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Sample records for activation analysis inaa

  1. Investigation of Kpong carbonatite as a potential source for rare earth elements (REEs) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayford, M.S.; Akiti, T.T.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Dampare, S.B. [Ghana Univ., Accra (Ghana). School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences; Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Legon-Accra (Ghana). Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to investigate REEs in carbonatite from Kpong southeastern, Ghana. Total rare earth element (TREEs) obtain were in the range of 540 mg/kg to 705 mg/kg. The total number of rare earth elements (REEs) determined by INAA in the carbonatite rocks from Kpong were 11, namely; La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu. The INAA results from the carbonatite show a high enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) deposits, marking the Kpong carbonatite as a potential REE source. (orig.)

  2. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 n.cm-2.s-1. The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  3. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  4. Studies of generalized elemental imbalances in neurological disease patients using INAA [instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence has been presented in the literature to implicate trace elements in the etiology of several age-related neurological diseases. Most of these studies are based on brain analyses. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed trace element imbalances in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Picks's disease. The most prevalent elemental imbalances found in the brain were for bromine, mercury, and the alkali metals. In this study the authors report INAA studies of trace elements in nonneural tissues from Alzheimer's disease and ALS patients. Samples from household relatives were collected for use as controls wherever possible. Hair samples were washed according to the International Atomic Energy Agency recommended procedure. Fingernail samples were scraped with a quartz knife prior to washing by the same procedure. For ALS patients, blood samples were also collected. These data indicate that elemental imbalances in Alzheimer's disease and ALS are not restricted to the brain. Many elements perturbed in the brain are also altered in the several nonneural tissues examined to date. The imbalances in different tissues, however, are not always in the same direction. The changes observed may represent causes, effects, or simply epiphenomena. Longitudinal studies of nonneural tissues and blood, as well as tissue microprobe analyses at the cellular and subcellular level, will be required in order to better assess the role of trace elements in the etiology of these diseases

  5. Chemical Composition by Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) of Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware from Iraq, Syria and Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Alice M W; Johannes H Sterba

    2013-01-01

    Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware is an 8th-7th century B.C.E. fine-ware which originated in Northern Mesopotamia and spread throughout the greater Levant. The mechanism by which Palace Ware moved across the Neo-Assyrian imperial landscape (trade or local imitation/emulation) is of great archaeological interest. This dataset provides chemical compositional data, generated using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), for Palace Ware vessels from Nimrud and Nineveh, in the Assyrian imperial co...

  6. Evaluation of trace elements in chewing tobacco and snuff using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, S. [Chemistry Div., Directorate of Science, Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Tech., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Nine samples of chewing tobacco, snuff, tobacco leaf and ash were analyzed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff studied in this work contain substantial amounts of Mg, Mn, Na, K. V. Sc, Rb and Fe. Furthermore, varying amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co and Zn were also detected in all tobacco samples. Of the toxic elements which were determined using INAA. As, Sb and Hg were quantified in only few tobacco samples. However, other toxic elements, which were determined using AAS, such as Cu, Pb and Cd were detected in almost all samples of chewing tobacco and snuff. The concentration of majority of the detected elements is high in ash samples which imply that most elements in chewing tobacco and snuff may originate from the addition of ash. (orig.)

  7. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A., E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit 71452 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassium University, Buraydah 51452 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-01-15

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U.

  8. Chemical Composition by Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA of Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware from Iraq, Syria and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M W Hunt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neo-Assyrian Palace Ware is an 8th-7th century B.C.E. fine-ware which originated in Northern Mesopotamia and spread throughout the greater Levant. The mechanism by which Palace Ware moved across the Neo-Assyrian imperial landscape (trade or local imitation/emulation is of great archaeological interest. This dataset provides chemical compositional data, generated using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA, for Palace Ware vessels from Nimrud and Nineveh, in the Assyrian imperial core (Iraq, Dūr-Katlimmu, in one of the annexed provinces (Syria, and Tell Jemmeh, located outside the Neo-Assyrian provincial system (Israel.

  9. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. PMID:21992845

  10. A preliminary study of archaeological ceramic from the Sao Paulo II, Brazil, archaeological site by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio B.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Oliveira, Paulo M.S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Eduardo G.; Tamahara, Eduardo K., E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The determination of trace elements plays an important role in the characterization of archaeological ceramics. It is well established that ceramics can be grouped based on similarities/dissimilarities derived from chemical data. Different analytical methods can be applied to determine the sample composition. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the method preferred because present several advantages in relation to the other techniques. In this work, the elements determined were As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sm, U, Yb, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, I, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta , Tb, Th and Zn to carry out a preliminary chemical characterization in 44 ceramic samples from Sao Paulo II archaeological site by INAA. The site is located in Coari city, 363 km from Manaus, Amazonas state (AM). The elementary concentration results were studied using multivariate statistical methods. The similarity/dissimilarity among the samples was studied by means of discriminant analysis. The compositions group classification was done through cluster analysis, showing the formation of the three distinct groups of the ceramics. (author)

  11. Differences in trace element concentrations between Alzheimer and 'normal' human brain tissue using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain samples obtained from the Netherlands Brain Bank were taken from the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus of 'normal' and Alzheimer's disease subjects in order to determine elemental concentrations and compare elemental composition. Brain samples from the cortex were taken from 18 subjects, eight 'normals' (6 males and 2 females) and eleven with Alzheimer's disease, (1 male and 10 females) and the following elemental concentrations, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cs, Ba, and Eu were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element which showed the greatest difference was Br, which was found to be significantly elevated in the cortex of Alzheimer's disease brains as compared to the 'normals' at significance (p < 0.001). (author)

  12. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the results of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using INAA from a thermal reactor. The behavior of minor and trace elements in sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs

  13. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g-1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  14. Test of multielement analysis of bone samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and anti-Compton spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAA and anti-Compton spectrometry has been employed in the analysis of test bone samples. Validity and accuracy of the method were checked by the use of two biological reference materials procured from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) and the International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria (IAEA). NIST 1486 Bone Meal (ca. 200-800 mg) and A-11 Milk Powder (ca. 200-600 mg) samples were irradiated in the 100 kW TRIGA Mainz reactor. Concentrations of 13 elements in both biological reference materials have been determined and were found in good agreement with the certified and provisional values. (author)

  15. Compartmentalization of trace elements in guinea pig tissues by INAA [instrumental neutron activation analysis] and AAS [atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human scalp hair analysis has received considerable attention from a variety of disciplines over the last 20 yr or so. Trace element levels of hair have been used in environmental, epidemiological, forensic, nutritional, predictive, and preventive medicine studies. There still exist confusion, skepticism, and controversy, however, among the experts as well as lay persons in the interpretation of hair trace element data. Much of the criticism stems from the lack of quantitative and reliable data on the ability of hair to accurately reflect dose-response relationships. To better define the significance or hair trace element levels (under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency), the authors have undertaken a controlled set of animal experiments in which trace element levels in hair and other tissues have been measured after a mild state of systemic intoxication by chronic, low-does exposure to cadmium and selenium. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods have been developed for the determination of several elements with a high degree of precision and accuracy

  16. Characteristic of elements in coal bottom ash and fly ash by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired power plant and industrial stacks that using coal produce solid waste such as bottom ash and fly ash. Determination of elements in these wastes qualitatively and quantitatively is usually the first step taken for subsequent evaluation of the associated environmental and biological risks. In this study, the determination of trace elements in bottom ash and fly ash by instrumental neutron activation analysis was carried out. The samples were irradiated at rabbit facility in G.A. Siwabessy reactor with neutron flux ~ 1013 n.cm-2.s-1, and then counted by HPGe spectrometer gamma detector. The validation of method was performed by characterization of standard reference material (SRM) 1633b coal fly ash from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Some elements such as Al, As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti and V were detected in both samples. The concentration of environmentally toxic elements, As and Cr in bottom ash were 6.24 and 137.4 mg/kg, whereas in fly ash were 6.37 and 39.0 mg/kg respectively. Arsenic concentrations had been over the standard value based on PP no.85/1999. (author)

  17. Determination of essential elements in commercial baby foods by INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants be breast feed exclusively at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to introduce complementary foods, in order to meet nutritional amounts, minerals and energy needs of children. Commercial food products intended for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies, so it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na and Zn levels were determined in seven different commercial food products samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The seven baby food samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After 8-hour irradiations in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the essential elements were determined and the concentrations obtained were lower than the WHO requirements. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1577{sup b} Bovine Liver were analysed. (author)

  18. Heavy metal pollution determination of Zayandehrood River by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous work, 40 elements in 71 samples from Zayandehrood River sediment analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Method. According to element variation curves along the river, all the river path has divided to four region which in each one, concentration of elements are almost constant. Enrichment factors have calculated for mean of element concentrations in each region and it has showed that Ag, As, Au, Cu, Hg, Sb, Zn have concentrated in Isfahan city region due to domestic wastes

  19. k0-INAA application at IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory by using the k0-IAEA program: biological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained in the application of the k0-standardization method at LAN-IPEN for biological matrices analysis, by using the k0-IAEA software, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are presented. The flux parameters f and a of the IEA-R1 reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and for one selected irradiation position, 24B/shelf2, for short and long irradiations, respectively. In order to obtain these parameters, the bare triple-monitor method with 197Au-96Zr-94Zr was used. In order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the methodology, the biological reference materials Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547), Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) e Tomato Leaves (NIST SRM 1573a) were analyzed. The statistical criteria Relative Errors (bias, %), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and U-score were applied to the obtained results (mean of six replicates). The relative errors (bias, %) in relation to certified values, were, for most elements, in the range of 0 e 30. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The U-score test showed that all results, except Na in Peach Leaves and in Tomato Leaves, were within 95% confidence interval. These results point out to a promising use of the k0-INAA method at LAN-IPEN for biological sample analysis. (author)

  20. Forensic investigation of brick stones using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brick stones collected from different production facilities were studied for their elemental compositions under forensic aspects using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The aim of these examinations was to assess the potential of these methods in forensic comparison analyses of brick stones. The accuracy of the analysis methods was evaluated using NIST standard reference materials (679, 98b and 97b). In order to compare the stones to each other, multivariate data analysis was used. The evaluation of the INAA results (based on the concentrations of V, Na, K, Sm, U, Sc, Fe, Co, Rb and Cs) using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis is presented as an example. The results derived from the different analytical methods are consistent. It was shown that elemental analysis using the described methods is a valuable tool for forensic examinations of brick stones.

  1. Major and trace elemental analysis in milk powder by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Major and trace element in seven different kinds of milk powder were studied. The concentration of 24 elements were determined byICP-OES method, from these elements 9 elements determined by INAA. The determination of trace element contents of foodstuffs, especiallymilk as daily drink for all peoples age which being a complex food has great importance. The elemental analysis of milk is important both as anindicator of environmental contamination and because milk is a significant pathway for toxic metal intake and a source of essential nutrients forhumans. The major elements are Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S. While trace element are B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se,Sn, Sr, V, W and Zn.ICP-OES technique is shown to be a powerful tool for trace determinations in powder samples. This is shown by its use for analysis of aseries of the milk powders mentioned and comparative results of other direct technique such as instrumental neutron activation analysis.Analysis of both standard reference material A-11 milk powder and NBS Orchard leaves for quality accurance had been completed, andused for a relative method calculate. The importance of the major and trace elements to human health was discussed.

  2. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  3. Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)

  4. Comparison between INAA and ICP-OES: analysis of Sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to provide elemental concentrations in medicinal plants and mainly to compare the two different determination methods (INAA and ICP-OES after wet digestion) elemental analysis of 14 Sudanese medicinal plants was carried out using INAA and ICP-OES techniques. The selection of reported elements was done according to intersection of elements determined by both techniques. This intersecting element list contained Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, Zn, Cu, Co, and Cr. INAA correlated well with ICP-OES measurements of the same plants as long as concentrations were sufficiently above LoQ. Correlation coefficients (R2) in this case is close to 1. Generally, INAA results tended to be higher compared to ICP-OES. The performance and possible source of errors of both techniques was discussed also with respect to measurements of certified reference materials. INAA provided the advantage of having both, faster and non destructive sample preparation than ICP-OES. Therefore, INAA may be technique of choice for Ca, K, Zn, and Mg elements specifically when samples are needed for further investigations. Regarding the low concentrations e.g for Cr, Ni or Cu, ICP-OES is the superior technique over INAA due to the sufficiently low limits of determination and thus gaining more detectable results at low concentrations. (author)

  5. Application of the INAA technique for elemental analysis of metallic biomaterials used in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cincu, Em [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Research and Development in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele, 407 Atomistilor Street, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania)], E-mail: cincue@nipne.ro; Craciun, L.; Manea-Grigore, Ioana; Cazan, I.L.; Manu, V. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Research and Development in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele, 407 Atomistilor Street, P. O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Barbos, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Mioveni, 1Campului Street, P. O. Box 78, Bucharest 115400 (Romania); Cocis, A. [Dental Surgery Clinic PANA-DANIELA, Bucharest, 6 Intrarea Buzesti Street (Romania)

    2009-12-15

    The sensitive nuclear analytical technique Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied on several types of metallic biomaterials (Heraenium CE, Ventura Nibon, Wiron 99 and Ducinox which are currently used for restoration in the dental clinics) to study its performance in elemental analysis and identify eventual limitations. The investigation has been performed by two NAA Laboratories and aimed at getting an answer to the question on how the biomaterials compositions influence the patients' health over the course of time, taking into account the EC Directive 94/27/EC recommendations concerning Ni toxicity.

  6. Application of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the applications of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient porcelain fired from early Northern Song dynasty (AD 1004-1127) to Late Yuan dynasty (AD 1320-1368) in Hutian Kiln. Minor and trace elements of 168 pieces of ancient porcelain bodies were determined by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. on the use of INAA and ICP-MS Techniques for analysis of some cosmetics samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques have been used for the analysis of compact eye shadow cosmetics samples. these techniques were chosen for their simplicity. rapidity and sensitivity for analysis of such samples. the analyzed samples were collected from the egyptian market and were of different origins either imported or locally - manufactured. About 21 trace elements have been determined in the analyzed samples. these elements are: Ag,Ba, Cd, Ce, Co,Cr, Cs,Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg,Ni,Pb,Rb, Sb,Sc,Sn, Ta,Th and Zn. The percentage relative standard deviation (%RSD) has been calculated in each case. the importance of this study is to determine trace elements which may have toxic or irritant effects since cosmetics products, similar to drugs come in contact with human skin, and to evaluate the possibility of using INAA for controlling the imitations of brand name through trace elements analysis . the results are discussed in the present paper

  8. k0-INAA of Venezuelan ceramics and complete statistical analysis to establish their provenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 46 archaeological figurines samples (ad 1300 and 1500) from Venezuelan mainland and northern island were analyzed by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) to obtain their elemental content and give a step ahead to establish the provenance of the island figurines. In total 37 elemental concentrations were measured with uncertainties between 3 and 20 %. To make the study of provenance, a complete statistical analysis was achieved; Fisher linear discriminant, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering and the Hotelling T2 test were used to this end. Furthermore, not only the 46 samples analyzed in this work by k0-INAA were used, but also 40 samples analyzed by PGNAA and reported by Sajo-Bohus et al. (JRNC 265(2):247-256, 2005) were included in the statistical analysis. It was done in order to increase the size of the data set, and then to obtain from the statistical techniques more reliable results. It was found that a very good differentiation exits between the figurines from the island and from the mainland supporting the idea that the raw materials of the figurines come from different places. (author)

  9. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - a routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the way in which at IRI instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been developed into an automated system for routine analysis. The basis of this work are 20 publications describing the development of INAA since 1968. (Auth.)

  10. Analysis of FDA in-house food reference materials with anticoincidence INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-house reference material (IRM) cocoa powder (CCP) has been in use at US Food and Drug Administration laboratories for about 15 years. A single lot of commercial material was originally characterized for 32 elements by several laboratories and five techniques. A unique approach for basis weight determination based upon ambient relative humidity was developed for CCP, eliminating the need for dry weight determinations. The CCP Reference Sheet is updated by incorporating new results approximately every 5 years. The last update occurred in 2006. As part of an effort to revalidate and update values for CCP, anticoincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine mass fractions for 16 of the originally characterized elements, as well as to provide information on 16 other elements. Results were in very good agreement with 2006 Reference Sheet values. A new candidate IRM, fresh-frozen swordfish (FFSF) powder, was produced by adding inorganic As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Se to liquid nitrogen-frozen commercial swordfish filets which were then homogenized. Portions of FFSF were analyzed by INAA to provide mass fraction and homogeneity information for As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se as well as for eight other elements occurring naturally in the material. Non-homogeneities were ≤2.5 % for As, Br, Cd, and Cs, and ≤1.8 % for Cr, Hg, Rb, Sb, and Se. Certified reference materials DORM-3 Fish Protein powder and fresh-frozen SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue were analyzed as controls. (author)

  11. Analysis of bluish-white porcelain of Fanchang kiln in Anhui province by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The minor and trace elements in the bluish-white porcelain bodies of Fanchang kiln in different dynasties were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multivariable statistical analysis of the experimental data was carried out by SPSS software. The results show that the contents of Yb, Ta, Hf and Th varied notably between early and middle North Song Dynasty. The chemical compositions of Fanchang porcelain bodies can be divided into three groups corresponding to Five Dynasties, early Northern Song and middle Northern Song. Combined with the results of major elements analysis, we think that the raw materials of Fanchang kiln varied in different periods and the using up of fine raw materials was the main reason of Fanchang kiln's decline. (authors)

  12. Factorial discriminant analysis of occupational exposure in metallurgy using INAA of hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multivariate statistical technique - factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) - has been used to evaluate the occupational exposure of a group of metallurgy workers using the elemental composition of their scalp hair, as compared with a control group. The initial variables were the concentrations of ten minor and trace elements Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Se, V, and Zn determined in hair samples by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A good discrimination between exposed and control subjects has been achieved after the normalization of the data (by log-transforming the initial variables) and considering sex-matched groups. To measure the accuracy of the classification and the predictive ability a cross-validation procedure was used. (author)

  13. Factorial discriminant analysis of occupational exposure in metallurgy using INAA of hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multivariate statistical technique - factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) - has been applied to evaluate the occupational exposure of a group of metallurgy workers using the elemental composition of their scalp hair, as compared with a control group. The initial variables were the concentrations of ten minor and trace elements determined in hair samples by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) : Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Se, V, and Zn. The elemental concentrations in the hair samples collected from 20 metallurgical workers and 59 controls showed a great variability. A wide variety of factors can account for this: sex, age, hair structure, general health, diet, socioeconomic status, occupation and environmental pollution. The concentration levels of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, V, and Zn are evidently higher in the hair of metallurgy workers, as compared with control group. Most of the variables showed log-normal distributions, except for Zn and Se, which had normal distributions. The univariate statistical analyses for these elemental concentrations have proved that the occupational exposure to metallic elements is reflected in hair composition. In this study FDA was applied to the same INAA data in order to test the possibility of developing linear classifiers that can separate the subjects exposed to metallic elements from unexposed ones, using the elemental content of their scalp hair. This would permit to evaluate the prediction ability of the classification rules obtained where unknown subjects are concerned. A good discrimination between exposed and control subjects (100 percent classification abilities) has been achieved after the normalization of the data (by log-transforming the initial variables) and considering sex-matched groups. To measure the accuracy of the classification and the predictive ability a cross-validation procedure was used. The predictive abilities obtained with our classifiers were 100 percent for exposed males and

  14. Analysis of ancient and medieval glasses by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme for instrumental neutron activation analysis of ancient and medieval glasses is proposed. The combination of three irradiations (short time, pile and epithermal) enables the determination of 34 elements. The accuracy of the method is evaluated by analyzing two glass standard reference materials. Results from the analysis of three glasses from different times are presented. (author)

  15. k{sub 0}-INAA application at IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA program: biological sample analysis; Aplicacao do metodo k{sub 0}-INAA no Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons do IPEN utilizando o programa k{sub 0}-IAEA: analise de amostras biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel Correa

