its population is via in vitro technique propagation. This research aimed to determine effect of hormone addition (Zeatin and NAA to induce shoot multiplication of D. heterocarpum Lindl. grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS basic medium. The research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Udayana University from November 2015 until March 2016. The experiment employed Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 20 combinations of treatments, with three replicates each treatment. The treatment werer addition of Zeatin and NAA, with five concentrations of Zeatin (0, 0.1, 0,5, sweet corn and hybrids corn as the natural Zeatin; four NAA concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5. Variable recorded include such as the number of shoots, roots and explant’s vigor. The quantitative data which include number of leaves and shoots after 12 weeks, were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; and if significantly different, tested further using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT at 5% level. Z5N3 medium revealed significantly different on amount of leaves and shoot height and also the best medium on amount of roots. Best hormone combination that can induce multiplication of new shoots are medium Z4N3 and Z5N1.

  1. Elemental Characterization of Soil and Sediment Using NAA Technique for BATAN Inter Laboratory Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syukria Kurniawati; Diah Dwiana Lestiani; Natalia Adventini

    2009-01-01

    Elemental characterization of soil and sediment samples using neutron activation analysis (NAA) for BATAN inter laboratory comparison have been conducted. TAR laboratory have been accredited by KAN since 2006, participating the test to evaluate and maintain its capability as testing laboratory that implemented ISO/IEC 17025. Samples from PTBIN were dried at 110°C for 2 hours and homogenized. The samples were irradiated at rabbit system of Multi-Purpose Reactor G.A Siwabessy for 1, 2, 10 and 60 minutes, then counted using HPGe gamma spectrometer. Several statistical test were applied such as μ-test, relative deviation, acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision. The result showed that soil contains V, Al, Ca, Mn, Na, K, As, Fe, Zn and Hg. From accuracy and precision, final status for 9 elements were passed but Ca was rejected, while V, Al, Mn, Cr, Fe, Zn and Co were detected in sediment samples. Final status for V, Al, Mn, Cr, Fe and Co elements were passed but Zn was rejected. (author)

  2. Use of NAA to determine nutritive elements in immature and mature soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the maturation of soybeans, several changes in the chemical composition take place. However, data available relating mineral and vitamin content to maturation stage are limited and show a wide range of values. There are several factors that affect the mineral content of soybeans. These factors include, but are not limited to, soil composition, application of fertilizers, environmental conditions, and genetic factors. For the samples examined in this study all the aforementioned factors, except genetic, were kept unchanged. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in three soybean varieties at three maturation stages. Samples from three soybean varieties were investigated. The three maturation stages were defined as immature, green mature, and dry mature. The concentration of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in the three soybean varieties at different maturation stages are shown. The concentration of some nutritive elements (for example, calcium, iron, manganese, and zinc) in soybeans are much higher than in other grain cereals such as wheat and corn. However, it is questionable whether too much nutritional importance be given to these elements in soybeans since phytate content in soybeans is much higher than that of wheat or corn, and it has been postulated that low bioavailability of the aforementioned elements are related to phytate content

  3. Studies on application of neutron activation analysis -Applied research on air pollution monitoring and development of analytical method of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju; Jeong, Eui Sik; Lee, Sang Mi; Kang, Sang Hun; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kwon, Young Sik; Chung, Sang Wuk; Lee, Kyu Sung; Chun, Ki Hong; Kim, Nak Bae; Lee, Kil Yong; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Chun, Sang Ki.

    1997-09-01

    This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs

  4. Tracing footprints of environmental events in tree ring chemistry using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Dagistan

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental effects on tree-ring chemistry. It is known that industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, acid rain and similar events can cause substantial changes in soil chemistry. Establishing whether a particular group of trees is sensitive to these changes in soil environment and registers them in the elemental chemistry of contemporary growth rings is the over-riding goal of any Dendrochemistry research. In this study, elemental concentrations were measured in tree-ring samples of absolutely dated eleven modern forest trees, grown in the Mediterranean region, Turkey, collected and dated by the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology laboratory at Cornell University. Correlations between measured elemental concentrations in the tree-ring samples were analyzed using statistical tests to answer two questions. Does the current concentration of a particular element depend on any other element within the tree? And, are there any elements showing correlated abnormal concentration changes across the majority of the trees? Based on the detailed analysis results, the low mobility of sodium and bromine, positive correlations between calcium, zinc and manganese, positive correlations between trace elements lanthanum, samarium, antimony, and gold within tree-rings were recognized. Moreover, zinc, lanthanum, samarium and bromine showed strong, positive correlations among the trees and were identified as possible environmental signature elements. New Dendrochemistry information found in this study would be also useful in explaining tree physiology and elemental chemistry in Pinus nigra species grown in Turkey. Elemental concentrations in tree-ring samples were measured using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC). Through this study, advanced methodologies for methodological, computational and

  5. Determination of tin in biological reference materials by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Iyengar, V.; Gills, T.

    1991-01-01

    Because of a lack of reliable analytical techniques for the determination of tin in biological materials, there have been no reference materials certified for this element. However, the authors' experience has shown that it is feasible to use both atomic absorption and nuclear activation techniques at least for selected matrices. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to determine tin in several biological materials such as non-fat milk powder (NBS-SRM-1549), citrus leaves (NBS-SRM-1572), total diet (NIST-SRM-1548), mixed diet (NBS-RM-8431), and USDIET-I by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). AAS-ashed samples were extracted with MIBK and assayed using a Perkin Elmer model 5000 apparatus. NAA was carried out by irradiating the samples at the NIST reactor in the RT-4 facility and counting with the help of a Ge(Li) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer. The concentration of tin measured by both AAS and NAA agree well for USDIET-I, total diet, citrus leaves and non-fat milk powder (the concentration ranges for tin in these matrices were from 0.0025 to 3.8 micro g/g). However, in the case of mixed diet (RM-8431), the mean values found were 47 ± 5.6 (n = 19) by AAS and 55.5 ± 2.5 (n = 6) by INAA. Since RM-8431 is not certified it is difficult to draw conclusions. For apple and peach leaves, a distillation step was required. The results were apple leaves 0.085 ± 0.015 (n = 10) by AAS and < 0.2 (n = 3) by RNAA; for peach leaves 0.077 ± 0.02 (n = 9) by AAS and < 0.1 (n = 3) by RNAA. All concentrations are expressed in micro g/g dry weight

  6. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  7. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, J.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable.