    2013-07-01

    The results obtained in the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at LAN-IPEN for biological matrices analysis, by using the k{sub 0}-IAEA software, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are presented. The flux parameters f and a of the IEA-R1 reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and for one selected irradiation position, 24B/shelf2, for short and long irradiations, respectively. In order to obtain these parameters, the bare triple-monitor method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr was used. In order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the methodology, the biological reference materials Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547), Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT-MPH-2) e Tomato Leaves (NIST SRM 1573a) were analyzed. The statistical criteria Relative Errors (bias, %), Coefficient of Variation (CV) and U-score were applied to the obtained results (mean of six replicates). The relative errors (bias, %) in relation to certified values, were, for most elements, in the range of 0 e 30. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The U-score test showed that all results, except Na in Peach Leaves and in Tomato Leaves, were within 95% confidence interval. These results point out to a promising use of the k{sub 0}-INAA method at LAN-IPEN for biological sample analysis. (author)

  16. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  17. Correlation analysis of inorganic elements in biological tissue if DMDmdx/J mice using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S concentrations in bone and other organs samples from DMDmdx/J dystrophic mice as well as C57BL/6J control group mice. The DMDmdx/J mouse strain is relevant as an experimental model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), which is the most severe and prevalent type of muscular dystrophy. Muscle weakness, premature death and instability of the membrane that involves the muscle fibers - causing functional/structural abnormalities and cell death - are main characteristics of this genetic disease. To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in bones (tibiae) and organs (quadriceps and heart), correlations matrixes were generated for both strains permitting a comparison between these groups. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. The results emphasize physiologic differences for Na, Ca and Mg and suggest that Br and S results are altered, emphasizing a constant monitoring needs. Other than that, these results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  18. Analysis of sedimentary rocks from the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary: INAA and RNAA of platinum group elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a geophysical and paleontological project aimed at a detailed and precise correlation of the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary interval in the Tethyan and Boreal region, detailed magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic profiles with a well-defined J/K boundary were selected from several sites for a detailed geochemical characterization. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was employed in the characterization of a vertical profile around the assumed J/K boundary in the Boreal Realm situated on the Nordvik peninsula, North of Middle Siberia, Russia, for which a platinum group element (PGE) anomaly has been reported in literature. Multimode INAA included short-time and long-time modes of irradiation either with reactor-pile neutrons or with epithermal/fast neutrons (ENAA) under a Cd shielding. The analyses encompassed about 40 major and trace elements. A radiochemical separation procedure for PGE determination consisting in sample decomposition by alkaline-oxidative fusion, reduction of PGE, and precipitation of their sulfides was tested. Despite difficulties, elevated levels of Pt and Ir were determined in selected samples at ppb and sub-ppb levels, respectively

  19. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  20. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  1. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  2. Correlation analysis of inorganic elements in biological tissue if DMD{sup mdx}/J mice using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F., E-mail: metairon@usp.b, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b, E-mail: mfsuzuki@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno Junior, Carlos R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Centro de Estudos do Genoma Humano; Sant' Anna, Osvaldo A., E-mail: gbrazil@usp.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na and S concentrations in bone and other organs samples from DMD{sup mdx}/J dystrophic mice as well as C57BL/6J control group mice. The DMD{sup mdx}/J mouse strain is relevant as an experimental model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), which is the most severe and prevalent type of muscular dystrophy. Muscle weakness, premature death and instability of the membrane that involves the muscle fibers - causing functional/structural abnormalities and cell death - are main characteristics of this genetic disease. To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in bones (tibiae) and organs (quadriceps and heart), correlations matrixes were generated for both strains permitting a comparison between these groups. A significant change was observed in the analysis of the heart of dystrophic mice suggesting that this dysfunction affects severely the heart muscle. The results emphasize physiologic differences for Na, Ca and Mg and suggest that Br and S results are altered, emphasizing a constant monitoring needs. Other than that, these results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  3. Analysis of trace-elemental geochemical characteristics of glassy meteorites from Hainan island by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of more than 20 elements in the glassy meteorites from Hainan Island of China have been measured by INAA. Precision and accuracy of the INAA method have been evaluated by using USGS and Chinese standard reference materials (GSR), indicating that relative standard deviations for most element are less than 5%. A comparative study on the REE patterns and other trace elements shows that the geochemical characteristics of the glassy meteorites from Hainan Island are close to those of the Chinese continental sediment and the North America shale, implying that their parent rock is younger sediment

  4. Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis for certification of stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Instrumental Neuron Activation Analysis (INAA) may contribute to improve the certification of the materials, especially in the case of minor and trace elements. In presented paper the INAA method of analysis of stainless steel materials has been elaborated. The obtained results were compared with those of common analytical techniques. The presented results show the usefulness of the INAA method for the certification of CRMs for the iron and steel industry

  5. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Lestiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem. The objectives of this study are to apply the nuclear analytical techniques to airborne particulate samples collected in Bandung, to assess the accuracy and to ensure the reliable of analytical results through the comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA and particles induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Particle samples in the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 ranges have been collected in Bandung twice a week for 24 hours using a Gent stacked filter unit. The result showed that generally there was a systematic difference between INAA and PIXE results, which the values obtained by PIXE were lower than values determined by INAA. INAA is generally more sensitive and reliable than PIXE for Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Fe, Br and I, therefore INAA data are preffered, while PIXE usually gives better precision than INAA for Mg, K, Ca, Ti and Zn. Nevertheless, both techniques provide reliable results and complement to each other. INAA is still a prospective method, while PIXE with the special capabilities is a promising tool that could contribute and complement the lack of NAA in determination of lead, sulphur and silicon. The combination of INAA and PIXE can advantageously be used in air pollution studies to extend the number of important elements measured as key elements in source apportionment.

  6. Application of the k{sub 0}-INAA method for analysis of biological samples at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta, Daniel C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato, E-mail: dcpuerta@hotmail.com, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jacimovic, Radojko, E-mail: radojko.jacimovic@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Ljubljana, LJU (Slovenia). Department of Environmental Sciences

    2013-07-01

    As part of the process of implementation of the k{sub 0}-INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in biological samples by k{sub 0}-INAA using the program k{sub 0}-IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Ba, Br, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr and V were determined with respect to gold ({sup 197}Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the 'bare triple-monitor' method with {sup 197}Au-{sup 96}Zr-{sup 94}Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au alloy and high purity zirconium comparators were used. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors (bias, %) less than 30% for most elements. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The E{sub n}-number showed that all results, except Na in NIST SRM 1547 and NIST SRM 1573a and Al in INCT-MPH-2, were within 95% confidence interval. (author)

  7. Quality control of INAA-k0 and ICP-MS as bio-monitoring analysis techniques - Application to Moroccan atmospheric pollution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many studies have been conducted to study atmospheric pollution using different techniques to determine the quality and quantity of pollutant elements. Those techniques differ in their capability of analysing as large spectrum of elements as possible, their sensibility to the presence of trace elements and their accuracy. In this study the interest turns on the INAA-k0 and ICP-MS techniques due to their adequate characteristics to analyse accurately a wide number of elements interesting the bio monitoring. To check the measurement reliability and accuracy of those two techniques, we have analysed samples of reference materials and compared analysis results of divers elements in lichens, mosses and tree barks. The results given by reference materials analysis and bio-monitor comparisons let us conclude that INAA-k0 and ICP-MS are very suitable for the bio-monitoring task, complementary and they can be substituted for analysis of the majority of elements. (author)

  8. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ''fine sgraffito'' and ''Zeuxippus ware'' types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ''Zeuxippus ware'' has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends

  9. Multielement analysis of human hair and kidney stones by INAA with κ sub 0 - standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    κ sub 0 - standardization method of instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the multielement analysis of human hair standard reference materials from IAEA, No. 085, No. 086 and No. 5. Also, hair samples from different parts of Malaysia and in addition to a sample from Japan were analysed. Human kidney stones were analysed for minor and trace elements. In all samples, more than 25 elements were determined. The samples were irradiated in the (Lazy Susan) at Triga Mark 11 reactor of MINT. The accuracy of the method was ascertained by analysis of other reference materials, to name a few, 1573 Tomato Leaves and 1572 Citrus Leaves. In this method the deviation of the I/E epithermal neutron flux distribution from I/E I a, (Pfr - ratio) for true coincidence effects of the y-ray cascade and the HPGE detector efficiency were determined and corrected for

  10. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez C, R. Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Antropologia, Apdo. Postal 555 Suc. C, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas C, M. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Av. Industrias 101-A, Fracc. Talleres, 78494 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, 20746 Maryland (United States); Glascock, M. D. [Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211 Missouri (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  11. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  12. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: robsonpetroni@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  13. Elemental determinations in NBS 1633A Fly Ash Standard Reference material using INAA PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J.R.; Schlegel, S.C. (Missouri Univ., Columbia (USA). Research Reactor Facility)

    1985-02-01

    INAA was used for the determination of 23 elements, and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the determination of 10 elements in U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1633A Fly Ash Standard Reference Material. The results are in excellent agreement with the limited number of NBS certified values available.

  14. The Byzantine ceramics from Pergamon excavations. Characterization of local and imported productions by elementary analysis using PIXE and INAA methods and by petrography; Les ceramiques byzantines des fouilles de Pergame. Caracterisation des productions locales et importees par analyse elementaire par les methodes PIXE et INAA et par petrographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksman, S.Y.

    1995-01-12

    An important ceramics material dated back to the 12th-14th centuries has been excavated in Pergamon (Turkey). Among these findings, wasters, tripod stilts and unfinished ware attest to local production in the Byzantine period. Elemental analysis by the methods PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and INAA (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis) has been performed on a representative sampling of 160 sherds, including attested local material. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to classify the sherds into groups of similar composition and thus to distinguish ceramics made in Pergamon from imported wares. Several groups of local production have been constituted, which correspond to wares differing in date and fabric. The geochemical characterization of the pastes, complemented with petrographical and mineralogical data, shows that specific raw materials have been used to manufacture each ware. The analytical data related to ceramics made in Pergamon will serve as reference data for future provenance studies. Such reference groups of Byzantine ceramics are very rare, and therefore the ceramics imported into Pergamon cannot be attributed as to their origin. Among the ceramics widely diffused in the Byzantine world, some importations belonging to the ``fine sgraffito`` and ``Zeuxippus ware`` types have been identified. The latter type has been a source of stylistic influence for the workshops of Pergamon, since the analyses show that imitated ``Zeuxippus ware`` has been produced there. These imitations were probably themselves diffused on a regional scale. (author). 238 refs., 48 figs., 53 tabs., 22 photos., 8 appends.

  15. Trace element characterization of medieval and post-medieval glass objects by means of INAA and EPMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to create a database for minor and trace elements in medieval and post-medieval glassware in order to establish a methodology for estimating the origin of the glass objects. First, general characterization of glass types was done on the basis of the results obtained by the use of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Information received by the use of INAA provided the additional valuable data reflecting to some extent the method of preparation or the differentiation of various sources of certain raw materials. Several glass samples and a set of various reference glass materials were used for our experiments. (author)

  16. Neutron activation analysis with k{sub 0}-standardisation : general formalism and procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomme, S.; Hardeman, F. [Centre de l`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Robouch, P.; Etxebarria, N.; Arana, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k{sub 0}-standardisation is a powerful tool for multi-element analysis at a broad range of trace element concentrations. An overview is given of the basic principles, fundamental equations, and general procedure of this method. Different aspects of the description of the neutron activation reaction rate are discussed, applying the Hogdahl convention. A general activation-decay formula is derived and its application to INAA is demonstrated. Relevant k{sub 0}-definitions for different activation decay schemes are summarised and upgraded to cases of extremely high fluxes. The main standardisation techniques for INAA are discussed, emphasizing the k{sub 0}-standardisation. Some general aspects of the basic equipment and its calibration are discussed, such as the characterisation of the neutron field and the tuning of the spectrometry part. A method for the prediction and optimisation of the analytical performance of INAA is presented.

  17. Determination of aluminium contents in selected food samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food and food products are the main sources of Aluminium entering the human body. In order to know aluminium contents in food and food products, selected 26 samples from local market were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. INAA using 1,779 keV γ-ray of 28Al (2.24 min) was used for aluminium concentrations in the range of 33-529 mg kg-1. Two NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and two IAEA reference materials (RMs) were analyzed by INAA for quantification of aluminium as a part of method validation. (author)

  18. Characterization of edible clay (multani mitti) using INAA (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multani Mitti is basically clay commonly used in cosmetics, medicines. It is also used for cleansing of body and hair and eating specially women (pregnant and lactating) and children. 16 Essential major, minor and trace elements (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se Sr, Ti, V and Zn) have been determined in Multani Mitti (MM) clay using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique were studied in collected clay samples from Rakhi Gaj located 40 Km from D. G. Khan, Pakistan. These samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to detect the elemental hazard assessment. Radioassay schemes for three sets of elements after neutron irradiation and cooling were evolved to avoid matrix effects. The composition of MM clay shows major elements in descending order as Fe > K > Mg > Na > Mn > Zn > V > Rb > Cr >Ba followed by minor elements as Sr >Co > Cs with trace levels of Se. Data have been compared with clays available in literature globally. Intakes of essential elements were calculated for pregnant, lactating women and children. Intakes were found comparable to WHO levels except Fe and Cr. Risk assessment was measured using mathematical model. The quality assurance of data was performed using Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) of a similar matrix (IAEA Lake sediment SL-1 and IAEA Soil S-7). (author)

  19. INAA of polyacrylic hydrogels of pharmaceutical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylic acid (PA) and its salts are promising biomaterials used in the pharmaceutical industry. They could be used as pharmaceutical additives, as a burn dressing and also in the slow released implants or trans-derma patch formulations. Polyacrylic acid of pharmaceutical grade can be obtained by gamma irradiation polymerization. The influence of the raw materials and of the technological procedure on the final product purity has been investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method. The following materials have been analyzed by INAA: 1) acrylic acid of technical grade; 2) acrylic acid purified by double crystallisation; 3) NaOH of analytical grade; 4) CaCl-2·6H2O of pharmaceutical grade; 5) CaCl2·2H2O of analytical grade; 6) granulated PANa; 7) ungranulated PANa; 8) ungranulated PANaCa; 9) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 1; 10) PANaCa granulated by milling in Institute of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ICPR); 11) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 2. The first five samples, marked from 1 to 5, are raw materials and the other six samples, marked from 6 to 11, are the final polyacrylic structures processed by various technological procedures. The samples together with the appropriate reference materials have been irradiated at WWR-S reactor in a neutron flux of 2.5·1012 cm-2s-1 and the induced radioactivity was registered by a HPGe detector (EG/G ORTEC) of 30% efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution. The concentrations of As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, Zn have been determined. For the final polyacrylic structures, except for granulated PANa (sample 6), only the elements Co, Cr, Fe, Sc, Zn were found at the following concentration levels: tens of ppm (Co), ppm (Zn), hundreds of ppb (Cr), tens of ppb (Co), ppb (Co, Sc), 10-1 ppb (Sc). In the granulated PANa, in comparison with the other analyzed final products, similar concentration values were found for Fe, Sc and Zn, higher values

  20. INAA of enamel and dentine samples of a group of children and adults. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn in dentine and enamel tissues from human permanent and deciduous teeth. Comparisons were made between the results obtained in these different dental tissues as well as those obtained in permanent and deciduous teeth. The findings obtained were also compared with the published data. The accuracy and the precision of the results were evaluated by analyzing certified reference material. (author)

  1. Classification of archaeologically stratified pumice by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the research program 'Synchronization of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millenium B.C.' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. The widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region were used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. A remarkable quantity of pumice and pumiceous tephra (several km3) was produced by the 'Minoan eruption' of Thera (Santorini), which is assumed to have happened between 1450 and 1650 B.C. Thus the discovery of the primary fallout of 'Minoan' tephra in archaeologically stratified locations can be used as a relative time mark. Additionally, pumice lumps used as abrasive can serve for dating by first appearance. Essential to an identification of the primary volcanic source is the knowledge that pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns, as previous work has shown. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. (author)

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of human hair and related radiotracer experiments on washing and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work done under the IAEA-contract 2440/RB is summarized. The aim was to develop a fast and reliable system for the determination of tracer elements in human head hair by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiotracer washing experiments. The standardized procedure for INAA was applied to hair samples collected by the Coronel Laboratory of the University of Amsterdam. The correlation between trace element contents is considered

  3. INAA characterization of colonial pottery from old havana collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1990, the Archaeology in Cuba has relied on a very limited analytic capacity, mainly for lacking in resources and of technical basis. The works performed to study ceramic artifacts related with different archaeological contexts have been carried out basically by their morphology, style features, techniques of elaboration, texture or other properties. The aim of the Research Project CUB9397/RB consisted on the application of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as the more frequently used analytic technique for the study of chemical composition in ceramic objects during the last years, in some of the Archaeological researches that are presently in course in Cuba. Some of the commonly found colonial pottery types were analyzed by INAA in order to establish compositional models. Two major types of ceramic ware conformed the main research interests during the first stage of the research on Colonial pottery: the first, samples classified as belonging to several Majolica styles of Spanish and Mexican provenance; and the second type included samples of ordinary pottery that indicated an the presence in Havana of a starting local manufacture trying to follow Spanish traditions

  4. Use of INAA, AAS and XRF in studying health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current economic situation in Russia results in that vegetables and plants grown in private small-holdings account for over 50% of the population's diet. In some regions of Russia (Ural, Altai) mining and metallurgical works remain the sole economic factor of existence and development despite the obvious damage to the environment through contamination with heavy and toxic metals. Crop rotation is actively being extended to the land immediately bordering on the zones of industrial enterprises within the range of 1-5 km. This land has been affected by waste discharged from the enterprises for many years. The cultivated soil may contain high gross concentrations of toxic elements. Problems of contamination of natural media with toxic metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc) has not been systematized in Russia on the state level so far. The monitoring strategy for Belovo lead-zinc enterprise in Kemerovo Region of West Siberia, Gus Khrustalny in Vladimir Region, and Voskresensk in Moscow Region of Central Russia is discussed as well as analytical methods to be used (INAA, AAS and XRF). Examples from the previous experience of the authors are given. (author)

  5. Comparison between two INAA methods applied to chemical characterization of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods were applied to characterize chemically 74 ceramic roof tile samples, found in the town of Pella, Greece and dated back to the Hellenistic Period (3rd century B.C.). The samples were first analyzed for 17 elements with a 4 hour irradiation and two counts and then re-analyzed for 9 elements with a 1 minute irradiation and two counts of short-lived radioisotopes. The results of both methods were very similar, showing the validity of the rapid INAA method (1 min irradiation) in the study of ancient ceramics. All samples were divided into 4 chemical groups, each one representing a different tiling. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. k{sub 0}-INAA for determining chemical elements in bird feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@usp.b [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Antunes, Alexsander Z. [IF, Instituto Florestal do Estado de Sao Paulo, Rua do Horto 931, Horto Florestal 02377-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bardini Junior, Claudiney; Bacchi, Marcio A.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-11

    The k{sub 0}-method instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) was employed for determining chemical elements in bird feathers. A collection was obtained taking into account several bird species from wet ecosystems in diverse regions of Brazil. For comparison reason, feathers were actively sampled in a riparian forest from the Marins Stream, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, using mist nets specific for capturing birds. Biological certified reference materials were used for assessing the quality of analytical procedure. Quantification of chemical elements was performed using the k{sub 0}-INAA Quantu Software. Sixteen chemical elements, including macro and micronutrients, and trace elements, have been quantified in feathers, in which analytical uncertainties varied from 2% to 40% depending on the chemical element mass fraction. Results indicated high mass fractions of Br (max=7.9 mg kg{sup -1}), Co (max=0.47 mg kg{sup -1}), Cr (max=68 mg kg{sup -1}), Hg (max=2.79 mg kg{sup -1}), Sb (max=0.20 mg kg{sup -1}), Se (max=1.3 mg kg{sup -1}) and Zn (max=192 mg kg{sup -1}) in bird feathers, probably associated with the degree of pollution of the areas evaluated. In order to corroborate the use of k{sub 0}-INAA results in biomonitoring studies using avian community, different factor analysis methods were used to check chemical element source apportionment and locality clustering based on feather chemical composition.

  7. The study of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (902-979) to Ming dynasty (1368-1644) by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor and trace elements of 398 pieces of ancient porcelain of Hutian kiln site from Five dynasty (AD 902-979) to Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644) were determined by instrumental neutron activate analysis (INAA). The data of INAA and PCA show the ages of all the porcelain can be divided into Five dynasty, Northern Song dynasty, Southern Song dynasty, Early Yuan dynasty, Later Yuan dynasty and Ming dynasty according to their chemical compositions. Moreover, some archaeological questions about the ancient porcelain are discussion also. (author)

  8. INAA of archaeological reference sample ancint ceramic KPS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical pottery sample has been prepared by mixing unearthed potshards from Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties in certain proportion. The potshards sample are cleaned, dried, ground and sieved, and 200 mesh powder is selected. The powdered sample is dried again before being sealed in polyethylene bottles. The sample is analysed for 24 elements (Sm, Ce, Lu, Yb, Nd, La, Tb, Eu, U, Th, Hf, As, Cs, Sb, Sc, Rb, Cr, Zn, Ta, Co, Ba, Fe, Na and K) by instrumentation neutron activation analysis (INAA) and K0 method. As a control for accuracy, standard reference materials SRM 1632a, BCR-1, GXR-4 and JG-1 are analysed. The agreement between our results and literature values is satisfactory

  9. Speciation of titanium in solvent refined coal using SESC - INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preasphaltenes (Pa) separated from solvent refined coal (SRC-I) were fractionated by sequential elution solvent chromatography (SESC) on silica column into 10 fractions. Titanium was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and was found to be concentrated in fractions 7-10. The preasphaltenes form stable complexes with bis (cyclopentadienyl) titanium(IV) dichloride (BTD), cyclopentadienyl titanium(IV) trichloride (CTT) and titanium(IV) oxide bis (acetylacetone) (TOBA). Preasphaltene titanium complexes (Pa-BTD, Pa-CTT, and Pa-TOBA) were fractionated using the SESC scheme, and the concentration of titanium in each fraction was determined. The mechanism for the reaction between titanium complexes (BTD, CTT or TOBA) and Pa was studied, and the existence of titanium phenoxide type complexes in SRC-I was proposed

  10. Classification of majolica pottery from colonial Havana on the basis of INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragments of pottery from the collections of Havana museums, corresponding to the Spanish colonial period (1600-1900 A.D.), were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Analysis of the results for the concentrations of 18 chemical elements was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the data space size. Application of the Davis discriminant analysis procedure helped to define the chemical paste compositional reference units. For the final results, typological characterization of the colonial majolica pottery was complemented and enhanced. (author)

  11. INAA and DNAA for uranium determination in geological samples from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit Branch, 71542 Assuit (Egypt)], E-mail: Atef_Eltaher@hotmail.com

    2010-06-15

    Uranium isotopes found in soil, rock, water, plants, air, etc., contribute to the natural radiation exposure of the population. U concentrations in some Egyptian environmental samples like Toshki soil, Aswan iron-ore, and phosphate samples from El-Sibayia in the Nile Valley and El-Quseir in the Red Sea coast were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) in the Mainz TRIGA research reactor. The results showed that the phosphate rocks are rich natural sources of uranium among the other minerals forming the earth crust.

  12. INAA and DNAA for uranium determination in geological samples from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2010-06-01

    Uranium isotopes found in soil, rock, water, plants, air, etc., contribute to the natural radiation exposure of the population. U concentrations in some Egyptian environmental samples like Toshki soil, Aswan iron-ore, and phosphate samples from El-Sibayia in the Nile Valley and El-Quseir in the Red Sea coast were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) in the Mainz TRIGA research reactor. The results showed that the phosphate rocks are rich natural sources of uranium among the other minerals forming the earth crust. PMID:20185320

  13. Analysis of inorganic elements in biological samples of C57BL/6J mouse strain using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research for new medicine, vaccines and other products of interest in health area, for any disease, requires several in vivo tests using animal models on experiments for clinical analysis of actions in organism, focusing on the relation between these and the responses or reactions to their use, allowing or not their use in human being. The present investigation deals with the determination of elements concentration (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na) of clinical relevance in kidney and liver of C57BL/6J mice strain using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Particularly, the C57BL/6J strain is one of the most widely used mice genetically modified for human disease studies. The biological samples were collected from 2 month old adult mice bred in the Biotherium (animal breeding) of UNIFESP (Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and at Human Genome Research Center (University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and Biotechnology Center (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brasil). The measurements were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN. These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time, by knowing the basal reference values in blood and organs of this strain. Additionally, this analytical procedure meets the needs of the world tendency that emphasizes the requirements to propose alternative methods for clinical research that contribute to animal welfare. (author)

  14. Analysis of inorganic elements in biological samples of C57BL/6J mouse strain using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Suzuki, Miriam F.; Kovacs, Luciana, E-mail: metairon@usp.br, E-mail: czamboni@ipen.br, E-mail: mfsuzuki@ipen.br, E-mail: lukovacs@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno Junior, Carlos R., E-mail: carmao11@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IB/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Centro de Estudos do Genoma Humano

    2013-07-01

    The research for new medicine, vaccines and other products of interest in health area, for any disease, requires several in vivo tests using animal models on experiments for clinical analysis of actions in organism, focusing on the relation between these and the responses or reactions to their use, allowing or not their use in human being. The present investigation deals with the determination of elements concentration (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na) of clinical relevance in kidney and liver of C57BL/6J mice strain using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Particularly, the C57BL/6J strain is one of the most widely used mice genetically modified for human disease studies. The biological samples were collected from 2 month old adult mice bred in the Biotherium (animal breeding) of UNIFESP (Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and at Human Genome Research Center (University of Sao Paulo, Brasil) and Biotechnology Center (IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brasil). The measurements were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN. These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time, by knowing the basal reference values in blood and organs of this strain. Additionally, this analytical procedure meets the needs of the world tendency that emphasizes the requirements to propose alternative methods for clinical research that contribute to animal welfare. (author)

  15. Trace elements analysis of crops and vegetables grown around industrial areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala cities using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial effluents pollution is a source of risk to the health of people living in industrial cities of Pakistan. Most of the untreated effluents are discharged to the nearby agricultural fields that pollutes the vegetation grown in such soil. A majority of the industries are not equipped with suitable recycling and effluent treatment plants. Consequently, toxic metals enter our food chain and results in significant health risks and serious diseases. In order to evaluate the concentration of toxic metals (namely As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se), in crops and vegetable samples collected from the irrigated areas of Faisalabad and Gujranwala regions. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) techniques have been used. All the observed metal concentrations were higher than the reported literature values. Moreover, the highest values of toxic metals of As (0.44 +- .03 mu g/g) and Co (0.5 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Mn (45.3 +- 2.0 mu g/g) and Sb (0.1 +- 0.01 mu g/g), Se (1.28 +- 0.06 mug/g) and Pb (3.84 +- 0.27 mu g/g) were found in tomato, bitter gourd and rice samples respectively. (author)

  16. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements around Ulan Bator city studied by moss and lichen biomonitoring technique and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (Rhytidium rugosum, Thuidium abietinum, Entodon concinnus) and lichens (Cladonia stellaris, Parmelia separata) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries

  17. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  18. Nutritional and environmental properties of algal products used in healthy diet by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirulina platensis alga sampled in the Caribbean Sea and seven other commercial algal products available on the Italian market of different origin and aspect, have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). By neutron irradiation and γ-ray spectrometry (INAA), as many as 20 elements could be measured instrumentally without any chemical treatment. Cu, Mg, Mn and Pb were determined after dissolution of the sample by ICP-AES. The cross-checking of the data, specifically by comparing those of Ca, Cr, Fe and Zn, obtained by the two techniques was found to be in good agreement. Special attention from analytical and nutritional point of view has been devoted to the toxic metals. The measurements have been carried out employing the reference algal material prepared by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of carbonatites from Panda Hill and Oldoinyo-Lengai, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty nine (major and trace) elements including nine rare earth elements (REE) in African carbonatite samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The geochemical behavior of trace elements in carbonatites, especially REE pattern (chondrite normalized), and the efficiency of neutron activation analysis compared to other methods are discussed in this study. (author)

  20. Analytical quality in environmental studies: uncertainty evaluation of chemical concentrations determined by INAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Joacir de França

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA is a measurement technique of high metrological level for the determination of chemical elements. In the context of BIOTA/FAPESP Program, leaves of trees have been evaluated by INAA for biomonitoring purposes of the Atlantic Forest. To assure the comparability of results in environmental studies, a leaf sample of Marlierea tomentosa (Myrtaceae family showing the lowest concentrations of chemical elements was selected for the evaluation of analytical quality of the determination under unfavorable conditions. Nevertheless, the homogeneity of chemical concentrations of sample at the 95% of confidence level has been achieved and INAA has presented repeatability of 2% for the determination of Br, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Sr, the uncertainty could have been overestimated. For the evaluation of uncertainty due to the variability of chemical concentrations in the sample, Jackknife and Bootstrap methods were used to estimate the maximum expected percent standard deviation. The uncertainty budget was considered adequate for the reporting chemical concentrations of environmental samples determined by INAA.A análise por ativação neutrônica instrumental (INAA é uma técnica analítica de alto nível metrológico para a determinação de elementos químicos. No contexto do programa BIOTA/FAPESP, folhas de árvores vêm sendo avaliadas empregando-se INAA para a biomonitoração da Mata Atlântica. Para garantir a comparabilidade dos resultados em estudos ambientais, amostra de folhas de Marlierea tomentosa, cujas concentrações de elementos químicos obtidas foram as menores, foi selecionada para a avaliação da qualidade analítica na mais desfavorável situação. Esta avaliação levou em consideração a homogeneidade das concentrações de elementos e a estimativa da repetitividade analítica. Embora a homogeneidade das concentrações tenha sido detectada em nível de 95% de confiança e a INAA tenha

  1. Large sample neutron activation analysis of a ceramic vase

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatelatos, I.E.; Tzika, F.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) was applied to perform non-destructive elemental analysis of a ceramic vase. Appropriate neutron self-shielding and gamma ray detection efficiency calibration factors were derived using Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The results of LSNAA were compared against Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) results and a satisfactory agreement between the two methods was observed. The ratio of derived concentrations between the two methods was within 0...

  2. Discriminative study of white porcelains by INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine white porcelains of Xing Kiln, Ding Kiln and Jingxing Kiln are very similar or alike in many aspects, such as typology of the vessel, texture of the body, colors of the body and the glaze. It is difficult for the archaeologists to distinguish the provenance using traditional methods. Nuclear analytical techniques (INAA, PIXE, XRF, SRXRF) have been widely employed for the provenance study of cultural relics in recent years due to their unique advantage, i.e. capable of nondestructive analysis. The element contents in the body and glaze of white porcelain shards with known provenance were determined by INAA and PIXE. In the meanwhile blind samples were prepared and analyzed in the same way. The differences of the element abundance patterns were processed by multivariate statistical analysis. On the basis of the analytical data and the statistical results, the discriminating criteria for provenance identification are obtained and verified by the blind samples.

  3. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis to study the elemental distribution in Turangi Swamp, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat and sediment samples were collected in Turangi Swamp, North Island, New Zealand, and analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Variations in elemental distribution are used to distinguish between a short-term anthropogenic influence and a long-term natural impact. Discharge of sewage effluent has resulted in elevated zinc concentrations in the surface sediment near the point of effluent inflow into the wetland. Increased arsenic, bromine and antimony concentrations are attributed to seepage of groundwater originating in the nearby Tokaanu-Waihi geothermal field, and are found in particular on the western side of the wetland. Due to its sensitivity, INAA was useful to determine the subtle changes in Br and Sb concentrations, which could not be detected by XRF. Analysis of the ashed residue by INAA shows that As and Zn are mostly associated with the inorganic fraction, whereas Br has a strong organic affinity. (authors)

  4. Top-down instead of bottom-up estimates of uncertainty in INAA results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial publication of the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and many related documents has resulted in a worldwide awareness of the importance of a realistic estimate of the value reported after the +/- sign. The evaluation of uncertainty in measurement, as introduced by the GUM, is derived from the principles applied in physical measurements. Many testing laboratories have already experienced large problems in applying these principles in e.g. (bio)chemical measurements, resulting in time-consuming evaluations and costly additional experiments. Other, more pragmatic and less costly approaches have been proposed to obtain a realistic estimate of the range in which the true value of the measurement may be found with a certain degree of probability. One of these approaches, the 'top-down method', is based on the standard deviation in the results of intercomparison data. This approach is much easier for tests for which it is either difficult to establish a full measurement equation, or if e.g. matrix-matching reference materials are absent. It has been demonstrated that the GUM 'bottom-up' approach of evaluating uncertainty in measurement can easily be applied in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as all significant sources of uncertainty can be evaluated. INAA is therefore a valuable technique to test the validity of the top-down approach. In this contribution, examples of the top-down evaluation of uncertainty in INAA derived from participation in intercomparison rounds and proficiency testing schemes will be presented. The results will be compared with the bottom-up evaluation of uncertainty, and ease of applicability, validity and usefullness of both approaches will be discussed.

  5. Classification of medieval ceramics in the Rhineland and neighbouring areas by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is known to be well suited for provenance determinations of ceramics, since more than 25 minor and trace elements can be measured with precisions high enough to discriminate between different pottery production workshops. INAA-data are presented for more than 1500 shards, mostly wasters, produced in different places such as Brueggen/Elmpt, Brunssum/Schinveld, Frechen/Cologne, Hoehr-Grenzhausen, Mayen, Paffrath, Pingsdorf/Bruehl, Raeren and Siegburg, to name only the most important earthen and stoneware production centres of the Rhine area in medieval and post medieval times. It turned out, that the wares of these different centres, although by archeological criteria often very similar, can be clearly recognized by INAA. This large reference databank can now be used to determine export pieces from these centres and to trace trade relations in the Middle Ages. An examples of a provenance determination of questionable finds of Pingsdorf and Paffrath Ware from Emden is given. (author)

  6. The accuracy of instrumental neutron activation analysis of kilogram-size inhomogeneous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, M; Lakmaker, O; van Aller, P

    1997-07-01

    The feasibility of quantitative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of samples in the kilogram range without internal standardization has been demonstrated by Overwater et al. (Anal. Chem. 1996, 68, 341). In their studies, however, they demonstrated only the agreement between the "corrected" γ ray spectrum of homogeneous large samples and that of small samples of the same material. In this paper, the k(0) calibration of the IRI facilities for large samples is described, and, this time in terms of (trace) element concentrations, some of Overwater's results for homogeneous materials are presented again, as well as results obtained from inhomogeneous materials and subsamples thereof. It is concluded that large-sample INAA can be as accurate as ordinary INAA, even when applied to inhomogeneous materials.

  7. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  8. INAA of human scalp hair for environmental monitoring of Indonesian and Canadian population group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For monitoring and comparison of environmental condition of Indonesian and Canadian population groups, human scalp hair has been selected for use to assess the levels of various trace elements in each group. The samples studied included: 50 samples from an Indonesian population group residing near industrial and oil refinery sites and an unpolluted rural area, 50 samples from a Canadian group in a remote area near a metal smelter as well as 50 samples of a control group, plus 30 samples of Indonesians residing in an urban area of Canada for more than one year. By means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), eight trace elements which are considered to be environmentally-important, namely Al, As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Sb, Sc, Zn, as well as three other trace elements, namely K, La, and W, were also of interest. Accuracy of these INAA hair analysis was checked by reference to SRM-1571, NIES-5, and a Chinese hair standard (agreement was generally from 5-15%). Of these elements, As, Cr, Mn, and Sc were found to be higher in the Canadian industrial groups, whereas Al and Zn were found to be higher in the Indonesian oil refinery group. Hg found to be higher in the industrial groups of both Canadian and Indonesian population. The concentration of all these elements in the hair of Indonesians residing in Canada were comparable to the Indonesian rural group. Other elements in both the Canadian and Indonesian groups were comparable

  9. Characterizing suspended sediments from the Piracicaba River Basin by means of k{sub 0}-INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J., E-mail: ejfranca@usp.b [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, PO Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, E.A.N.; Cavalca, I.P.O; Fonseca, F.Y.; Camilli, L.; Rodrigues, V.S.; Bardini Junior, C. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, PO Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, J.R. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, PO Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesca, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento (SAA), Avenida Francisco Matarazzo 455, 05031-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bacchi, M.A. [CENA/USP, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade of Sao Paulo, PO Box 97, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-11

    The inorganic chemical characterization of suspended sediments is of utmost relevance for the knowledge of the dynamics and movement of chemical elements in the aquatic and wet ecosystems. Despite the complexity of the effective design for studying this ecological compartment, this work has tested a procedure for analyzing suspended sediments by instrumental neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0} method (k{sub 0}-INAA). The chemical elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb and Zn were quantified in the suspended sediment compartment by means of k{sub 0}-INAA. When compared with World Average for rivers, high mass fractions of Fe (222,900 mg/kg), Ba (4990 mg/kg), Zn (1350 mg/kg), Cr (646 mg/kg), Co (74.5 mg/kg), Br (113 mg/kg) and Mo (31.9 mg/kg) were quantified in suspended sediments from the Piracicaba River, the Piracicamirim Stream and the Marins Stream. Results of the principal component analysis for standardized chemical element mass fractions indicated an intricate correlation among chemical elements evaluated, as a response of the contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources of chemical elements for ecosystems.

  10. Recent developments in environmental research using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies of the origin and fates of trace elements, it is advantageous to be able to analyze samples for a wide spectrum of elements with a high sensitivity and accuracy. This condition is best satisfied with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), since it is one of the most sensitive, selective, and reliable multielement analysis techniques available. In spite of these advantages in environmental studies, use of the technique has been generally limited to aerosol and source material analysis. Over the last few years, the trace analysis and radiochemistry group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Nuclear Reactor Laboratory has applied INAA to various environmental samples for methodology development and/or to provide more information on some important environmental processes. Some examples of these studies are provided in this paper

  11. INAA OF SOME ANCIENT COINS FROM POST GUPTA PERIOD AND MUGHAL SALTANAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NilimaSRajurkar; AKJha; 等

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of some electrum coins from post Gupta period and of coins from different mints of Mughal emperors,Shahjahan and Aurangzed.have been done by instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) using 252Cf neutron source.The elemental content of these coins are determined by comparator method by mneasuring the activities of the radioisotopes formed after(n,γ) reactions,at their corresponding photopeaks.It is found that identified electrum coins contain copper as a major component and hence can be termed as cupro-electrum coins.As regards the analysis of coins from different mints there is no much variation in silver content while copper content varies from mint to mint.Coins from both the emperore are found to contain considerable amount of gold.

  12. Characterization of the aeolian aerosol from Cape Verde by k0-INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its location on West Coast of Africa, Cape Verde is highly influenced by Sahara Desert dust events being an optimum place to observe and study the African aeolian aerosol. During 2011, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm (PM10) was sampled in Santiago Island and its chemical composition was evaluated by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study showed the existence of a seasonal intrusion of dust from Africa (that occurred from October to March) characterized by significant increases of PM10, mineral elements and anthropogenic particles concentrations. In 2011, the PM10 health-based air quality guidelines defined by WHO, EU and USEPA were exceeded. Cape Verde PM10 composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (Ca, Ce, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sm, and Ti) and sea (Br, Cl, and Na); and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn). k0-INAA and PIXE were fundamental tools for the determination of airborne chemical elements in Cape Verde. Their multi-elemental capabilities in association with low detection limits made it possible to determine the majority of the element concentrations of environmental interest. (author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the analysis of fresh, pasteurised and powder milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasim, M.; Rehman, S.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    This study shows the application of semi-absolute k{sub 0} instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for the determination of 21 elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sc Sr, and Zn) in different types of milk samples. The ENAA was required for the determination of iodine, AAS for Cu, Ni and Pb and the rest of the elements were measured by k{sub 0}-INAA. Thirteen elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Sr and Zn) were identified in all milk samples. Ni was detected in eleven and Pb in two samples. Concentrations of most of the elements were within the ranges of the world reported data. The data was further explored by principal component analysis to find relationships between samples and elements. (orig.)