  8. Provenance study of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. X.; Y Gao, Z.; Li, R. W.; Zhao, W. J.; Xie, J. Z.; Feng, S. L.; Zhuo, Z. X.; Y Fan, D.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z. F.; Liu, H.

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports our study of the provenance of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain. The content of 29 elements in the Yaozhou porcelain samples was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analysed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the trend fuzzy cluster diagrams. These samples with different glaze colour, ranging over more than 700 years, were fired in different kilns. Our analysis indicates the relatively concentrated distribution of the sources of the raw material for the Yaozhou porcelain body samples. They can be classified into two independent periods, i.e. the Tang (AD 618-907) and the Five Dynasties (AD 907-960) period, and the Song (AD 960-1279) and Jin (AD 1115-1234) period. Our analysis also indicates that the sources of the raw material for the ancient Yaozhou porcelain glaze samples are quite scattered and those for the black glaze in the Tang Dynasty are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the celadon glaze and the white glaze in the Tang Dynasty are widely distributed and those for the celadon glaze in the Song Dynasty are close to those of the bluish white glaze in the Jin Dynasty, and they are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the porcelain glazes cover those of the porcelain bodies.

  9. A study on aluminum determination in environmental samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyori, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum determinations are of great interest since this element is toxic to humans and it is widely distributed in the environment. Besides, the determinations of this element by conventional analytical methods present difficulties due to sample contamination during the analyses. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) for Al determination presents advantages of fast analyses and of high sensitivity. However, NAA of Al does present problems of P and Si nuclear reaction interferences. Aluminum is determined by measuring 28 Al, formed in the reaction 27 Al (n, γ) 28 Al, the same radioisotope formed in reactions 31 P (n, α) 28 Al and 28 Si (n, p) 28 Al. The purpose of this study was to determine Al in environmental samples by NAA correcting these interferences using correction factors, and determining P and Si concentrations in the samples. In this study, certified reference materials and biomonitor samples (tree barks and lichen) were analyzed. Experimental procedure consisted of irradiating an aliquot of the sample at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor together with Al standard, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Phosphorus was determined by measuring beta radiation of 32 P using a Geiger-Müller counter. Silicon was determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis and measuring 29 Al formed in the reaction 29 Si (n, p) 29 Al. Results obtained in the determination of Al, P and Si in the certified reference materials showed good precision and accuracy with |Z-score| ≤ 2. Aluminum results in the biomonitor samples varied from to 253 to 15783 μg g -1 . In the case of P its concentrations varied from 283 to 1946 μg g -1 . Silicon determinations in biomonitors varied from 0.11 to 7.8 %. The interference contribution rates in the analyses of the biomonitor samples were of the order of 2.0 % and this contribution depends on the relation between concentrations of interfering elements and of Al in the sample. Detection limit values of Al in the biomonitor analyses

  10. Determination of chlorine in high purity materials by charged particle activation analysis using deuteron beam from VEC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.; Datta, J.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative determination of chlorine by conventional methods viz., AAS, ICP-OES is difficult and erroneous at times due to gaseous nature of elemental chlorine. It is possible to determine chlorine by NAA and charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) producing activation product 38 Cl (t 1/2 = 37.2 min, 1642 (32.8 %), 2168 keV (44 %)). Fast INAA method has been applied to determine Cl in concentration ranges 10 mgkg -1 in some suitable matrices in PCF of DHRUVA reactor with a neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 with a detection limit of Cl of ∼1 mgkg -1

  11. Neutron activation analysis of single human hairs and possible applications for forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Boboli, K.

    1975-01-01

    A new analytical procedure that enables to determine more than 10 trace elements in single, 3 cm human hair segments by neutron activation analysis (NAA) was elaborated. Application of a special washing procedure of hair (before irradiation) made possible to lower sodium content by two orders of magnitude without affecting trace element content. After irradiation in the thermal neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .sec -1 the activity of hair was measured with 70 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 4000 channel pulse height analyser. As an alternative method, a destructive version of NAA with ion exchange group separation of radionuclides was applied. It was found that sometimes high gradients of element concentration along the hair length exist and that there is without any doubt a distinct influence of environmental factor on the content of some trace elements in hair. The criminalistic aspects of hair analysis were also studied using new statistical criterion for elimination (identification). Both possibilities and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  12. Preparation of palladium impregnated alumina adsorbents: Thermal and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Sumanta; Gupta, N.K.; Roy, S.P.; Dash, S.; Kumar, A.; Bamankar, Y.R.; Rao, T.V. Vittal [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, N. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Naik, Y., E-mail: ynaik@barc.gov.in [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite microspheres particles with high surface area were prepared sol–gel process. • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies on silver coated particle. • Content of the palladium was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). • Decomposition study has been done by quadrupole mass analyser. - Abstract: Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite microspheres particles with high surface area were prepared sol–gel process. The decomposition of dried gel-particles was studied by TGA/DTA and FT-IR technique. TGA studies indicated that formation of palladium is marked by a broad exothermic peak with a loss of water and oxidation of trapped HMTA/Urea nitrate mixture. The main decomposition reaction took place in the temperature range of 660–1250 K in helium and relatively lower temperature of 400 K to 1250 K in oxygen. Optical microscopy indicated that the distribution of palladium is uniform. SEM studies on silver coated particle indicated that there was surface erosion of some gel spheres while in few of them micro cracks were seen at high resolution. Content of the palladium was determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Decomposition at various temperatures was studied using Residual gas analyser and decomposition species were identified using quadrupole mass analyser.