  14. From scientific research towards scientific service by INAA: Experiences and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation has been made at the laboratory for INAA in Delft of the type of analytical protocols requested for by scientific and commercial customers. Examples are given of the differences in requests from industrial research and university research and the consequences for the analysis protocol to be selected. On the basis of experience with the users and clients and customer satisfaction evaluation results, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis has been made. This analysis makes clear that many of the frequently mentioned 'advantages' of INAA do not excite the clients. One of the typical weaknesses of the technique results from lack of automation, indispensable for effective and economic operations. This may hamper small INAA groups to become interesting for large-scale and/or parallel requests, to become competitive and self-sustainable. Suggestions are given how the weaknesses and threats may be circumvented and how the strong points and opportunities may be successfully exploited. (author)

  15. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from the Angkor monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 19 Angkor temples and from an old and a new quarry using INAA. We also characterized the sandstone samples with conventional microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Using cluster analysis, we found no straightforward correlation between the chemical/petrological properties of the sandstones and a presumed period of individual temples construction. The poor correlation may result either from the inherent inhomogeneity of sandstone or just reflect the diversity of quarries that supplied building blocks for the construction of any particular temple. (author)

  16. A Possible Tool for Checking Errors in the INAA Results, Based on Neutron Data and Method Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents preliminary results of a new type of possible application in the INAA experiments of elemental analysis, useful to check errors occurred during investigation of unknown samples; it relies on the INAA method validation experiments and accuracy of the neutron data from the literature. The paper comprises 2 sections, the first one presents--in short--the steps of the experimental tests carried out for INAA method validation and for establishing the 'ACTIVA-N' laboratory performance, which is-at the same time-an illustration of the laboratory evolution on the way to get performance. Section 2 presents our recent INAA results on CRMs, of which interpretation opens discussions about the usefulness of using a tool for checking possible errors, different from the usual statistical procedures. The questionable aspects and the requirements to develop a practical checking tool are discussed

  17. Analysis for toxic elements in food and drinking water in Thailand by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a research aimed at the determination of several trace elements in foodstuffs and water in Thailand. The project included the development of adequate analytical procedures for the determination of As, Cd, Cu and Zn by ion exchange chromatography; Hg and Se by a direct combustion technique; Br, Co, Fe and Mn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); Pb by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry; and As, Co, Mn, Sb, U, V, Zn, and Cr in water samples by pre-concentration on activated carbon followed by INAA. The samples analyzed comprised various kinds of vegetables, meat, poultry, beans and peas, various species of rice, fish, shellfish and other marine products. Natural and tap water samples were collected at several locations in twenty-nice provinces in Southern, Northern, North-Eastern and Central parts of Thailand. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 49 tabs

  18. Organization of commercial neutron activation analysis at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a period of declining funds, curriculum reconsiderations, and unpopular image among the general public of anything nuclear related, (university) research reactor establishments should have strategies to justify the existence and continuation of their expensive facilities. At the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI), part of this strategy is to focus the potential of instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) on problems of economical and social importance. Development and application of NAA is one of the principal research tasks of the radiochemistry department of the institute. A multidisciplinary team of nine (analytical) chemists, physicists, computer experts, electronic engineers, and technicians is responsible for innovative developments and maintenance of the INAA facilities. For long, the facilities have been made available for open-quotes routineclose quotes use to non-radiochemists from other universities. Interactively operating software and manuals enable these guests to perform INAA independently after a short introductory period. No special demands were set for the educational level of the users; universities did not have to pay for use of the facilities. In the early 1980s, other (governmental) research institutes became interested in the potential of INAA, and cooperation started on projects with a large sample throughput; in these projects, some financial support was included. Over the years, the number of requests for multielement determinations via INAA grew steadily, not only from the universities, which were charged for a part of the total analysis' cost, but also from industry

  19. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.

    2007-11-01

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  20. Air Pollution Studies in Opole Region, Poland, using the Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, S.; Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2007-11-01

    Biomonitoring of heavy metal atmospheric deposition with terrestrial moss is a well established technique for environmental studies. Moss samples of Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi have been collected around the city of Opole. A total of 34 elements including heavy metals and rare earths have been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. We observe pronounced contamination of the sampled area with pollutants such as As, Sb, V, Ni, Mo, etc. at levels similar to those in the neighboring industrial regions. These results evidences long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants along with the influence of local pollution sources.

  1. Elemental content of feldspar from Eastern Desert, Egypt, determined by INAA and XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and HPGe detector gamma-spectroscopy were used to determine a total of 16 elements qualitatively and quantitatively for the first time from feldspar rock samples collected from Gabel El Dubb, Eastern desert, Egypt. The elements determined are (Na, Mg, K, Sc, Ga, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Nb, Ba, Ce, Eu, Hf, Th and U). The samples were properly prepared together with their standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7x10(11)n/cm(2)s. XRF was also used. Comparison of the results obtained by both techniques showed good agreement for such elements as K, Na, Fe, Mg, Ba and Cr. PMID:20185321

  2. Elemental content of feldspar from Eastern Desert, Egypt, determined by INAA and XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taher, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azher University, Assuit Branch, 71542 Assuit (Egypt)], E-mail: Atef_eltaher@hotmail.com

    2010-06-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and HPGe detector {gamma}-spectroscopy were used to determine a total of 16 elements qualitatively and quantitatively for the first time from feldspar rock samples collected from Gabel El Dubb, Eastern desert, Egypt. The elements determined are (Na, Mg, K, Sc, Ga, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Nb, Ba, Ce, Eu, Hf, Th and U). The samples were properly prepared together with their standard reference material and simultaneously irradiated by thermal neutrons at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor at a neutron flux of 7x10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s. XRF was also used. Comparison of the results obtained by both techniques showed good agreement for such elements as K, Na, Fe, Mg, Ba and Cr.

  3. Determination of trace elements in coffee beans and instant coffee of various origins by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed in Pakistan. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee are provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  4. Collimated scanning LS-INAA for testing trace elements homogeneity in Brazilian coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of homogeneity is normally assessed by the variability of the results of independent analyses of several (e.g., 15) normal-scale replicates. Large sample instrumental neutron activation analysis (LS-INAA) with a collimated Ge detector allows inspecting the degree of homogeneity of the initial batch material, using a kilogram-size sample. The test is based on the spatial distributions of induced radioactivity. Such test was applied to samples of Brazilian whole (green) coffee beans (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of approximately 1 kg in the frame of development of a coffee reference material. Results indicated that the material do not contain significant element composition inhomogeneities between batches of approximately 30-50 g, masses typically forming the starting base of a reference material. (author)

  5. PIXE and INAA studies on ancient potteries from Guangfulin relics in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site in Shanghai. From the external features of these potteries, archeologists can classify them into two different cultural types: Liangzhu culture (local culture) and a new culture which might be derived elsewhere, but they can not recognize whether they were produced in the same place. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were used to measure the chemical compositions of the samples and the results were analyzed using multivariate statistics. We found that the two methods can complement each other and their database can be mutually referenced in the study of ancient potteries. Experimental results show that the compositions of the potteries from the two cultural types are different, which means that the materials for ancient potteries of new culture originate from elsewhere. This supports the archaeologists' speculation that a group of ancient people migrated to Shanghai from some other places 4000 years ago.

  6. Trace element intake and dietary status of nuts consumed in Pakistan: study using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Rahman, A. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.

    2007-07-01

    Five nuts, namely almond, cashew nuts, peanuts, pine nuts and pistachio, commonly consumed in Pakistan, were analyzed for their inorganic element contents. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methodology, using different irradiation, cooling and counting protocols, was adopted to determine Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn. The investigated nuts were found to contain substantial amounts of Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn. Dietary intake of the essential inorganic elements present in these nuts, as compared to the recommended dietary allowance, has also been calculated. This has further substantiated the nutrient role of nuts in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as in addition to their established efficacy in improving the lipid profile, they are a rich source of cardioprotective trace elements such as magnesium, zinc, iron and calcium. Toxic elements were present in very low concentrations in nuts. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba; Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu

    2012-05-01

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  8. Monitoring environmental pollution by ko-INAA for environmental protection in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding to the 2005-2007FNCA program decided, the NAA technique based on the ko-method has been used to determine a concentration of pollutant as function of time and location. This program carries out to monitor a pollutant in the marine environmental sample. Marine samples of sediment, seawater and a clamp, as well as, a green oyster collected from a selected location at north of Banten province and the Bay of Jakarta. Sampling have been carried out twice a year. For background, same sample have been collected at the sampling point located at south-west of Banten. Sediment and biota sample were prepared for NAA determination, meanwhile seawater have been prepared for polarographic measurement. Marine Sediment and biota samples, as well as flux monitor, have been irradiated at a rabbit system facility of RSG GA Siwabessy reactor with a thermal neutron flux of about 2.6.10+17 n.m-2.s-1. Identification of (n, γ) reaction product has been done using a high resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Analysis of γ-ray emitted by activation product have been done using Hyperlab software, while the elemental quantitative analysis have been done by the ko-INAA procedure using ko-IAEA software. The analytical quality was controlled by use of certified reference material of NIST 2702 Marine Sediment, SRM NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue, crm NMIJ 7302a Sediment and CRM No. 9 Sargasso. As preliminary result, the numbers of interested elements in sediments samples were determined to be of about 20 and should be presented in this workshop. Some results of ko-INAA assessment will also be reported and discussed. (author)

  9. Multianalytical determination of trace elements in atmospheric biomonitors by k{sub 0}-INAA, ICP-MS and AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M.C. [ITN-Reactor, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt; Pacheco, A.M.G. [CVRM-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Dionisio, I. [ITN-Reactor, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sarmento, S. [ITN-Reactor, Technological and Nuclear Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Baptista, M.S. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Department, University of Porto, R. Campo Alegre 687, 4169-071 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, J.P. [CIIMAR, University of Porto, R. Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Botany Department, University of Porto, R. Campo Alegre 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Elemental contents of atmospheric biomonitors-epiphytic lichens and tree bark, exposed in continuous and discontinuous modes-have been assessed through k{sub 0}-standardised instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) (two different institutions), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Certified reference materials-ISE-921 (river clay), NIST-1547 (peach leaves), ICHTJ-INCT-TL-1 (tea leaves; TL-1 hereinafter) and IAEA-336 (lichen material), and nonparametric statistics-rank-order correlations (Spearman R{sub S}) and enhanced-sign tests (Wilcoxon T)-were used for analytical control and data comparison, respectively. In general, quality of procedures was deemed good, except for k{sub 0}-INAA in determining Br, Cu and Na, all likely affected by high counting statistics, and/or contamination issues (the latter). Results for Cu, Ni, Pb and Sr (by both ICP-MS and AAS) revealed that, despite an outstanding correlation (asymptotic p=0.000), they could be viewed as statistically equal for Cu only: AAS tended to yield higher values for Pb and Ni, and lower ones for Sr. The comparison between ICP-MS and k{sub 0}-INAA data from TUDelft, for Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V, showed an excellent correlation (as above) and random (relative) magnitude for Cu, Mg, Mn and Ti only: ICP-MS tended to yield higher values for Al, Na and V, and lower ones for Ca, whereas between k{sub 0}-INAA data from TUDelft and ITN, for Br, Ca and Na, resulted in systematically higher [Br] and [Ca] variates from TUDelft, even if all corresponding data sets were found to correlate at stringent significance levels. In a few cases, though-Ca, Sr in lichens; Pb in bark-matrix effects did appear to interfere in the outcome of matched-pairs, signed-rank tests, since random hierarchy of variates could be asserted just when lichen and bark data sets were processed separately.

  10. Development and implementation of Hogdahl convention and Westcott formalism for k0-INAA application at Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work shows the development of k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) method at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency research reactor. To use the k0-INAA method, two formalisms were regulated according to 1/v and non-1/v (n, γ) reaction nuclides. The reactor neutron spectrum parameters, the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), the epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α) were measured using the bare bi-isotopic monitor and bare triple monitor methods, respectively, based on the Hogdahl convention. In addition, the modified spectral index τ(α) √Tn/T0, the Westcott gLu(Tn) factor and the absolute neutron temperature Tn parameters were determined using the Westcott formalism. 176Lu was used as non-1/v monitor while 197Au, 96Zr and 94Zr were used as 1/v monitors. The average values of τ(α) √Tn/T0, gLu(Tn) and Tn were determined to be 0.1795 ± 0.0044, 1.9729 ± 0.0234 and 50.12 ± 3.21 deg C, respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysing IAEA-Soil 7, IAEA-SL 1, NBS SRM 1633A-1 and IAEA-Soil 375 as reference materials. The results show an acceptable level of consistency. (author)

  11. Analysis of the sediments of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam by the INAA; Analisis de sedimentos de la presa Julian Adame Alatorre por la tecnica de AANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.E.; Lugo, J.F.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C. [UAZ, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, E2433 Engineering Building East, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]. e-mail: jeolivag@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    Its were taken eight samples of sediment of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam located in the Villanueva municipality, in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico; with the end of determining the presence of elements of anthropogenic origin, as well as the concentration of the same ones. It was used the Instrumental neutron activation analysis (AANI) with a flow of thermal neutrons of 8 x 10{sup 13} and 5 x 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. With the purpose of determining the concentration of these elements at level of traces; finding presence of 32 elements among which its were find elements in greater concentrations and others at level of traces. Of these 32 elements, five of anthropogenic origin were identified which its were: Cr, Co, Zn, As and Mn; but that whose concentration is very low, in comparison with the one reported in other places of the world. In this work there are presented the obtained results of the elementary analysis of this samples. (Author)

  12. Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, P.; Bueno, M.I.; Bortoleto, G.G.; Hoffmann, G.; Van den Ingh, T.S.; Rothuizen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companio

  13. Studies on the method for determination of fluoride concentration in rat hard tissues by neutron activation analysis using sup 20 F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakakura, Tadao (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Neutron activation analysis method (non disruptive analysis, short time period measurement) has been recognized as a high precision analysis of fluoride concentration in hard tissue. Heat neutron irradiation analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to investigate {sup 20}F concentration. Results were as follows. F concentration in a dried material of hard tissue using INAA method can be fixed by measuring the {sup 20}F's energy peak for 10 seconds after neutron irradiation under 1 x 10 n/cm{sup 2}center dots for 10 seconds. Non responding time that is caused by short half reduction time of {sup 20}F can be recovered enough by a revise calculation. Reproducibility of measured fluoride concentration using INAA method was well stabilized. Rat hard tissue which takes no fluoride can be determined fluoride concentration without sodium restriction. Femur fluoride concentrations using INAA method had significant correlation with conventional microdiffusion analysis method (r=0.997, regression line: Y=1.13X + 2.98). Increase of fluoride density in dentine of rat molars under growing period according to fluoride intake was 1/3 of femurs and mandibles. (author).

  14. Nondestructive gamma activation analysis of mineral materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic problems are described related to the use of gamma activation analysis. The applicability was studied of instrumental gamma activation analysis (IGAA) in geology. A number of minerals, rocks, marine sediments and reference materials were studied. For irradiation a betatron and a microtron were used. The results show that IGAA allows the simultaneous determination of a number of trace elements at concentrations of tenths of ppm. The results are given of comparisons made of the analytical possibilities of microtron IGAA and reactor INAA in geology. Tables show the results of the application of IGAA, the main products and parameters of photoexcitation reactions and graphically represented are the gamma spectra of measured materials. (J.B.)

  15. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  16. Use of INAA, AAS and XRF in studying health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities in Russia. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current economic situation in Russia results in that vegetables and plants grown in private small-holdings account for over 50% of the population's diet. In some regions of Russia (Ural, Altai) mining and metallurgical works remain the sole economic factor of existence and development despite the obvious damage to the environment through contamination with heavy and toxic metals. Crop rotation is actively being extended to the land immediately bordering on the zones of industrial enterprises within the range of 1-5 km. This land has been affected by waste discharged from the enterprises for many years. The cultivated soil may contain high gross concentrations of toxic elements. The local residents generally consume food products mostly grown in the immediate vicinity of the sources of pollution. These foods are: vegetables (potato, cabbage, etc.), fruits and berries (apples, black berry, etc.) The vegetation is an intermediate step in the trophic chain of soil and man for nutritionally as well as toxicologically important elements. The harmful effects of lead and its compounds on human health have been studied around the world. Problems of contamination of these materials with other toxic elements (for example, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Zn, etc.) have not yet been systematically studied in Russia, although their harmful effects on human health appear to be as important as that for lead

  17. Determination of the contents and distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum from tropical ecosystems in Brazil by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the concentrations of eight REE elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu) in plant leaves of the species Solanum lycocarpum, a typical Brazilian 'cerrado' plant widely distributed around the country, and in the soils in which they grow. Three different ecosystems were studied. Very similar chondrite normalized patterns were observed in the soil and in the plant, presenting an enrichment of the light REE, indicating a typical absorption of these elements by this species. (author)

  18. Homogeneity study on biological candidate reference materials: the role of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniel P.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: dsilva.pereira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis (INAA) is a mature nuclear analytical technique able to accurately determine chemical elements without the need of sample digestion and, hence, without the associated problems of analyte loss or contamination. This feature, along with its potentiality use as a primary method of analysis, makes it an important tool for the characterization of new references materials and in the assessment of their homogeneity status. In this study, the ability of the comparative method of INAA for the within-bottle homogeneity of K, Mg, Mn and V in a mussel reference material was investigated. Method parameters, such as irradiation time, sample decay time and distance from sample to the detector were varied in order to allow element determination in subsamples of different sample masses in duplicate. Sample masses were in the range of 1 to 250 mg and the limitations of the detection limit for small sample masses and dead time distortions for large sample masses were investigated. (author)

  19. Neutron Activation Analysis of Pre-Columbian Pottery in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-Hispanic pottery figurines from north-central Venezuela islands and mainland were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA and PGAA) at the Budapest Research to establish their provenience. In order to classify the samples of figurines, characteristic molecular and atomic components were determined. Several mass ratios were calculated for significant classification of the object of two origins. Results shed light on the origin of island figurines and suggest specific areas of their production on the mainland, contributing to better understanding of late pre-Hispanic migration patterns in the southeastern Caribbean region

  20. Forensic INAA of bullet-lead and shotshell-pellet evidence specimens with a TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been published earlier, in the references cited. The main purpose of this paper is to acquaint interested TRIGA reactor groups with the main features of the Forensic INAA of BL and SSP evidence specimens - and to recommend that they consider acquiring the necessary expertise and then provide such analysis services to law enforcement agencies, public defenders, and defence attorneys in their respective areas

  1. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis data for cloud-water particulate samples, Mount Bamboo, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Debey, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud water was sampled on Mount Bamboo in northern Taiwan during March 22-24, 2002. Cloud-water samples were filtered using 0.45-micron filters to remove particulate material from the water samples. Filtered particulates were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the U.S. Geological Survey National Reactor Facility in Denver, Colorado, in February 2012. INAA elemental composition data for the particulate materials are presented. These data complement analyses of the aqueous portion of the cloud-water samples, which were performed earlier by the Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Taiwan. The data are intended for evaluation of atmospheric transport processes and air-pollution sources in Southeast Asia.