  13. Application of NAA in study of rill erosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Ding Wenfeng

    2003-01-01

    Based on the principle and method of rare earth elements (REE) tracer and NAA for the study of soil erosion, the changeable process of rill erosion on loess sloping surface was researched in runoff scouring experiments. The results showed that the REE tracer and NAA method can be used not only quantitatively to determine soil erosion amounts on different slope sections, but also to reveal the changeable trend of relative erosion amounts. The relative errors are mostly less than ±20% for the tracing elements, which is considered satisfactory in the soil erosion studies

  14. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a reference inhomogeneous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, T.; Athens National Technical University, Athens; Tzika, F.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark experiment was performed for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of a large inhomogeneous sample. The reference sample was developed in-house and consisted of SiO 2 matrix and an Al-Zn alloy 'inhomogeneity' body. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to derive appropriate correction factors for neutron self-shielding during irradiation as well as self-attenuation of gamma rays and sample geometry during counting. The large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) results were compared against reference values and the trueness of the technique was evaluated. An agreement within ±10% was observed between LSNAA and reference elemental mass values, for all matrix and inhomogeneity elements except Samarium, provided that the inhomogeneity body was fully simulated. However, in cases that the inhomogeneity was treated as not known, the results showed a reasonable agreement for most matrix elements, while large discrepancies were observed for the inhomogeneity elements. This study provided a quantification of the uncertainties associated with inhomogeneity in large sample analysis and contributed to the identification of the needs for future development of LSNAA facilities for analysis of inhomogeneous samples. (author)

  15. Neutron activation analysis of heavy metal binding by fungal cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusberg, T.C.; Mayer, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Aqueous effluents are produced during nuclear power and nuclear weapons development activities which frequently contain low levels of dissolved radioactive nuclides. A number of laboratories are now focusing attention to renewable biological materials to provide traps for low concentrations of dissolved radioactive metal ions in wastewater effluents. The term BIOTRAP can be used to describe such materials, and in this laboratory cell wall preparations of the fungus Penicillium ochro-chloron have been employed to demonstrate their capacity and affinity to reversibly bind and remove copper(2). Since neutron activation analysis (NAA) was readily available, that method was one of several applied to this problem as a suitable analytical methodology to study heavy metal-to-BIOTRAP interactions. Copper and mercury provide good examples of metals which are capable of undergoing activation by thermal neutrons. In NAA, 63 Cu (69.1% natural abundance) is converted to 64 Cu which has a half live of 12.7 hr, and 202 Hg (29.7 % natural abundance) is converted to 203 Hg which has a half life of 46.,6 d

  16. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Mong Sinh; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Si

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the k o -NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The K o -NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  17. Establishing a protocol for element determination in human nail clippings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko

    2011-01-01

    Human nail samples have been analyzed to evaluate occupational exposure, nutritional status and to diagnose certain diseases. However, sampling and washing protocols for nail analyses vary from study to study not allowing comparisons between studies. One of the difficulties in analyzing nail samples is to eliminate only surface contamination without removing elements of interest in this tissue. In the present study, a protocol was defined in order to obtain reliable results of element concentrations in human nail clippings. Nail clippings collected from all 10 fingers or toes were previously pre cleaned using an ethyl alcohol solution to eliminate microbes. Then, the clippings were cut in small pieces and submitted to different reagents for washing by shaking. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for nail samples analysis which consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples together with synthetic elemental standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Comparisons made between the results obtained for nails submitted to different reagents for cleaning indicated that the procedure using acetone and Triton X100 solution is more effective than that of nitric acid solution. Analyses in triplicates of a nail sample indicated results with relative standard deviations lower than 15% for most of elements, showing the homogeneity of the prepared sample. Qualitative analyses of different nail polishes showed that the presence of elements determined in the present study is negligible in these products. Quality control of the analytical results indicated that the applied NAA procedure is adequate for human nail analysis. (author)

  18. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Sartorius, Alexander; Welzel, Helga; Walter, Sigrid; Skopp, Gisela; Ende, Gabriele; Mann, Karl

    2007-06-01

    Cannabinoids present neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties in in vitro studies, inconsistent alterations in human neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological deficits, and an increased risk for psychotic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), neuropsychological testing, and hair analysis for cannabinoids was performed in 13 male nontreatment-seeking recreational cannabis users and 13 male control subjects. A significantly diminished N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) ratio in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was observed in cannabis users (p = .0003). The NAA/tCr in the putamen/globus pallidum region correlated significantly with cannabidiol (R(2) = .66, p = .004). Results of the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Trail making Test, and D2 test for attention were influenced by cannabinoids. Chronic recreational cannabis use is associated with an indication of diminished neuronal and axonal integrity in the DLPFC in this study. As chronic cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, these results are interesting because diminished NAA/tCr ratios in the DLPFC and neuropsychological deficits were also reported in schizophrenia. The strong positive correlation of NAA/tCr and cannabidiol in the putamen/globus pallidum is in line with neuroprotective properties of cannabidiol, which were also observed in in vitro model studies of Parkinson's disease.

  19. A strategy for the survival and enrichment of NAA in a wider context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the current trends in NAA, its applications and the use of research reactors for NAA is given. A case is made for a more versatile, interdisciplinary approach towards NAA, operating in the context of a larger national or regional nuclear analytical center where other nuclear and non-nuclear analyses can be combined. (author)

  20. Californium-252 neutron activation analysis of high-level processed nuclear tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.; Purcell, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis for production assessment of the vitrification of Hanford nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes will be high-precision measurements of the elemental sodium content. However, the chemical analysis of both radioactive and nonradioactive components in nuclear waste can be challenged by high radiation dose rates. The dose rates compromise many analytical techniques as well as pose personnel dosimetry risks. In many cases, reduction of dose rates through dilution compromises the precision and sensitivity for certain key components. The use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides a method of analysis that avoids the need for dilutions or extensive sample preparation. These waste materials also contain trace quantities of fissionable isotopes, which, through neutron activation, can be estimated by delayed neutron counting of fissioned fragments

  1. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: vitor.ito@outlook.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  2. Determination of elemental composition in dietary supplements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vitor I.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements intake has grown in the last years because of their potential health benefits. This supplementation is very common among athletes, elderly population and consumers that want to increase the total daily nutrient intake. Consequently, elemental composition evaluation in these supplements is of great interest due to its increasingly high consumption and the brand variety offered in the market. This study aimed to evaluate the elemental composition in three types of dietary supplements acquired in a pharmacy and drugstore in Sao Paulo city. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined in these supplements by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA) followed by a gamma ray spectrometry. from the concentrations obtained in the dietary supplement analyses, the data obtained were compared to the values presented on the product label. These comparisons indicated in general, a good agreement of the data obtained and the values of the product label depending on the supplement. From the results obtained it can be concluded that NAA is an important tool for the analysis of this type of products due to its reliability of results and its multielemental character. (author)

  3. Undergraduate research opportunities in neutron activation analysis for local, regional and international students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Tipping, T.; Lott, V.; Alexander, S.; Ban, G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) remains an excellent technique to introduce undergraduate students to nuclear science and engineering coming from different academic areas. The NAA methods encompass an appreciation of basic reactor engineering concepts, radiation safety, nuclear instrumentation and data analysis. At the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab at the University of Texas at Austin we have continued to provide opportunities through outreach programs to Huston-Tillotson University in Austin and Florida Memorial University in Miami Gardens, both Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Southwestern University in Georgetown, Texas. Furthermore, in the past four years we have established a strong educational collaboration with the Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Ingenieurs de Caen (ENSICAEN), France. Undergraduate students at ENSICAEN are required to have an internship outside of France. While many of the students stay in neighboring European countries others have chosen the United States. The cornerstone of these programs is to secure a relationship with each institution through clear educational and research objectives and goals. (author)

  4. Validation of methodology and uncertainty assessment of antimony determination in environmental materials using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Tassiane C.M.; Saiki, Mitiko; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Moreira, Edson G.

    2013-01-01

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest because of the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a suitable method for the determination of several elements in different types, but in case of Sb, the analysis presents some difficulties due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the method of NAA and uncertainty assessment for Sb determination in environmental samples. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiating twelve certified reference samples of different kind of matrices. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA R1 IPEN/CNEN/SP followed by measurement of induced radioactivity, using a hyperpure germanium detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb were measured and the Sb concentrations with their respective uncertainties were obtained by the comparative method. Relative errors and values of Z scores were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results for Sb determination in certified reference materials. The evaluation of the components that contribute to uncertainty measurement of the Sb concentration, showed that the major uncertainty contribution is due to statistical counting. The results also indicated that the uncertainty value of the combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotope measured and the decay time used for counting. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis for the optimal sampling and extraction of extractable organohalogens in human hari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Sun, H.B.; Xu, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    Many persistent organohalogen compounds such as DDTs and polychlorinated biphenyls have caused seriously environmental pollution problem that now involves all life. It is know that neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a very convenient method for halogen analysis and is also the only method currently available for simultaneously determining organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in one extract. Human hair is a convenient material to evaluate the burden of such compounds in human body and dan be easily collected from people over wide ranges of age, sex, residential areas, eating habits and working environments. To effectively extract organohalogen compounds from human hair, in present work the optimal Soxhelt-extraction time of extractable organohalogen (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogen (EPOX) from hair of different lengths were studied by NAA. The results indicated that the optimal Soxhelt-extraction time of EOX and EPOX from human hair was 8-11 h, and the highest EOX and EPOX contents were observed in hair powder extract. The concentrations of both EOX and EPOX in different hair sections were in the order of hair powder ≥ 2 mm > 5 mm, which stated that hair samples milled into hair powder or cut into very short sections were not only for homogeneous. hair sample but for the best hair extraction efficiency.

  6. Application of reference materials for quality assessment in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Eckschlager, K.

    1993-01-01

    It is generally accepted that an analytical procedure can be regarded as an information production system yielding information on the composition of the analyzed sample. Thus, information theory can be useful and the quantities characterizing the information properties of an analytical method may be applied not only as evaluation criteria but also as objective functions in the optimization. The usability of information theory is demonstrated on the example of neutron activation analysis. Both precision and bias of NAA results are taken into account together with the possible use of reference materials for quality assessment. The influence of the above-mentioned parameters on information properties such as information gain and profitability of NAA results is discussed in detail. It has been proved that information theory is especially useful in choosing suitable reference materials for the quality assessment of routine analytical procedures not only with respect to matrix and analyte concentration in the sample but also to concentrations and uncertainties of certified values in the CRM used. In the extreme trace analysis, CRMs with relatively large uncertainties and very low certified concentrations can still yield rather high information gain of results. (author) 14 refs.; 9 figs

  7. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  8. Synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X from tablet compressed and calcinated coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Gao, Wenyan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites Na-A and Na-X are important synthetic zeolites widely used for separation and adsorption in industry. It is of great significance to develop energy-efficient routines that can synthesize zeolites Na-A and Na-X from low-cost raw materials. Coal fly ash (CFA) is the major residue from the combustion of coal and biomass containing more than 85% SiO2 and Al2O3, which can readily replace the conventionally used sodium silicate and aluminate for zeolite synthesis. We used Na2CO3 to replace the expensive NaOH used for the calcination of CFA and showed that tablet compression can enhance the contact with Na2CO3 for the activation of CFA through calcination for the synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X under mild conditions. We optimized the control variables for zeolite synthesis and showed that phase-pure zeolite Na-A can be synthesized with CFA at reactant molar ratio, hydrothermal reaction temperature and reaction time of 1.3Na2O: 0.6Al2O3: 1SiO2: 38H2O at 80°C for 6 h, respectively, while phase-pure zeolite Na-X can be synthesized at 2.2Na2O: 0.2Al2O3: 1SiO2: 88H2O at 100°C for 8 h, respectively. The composition, morphology, specific surface area, vibration spectrum and thermogravimetry of synthesized Na-A and Na-X were further characterized.