  3. A quality assurance programme for the determination of selenium in foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is unevenly distributed through the biosphere. The levels, species and bioavailability of selenium in foods depend greatly on the geochemical environment in which they are grown. Variation in geochemical conditions can not only lead to certain diseases in animals but also influence the selenium body burden in humans. For these reasons, there is an increasing interest in monitoring selenium levels in foods and diets. A quality assurance programme has been developed for the determination of low levels of selenium in foods and diets by cyclic and pseudo-cyclic instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using the short-lived (half-life = 17.4 s) 77Sem nuclide. Both conventional and anti-coincidence gamma ray spectrometry techniques have been employed. Pseudo-cyclic INAA in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been found to provide the most reliable results. Internal and external quality assessments have been done using a number of parameters. (author)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of essential elements in Multani mitti clay using miniature neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multani mitti clay was studied for 19 essential and other elements. Four different radio-assay schemes were adopted for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using miniature neutron source reactor. The estimated weekly intakes of Cr and Fe are high for men, women, pregnant and lactating women and children while intake of Co is higher in adult categories and Mn by pregnant women. Comparison of MM clay with other type of clays shows that it is a good source of essential elements. - Highlights: ► Multani mitti clay has been studied for 19 essential elements for human adequacy and safety using INAA and AAS. ► Weekly intakes for different consumer categories have been calculated and compared with DRIs. ► Comparison of MM with other type of clays depict that MM clay is a good source of essential elements.

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to the chemical composition of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the technological application of steel, the knowledge of its chemical composition is of fundamental importance as it is directly related to various properties, such as, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, temperability and others. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, is an appropriate technique in the evaluation of the chemical composition of steel and other metallurgical materials due to the possibility of simultaneous determination of a great number of elements without the inconvenience of sample dissolution. Element determination is achieved with good accuracy and precision for major and minor constituents as well as for trace elements. In this paper, INAA was used in the determination of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, V and W in steel and iron samples and in certified reference materials. The obtained accuracy and precision were less than 10% for most of the elements confirming the possibility of its use in the study of metallic samples and in the certification of new reference materials. (author)

  6. INAA of trace elements in Indian vegetarian diet and its adequacy vis-a-vis Recommended Dietary Allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing awareness concerning the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets. (author)

  7. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyarko, B.J.B. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana)], E-mail: bjbnyarko@yahoo.co.uk; Bredwa-Mensah, Y. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Serfor-Armah, Y. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Dampare, S.B. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Akaho, E.H.K.; Osae, S. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Perbi, A. [Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Chatt, A. [SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, Trace Analysis Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated.

  8. Investigation of trace elements in ancient pottery from Jenini, Brong Ahafo region, Ghana by INAA and Compton suppression spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements in ancient pottery excavated from Jenini in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in conjunction with both conventional and Compton suppression counting. Jenini was a slave Camp of Samory Toure during the indigenous slavery and the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. Pottery fragments found during the excavation of the grave tombs of the slaves who died in the slave camps were analysed. In all, 26 trace elements were determined in 40 pottery fragments. These elemental concentrations were processed using multivariate statistical methods, cluster, factor and discriminant analyses in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. The suitability of the two counting systems for determination of trace elements in pottery objects has been evaluated

  9. Trace elements in the hair of new-born infants by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair has been used as a bioindicator, as means to measure environmental and occupational contamination, and a tool for individualization in the forsenic field. Because hair is a product of human metabolic activities, its elemental content is of interest in the examination of normal (healthy) metabolism and abnormal (diseased) metabolism. Employing hair analysis, sources of environmental pollution can be identified. Some recent INAA hair measurements were carried out in the laboratory. Hair samples of six new-born infants and their mothers were collected, washed, and analyzed according to standard procedures. By 5-minute irradiation (flux 2.5 * 1011n * cm-2 * s-1) and gamma spectrometric analysis of hair and standard samples, elemental concentrations of Mg, Mn, Cu, Na, V, S, Al, Ca, and the halides were determined. Hair analysis of new-born infants should be of special interest, because it most likely represents endogenerous contribution. Hair assays of mothers and babies may prove to be clear mirrors which reflect observations pertaining to environmental metal mobilization and internal metabolic conditions. Along a review of the subject, the results of a case study are presented and areas where further research is needed are identified. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  11. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  12. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyuz, Sevim, E-mail: s.akyuz@iku.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Letters Faculty, Istanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Campus, Bakirkoy 34156, Istanbul (Turkey); Akyuz, Tanil [Physics Department, Science and Letters Faculty, Istanbul Kultur University, Atakoy Campus, Bakirkoy 34156, Istanbul (Turkey); Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 702132, Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu [Department of Restoration and Conservation of Artefacts, Letters Faculty, Istanbul University, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INAA was performed to determine elemental compositions of ancient glass fragments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Basic, coloring/discoloring elements and impurities have been determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA discriminated the glasses depending on their chronological order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  13. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)–Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry. - Highlights: ► INAA was performed to determine elemental compositions of ancient glass fragments. ► Basic, coloring/discoloring elements and impurities have been determined. ► PCA discriminated the glasses depending on their chronological order. ► The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  14. Accurate measurement of bromine contents in plastic samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I J; Lee, K S; Hwang, E; Min, H S; Yim, Y H

    2013-03-26

    Accurate measurements of bromine contents in plastic samples were made by the direct comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Individual factors affecting the measurements were comprehensively evaluated and compensated, including the volatility loss of bromine from standard comparators, the background bromine level in the filter papers used for preparation of the standard comparators, nuclear interference, γ-ray spectral interference and the variance among replicates of the samples. Uncertainty contributions from those factors were thoroughly evaluated and included in the uncertainty budgeting of the INAA measurement. (81)Br was chosen as the target isotope, and the INAA measurements for bromine were experimentally confirmed to exhibit good linearity within a bromine content range of 10-170 μg. The established method has been applied to the analysis of eight plastic samples: four commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) of polyethylene and polystyrene and four acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) samples prepared as the candidate reference materials (KRISS CRM 113-01-012, -013, -014 and -015). The bromine contents of the samples were calculated at three different γ-ray energies and compared, showing good agreement. The results of the four CRMs also showed good consistency with their certified values within the stated uncertainties. Finally, the bromine contents of the ABS samples were determined with expanded uncertainties (at a 95% level of confidence) between 2.5% and 5% in a bromine content range of 25-900 mg kg(-1). PMID:23498117

  15. Remodeling and Characterization of Pneumatic Transfer System (PTS no.3) of HANARO Research Reactor for Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the facilities to be used in an irradiation of a target material for an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. This technical report describes for the irradiation test and the characteristics and removing, remodelling of the reinstalled PTS no.3 in NAA no.3 irradiation hole at HANARO for user information and the reactor management

  16. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation analysis, which appears to be in limits for further advance, is the most suitable for providing information on the principal as well as the microcomponents in any sample of solid form. Then, instrumental activation analysis is capable of determination of far many elements in various samples. Principally on the neutron activation analysis, the following are described in literature survey from 1982 to middle 1984: bibliography, review, data collection, etc.; problems in spectral analysis and measurement; activation analysis with neutrons; charged particle and photo-nucleus reactions; chemical separation, isotopic dilution activation analysis; molecular activation analysis; standard materials; life and its relation samples; environmental, food, court trial and archaeological samples; space and earth sciences. (Mori, K.)

  17. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware

  18. Study on ancient Chinese imitated GE ware by INAA and WDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn; Feng Xiangqian; Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye [Beijing Institute of Cultural Relics, Beijing 100009 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Imitated GE ware was one of the most famous products of Jingdezhen porcelain field in Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The exterior features of its body and glaze are very marvelous. Black foot, purple mouth and crazing glaze are the main features of imitated GE ware. Until now, the key conditions of resulting these features are not clearly identified. In order to find the critical elements for firing these features, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) were used to determine the element abundance patterns of imitated GE ware body and glaze. The experimental data was compared with that of imitated Longquan celadon and of Longquan celadon. The analytical results indicated that Fe, Ti and Na were the critical elements. The body of imitated GE ware which contains high Fe and Ti are the basic conditions of firing its black body, black foot and purple mouth. The glaze of imitated GE ware which contains high Na is the main condition of producing its crazing glaze. Na is the critical element which enlarges the difference in expansion coefficients between the glaze and body of imitated GE ware. Furthermore, Zijin soil was added into kaolin to make the body rich in Fe and Ti. And something which was rich in Na was used to produce crazing glaze in the manufacturing process of imitated GE ware.

  19. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  20. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn; Feng Xiangqian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye [Beijing Institute of Cultural Relics, Beijing 100009 (China); Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Li [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  1. Metals concentration in phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers produced in Brazil using INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bourlegat, Fernanda M.; Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) as by-product. It may contain high quantities of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, trace metals and radionuclides of U and Th series. Phosphogypsum worldwide production on 2006 was estimated in 170 million tons. All the countries that produce phosphate fertilizers by wet process are facing the same problem of finding solutions for the safe application of phosphogypsum, in order to minimize the impact caused by the disposal of large amounts of this by-product. Phosphogypsum can be used in agriculture as a soil amendment; however, for its safe application the concentration of the impurities present and their behaviour in the environment should be better understood. The radiological characterization has been extensively studied in the last decade, but there are few studies about the metals concentration in phosphogypsum. This work intends to determine the concentration of metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn e Zr) and rare earth elements (REE) present in phosphogypsum produced in Brazil and to compare the results with those found in the phosphate fertilizers commonly commercialized. The technique used for the determination of the metals was instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). (author)

  2. The reflection of INAA results to the environmental administration in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of INAA in environmental studies in Malaysia has been very encouraging with many projects funded by the government agencies. Thus, the INAA technique could provide useful results and eventually appeal to the environmental administration in Malaysia. The aim of this report is to provide information regarding the environmental administration in Malaysia and to discuss the prospect of INAA in environmental research. (author)

  3. Determination of natural radioactivity in building materials used in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area by γ-ray spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of sand and manufactured building materials collected from the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area have been analyzed for the primordial natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K using γ-ray spectrometry. The uranium and thorium contents have also been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The specific activities of these radionuclides in the samples are compared with those of the world averages for soil. The comparison shows that, of the nine samples analyzed, only the three brick samples have higher activities than the world averages for soil. The specific activities in these materials, having a radium equivalent activity of less than 370 Bq kg-1, when evaluated for radiological effects show that all materials meet the external γ-ray dose limitation of 1.5 mSv y-1. The γ-spectrometric and INAA techniques complemented each other well in this study

  4. Quality control of baby food products on the basis of results obtained using the instrumental neutron-activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to use the instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental composition of some kind of imported baby food products (BFP) and to compare the results with the permissible contents. The nuclear reactor WWR-SM of INP has been used to develop INAA to study the mineral composition of some children's food products. The concentration of 26 trace elements, including Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. was found. The comparison of the results with regulation contents and the daily data on food needs have shown that the investigated group of BFP does not meet the requirements for all trace and macro elements composition. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of reliability of neutron activation analysis using k0-standardization and application to environmental aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The k0-standardization method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) by research reactors, JRR-3 and JRR-4, was evaluated by determining the reference materials associated with air pollution, {NIST SRM 1633a (Coal Fly Ash), NIES CRM No.8 (Vehicle Exhaust Particulates), and NIST SRM 2783 (Air Particulate on Filter Media)}. The analytical results of NIST SRM 1633a obtained by different facilities of the reactors were consistent with each other, and the deviation from certified (reference) values for 22 elements were within 5% and 11 elements within 3%. It was ascertained that the present k0 INAA is very accurate. This method was applied to aerosol samples taken in Ibaraki prefecture during Oct. 2004 to Mar. 2005. Trace-element contents in particulate matter with different sizes were determined, and the size distribution and the regional variation were revealed. (author)

  6. The use of INAA for the determination of trace elements, in particular cadmium, in plastics in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many plastic products have relatively short life cycles. Upon final destruction, inorganic additives used for pigmentation, as polymer stabilizer or as flame retarding agent are being released to the environment. In a rapidly increasing way governmental authorities are setting limits to the use of inorganic additives, in particular cadmium, in plastics. INAA has attractive characteristics which may make authorities decide to select it for the control programs in relation to the enforcement of pollution standards. An evaluation is made of the use of INAA for such analysis; analysis protocols, sensitivities, and observed levels of other trace elements are being discussed. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  7. Availability of essential trace elements in Ayurvedic Indian medicinal herbs using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N. [Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Specific parts of several plants (fruits, leaves, stem, bark and roots) often used as medicines in the Indian Ayurvedic system have been analysed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Most of the medicinal herbs have been found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. (Author).

  8. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  9. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were employed to measure about 37 major, minor, and trace elements in two standard reference materials: oyster tissue (SRM 1566) supplied by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and animal bone (H-5) supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Wherever the comparison exists, the data show excellent agreement with accepted values for each SRM. These SRM's are useful as reference standards for the analysis of biological materials. Additionally, the chondritic normalized rare earth element pattern of animal bone behaves as a smooth function of the ionic radii, as previously observed for biological materials. 7 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Elemental analysis of rain- and fresh water by neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of rain-and fresh water for trace constituents is a manda tory part of environmental monitoring. This text gives a survey of neutron activation analysis (NAA) within the framework of current environmental water research pro grammes, based on the practice developed in co-operation with the Dutch Energy Research Centre at Petten (ECN). While the procedures reported in literature cover about thirty five elements, our routine procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is limited to ten to fifteen elements. The use of some dedicated ra diochemical separations (RNAA) adds another six, some of which are speciated as well. Current contributions of NAA to water analysis center on determination and speciation of anionic trace elements, notably Br, I, As. and Se, on the assay of some ultra traces like Ag, Au and Hg and on validation.

  11. Enhancement of research reactor utilization for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical Chemistry Division has been utilising NAA for the past 4 decades for trace analysis of a number of materials. Some of the procedures developed recently for the trace element determination of high purity hi-tech and nuclear pure materials, geological, environmental and forensic samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) are discussed here. Nearly complete characterization of high purity (>4N) As and Ga is possible by the procedures developed which are simple, rapid and elegant and can be used easily for the process samples. It is to be emphasised that though the INAA is simple and being widely followed, the RNAA alone can address the problems of analysis for elements present at ultra trace levels in many matrices. (author)

  12. Analysis of large samples by neutron activation analysis. Quality assurance aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for quality assurance in large sample instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) requires the development of unconventional methods of quality control. Certified reference materials are not available at the 1-5 kg scale; moreover, inhomogeneities which might affect the accuracy of the real sample analysis would not be reflected in the analysis of a reference material or in-house control sample even when available. Model studies indicate that inhomogeneities with strong gamma ray absorbing properties have the largest effect on the accuracy of the concentrations. The occurrence of these inhomogeneities may be derived from gamma spectrum analysis. Other opportunities for quality assurance are with the calculated estimates of the parameters describing neutron and gamma ray self-attenuation, and eventually through direct assessment after homogenization of the large sample, subsampling and conventional analysis. (author)

  13. Experience with an accrediated INAA service laboratory at a University - will research be next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance, total quality management, and accreditation are the recognizable attributes of an attitude and consideration of a work process that is being introduced to industry, utilities, and (industrial) laboratories. International reference documents-the International Standard Organization (ISO)- IEC guides - have been developed to harmonize the ways of implementing and evaluating QA practices in connection with accreditation. The life-styles of working under quality practices and working at a university demonstrate a large contrast. Many of the basic principles of quality practices, such as full documentation, written procedures and instructions, and careful consideration of the conditions under which work will be performed, are characteristically absent at universities. Universities nowadays also have a mission to teach quality practices to the present and future generations of scientists. Within a few years, society may call for academics who are not only knowledgeable on the principles of quality practices but who also have been educated, trained, and practiced in such an environment. Conflicts will be avoided when such academics occupy leading positions in organizations that already use quality practices or when they become responsible for the introduction of quality practices. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory and associated analysis systems at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology has been reorganized and brought into accord with the requirements of EN45001 and ISO guide 25. After an audit by the official accreditation body in the Netherlands, STERLAB, the laboratory received its accreditation in early 1993, making it the first accredited laboratory of both kinds (university and instrumental (INAA)) in the Netherlands and possibly in the world

  14. Ironstones of the Olary Block, South Australia: the use of RNAA and INAA to understand their genesis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimer, I.R. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia); Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.; Lawrie, D.C. [New England Univ., Armidale, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1996-12-31

    Reactor neutron activation analysis (RNAA) , instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electron microprobe analysis of ironstones and barite from the Olary Block indicate that these deposits are geochemically similar to modem and ancient submarine hydrothermal precipitates. Geochemical analyses generally show low Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Sb concentrations and elevated Au and Cu values. Major (Al, Si) and trace (REE, Th, U, PGEs) element data show that the ironstones and barite rocks are of hydrothermal origin and that mixing occurred between oxidised (and possibly hypersaline) surficial waters and a hydrothermal fluid similar to that from modem sites of submarine exhalation. Such geochemical similarities imply rapid burial in the volcano-sedimentary pile or sub-seafloor replacement. The REE patterns in the iron formations demonstrate a range from low temperature reduced hydrothermal precipitates, seawater and oxidised hydrothermal precipitates. Geochemical signatures are due to precipitation from hydrothermal fluids of lower temperature with further influence by prolonged exposure to the overlying water column and subaqueous oxidation. 7 refs.

  15. Determination of As by instrumental neutron activation analysis in sectioned hair samples for forensic purposes: chronic or acute poisoning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autopsy of 29-year old woman suspicious of committing suicide by the ingestion of As2O3 yielded contradictory findings. All pathological findings as well as clinical symptoms suggested acute poisoning, while a highly elevated As level of 26.4 μg g-1 in her hair collected at the autopsy, which was determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicated chronic poisoning. To elucidate this discrepancy, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with proven accuracy was performed of another set of sectioned hair samples. Levels of As found by INAA in the range of 0.16-0.26 μg g-1 excluded chronic poisoning, because the person died after approximately 14 h after the As2O3 ingestion. Two reasons for the discordant As results obtained by ICP-MS and INAA are considered: (1) accidental, non-removed contamination of hair on the As2O3 ingestion; (2) erroneous performance of ICP-MS. (author)

  16. Analytical quality control of chemical element contents in human hair determined by INAA, ICP-ES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Human hair analysis is often used in studies of exposure of such elements as As, Hg, Pb, Cd and in estimation of nutritional status of many chemical elements too. Estimation of precision and accuracy of analytical determination or chemical element contents in human hair samples by combination of four methods: 1) instrumental neutron activation analysis with registration ol short-lived radionuclides radiations (INAA-SL), 2) instrumental neutron activation analysis with using long-lived radionuclides (INAA-LL), 3) atomic emission spectrometry and 4) mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES and ICP-MS respectively) was made using certified reference materials (CRM) NIES No 13 (human hair, Japan) and GBW09101 (human hair, China) as the subject. For estimation of repeatability of the results 10 samples weighting around 50 mg were Measured by one sample per one labor shift during 10 labor shifts. Two operators carried out the measurements alternately. It was shown that no less than 38 elements were available for analysis in human hair samples by INAA: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, Yb, Zn. For ICP-AES coupled with ICP-MS the maximum available elements were 40: Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, I, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, W, Zn, Zr. All together the complex of four methods allow detect in human hair 58 different elements: Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. However: 1) INAA-SL of single sample with relative uncertainty (determined as ±2 RSD) less than ±10% allows to estimate mass fractions of no one element; within range from ±10% to <±20% - only Cl; within range

  17. Chemical characterization of tin-lead glazed ceramics from Aragon (Spain) by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inanez, J.G. [Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States). Museum Conservation Inst.; Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Facultat de Geografia i Historia; Speakman, R.J. [Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States). Museum Conservation Inst.; Buxeda i Garrigos, J. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Facultat de Geografia i Historia; Glascock, M.D. [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Center

    2010-07-01

    Majolica pottery was the most characteristic tableware produced in Spain during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. A study of the three main production centers in the historical region of Aragon during Middle Ages and Renaissance was conducted on a set of 71 samples. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and the resulting data were interpreted using an array of multivariate statistical procedures. Our results show a clear discrimination among different production centers allowing a reliable provenance attribution of ceramic sherds from the Aragonese workshops. (orig.)

  18. Multielemental analysis of vegetarian human diets and dietary components by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two vegetarian diet samples representative of the Indian sub-continent were prepared (in raw form) by the proportionate blending method for adolescent and adult age groups. These along with its components, viz. wheat, rice flours and pulses, were analyzed for 12 minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Bowen's kale was also analyzed to check the accuracy of the method. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mn and P are comparable to the non-vegetarian American and European diets. Zinc concentrations are however lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and the western non-vegetarian diets. (orig.)