  9. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  10. Multielement neutron-activation analysis of plants and fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srapenyants, R.A.; Saveliev, I.B.

    1977-01-01

    The development of an automated technique for simultaneous multielement activation analysis of plants and fertilizers for the macronutrient elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, and Si is presented. The developed universal NAA is based on the installation manufactured and supplied by Sames, France. The components of the automatic installation for neutron activation analysis are: neutron generator; a pneumatic transfer system; a scintillation crystal detector; a spectrometer rack including a basic multichannel analyser; a control panel for the neutron generator and pneumatic transfer system; a computer and teletype. On the basis of analytical procedures, algorithms and software, the first automatic (computer based) installation for multielement analyses of plants and fertilizers has been completed and is in routine use in the agrochemical and plant breeding research program in the Soviet Union. The proposed technique together with the full automatic real-time process of measurement and processing of data by computer, provides a throughput of 250-500 samples (1250-2500 elements determinations) per 8-hour shift, with the accuracy of +-3%; for N and +-5%; for P, K, Mg, Cl and +-15% for Ca. (T.G.)

  11. Effect of Fe3O4 addition on removal of ammonium by zeolite NaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Peng, Shuchuan; Shu, Lin; Chen, Tianhu; Bao, Teng; Frost, Ray L

    2013-01-15

    Magnetic zeolite NaA with different Fe(3)O(4) loadings was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis based on metakaolin and Fe(3)O(4). The effect of added Fe(3)O(4) on the removal of ammonium by zeolite NaA was investigated by varying the Fe(3)O(4) loading, pH, adsorption temperature, initial concentration, adsorption time. Langmuir, Freundlich, and pseudo-second-order modeling were used to describe the nature and mechanism of ammonium ion exchange using both zeolite and magnetic zeolite. Thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy were calculated. The results show that all the selected factors affect the ammonium ion exchange by zeolite and magnetic zeolite, however, the added Fe(3)O(4) apparently does not affect the ion exchange performance of zeolite to the ammonium ion. Freundlich model provides a better description of the adsorption process than Langmuir model. Moreover, kinetic analysis indicates the exchange of ammonium on the two materials follows a pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic analysis makes it clear that the adsorption process of ammonium is spontaneous and exothermic. Regardless of kinetic or thermodynamic analysis, all the results suggest that no considerable effect on the adsorption of the ammonium ion by zeolite is found after the addition of Fe(3)O(4). According to the results, magnetic zeolite NaA can be used for the removal of ammonium due to the good adsorption performance and easy separation method from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of neutron activation analysis in nutritional biomonitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, V.

    1988-01-01

    Nutritional biomonitoring is a multidisciplinary task and an integral part of a more general bioenvironmental surveillance. In its comprehensive form, it is a combination of biological, environmental, and nutrient monitoring activities. Nutrient monitoring evaluates the input of essential nutrients required to maintain vital bodily functions; this includes vigilance over extreme fluctuations of nutrient intake in relation to the recommended dietary allowances and estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intakes and adherence to the goals of provisional tolerance limits. Environmental monitoring assesses the external human exposure via ambient pathways, namely, air, water, soil, food, etc. Biological monitoring quantifies a toxic agent and its metabolites in representative biologic specimens of an exposed organ to identify health effects. In practice, coordinating all three components of a nutritional biomonitoring program is complex, expensive, and tedious. Experience gained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys demonstrates the problems involved. By far the most critical challenge faced here is the question of analytical quality control, particularly when trace element determinations are involved. Yet, measures to ensure reliability of analytical data are mandatory, and there are no short-cuts to this requirement. The purpose of this presentation is to elucidate the potential of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in nutritional biomonitoring activities

  13. Evaluation of neutron sources for ISAGE-in-situ-NAA for a future lunar mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Breitkreutz, H; Burfeindt, J; Bernhardt, H-G; Trieloff, M; Hopp, J; Jessberger, E K; Schwarz, W H; Hofmann, P; Hiesinger, H

    2011-11-01

    For a future Moon landing, a concept for an in-situ NAA involving age determination using the (40)Ar-(39)Ar method is developed. A neutron source (252)Cf is chosen for sample irradiation on the Moon. A special sample-in-source irradiation geometry is designed to provide a homogeneous distribution of neutron flux at the irradiation position. Using reflector, the neutron flux is likely to increase by almost 200%. Sample age of 1Ga could be determined. Elemental analysis using INAA is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Micro-PIXE characterization of reference samples intended for QA/QC of k0 NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucar, T.; Smodis, B.; Pelicon, P.; Simcic, J.; Jacimovic, R.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose cylinders and circular filter papers spiked with known amounts of standard element solutions were prepared for studying some aspects of assessing measurement uncertainty of NAA and the elemental distribution measured by micro-PIXE analysis. Results for the cylinders showed strongly non-homogeneous distribution of the elements, both in radial and vertical directions, dominantly caused by osmosis driven transport of added liquid solution from the centre to the edges. Results for the thin cellulose filter paper disks exhibited weaker peaking of the standard element concentrations at the edges in comparison with the thick cylinders. (author)

  15. Provenance and dating study on Jianyao Kiln porcelain bodies using NAA and WDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangqian; Feng Songlin; Li Jian'an; Li Dejin

    2007-01-01

    In order to distinguish provenance and age of Jianyao Kiln porcelains based on their chemical composition, 139 sherds that cover seven periods of production, were collected from three kiln sites. Trace and major elements in their body samples were determined by NAA and WDXRF, respectively. The analytical data and statistical analysis results show that all the body samples can be classified into 4 groups, i.e. Late Tang and Five Dynanties, Northern Song, Southern Song and Yuan. The raw materials adopted by Daluhoumen kiln site black porcelains were similar to those of Yingzhangqian site, but quite different from those of Anweishan site. (authors)