  19. Chemical characterization of tin-lead glazed ceramics from Aragon (Spain) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majolica pottery was the most characteristic tableware produced in Spain during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. A study of the three main production centers in the historical region of Aragon during Middle Ages and Renaissance was conducted on a set of 71 samples. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and the resulting data were interpreted using an array of multivariate statistical procedures. Our results show a clear discrimination among different production centers allowing a reliable provenance attribution of ceramic sherds from the Aragonese workshops. (orig.)

  20. Multi-element determination in medicinal Juniper tree (Juniperus phoenicea by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzid Nedjimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Red Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea, a local medicinal tree was collected and analyzed for 18 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. The GBW 07605 (GSV-4 standard reference material was analyzed simultaneously with the plant samples, the results shown a good recovery and reproducibility of the method. Ca, K and Fe have been detected in good levels in this plant clarifying their possible contribution to curative properties. The data obtained in the present work will be helpful in the synthesis of new synthetic drugs which can be used for medicinal purpose.

  1. Comparison of elemental composition of hair between osteoporotic and normal women by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out on hair samples from a group of 20 patients undergoing a study of osteoporosis. Half of these were judged normal. Forteen elements were measured but only calcium was found to have a correlation with the disease state. Calcium levels in hair were significantly lower (99% level) in patients with osteoporosis. Conversely, calcium levels in the blood of osteoporotic patients were significantly higher (95% level) than those in normals. Though the group studied was small it is felt that levels of calcium in hair may be of value in diagnosing osteoporosis. (author)

  2. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  3. Outlier detection by robust Mahalanobis distance in geological data obtained by INAA to provenance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos, E-mail: osmansantos@ig.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe (IFS), Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easoares@ufan.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    2013-07-01

    The detection of outlier in geochemical studies is one of the main difficulties in the interpretation of dataset because they can disturb the statistical method. The search for outliers in geochemical studies is usually based in the Mahalanobis distance (MD), since points in multivariate space that are a distance larger the some predetermined values from center of the data are considered outliers. However, the MD is very sensitive to the presence of discrepant samples. Many robust estimators for location and covariance have been introduced in the literature, such as Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator. When MCD estimators are used to calculate the MD leads to the so-called Robust Mahalanobis Distance (RD). In this context, in this work RD was used to detect outliers in geological study of samples collected from confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers. The purpose of this study was to study the contributions of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of the tectonic depressions at Parana do Ariau. For that 113 samples were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in which were determined the concentration of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, U, Yb, Ta, Tb, Th and Zn. In the dataset was possible to construct the ellipse corresponding to robust Mahalanobis distance for each group of samples. The samples found outside of the tolerance ellipse were considered an outlier. The results showed that Robust Mahalanobis Distance was more appropriate for the identification of the outliers, once it is a more restrictive method. (author)

  4. INAA and ICP-MSHS: Metal pollutants in fish tissues Nile tilapia (Oreochromic niloticus) in Pampulha Lake, Belo Horizonte city, Minas, Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Iron Quadrangle, the central region of Minas Gerais State- Brazil, has important mineral reserves of Fe (the World's second largest iron ore producer), Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Au, Al, and U. The intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State throw out tons of waste in the open air, water, sediment and soil. The considerable accumulated concentrations of heavy metals and toxic elements penetrate the soil, underground waters, rivers, and lakes jeopardizing the environment quality. A great amount of heavy metals enter Pampulha Reservoir via it's main tributaries (Sarandi and Ressaca). Although no water quality classification has been carried out for these tributaries, the reservoir is expected to be in class 2 of the CONAMA-86 system. The Pampulha Lake is a depth of 8 m and an area of 43 km2, in a hot, humid climate with a summer rainy season, >18 degree C in the coldest months. A great number of persons use the water for fishing and swimming in the contaminated water. The figure l localizes the Pampulha Lake in Brazil. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, INAA, and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry-High Resolution, ICP-MSHR, were applied to determine Al, As, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, Zn and Ti. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA is based in a simultaneous irradiation compareson between standard and studied samples in a nuclear reactor. The irradiation characteristics are chosen to determine the isotopes in the best conditions. In this work the INAA, was applied using the TRIGA MARK I IPR - Rl reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center from the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 1011 ri.cm-2.s-l. After the necessary decay time for the interfering radioisotopes, the gamma spectrometry was applied in the high-purity germanium (HPGe

  5. An automated microcomputer-controlled system for neutron activation and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) system has been constructed at the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). Its pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an Apple IIe computer, linked in turn to an MS-DOS-compatible microcomputer which controls data acquisition. Custom software has been created for these computers and for off-line spectral analysis using programs that incorporate either peak boundary or Gaussian peak fitting methods of analysis. This system provides the gamut of INAA techniques for the analyst. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (orig.)

  6. An automated microcomputer-controlled system for neutron activation and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward, J.B.; Bennett, L.G.I. (Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). SLOWPOKE-2 Facility Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Beeley, P.A. (Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). SLOWPOKE-2 Facility Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry); Anderson, A.; Burbidge, G.A. (Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). SLOWPOKE-2 Facility Nordion International, Inc., Kanata, ON (Canada))

    1990-12-20

    An automated instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) system has been constructed at the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC). Its pneumatic transfer system is controlled by an Apple IIe computer, linked in turn to an MS-DOS-compatible microcomputer which controls data acquisition. Custom software has been created for these computers and for off-line spectral analysis using programs that incorporate either peak boundary or Gaussian peak fitting methods of analysis. This system provides the gamut of INAA techniques for the analyst. The design and performance of the hardware and software are discussed. (orig.).

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of the hair of metallurgical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair samples were collected from 20 metallurgical workers (10 males and 10 females) and from 59 control subjects (32 males and 27 females), whose jobs do not indicate a specific occupational exposure. The concentrations of ten minor and trace elements (Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The statistical data distributions, the sex and age influences in these elemental concentrations and the average values obtained for the control group were compared with published data. The effect of occupational exposure to the metallic elements was reflected in elemental compositon of hair by significant higher concentration levels of Al, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, V and Zn in the hair of the exposed group, when compared with the control group. (author)

  8. Establishment of natural background concentration of some elements in soils from Zaria and environ by INAA using NIRR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source profile of chemical elements is important both for determination of natural baseline and anthropogenic input into soil characteristics. Undisturbed soils in Zaria and environ were sampled at six locations namely Bassawa, Kufena, TSibiri, Palladan, Kamphaghi and Kudingi based on the geology of the area. The soil samples were analyzed for sixteen (16) elements using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) Technique. The elements determined were AI, Mn, Dy, K, Br, La, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu and Ta. Analysis of the data revealed that concentration of most of the elements determined increases with depth indicating that natural sources account for the distribution pattern. In addition, soil samples collected in areas underlain by igneous rocks contain high concentrations of AI and Dy in 0-15 cm fraction and K, La, Rb and Mn in 0-30 cm fraction when compared with soil samples collected in areas underlain by metamorphic rocks. On the other hand, soil collected from the areas underlain by metamorphic rocks are more enriched in Sc and Cr in the 0-15 cm fraction and Sc and Co in the 0-30 cm fraction compared with soil collected from areas underlain by igneous rocks. The general variations in the elemental concentration of the various soil samples is attributed to the differences in parent rock chemistry and constituent minerals, local variation in Eh-pH conditions of the environment and continued alterations by other soil forming factors.

  9. Feasibility of using INAA for biomonitoring of heavy metals and other elements in human ectoderm derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For systematic checking of the feasibility of determining elements by INAA in scalp hair, pubic hair and toenails, three different regimes were employed by varying the activation time and cooling time prior to γ-ray spectrometric measurements. The combination of these three regimes (activation time 1 min, cooling time 10 min; activation time 5 h, cooling time 5 d; activation time 5 h, cooling time 30 d) made it possible to determine the following 20 elements in most samples: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Zn. Further 10 elements (Ba, Cd, Mo, Ni, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th, V, W) were detectable only in some samples, however, with a fairly good precision, so that they could be detected in this way in the case of elevated concentrations exceeding physiological limits. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  10. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  11. Neutron Activation Analysis of Single Grains Recovered by the Hayabusa Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Hamajima, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Kumagai, K.; Oura, Y.; Shirai, N.; Ireland. T. R.; Kitajima, F.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Naraoka, H.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, M.; Yurimoto, H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Abe, M.; Fujimura, A.; Mukai, T.; Yada, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft was launched on May 9, 2003 and reached an asteroid Itokawa (25143 Itokawa) in September 2005. After accomplishing several scientific observations, the spacecraft tried to collect the surface material of Itokawa by touching down to the asteroid in November. The spacecraft was then navigated for the earth. In encountering several difficulties, Hayabusa finally returned to the earth on June 12, 2010 and the entry capsule was successfully recovered. Initially, a g-scale of solid material was aimed to be captured into the entry capsule. Although the sample collection was not perfectly performed, it was hoped that some extraterrestrial material was stored into the capsule. After careful and extensive examination, more than 1500 particles were recognized visibly by microscopes, most of which were eventually judged to be extraterrestrial, highly probably originated from Itokawa [1]. Several years before the launching of the Hayabusa spacecraft, the initial analysis team was officially formed under the selection panel at ISAS. As a member of this team, we have been preparing for the initial inspection of the returned material from many scientific viewpoints [2]. Once the recovered material had been confirmed to be much less than 1 g, a scheme for the initial analysis was updated accordingly [3]. In this study, we aim to analyze tiny single grains by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). As the initial analysis is to be started in mid-January, 2011, some progress for the initial analysis using INAA is described here. Analytical procedure

  12. Air pollution assessment in two Moroccan cities using instrumental neutron activation analysis on bio-accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for the air pollution assessment studies. In this work, lichens and barks have been used as bio-accumulators in several sites in two Moroccan cities (Rabat and Mohammadia). The specific ability of absorbing and accumulating heavy metals and toxic element from the air, their longevity and resistance to the environmental stresses, make those bioindicators suitable for this kind of studies. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultra-trace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrated by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, a preliminary investigation employing lichens, barks and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements distribution in six different areas of Rabat and Mohammadia cities characterised by the presence of many industries and heavy traffic. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high-resolution Germanium-Lithium detectors. More than 30 elements were determined using two modes : short irradiation (1 minute) and long irradiation (17 hours). Accuracy and quality control were assessed using the reference standard material IAEA-336. This was less than 1% for major and about 5 to 10% for traces.

  13. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, G.R.K.; Balaji, T. [Department of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati (India); Denschlag, H.O.; Mauerhofer, E.; Porte, N. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed.

  14. Determination of macro, micro nutrient and trace element concentrations in Indian medicinal and vegetable leaves using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leafy samples often used as medicine in the Indian Ayurvedic system and vegetables were analyzed for 20 elements (As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cr, Cs, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, Zn) by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were irradiated at the 100 kW TRIGA-MAINZ nuclear reactor and the induced activities were counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentration of the elements in the medicinal and vegetable leaves and their biological effects on human beings are discussed

  15. INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan. Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration of these potentially toxic elements was quantified in molasses; however, molasses together with jaggery, brown sugar and white sugar contains trace amounts of all of these elements. Due to very low concentration of Cd it could only be detected in molasses. To evaluate the percentage contribution of these elements in the sugar cane products to the weekly recommended values, intakes on weekly consumption of 100 g of each item have also been calculated which follow the pattern Br>Se>Pb>Hg>As>Sb. The elevated Br contents may be attributed to the use of Br-containing chemicals for fumigation; however, these contents are well within the tolerance levels. The estimated weekly intake of all toxic elements is very low indicating that sugar cane products can be safely ingested as part of the diets. (author)

  16. The use of INAA technique in provenance studies of ancient pottery from the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of Archaeological in Ghana has been in existence for a very long time, gaining respect in some areas in the West African sub-region. The history of some early societies in Ghana with relation to pottery making and its uses still has a lot to be discovered. Provenance or source analyses are vital in exchange studies by finding the sources of artifacts. Through characterization studies, archaeological materials can be shown to have originated from particular areas enabling archaeologists to demonstrate human interaction. The Ga (Ayawaso) and the Dangme-Shai had cultural contacts and trade with neighboring towns and with the various European factors that traded in the coasts of Accra. The archaeological material remains recovered from these communities (Ayawaso, Wullf and Shai) during excavation were investigated using Scientific Nuclear Analytical technique. In all, the concentrations of 15 trace elements (i.e. Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, V, Yb) were determined in 40 pottery samples and clay samples from Afuamang (Ayawaso) and Doryumu (Shai) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Raw clay samples from Doryumu and Afuamang normalized perfectly with pottery samples from the Shai and Ayawaso Township, respectively. Pottery samples from Wullf also normalized well with clay from Afuamang than it did with those from Doryumu. This is construed that the Wullf community did not produced their own pots but traded more with the potters from Ayawaso which was the closest potting town. (author)

  17. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site, dated 9240-10370 years ago, was excavated. Contents of trace elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, U, Th, Sc, Ta, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr and Zr in 44 pottery shards from Guangxi sites, dated from 1450 B.C. to 200 A.D., were determined by INAA and XRF. The provenances of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters

  18. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengZi-Cheng; Yun-Lan; 等

    1997-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site.dated 9240-10370 years ago,was excavated.Contents of trace elements La,Ce,Nd,Sm,Eu,Tb,Yb,Lu,U,Th,Sc,Ta,Ba,Cs,Rb,Sr and Zr in 44 porttery shards from Guangxi sites,dated from 1450B.C. to 200A.D.,were dtermined by INAA and XRF.The proveniences of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters.

  19. Multielement analysis of environmental reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of trace elements in environmental reference materials prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan (NIES) and by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). NIES CRM No. 5 Human Hair, No. 6 Mussel, No. 7 Tea Leaves, No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates, No. 9 Sargasso and No. 10 Rice Flour-unpolished samples (ca. 150 - 1200 mg) and NIST SRM 1632a Bituminous Coal, SRM 1635 Sub-bituminous Coal and SRM 1633a Coal Fly Ash samples (ca. 10 - 150 mg) were irradiated at the Musashi Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITRR). Concentrations of 28 - 52 elements in these NIES and NIST environmental reference materials were determined by two irradiation methods and four γ-ray counting methods. The determined values were in good agreement with the NIES and NIST certified values. (author)

  20. INAA investigation of major and trace elements. Vertical distribution in lacustrine sediments from the Danube Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), the vertical profile of 4 major (Na, K, Ca and Fe) and 21 trace (Rb, Cs, Ba, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th, U, Ta, Cr, Co, Zn, As, Sb and Br) elements have been determined in sedimentary cores collected from three lakes (Lung, Mesteru and Furtuna), all of them located in the fluvio-lacustrine part of the Danube Delta. All determinations have been performed in correlation with the radiometric measurement of the 137 Cs vertical distribution as well as sediment dry bulk density. The last category of data allowed us to determine the sedimentation rate, and thus to reconstruct the geochronology of four potential polluting elements, i.e. Zn, As, Sb and Br. A previous lithologic study has showed a great similarity between the Lung and Mesteru lakes sediments, both of them being classified as lacustrine in opposition with the Furtuna lake whose sediments presented a significant fluvial character. The major elements present a relatively uniform trend, irrespective to the sediment origin. In the case of trace elements, we noticed some peculiarities about the Rare Earth Elements (REE) vertical distribution. Therefore, the total REE versus Sc diagram as well as REE normalized to the Upper Continental Crust (UCC) concentrations, in spite of their relatively similitude, presented different pattern for Lung and Mesteru lake sediments on one hand and Furtuna lake on the other. The La to Th ratio presented, in the limit of experimental errors, close values to 3.25, characteristic for the UCC. All these data pledge for a continental origin of the investigated sediments. As, Sb and especially Zn presented maximum concentrations beneath the upper sediment surface. Based on these values as well as on the sedimentation rates determined from the 137 Cs vertical profiles, the time evolution of above elements concentrations have been reconstructed for the last seventy years. By analyzing these findings, it results that

  1. Rare earth element (REE) in surface mangrove sediment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is carried out on the concentrations of rare earth element (REE) elements present in surface mangrove sediments from 10 locations throughout west coast Malaysia. In carrying out the analysis, the best and most convenient method being the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples were obtained, dried, crushed to powdery form and samples prepared for INAA. All the samples for analysis were weighted approximately 150 mg for short irradiation and 200 mg for long irradiation time. As calibration and quality control procedures, blank samples, standard reference material SL-1 were then irradiated with thermal neutron flux of 4 × 1012 cm-2 s-1 at the MINT TRIGA Mark II research reactor which operated at 750 kW by using a pneumatic transport facility. The REE elements of surface sediment samples in this study are Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, Tb, La and Ce. It was found that the level of concentrations of all the REE elements varies in the range (0.35-117.4 mg/kg). The geochemical behavior of REEs in surface sediments and normalized pattern (chondrite and shale) has been studied. The degree of sediments contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor. The results showed that the enrichment factor varied in the range (0.75-6.75). (author)

  2. Rare Earth Elements In Egyptian Granite By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobilization of rare earth elements (REEs) in the environment requires monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are mainly present at trace levels. The similarity in (REEs) chemical behavior makes the separate determination of each element by chemical methods difficult; instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), based on nuclear properties of the elements to be determined, is a method of choice in trace analysis of (REEs) and related elements. Therefore, (INAA) was applied as a sensitive nondestructive analytical tool for the determination of rare earth elements to find out what information could be obtained about the (REEs) of some Egyptian granite collected from four locations in Aswan area in south Egypt as follows wadi EI-Allaqi, EI-Shelal, Gabel Ibrahim Pacha and from Sehyel Island and to estimate the accuracy, reproducibility and detection limit of NAA method in case of the given samples. The samples were properly prepared together with standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 1011n/cm2.s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. The following elements have been determined: La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu. The gamma spectra was collected by HPGe detector and the analysis was done by means of computerized multichannel analyzer. The X-ray fluorescence XRF was also used

  3. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 100 sherds were collected from Hongzhou Kiln of Jiangxi Province, China and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc., were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age indirectly. The analytical data were further processed by principal components analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups: (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties. (author)

  4. Measurement of the isotopic composition of germanium by k{sub 0}-INAA and INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaercke, P., E-mail: pvermaer@sckcen.b [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hult, M. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Verheyen, L.; Farina Arbocco, F. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-10-11

    In experiments searching for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay high-purity Germanium detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge will be used. Due to the nature of these experiments the isotopic composition of the enriched germanium is an important parameter. In order to determine the {sup 76}Ge/{sup 74}Ge isotopic ratio in this new material, but also in natural and depleted samples, the feasibility of using k{sub 0}- and relative standardisation neutron activation analysis for the determination of isotopic ratios was investigated. The paper will discuss the accuracy and the estimated uncertainty of both methods in general. It was found that both techniques are useful for the determination of isotopic ratios. The analysis also demonstrated that the k{sub 0}-data for Ge should be re-evaluated.

  5. Neutron activation analysis for assessing chemical composition of dry dog foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil holds the second largest population of domestic dogs in the world, with 33 million dogs, only behind the United States. The annual consumption of dog food in the country is 1.75 million tons, corresponding to the World's sixth in trade turnover. Dog food is supposed to be a complete and balanced diet, formulated with high quality ingredients. All nutrients and minerals required for an adequate nutrition of dogs are added to the formulation to ensure longevity and welfare. In this context, the present study aimed at assessing the chemical composition of dry dog foods commercialized in Brazil. Thirty-four samples were acquired in the local market of Piracicaba and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn. In general, the concentrations of Ca, Fe, K, Na, and Zn complied with the values required by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO). To evaluate the safety of dog food commercialized in Brazil, further investigation is necessary to better understand the presence of toxic elements found in this study, i.e. Sb and U. INAA was useful for the screening analysis of different types and brands of dry dog foods for the determination of both essential and toxic elements. (author)

  6. Ecological impacts of Al-Jalamid phosphate mining, Saudi Arabia: Soil elemental characterization and spatial distribution with INAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; García-Tenorio, R; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (P) industries will be one of the main industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia within the next few years. Al-Jalamid phosphate mine, which started operation a few years ago, is one of the biggest mining locations in the Middle East region. It is planned to mine 12 million tons run of mine ore per year (Mty) and produce about 4.5 Mty of phosphate concentrate for the next 20 years. Long term ecological impacts of phosphate mining activities on soil and groundwater should be investigated. The contaminated soil acts as a long term source of environmental contamination. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil areas located in the vicinity of the phosphate mining activities. A total of sixty eight surface and subsurface soil samples from 34 locations around Al-Jalamid phosphate mine have been collected. The elemental characterization of soil samples was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pollution indices, geoaccumulation (I(geo)) and pollution load (PLI) indices were calculated from some elements to evaluate the soil pollution. Until now, there is no existing pre-operational elemental characterization in soil to evaluate the foreseen ecological impacts of phosphate mining. Our results are the first to evaluate the present situation that will be the base for the future evaluations. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil and their relation to phosphate mining activities, and to better understand the behavior of different elements in soil in an arid environment. PMID:26629683

  7. INAA: metal pollution in the environment of minas gerais state- Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the major sources of soil pollution because it contains a large variety of heavy metals. The environment is contaminated with several metals from mine waste, agricultural materials in fertilizers (Cd, Zn, V), pesticides (As, Pb, Zn) and wood preservatives (As); metal corrosion (Zn, Cd), metallurgical industries (Ni, Si, Mn, Ag, As, Sb, etc) and from other sources such as pigments and paint, additives, lubricants and medicines. The Iron Quadrangle, the central region of Minas Gerais State- Brazil, has important mineral reserves of Fe (the World's second largest iron ore producer), Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Au, Al, and U. The intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State throws out tons of waste in the open air, water and soil. The considerable accumulated concentrations of heavy metals and toxic elements penetrate the soil, underground waters and rivers, jeopardizing the environment quality. Other more distant regions of farming activities - crop production and cattle raising - are affected by contaminated water and sediment due to the Das Velhas River frequent floods. The river originates in the mining region and flows throughout Minas Gerais State and into the Sao Francisco River. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of in the mining region and farming region of the Das Velhas River. The samples analyzed were water, sediment, soil forage and fish..

  8. The concentration of Fe and Zn in food-stuff of agriculture, husbandry and fishery determined by k0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deficiency of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) micronutrient was suffered by population Therefore the determination of Fe and Zn in agriculture, husbandry, and fishery were carried out. The objective of this research is to estimate Fe and Zn intake through consumed food-stuff. Sampling was done in Pasar Serpong, while Fe and Zn was determined by k0- instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA). The result of analysis indicated that concentration of Fe and Zn in beef, goat and goat liver were >150 µg/g, in chicken flesh were around 30 µg/g. This food-stuff is good as source intake of Fe and Zn, due to level of consumption was low i.e. 0.001 - 0.018 kg/day, so its intake was lower enough i.e. 0.1 - 0.5 mg/day. The concentration of Fe and Zn in rice were < 50 µg/g, but because of consume level is high enough 0.3 kg/day, so Fe and Zn intake from rice is high enough. Zn and Fe content in spinach is 119 µg/g and 248 µg/g, Zn and Fe content in Kangkung is 54.84 µg/g, and 337 µg/g, and with consume level of ~0.015 kg/day it is good source of Zn arid Fe intake i.e 0.8 - 3.5 mg/day. The concentration of Zn in egg was 39.0184 µg/g and Fe was 74.45 µg/g because of level consume is higher than chicken flesh, so Zn and Fe intake from egg is higher than from chicken flesh, i.e. 0.85 - 1.64 mg/day. By knowing Fe and Zn concentration in foodstuff, supported with its consume level, Zn and Fe intake every day can be estimated. (author)

  9. Application of short-term INAA on the VR-1 VRABEC zero-power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine was determined in the thyroid by INAA. In order to eliminate the inhomogeneity problem when using aliquots, the whole organ/lobe was exposed. Technical details of the procedure are given. (P.A.)

  10. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for study on stone artefacts in Lam Ha'sites of Lam Dong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 55 samples of stone artifacts at some prehistory monuments in Lam Ha District. The concentration of 24 elements: Al, V, Mn, Cl, Na, K, As, La, Sm, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ce, Nd, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th in these stone artifacts were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The element concentration of the stone samples were processed by statistical methods (including summary statistic and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Mahalanobis Distance (MD). Results showed that the concentration of the samples in these sites are similar and the sources of stone artefacts come from the locally rock sources. (author)

  11. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for chemical composition analysis of ancient potteries from buddhist sites of Andhra Pradesh. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry was used to determine concentrations of 20 elements in seven clay pottery samples collected from excavated Buddhist sites of four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. For determining accuracy of the INAA method, two certified reference materials (CRMs) namely SL-1 and Soil-7 obtained from IAEA were analyzed. For establishing the provenance (same or different origin) of pottery samples, Al to Sc concentration ratio as well as statistical cluster analysis was used. For the cluster analysis, concentration values of selected nine elements namely Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Rb, Cs, Ba, and Hf were used. Soil samples from corresponding sites with known origin were analyzed for the validation of provenance methodology adopted in this study. From these analyses, it was observed that both pottery and soil samples under study belong to four different groups. To the best of our knowledge, the provenance studies of these ancient pottery samples are reported for the first time. (author)

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sectioned hair strands for arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinn, V.P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a valuable and proven method for the quantitative analysis of sectioned human head hair specimens for arsenic - and, if arsenic is found to be present at high concentrations, the approximate times when it was ingested. Reactor-flux thermal-neutron activation of the hair samples produces 26.3-h {sup 76}As, which is then detected by germanium gamma-ray spectrometry, measuring the 559.1-keV gamma-ray peak of {sup 76}As. Even normal levels of arsenic in hair, in the range of <1 ppm up to a few parts per million of arsenic can be measured - and the far higher levels associated with large internal doses of arsenic, levels approaching or exceeding 100 ppm arsenic, are readily and accurately measurable. However, all phases of forensic investigations of possible chronic (or in some cases, acute) arsenic poisoning are important, i.e., not just the analysis phase. All of these phases are discussed in this paper, based on the author`s experience and the experience of others, in criminal cases. Cases of chronic arsenic poisoning often reveal a series of two to four doses, perhaps a few months apart, with increasing doses.

  13. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  14. Multi-element determination of sandstone rock by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of sandstone samples from Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were properly prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7 x 1011 n/cm2.s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor facilities. Gamma spectra from hyper pure germanium HPGe detector were analysed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of sandstone rock. The following elements constituents have been determined: Na, K, Fe, Sc, Cr, Co, Zr, Ce, La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements which can be detected only by XRF. (author)

  15. Multi-element analysis of bone from the osteogenesis imperfecta model (OIM) mouse using thermal and fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable osteoporotic bone disease, due to defects in either type I procollagen genes (COL1A1 or COL1A2), resulting in abnormal and/or reduced levels of type I procollagen and alterations in bone mineralization. Our long term objectives are to evaluate the impact of proα1(I) and proα2(I) collagen mutations and the role of the genetic background on bone mineralization. Tibias from wildtype, heterozygous (oim/+), and homozygous (oim/oim) animals were subjected to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to measure F, P, Na, Mg, Cl, Ca, K, and Zn using the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) pneumatic-tube irradiation facility. (author)

  16. Teaching aspects of the instrumental neutron activation analysis advance prediction computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INAA APCP was developed, and is extensively used, primarily as a very useful guide for efficient INAA work. From the exact or approximate elemental composition of a material, it calculates the proper sample weight, and all details of the germanium gamma-ray pulse height spectrum for any and all input flux, detector, irradiation time, decay time, and counting time conditions specified. For each set of conditions, it also prints out the five largest induced activities and the five largest gamma-ray emitters at five different decay periods. The program also provides an excellent educational device for students in a radiochemistry course

  17. Archaeometric investigation of red-figured pottery fragments from Gioiosa Guardia (Messina, Sicily) by INAA, FT-IR and TOF-ND techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is addressed to the study of some precious ancient pottery fragments, coming from the archaeological site of Gioiosa Guardia, in the Tirrenean Coast of Sicily. On the basis of historical and aesthetic considerations, the findings are dated back to 6.-5. Century b.C. and show a surface entirely decorated by red-figured technique, typical of Attic production. Many doubts arise about the real provenance of the artefacts. On one side, they could come directly from Greece, as attested by trading patterns between Greece and Southern Italy, on the other side, they could be produced in Sicily under the Greek artistic influence. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the samples, a microdistruttive investigation was performed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) and a non-invasive analysis by time-of-flight neutron diffraction (TOF-ND). Starting from the identification of the mineralogical and geochemical composition, a correct classification of the shards can be achieved.

  18. Activation analysis of human hair as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development and uses of neutron activation techniques for human hair analyses are reviewed. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) appears to have the potential to be used as a tool for environmental pollution monitoring. Principally, two types of NAA procedure are in use nowadays for multi-element analyses of human scalp hair. The more common of these is the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) consisting in a single short-term (3 to 10 hours) exposure of hair to a beam of neutrons in a nuclear reactor, followed by two measurements of gamma-ray spectra at 2 to 3 days and 3 to 4 weeks after the irradiation. The following microelements can be commonly determined by this type of activation procedure: As, Au, Br, Cu, K, La, Na, Sb, Sm, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. The other procedure involves the use of radiochemical separation techniques and is employed for quantitative determinations of elements that are not easily determined by INAA (Mo, Cd, Ni, etc.), or in cases where there is a need to achieve the lowest possible limits of analytical determination. The accuracy of NAA techniques is strongly dependent on the hair sampling and hair sample processing methods used. The analytical error of this method may vary within the range of 5 to 15%. Its applicability as a tool for monitoring the environmental pollution level is demonstrated on an example of groups of individuals living in areas differing by the degree of environmental pollution. The use of other biological materials, such as mammalian hair, for the purpose of environmental exposure monitoring is also considered. (author)

  19. Study on trace elements of ten kinds of fish species at Beijing market by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: As the improvement of the living standard, the safety of food becomes more and more concerned currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. Purpose: We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the trace elements of them by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). So some detecting methods should be applied to give some suggestions for human. Methods: First of all, we choose six species of fresh water fish, including grass carp, weever, Wuchang Fish, tilapia, crucian, carp, and four species of frozen sea fish, including hairtail, yellow croaker, salmon, ling. All of them were collected from a supermarket in Beijing. Secondly, we remove the squama by Teflon coated scissor, wash the fish with de-ionized water and use ashless filter paper to absorb the water on the fish. Then we cut the squama-less part with titanium knife for about 10 g, put them into plastic bags separately and sealed, balance the net weight, use a tablet machine to press them into slice and freeze at -18℃ for 12 h. And then we put them into a vacuum desiccator to pump for 72 h, balance dry fish, calculate the ratio of moisture and triturate the sample into about 40 meshes in agate. Finally, we prepare three sub-samples about 300 mg with each packed by plastic bag for analysis. We put the samples, NIST-1632a and chemical standard material together, irradiate in micro neutron source reactor (MNSR) for 16 h, measure the radioactivity by Ge detector after cooling 5 d or 10 d, and calculate the contents of 16 elements by the ko-NAA and the relative method. Results: The contents of trace elements are different between fresh water fish and sea fish. The contents of As, Hg, Br: Na, Se in sea fish are apparently higher than fresh water fish, but the contents of Rb and Zn are contrary. Considering most fresh water fishes are feed, Zn was probably added in fodder. The content of As in weever is 2.4 μg·g-1, the

  20. Forensic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of neutron activation analysis are outlined. Examples of its use in police science include analysis for gunshot residues, toxic element determinations and multielement comparisons. Advantages of neutron activation analysis over other techniques are described. (R.L.)

  1. Determination of trace elements in epiphytic lichens from Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor using INAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Lichens have been used as effective bio monitors of atmospheric pollutants as they can take up nutrients and pollutants directly from the atmosphere. In this study, trace element contents in epiphytic lichens were determined using INAA method. Samples were collected from 7 sampling locations around Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. The elements detected were As (1.73 ± 0.85 mg/ kg), Ce (3.65 ± 1.91 mg/ kg), Co (0.29 ± 0.12 mg/ kg), Cr (5.92 ± 3.54 mg/kg), Cs (0.92 ± 0.25 mg/ kg), Eu (0.03 ± 0.02 mg/ kg), Fe (1280 ± 760 mg/ kg), Hf (0.37 ± 0.18 mg/ kg), La (1.52 ± 0.89 mg/kg), Rb (27.7 ± 4.8 mg/ kg), Sc (0.33 ± 0.19 mg/ kg), Sm (0.28 ± 0.16 mg/ kg), Th (1.21 ± 0.62 mg/ kg) and Zn (116 ± 27 mg/ kg). Comparisons were then made between the elemental concentrations obtained and the baseline data from literature. Results showed that most of the elements were within the concentration range of the baseline data. Enrichment factors (EF) of the trace element in lichens showed that most of the elements were within the range of the baseline data except for As which was found to be slightly enriched (EF: 13.2 - 28.5). Regression analysis indicated significant correlation (p<0.05) with Sc for most of the elements which signifies crustal input except for Cs and Rb. The poor correlations of Cs and Rb with Sc may be due to the mobility of these elements. In summary, trace element data obtained using INAA were very useful and demonstrated that lichens were suitable bio monitors for identifying potential trace element pollutants in ambient air around the sampling area. (author)

  2. Preliminary characterization of ceramics from the Lago Grande archaeological site in the central Amazon by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macroscopic characteristics of archaeological ceramics, such as the surface decoration and shape, are used as cultural and chronological indicators of ancient people. The combination of stylistic-typological studies with archaeometric analysis, as provenance studies, has been considered of great importance in Archaeology. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the pre-colonial Amazonian occupations. Inside this context, fifty ceramic fragments from the Lago Grande archaeological site were analyzed by INAA in order to characterize its elemental composition. The results were treated with multivariate statistics: Cluster, Principal Components and Discriminant Analysis. The results obtained by these three methods were compared in an effort to achieve some correlation with the archaeological context. It was stated the existence of two different groups of artifacts. They probably regard to the main ceramic phases found in the site excavation: Paredao and Manacapuru. Once confirmed by other archaeological analyses, these results could corroborate an exchange net among the former inhabitants of Lago Grande and other sites in the neighborhood. (author)

  3. Characterization of trace elements in Casearia medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaves of Casearia sylvestris, Casearia decandra and Casearia obliqua plant species, collected at the Atlantic Forest in Brazil, were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Short and long irradiations using thermal neutron flux of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were carried out for these analyses. Concentrations of Ca, K and Mg were found in these samples at the percentage levels, Br, Cl, Fe, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at the μg g-1 levels and Co, Cr, Cs, La, and Sc at the μg kg-1 levels. Comparisons were made among the element concentrations obtained in these three Casearia species and significant differences were found for the elements Cl, Co, Cs, Cr, La, Mn, Na and Sc. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST-1515 Apple Leaves and NIST-1573a Tomato Leaves

  4. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  5. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage [Bayero University, Kano Nigeria (Nigeria); Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina Nigeria (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abubakar, Nuraddeen [Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria (Nigeria)

    2015-04-24

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  6. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k0-standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  7. Chemical contents in Lygeum spartum L. using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria)

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation was conducted to determine the chemical contents of Lygeum spartum L. (Poaceae). Samples were analyzed in order to determine essential (Ca, K, Na, Fe, Co) and some potentially toxic elements (Eu, Sb, Tb) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In general chemical element contents were in substantial amounts to meet adult sheep requirements. Potential intake of Ca, K, Zn, Co and Fe by ruminant weighing 50 kg BW consuming 2.0 kg per day DM was sufficient to satisfy their requirements. However, only Na level was still insufficient to meet the requirements for grazing ruminants. Potential toxic elements in this species were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by NRC. Na supplementation would seem to be necessary in this zone, for optimum productivity of grazing animals.

  8. Assessment of some chemical element contents in Traganum nudatum Del shrub using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bouzid Nedjimi; Brahim Beladel

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to determine some chemical element contents (K, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, Sb, and Sc) in Traganum nudatum Del (Chenopodiaceae family) consumed in North African rangelands by sheep livestock. Samples were collected from the area of Djelfa in an arid steppe of Algeria. Results show that pasture halophyte had sufficient levels of K, Ca, Zn, and Co to meet the requirements of ruminants. However, it seems that this halophyte shrub had substantial amounts of Na, higher than the critical level established by the National Research Council (NRC). Eu, Sb, and Sc were within the safety baseline of all the assayed elements recommended by the NRC. The high Na content (∼10 g/kg) in this halophytic species requires elevated intake of water by livestock.

  9. Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    In activation analysis, a sample of an unknown material is first irradiated (activated) with nuclear particles. In practice these nuclear particles are almost always neutrons. The success of activation analysis depends upon nuclear reactions which are completely independent of an atom's chemical associations. The value of activation analysis as a research tool was recognized almost immediately upon the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This book discusses activation analysis experiments, applications and technical considerations.

  10. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  11. Provenance and indirect dating study on Hongzhou Kiln porcelains by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongzhou Kiln is one of the six leading celadon kilns in Tang Dynasty and plays an important role in the history of Chinese ceramics for its diverse decoration styles and innovative technology. Archaeologists divided Hongzhou Kiln production into 8 periods, i.e. Eastern Han and Eastern Wu, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Southern Dynasties, Sui, Early Tang, Middle Tang, Late Tang and Five Dynasties. Up to now, 26 kiln sites have been discovered and excavated. A study on the chemical composition of the porcelains of different periods and provenance will help to know the developing process of Hongzhou celadon such as variation of raw materials, recipes, manufacturing technology, causes of prosperity and decline, etc. Over 200 sherds were collected and their body samples were analyzed by INAA. The compositional differences between samples with the same period but different provenance were observed. The contents of Na, Rb, Ba, Fe, Th, U, etc were found to be different among samples from different periods, which implies they may be used to identify the manufacturing age. The analytical data were further processed by principal component analysis (PCA). The statistical results show that all the sherds can be classified into 5 groups, (1) Eastern Han and Eastern Wu; (2) Western Jin, Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties; (3) Sui; (4) Early Tang and Middle Tang; (5) Late Tang and Five Dynasties.

  12. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  13. Residual Chromium in Leather by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Okoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most tanning processes employ the use of chromium sulphate. For chromium tanned leather, finished products may contain high amount of residual chromium. This may pose some health hazards, since chromium is known to be toxic at elevated concentration. This justifies the need for the study. Approach: Various samples of leather were collected from a tannery, a leather crafts market, a leather dump site and from local tanners all in Kano, Nigeria in 2009. The samples were irradiated for 6 h in the inner site of the Nigerian Research Reactor (NIRR-1 at a flux of 5×1011 ncm-2 sec-1. Results: After evaluating the spectrum, the mean results for chromium in the samples were determined as 2.33±0.3, 2.23±0.3 and 2.93±0.4% for samples from the tannery, leather crafts market and leather dump sites respectively. Chromium concentration in samples collected from local tanners who use tannins from Acacia nilotica as tanning agent was below the detection limit of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique used in the study. Conclusion: Although, the concentrations of chromium in the analysed samples were not much higher than what were obtained in literature, they may be enough to sensitize the population that is allergic to chromium.