  16. Optimization to improve precision in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustina Tri Handayani

    2010-01-01

    The level of precision or accuracy required in analysis should be satisfied the general requirements and customer needs. In presenting the results of the analysis, the level of precision is expressed as uncertainty. Requirement general is Horwitz prediction. Factors affecting the uncertainty in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) include the mass of sample, mass standards, concentration in standard, count of sample, count of standard and counting geometry. Therefore, to achieve the expected level of precision, these parameters need to be optimized. A standard concentration of similar materials is applied as a basis of calculation. In the calculation NIST SRM 2704 is applied for sediment samples. Mass of sample, irradiation time and cooling time can be modified to obtain the expected uncertainty. The prediction results show the level of precision for Al, V, Mg, Mn, K, Na, As, Cr, Co, Fe, and Zn eligible the Horwitz. The predictive the count and standard deviation for Mg-27 and Zn-65 were higher than the actual value occurred due to overlapping of Mg-27 and Mn-54 peaks and Zn-65 and Fe-59 peaks. Precision level of Ca is greater than the Horwitz, since the value of microscopic cross section, the probability of radiation emission of Ca-49 and gamma spectrometer efficiency at 3084 keV is relatively small. Increased precision can only be done by extending the counting time and multiply the number of samples, because of the fixed value. The prediction results are in accordance with experimental results. (author)

  17. k{sub 0}-neutron activation analysis based method at CDTN: history, development and main achievements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Dalmazio, Ilza, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: id@cdtn.br, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil); Jožef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-11-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique to assay the elemental chemical composition in samples of several matrices. It has been applied by the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Centre) /Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN, since the starting up of the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in 1960. Among the methods of this technique, the k{sub 0}-standardization method, which was established at CDTN in 1995, is the most efficient and in 2003 it was re-established and optimized. This paper is about the history and the main achievements since then. (author)

  18. Bromine and iodine in Chinese medical herbs determined via epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien-Yi Chen; Yuan-Yaw Wei; Sheng-Pin ChangLai; Lung-Kwang Pan

    2003-01-01

    Nineteen natural herbs and two prescriptions prepared from mixed herbs were analyzed via epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) to evaluate their bromine and iodine concentration. Traditional medical doctors prescribed the samples presented in this work to most Taiwanese children for strengthening their immune systems. Empirical results indicated a wide diversity of bromine in the samples. Yet, the iodine concentration was only around one to tenth or twentieth of the bromine. The maximum daily intake (MDI) for various medical herbs was also widely diversified from one to tenfold on the basis of various criteria. The minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of bromine and iodine found was 0.42±0.14 ppm and 0.067±0.016 ppm, respectively. Compared to that from conventional thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) for a similar evaluation, the extremely low MDC obtained here was attributed to the large amount of thermal neutron absorption during sample irradiation. (author)

  19. k_0-neutron activation analysis based method at CDTN: history, development and main achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Dalmazio, Ilza

    2017-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique to assay the elemental chemical composition in samples of several matrices. It has been applied by the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Centre) /Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN, since the starting up of the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in 1960. Among the methods of this technique, the k_0-standardization method, which was established at CDTN in 1995, is the most efficient and in 2003 it was re-established and optimized. This paper is about the history and the main achievements since then. (author)

  20. Determination of the sodium, aluminium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, bromine, cadmium and chlorine concentration values in the whole blood samples of human cancer using neutron activation analysis facility of the second Egyptian research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Soliman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA using the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2 has been utilized to analyze whole blood samples. The National Cancer Institute of Egypt provided us with 18 blood samples (11 breast, 2 prostate, 2 colon, 1 pancreatic, 1 ovarian and a random sample of normal person to estimate the concentration values of Sodium, Aluminium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Bromine, Chlorine. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma-ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The calculated thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was found to be 196 at irradiation position. The tabulated concentrations were calculated by using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0NAA standardization method.

  1. Elemental analysis of soil and plant samples at El-Manzala lake neutron activation analysis technique. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, E A; Rofail, N B; Hassan, A M [Reactor and Neutron Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Haleem, A S [Radiactive Environment Pollution Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); El-Abbady, W H [Phsics Department, Faculty of Science , Al-Azhar University, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from from two locations, Bahr El-Baker, and Bahr kados at the manzala lake, where, where high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1), and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for analysis. Among the 34 identified Fe, Co, As, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Rb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of the their toxic deleterious impact on living organisms. This work is part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river Nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stands as a reference basic record for any future follow up of contamination level. 1 tab.

  2. Elemental analysis of soil and plant samples at El-Manzala lake neutron activation analysis technique. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; Abd El-Haleem, A.S.; El-Abbady, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from from two locations, Bahr El-Baker, and Bahr kados at the manzala lake, where, where high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1), and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for analysis. Among the 34 identified Fe, Co, As, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Rb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of the their toxic deleterious impact on living organisms. This work is part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river Nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stands as a reference basic record for any future follow up of contamination level. 1 tab

  3. Determination of trace elements: Neutron-activation analysis in geochemistry and cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemistry, like cosmochemistry, open-quotes studies chemical elements hor-ellipsis of the crust and hor-ellipsis the Earth hor-ellipsis their history, their distribution hor-ellipsis their genetic hor-ellipsis connectionsclose quotes and is based on data on the abundance and distribution of elements obtained by various analytical methods. Neutron-activation analysis (NAA) plays a particular role in this respect. This is due to its high sensitivity (detection limit as small as 10 -14 g), which makes possible the use of samples of arbitrary mass, and also due to the possibility of obtaining information about composition without destruction of the object, conserving, if required, the unique material under investigation. Of the most interest are the data on the contents for a number of trace elements (at a level of 10 -7 - 10 -4 %), among which are rare-earth elements (REE), U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, W, Ga, Ni, Rb, Cs, platinum-group metals, Ag, Au, etc. These elements are considered as indicators of geochemical processes associated with the genesis and evolution of solar system bodies in early and more recent stages of evolution; they are also used to study processes and phenomena at zone boundaries: river-sea, ocean-atmosphere, and so on. The aim of this work is to show the capabilities of NAA in the determination of trace elements

  4. Analysis of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in murine melanoma for photon activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popenoe, E.A.; Commerford, S.L.; Fairchild, R.G.; Laster, B.H.; Stony Brook University Hospital, New York; Wielopolski, L.; Meek, A.; Gahbauer, R.; Goodman, J.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the dose enhancement obtained with analog nucleoside agents such as iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) requires knowledge of the degree to which the thymidine (Thd) in DNA is replaced by IdUrd. In this investigation, mice were infused wit IdUrd using an intravenous infusion apparatus capable of delivering continuous multi-day infusions without restraining the mice. The absolute incorporation of IdUrd in DNA was measured by 125 IdUrd label, both in whole tissue and extracted DNA, showing a good correlation between levels observed in DNA and whole tissue. Replacement in a Harding-Passey murine melanoma tumor carried in BALB/c mice approached 10 per cent. In addition, a Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was developed which showed in vitro, a sensitivity sufficient to evaluate the percentage of replacement of Thd by IdUrd in small biological samples with a sensitivity greater than 0.1 ppm, at 1 per cent replacement in mg samples. This method can provide information on iodine substitution in DNA in humans where the use of a radioactive DNA-seeking substance would be undesirable. Analyses of IdUrd incorporation in cultured cells by NAA and 125 I counting showed good agreement. (author). 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  6. A computer program to evaluate the experimental data in instrumental multielement neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greim, L.; Motamedi, K.; Niedergesaess, R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code evaluating experimental data of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for determination of atomic abundancies is described. The experimental data are, beside a probe designation, the probe weight, irradiation parameters and a Ge(Li)-pulse-height-spectrum from the activity measurement. The organisation of the necessary nuclear data, comprising all methods of activation in reactor-irradiations, is given. Furthermore the automatic evaluation of spectra, the designation of the resulting peaks to nuclei and the calculation of atomic abundancies are described. The complete evaluation of a spectrum with many lines, e.g. 100 lines of 20 nuclei, takes less than 1 minute machine-time on the TR 440 computer. (orig.) [de

  7. Performance-related increases in hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) induced by spatial navigation training are restricted to BDNF Val homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Schaefer, Sabine; Noack, Hannes; Kanowski, Martin; Kaufmann, Jörn; Tempelmann, Claus; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Kühn, Simone; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Düzel, Emrah; Bäckman, Lars

    2011-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates experience-dependent brain volume changes in humans, but the functional and histological nature of such changes is unknown. Here, we report that adult men performing a cognitively demanding spatial navigation task every other day over 4 months display increases in hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Unlike measures of brain volume, changes in NAA are sensitive to metabolic and functional aspects of neural and glia tissue and unlikely to reflect changes in microvasculature. Training-induced changes in NAA were, however, absent in carriers of the Met substitution in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which is known to reduce activity-dependent secretion of BDNF. Among BDNF Val homozygotes, increases in NAA were strongly related to the degree of practice-related improvement in navigation performance and normalized to pretraining levels 4 months after the last training session. We conclude that changes in demands on spatial navigation can alter hippocampal NAA concentrations, confirming epidemiological studies suggesting that mental experience may have direct effects on neural integrity and cognitive performance. BDNF genotype moderates these plastic changes, in line with the contention that gene-context interactions shape the ontogeny of complex phenotypes.

  8. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis; Caracterizacion de artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con Analisis por Activacion Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis in the central nervous system tissues of neurological diseases and rats maintained on minerally unbalanced diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa.

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys on Guam have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and high Al and Mn in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Experimentally, low Ca-Mg diets with or without added Al have been found to accelerate Al deposition in the CNS of rats and monkeys. Although excessive deposition of Mn produces neurotoxic action similar to Al in CNS tissues, the mechanism of Mn deposition coupled with Al loading in the presence of low Ca-Mg intake is not yet known. In this animal study, the deposition and metal-metal interaction of both Al and Mn in the CNS, visceral organs and bones of rats fed unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn content were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, kidney, muscle, abdominal aorta, femur and lumbar spine using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the high concentrations of Mn and Al in bones and in the frontal cortex. It is likely that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the unequal distribution of Al and Mn in bones and ultimately in the CNS inducing CNS degeneration. On the other hand, concentrations of copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) for 26 subanatomical regions of the CNS were measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two cases of Wilson's disease, two of portal systemic encephalopathy, six pathologically verified cases of ALS, four of Parkinson's disease and five neurologically normal controls. Also zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations were measured by NAA for frontal and occipital lobes of parkinsonism-dementia. (author)

  10. Rapid determination of gold in Romanian auriferous alluvial sands, concentrates and rocks by 14 MeV NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nat, A.; Ene, A.; Lupu, R.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear and spectral interferences in the 14 MeV neutron activation analysis (NAA) of gold from Romanian auriferous alluvial sands, concentrates and rocks have been studied and the optimum of activation, cooling and measuring times was determined for a maximum peak-to-background ratio for gold. The contribution of the nuclear interfering elements in the samples, Hg and Pt, to the concentration of gold has been calculated and, concluded that the nuclear reactions 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au, 197 Au(n,2n) 196 mAu and 197 Au(n,n') 197 mAu can be used for gold determination, with minimal errors. Using the nuclear reactions 197 Au(n,n') 197 mAu and 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au the spectral interferences are minimal and are due to Rb, Ti and V for a short irradiation and to Se for a long one. Two methods of fast gold determination were proposed for auriferous alluvial sands and rocks in the range of 20-2500 ppm, under the optimum conditions established so that the systematic errors of analysis due to the gold accompanying elements can be considerably diminished. For measuring the induced gamma-radioactivity in the samples either a short irradiation (25 seconds) with a NaI(Tl) detector or a long irradiation (3000 seconds) with a Ge(Li) detector were used. (author)

  11. Determination of platinum concentration in gold matrix by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Spiridon, S.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the neutron activation technique and atomic absorption spectrometry applied for the analysis of high purity Bi 2 O 3 and PbCl 2 . The study showed that in most cases NAA is sensitive enough to give reliable results. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was preferable for some elements which cannot be determined by NAA due to high matrice activity. So the combination of the two methods proved very successful and permits the determination of more than 20 elements. Additionally this approach enabled to control the accuracy of the method by comparison of the results obtained

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of tree rings for dendrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaumloffel, J.C.; Filby, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was employed to determine zinc, cadmium and potassium concentrations in the growth rings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) trees growing along the shores of Lake Roosevelt in Washington State, U.S.A. where mineral processing activities have resulted in high burdens of zinc and cadmium in the lake sediments. The tree growing along the contaminated waterway display elevated concentrations of zinc in its growth rings relative to a tree growing along an uncontaminated tributary of Lake Roosevelt. Cadmium concentrations in the growth rings from both sites are similar from 1988 to 1993. Water quality data indicate an increased concentration of cadmium in the lake from 1984 to 1988. The increased concentrations of cadmium in the lake water were reflected in apparent increases in concentrations of cadmium in individual rings of the tree sampled at the contaminated site. This suggests that translocation of cadmium in the sapwood of heartwood-forming species does not occur in the short term, and thus may not be a limiting factor in using trees as environmental monitors for cadmium. In addition, five-year tree ring segments were analyzed and subsequently reanalyzed as individual single-year ring segments. The analytical data obtained for the pooled individual rings are essentially the same as for the five-year segments, demonstrating the utility of NAA for dendrochemical studies. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; El-Shershaby, A.; Walley El-Dine, N.

    1996-01-01

    Two brazing alloy samples (C P 2 and C P 3 ) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10 1 1 n/cm 2 /s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10 1 2 n/cm 2 /s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab

  14. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  15. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  16. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  17. Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, E A; Rofail, N B; Hassan, A M [Reactor and Neutron physics Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); El-Shershaby, A; Walley El-Dine, N [Physics Department, Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams Universty, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Two brazing alloy samples (C P{sup 2} and C P{sup 3}) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10{sup 1}1 n/cm{sup 2}/s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10{sup 1}2 n/cm{sup 2}/s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab.

  18. The relationship between Cho/NAA and glioma metabolism: implementation for margin delineation of cerebral gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Yao, Chengjun; Chen, Hong; Zhuang, Dongxiao; Tang, Weijun; Ren, Guang; Wang, Yin; Wu, Jinsong; Huang, Fengping; Zhou, Liangfu

    2012-08-01

    The marginal delineation of gliomas cannot be defined by conventional imaging due to their infiltrative growth pattern. Here we investigate the relationship between changes in glioma metabolism by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI) and histopathological findings in order to determine an optimal threshold value of choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) that can be used to define the extent of glioma spread. Eighteen patients with different grades of glioma were examined using (1)H-MRSI. Needle biopsies were performed under the guidance of neuronavigation prior to craniotomy. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to evaluate the accuracy of sampling. Haematoxylin and eosin, and immunohistochemical staining with IDH1, MIB-1, p53, CD34 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies were performed on all samples. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between Cho/NAA and MIB-1, p53, CD34, and the degree of tumour infiltration. The clinical threshold ratio distinguishing tumour tissue in high-grade (grades III and IV) glioma (HGG) and low-grade (grade II) glioma (LGG) was calculated. In HGG, higher Cho/NAA ratios were associated with a greater probability of higher MIB-1 counts, stronger CD34 expression, and tumour infiltration. Ratio threshold values of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 appeared to predict the specimens containing the tumour with respective probabilities of 0.38, 0.60, 0.79, 0.90 in HGG and 0.16, 0.39, 0.67, 0.87 in LGG. HGG and LGG exhibit different spectroscopic patterns. Using (1)H-MRSI to guide the extent of resection has the potential to improve the clinical outcome of glioma surgery.

  19. NAA for studying detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsibakhashvili, N.; Mosulishvili, L.; Kirkesali, E.; Murusidze, I.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.; Zinicovscaia, I.I.

    2010-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study accumulation of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) ions in Arthrobacter globiformis 151B, a gram-positive, Cr(VI)-reducer aerobic bacterium isolated from basalt sample taken from the most polluted region in the Republic of Georgia (Kazreti). Experiments were focused on (1) accumulation of Hg(II) in bacterial cells; (2) accumulation of Cr(VI) in A. globiformis 151B in the presence of Hg(II) and (3) effects of Hg(II) and mixture of Cr(VI)-Hg(II) on the elemental composition of bacteria. It was shown that this bacterial strain possesses uptake mechanisms by which mercury toxicity can be reduced in environment and that accumulation of Cr(VI) in A. globiformis 151B is much higher in the presence of Hg(II) ions. Accumulation of Hg(II), similar to the Cr(VI) accumulation, follows well the Lengmuir-Freundlich model. NAA measurements showed increased content of Fe in bacteria under Hg and Cr action, suggesting that Fe-containing biomolecules play a decisive role in detoxifying of heavy metals by A. globiformis 151B. A concentration of 5000 μg/L of Hg(II) was found to be critical for A. globiformis 151B. At this concentration of Hg(II) the concentrations of both essential (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Mn, Zn) and some non-essential elements (Rb, Sb, Sc, As) changed drastically along with a decrease of the biomass of bacteria by a factor of two. One may assume that under this high exposure to Hg(II) the structure of the bacterial cell wall was destroyed. (author)

  20. Elemental analysis of bottom ash from municipal incinerator by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2003-01-01

    Elemental analysis of bottom ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator was performed by neutron activation analysis. For this study, ash samples monthly collected from incinerator in D city were sieved with 5 mm mesh size, dried, pulverized by agate mortar and finally re-sieved with 200μ mesh size. Prepared samples were irradiated by neutrons using NAA No.1 irradiation hole in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Activated samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer according to the relevant nuclear properties of target nuclides and the concentration of 33 elements were determined from the collected ash samples. Quality control was conducted by comparative analysis with two NIST standard reference materials simultaneously. Mean values and standard deviations of hazardous elements such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sb and Zn among the determined elements were 3.8±6.9mg/kg, 620±0.12 %, 4.76±0.37 %, 0.26±0.10 %, 115±29 mg/kg and 0.71±0.19 %, respectively