  14. Validation of the instrumental neutron activation analysis method for mercury analysis in hair samples used for biomonitoring of mercury environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental mercury contamination has lately become of widespread concern in Brazil owing to gold extraction activities in the Amazon region and also to industrial activities. It is estimated that tonnes of mercury are thrown in the rivers of the Amazon region annually or are evaporated into the open air owing to the amalgamation procedure employed in gold extraction. In the present work, as pail of an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP), three main population groups were studied: a control group of individuals with no suspicion of contamination by mercury; a group of people living near the Billings Dam, located in one of the most heavily industrialized parts of the country, and several Indian tribes living in Xingu Park, an Indian reservation located in the Amazon region. An important part of the CRP was the validation of the analytical methodology for die analysis of total mercury in the hair samples of the population groups studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was chosen for the analysis of mercury in these samples. It has the advantage of being non-destructive, which can be quite convenient when dealing with a large number of samples, which is the case in epidemiological studies. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiation of the hair samples in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and measurement of the gamma radioactivity of 197Hg. For the validation of the analytical methodology, the following reference materials (RMs) were analysed: IAEA MA-A-2/TM Fish Flesh Homogenate; SHINR GBW-9101 Chinese Human Hair and the candidate RMs IAEA-085 and IAEA-086 Human Hair. The recently acquired RM BCR CRM-397 was also analysed. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method for the analysis of these RMs is discussed, as well as the applicability of the method to the analysis of mercury in the hair of the population groups studied. (author)

  15. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; El-Amir, Mahmoud A.; Mostafa, Mohamed; Ramadan, Hala E.; Rashad, Ghada M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  16. Simultaneous multi-element determination in different seed samples of Dodonaea viscosa hopseed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied for nondestructive multi-element analysis of seed samples of the plant Dodonaea viscosa hopseed. This plant is distributed all over Egypt, because of its suitable properties. The samples were collected from some bushes grown at different sites in some governorates, in July of each year during the period from 2004 to 2011. The determined elements are: Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sr and Zn, under the chosen irradiation and cooling times. The content of some elements has been compared with data obtained from previous work on analysis of various kinds of seeds. The influence of some parameters on the determined elemental content is discussed. Standard reference materials IAEA-155 and IAEA-V-10 were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique.

  17. Determination of rare-earths and other trace elements in neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic dykes from Ceara state, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Rafael Martins dos; Figueiredo, Ana M.G., E-mail: rafael.anjos@usp.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator Nuclear de Pesquisas. Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons; Cardoso, Gustavo Luan; Marques, Leila S., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2011-07-01

    Trace elements such as rare earths, U, Th, Ta, Ba and Hf can be very useful in petrogenetic studies of igneous and metamorphic rocks, giving information about the origin and evolution of magmas. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is an accurate and precise for trace element analysis in geological samples, and provides the information required for this kind of studies. In this study, rare earths and incompatible trace elements were determined by INAA in the geological reference materials GS-N and BE-N, to quality control, and for the investigation of acid dykes of neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic ages, which outcrop in the Medio Coreau and Ceara Central domains from the Borborema Province (Ceara State). The powdered samples (particle sizes less than 100 mesh), crushed by using a mechanical agate mortar grinder, were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated and preliminary results of dyke samples are presented. (author)

  18. Synthesis of Precision for the Certification of Phosphorus in Biological Materials by INAA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1987-01-01

    The β-emitter32P was used to determine total phosphorus by INAA in Skim Milk Powder RM 63, a material now certified by the EEC Bureau of Reference (BCR). Samples and comparator were irradiated in the Danish reactor DR 3. One month later the samples were dissolved in water and aliquots counted...

  19. Arsenic and Mercury Levels in Earthenware Clays in Otsew in Gomoa West District of Central Region of Ghana using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Samlafo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and extent of potentially toxic heavy metals, As and Hg in earthenware clay deposits at Otsew in the Gomoa West District of the Central Region of Ghana using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique. Arsenic concentrations in the clay ranged from 1.55±0.23 to 18.47±2.60 μg/g at S6 and S10 respectively with a mean of 9.48 μg/g. Arsenic was not detected in sample S3. Mercury concentration in the clay ranged from 0.030±0.005 to 0.31±0.01 μg/g in S2 and S3 respectively, with a mean of 0.14 μg/g. Mercury was however, not detected in S10. The precision and accuracy of the analytical technique (INAA were assessed by simultaneous activation of reference material IAEA soil-7. The values obtained compared favourably well with the recommended values as Spearman’s correlation coefficient was +0.99. The experimental samples were within ±5% of the recommended values. The measurement precision specified by the relative standard deviation was within ±4%.

  20. Non-destructive compositional analysis of sol-gel synthesized lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) by particle induced gamma-ray emission and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium titanate, one of the important tritium breeding materials in D-T based fusion reactor under ITER programme, was synthesized through sol-gel route. For chemical quality control of finished product, it was necessary to quantify the lithium and titanium contents. As this ceramic sample is difficult to dissolve, non-destructive analytical methods are preferred for compositional analysis. In the present work, two non-destructive nuclear analytical methods namely particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) using proton beam and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons were standardized for the determination of lithium and titanium concentrations, respectively and applied to eleven samples of lithium titanate. To the best of our knowledge, Li quantification in lithium titanate sample is being reported for the first time using PIGE. For quantifications of Li and Ti, 478 keV prompt gamma-ray from 7Li (p, p'γ) 7Li and 320 keV gamma-ray from 50Ti (n,γ) 51Ti were measured, respectively, by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The PIGE and INAA methods were validated using several synthetic samples containing lithium and titanium, respectively. Concentrations of lithium and titanium and Li/Ti mole ratios were evaluated and compared with the stoichiometric concentration of Li2TiO3. (author)

  1. INAA and PIXE of atmospheric and combustion aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, J; Havránek, V; Smolík, J; Schwarz, J; Veselý, V; Kugler, J; Sýkorová, I; Santroch, J

    1999-01-01

    Using instrumental neutron activation analyses and photon-induced x-ray emission techniques for analysis of size-fractionated atmospheric and combustion aerosols and other emission samples arising from fluidized-bed combustion of North Bohemian lignites up to 42 elements were determined in all samples types. This allowed the evaluation of element enrichment, time trends, and inter-element correlations and the performance of factor analysis of various fractions of atmospheric aerosols. The data obtained on mass and element size distributions of aerosols and emission samples obtained upon lignite combustion in an experimental scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor without and with added hydrated lime and limestone were used to elucidate the mechanism of abatement of toxic trace and matrix elements from flue gas. PMID:10676497

  2. Characterization of Maya pottery by INAA and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 81 pottery and 25 clay samples from the archaeological site and hinterland areas of Blue Creek in northwest Belize were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Data generated for this study offers insight into local clay-resource variability and movement of pottery in the transition from Early (A.D. 250-600) to Late Classic (A.D. 600-850) occupation. Comparison of data generated by the two analytical techniques demonstrates the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method. (author)

  3. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to assess dietary intake of selenium in Korean adults from meat and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty three frequently eaten items among meat and eggs were collected and pretreated. Selenium (Se) contents in the diet samples were analyzed using an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 100 g of beef contains 12.4-50.9 μg of Se; pork, 11.2-22.6 μg; chicken, 10.2-13.7 μg and eggs, 28.6-43.0 μg. Beef innards and chicken eggs contain the highest amounts of Se. This study reveals that Se intake of Korean adults are 28.7 μg/day in men and 27.6 μg/day in women from meat and eggs, which are over 1/2 of the Korean recommended Se intake. (author)

  4. Determination of minor and trace elements in sandalwood, mango wood and giloy by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandalwood, mango wood and the stems of giloy used as yagya material are also used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. We have determined the elemental composition of these samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentrations of the inorganic elements in the dried powder of these woods were analyzed for 4 minor (K, Ca, Cl and Mg) and 13 trace (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Na, Se, V and Zn) elements. 20/100 mg samples along with reference materials (SRM 1547 and INCT MPH 2) were irradiated for 1 min/6h in Dhruva/CIRUS reactors respectively followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Sandalwood showed higher contents of K, Ca, Zn Se and Cr whereas mango wood was enriched in Na, Ca, Fe and Zn. (author)

  5. Simple and direct determination of active ingredients in drugs by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing number of drugs in the market and the need for their control requires new, simple, fast and accurate analytical methods. Iodine, iron, manganese, silver and sodium were determined by INAA in various pharmaceutical formulations, representing capsules, injectables, powders for injection, solutions and tablets. From the results it appears that NAA could be used as an official method for the determination of iron, manganese and silver in pharmaceutical products, in which these elements are present as active ingredients, as well as for the control of the concentration limits for iodine and sodium. (author)

  6. 13. seminar 'Activation analysis'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection of the abstracts of contributions to the seminar covering broad ranges of application of activation analysis and improvements of systems and process steps. Most of them have been prepared separately for the energy data bases. (RB)

  7. K{sub 0}-INAA method accuracy using Zn as comparator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedregal, P., E-mail: pbedregal@ipen.gob.p [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Av. Canada 1470, Sn. Borja 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Mendoza, P.; Ubillus, M. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Av. Canada 1470, Sn. Borja 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Montoya, E., E-mail: emontoya@ipen.gob.p [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Av. Canada 1470, Sn. Borja 1470, Lima 41 (Peru)

    2010-10-11

    An evaluation of the accuracy in the application of the k{sub 0}-INAA method using Zn foil as comparator is presented. A good agreement was found in the precision within analysts and between them, as well as in the assessment of trueness for most elements. The determination of important experimental parameters like gamma peak counting efficiency, {gamma}-{gamma} true coincidence, comparator preparation and quality assurance/quality control is also described and discussed.

  8. Age dynamics of zinc and iron contents in human hair determined by INAA and ICP-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In last decades, the determination of chemical element levels in human hair has been a subject of continual interest in the forensic, clinical, occupational and environmental medicine. Hair has been increasingly used as a monitor for many elements and has been proposed for assessing environmental exposure, nutritional status, and for diagnosis of disease. It has many advantages for assessment over the more traditional kinds of medical objects such as blood and urine because of ease of collection, transport and storage. Also, trace element concentrations in hair samples represent an integrated response over time compared with blood and urine levels, which can rapidly fluctuate in response to variations of nutritional and environmental conditions. The fact that contents of many chemical elements in hair are relatively high also facilitates the analysis. It is known that the result of the hair analysis may not directly relate to the intake amount, nor does it always reflect the amount actually absorbed. Despite these limitations, the analysis of human hair can still provide a basis for estimating ambient exposure to certain elements. The first step in construction of such basis is investigations the national population normal levels of chemical element contents in hair related to sex, age and some other factors under quality control of results. The objectives of this analytical work were to evaluate the reference range of Zn and Fe in adult scalp hair and to evaluate the effect of age and sex on elemental contents. In this study, head hair samples from adult health persons living in or near Obninsk (the small city in rural region 105 km south-west Moscow), were analysed by two methods in three analytical laboratories: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA - one laboratory) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ISP-AES - two laboratories). Scalp hair samples were obtained at necropsy from eighty-three cadavers (38 women

  9. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  10. Bulk Analysis Method of Gold Determination in Ores Using Epithermal Neutrons of Electron Accelerator Microtron MT-22

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbish, Sh; Baatarkhuu, D; Ganbold, G; Belov, A G

    2004-01-01

    Bulk analysis method of gold determination in ores by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is described. The powder (100-200 mesh) samples were irradiated in Cd foils of 1 mm thick with photo-neutrons at the Microtron MT-22 of the Nuclear Research Center, Mongolian State University (Ulaanbaatar). The sensitivity of 0.1 mg/kg Au can be obtained using 30-50 g samples and irradiation time of 1-2 h.

  11. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  12. 商周时期原始瓷的中子活化分析及相关问题讨论%INAA of Shang-Zhou Period Proto-porcelain and a Discussion of Related Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁梅; Rapp G.Jr.; 荆志淳

    2003-01-01

    Previously the authors studied proto-porcelain samples from early and middle Shang sites (Wucheng, Zhengzhou, Jingnansi, Panlongcheng and Tonggushan) by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) . The results showed them to have a similar chemical composition pattern, which suggested that these proto-porcelain shards might have been produced in the same area around Wucheng. In the present paper, the authors report their new analysis on proto-porcelain shards from sites of middle Shang to early Zhou times (Xiaoshuangqiao, Anyang Yinxu, Zhouyuan, Liulihe and Zhangjiapo). For the samples later than the middle Yinxu period, new composition patterns are detected, which indicates diversity in their provenance. The significantly lower Fe2O3 and lower Tio2 contents of these later samples demonstrate the advance of then proto-porcelain industry. Two samples from Zhouyuan with Al2O3 contents higher than 25% seem to suggest that in addition to porcelain stone other materials might also have been used in proto-porcelain production in the Western Zhou period.

  13. Matrix problems in the certification analysis of botanical materials by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1995-01-01

    residue should not contain the determinand. In BCR certification analysis for As and Se by RNAA the irradiated sample was decomposed with sulphuric and nitric acids, and CRM 279 Sea Lettuce and CRM 402 White Clover left an insoluble residue. Unirradiated material was then digested without carrier addition......, and the insoluble residue separated by filtration. No significant content of Se was found by INAA, but about 5% of the total amount of As was found in CRM 402. The ramifications of making a correction are discussed, and it is concluded that a correction for an insoluble fraction may lead to a positive bias....

  14. INAA of microelements in plant species from the Danube floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research was developed and implemented in the Danube floodplain, as a part of a program dealing with biogeochemistry of metals, to assess the possibility of using the ubiquitous plant species in the soil pollution monitoring activity. The Danube River is heavily polluted by the input from a catchment, which includes 12 countries. Even if the concentrations in the Danube water and sediments reach acute values only in some hot spots, due to the dilution effect, they could have negative consequences by phenomena of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration. The content of Al, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, V and Zn in Bidens tripartita, Rubus caesius, Stachys palustris and Xanthium strumarium ubiquitous plant species, collected from two areas located on different regularly flooded islands of the Danube river was investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis method at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. From the statistical point of view, three groups of elements present highly correlated concentrations in the investigated plant samples (p(0.05))//. The first one includes Al, As, Ce, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Sc, Sm, Th and V, the second one Au, Ca, Cu and Sr, and the third one Br, Cr, Na and Mn. For the elements of the first group, the elemental concentrations are found to be in similar ratios in the species investigated, namely: Xanthium s. < Rubus c. < Bidens t. < Stachys p. as well as for the third group: Bidens t. < Rubus c. < Stachys p. < Xanthium s, suggesting that physiological features of the species could be responsible for the observed patterns of distribution. The soil and dominating plant species were analysed for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Zr by the X-ray fluorescence method at the Institute for Geological Explorations, Bucharest. The elemental content in soil is reflected in the analysed plants for Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, but not for Mn. This could be explained by the redox

  15. Application of neutron activation analysis method in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been related to the presence of organic compounds, however elements are also known to have an important participation in the active compounds constitution process. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine elements in leaves of Casearia obliqua medicinal plant collected at two different locations in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, SP. Soil samples collected from where this plant was grown were also analyzed in order to verify if there is a correlation between the elements present in soils and plant leaves. Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined in C. obliqua leaves and the elements As, Ca, Ce, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Tb, Th, U and Zn in soils. Soil samples collected from two different locations presented similar concentrations for most elements. Likewise, C. obliqua leaves collected from the two locations presented similar elemental contents. These results suggest that analysis of extracts from these leaf samples and the evaluation of their pharmacological activities should be carried out. Certified reference materials IAEA-Soil-7, USGS W-1, NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves and NIST 1515 Apple Leaves were analyzed and the quality of the obtained results was assured. (author)

  16. Application of neutron activation analysis to the monitoring of trace elements in Brazilian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs, nuclear analytical techniques were used to determine about twenty elements in foods samples collected from local markets of the city of Sao Paulo. Drinking water was also analyzed. The methods employed were mainly instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In the case of the analysis of toxic elements, such as mercury, selenium, arsenic and antimony, the purely instrumental approach failed in yielding results for very low concentrations of these elements. For INAA, samples and multielemental synthetic standards were irradiated in the IEA R1 research reactor for periods of time ranging from minutes to several hours, under thermal neutron fluxes from 1011 to 1013 n·cm-2·s-1; after suitable cooling times, γ-ray spectra were measured using a Ge(Li) or Ge solid state detector. The RNAA approach involved the distillation of mercury and selenium in HBr medium; selenium was then reduced to the metal form with sodium metabisulphide and mercury was precipitated as sulphide with thioacetamide. For water analysis, a preconcentration procedure based on retention of several elements in a Chelex-100 resin was employed. The elements retained were Hg, Cr, Zn, Fe, Co while Se was measured in the effluent after absorption on active charcoal. The levels of the trace inorganic elements determined in the Brazilian foodstuffs analyzed were always below the levels established by the existing regulations in our country. (author). 16 refs, 18 tabs

  17. Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yan, L. T.; Feng, S. L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A lot of official wares carved "Guan" or the dragon patterns were excavated on the strata of Ming dynasty of the Fengdongyan kiln site at Dayao County. The imperial porcelain was fired in Hongwu and Yongle eras. However, the emergence of this imperial porcelain has triggered academic debate about the property of Fengdongyan kiln in the Early Ming dynasty. Based on the differences of the official kiln management, some scholars have determined that the property of the production for this kiln was the civilian kiln. According to the historical textural records and typology, others preliminary confirmed that Fengdongyan kiln was the official kiln. In this paper, the elemental compositions of body and glaze in imperial and civilian porcelain are study by INAA and EDXRF for determining the property of the production for this kiln in Early Ming dynasty. After the processing of experimental data by geochemical analysis and principal component analysis, the result show that the raw materials for making body and glaze in imperial porcelain are similar with those of the civilian porcelain and the degrees of elutriation for body can be slightly different in HW-M period of Ming dynasty. The analytical results support the view that the Fengdongyan kiln is civilian not official.

  18. Application of epithermal neutron activation in multielement analysis of silicate rocks employing both coaxial Ge(Li) and low energy photon detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental activation analysis of silicate rocks using epithermal neutrons has been studied using both high resolution coaxial Ge(Li) detectors and low energy photon detectors, and applied to the determination of 23 elements in eight new U.S.G.S. standard rocks. The analytical use X-ray peaks associated with electron capture or internal conversion processes has been evaluated. Of 28 elements which can be considered to be determinable by instrumental means, the epithermal activation approach is capable of giving improved sensitivity and precision in 16 cases, over the normal INAA procedure. In eleven cases the use of the low energy photon detector is thought to show advantages over convertional coaxial Ge(Li) spectroscopy. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  19. Multielemental hair composition of Brazilian Indian populational groups by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental composition of hair samples of Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Reservation, in the Brazilian Amazonic region has been determined for the first time, by INAA. Irradiations were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (Delft, The Netherlands) and, using a combination of different irradiation and decay times, about 40 elements could be determined in the hair. Previous analysis made at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) of hair samples of a Brazilian control population allowed the determination of 20 elements, also by INAA. Comparison of the data obtained for the Indian populations and the controls showed very significant differences in elemental compositions for some elements, like Hg, Mn and Al while for others, like Cu and Zn, the concentrations were similar. A discussion of the differences found for other elements also is made. (author)

  20. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  1. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES; Estudo comparativo na determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de produtos lacteos por AANI e ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  2. Investigation of distribution of elements in a Korean ginseng by using a neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Na; Sun, Gwang Min; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The Distinction of production areas of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). This study was done as a part of those efforts. As is well known, the distribution of elements varies according to the part of plant due to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So a correlation study between plants and soil is an important issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  3. Forensic Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high sensitivity of high-flux (reactor) thermal-neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the detection and quantitative measurement of a large number of elements has led, in recent years, to a considerable degree of application of the method in the area of scientific crime investigation (criminalistics). Thus, in a Forensic Activation Analysis Bibliography recently compiled by the author, some 135 publications in this field are listed - and more are appearing quite rapidly. The nondestructive character of the purely-instrumental form of the method is an added advantage in forensic work, since evidence samples involved in actual criminal cases are not destroyed during analysis, but are preserved intact for possible presentation in court. Quite aside from, or in addition to, use in court, NAA results can be very helpful in the investigative stage of particular criminal cases. The ultra sensitivity of the method often enables one to analyze evidence specimens that are too tiny for meaningful analysis by more conventional elemental analysis methods. Also, this high sensitivity often enables one to characterize, or individualize, evidence specimens as to the possibility of common origin - via the principle of multi-element trace-constituent characterization

  4. Dynamics of elements in soil treated with increasing doses sewage sludge for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the dynamics of the elements was analyzed The, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, La, In the, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Th, U, Yb and Zn in a profile of a red-yellow latossolo, in the depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm, and dose of the biosolid of 0, 25, 124 and 375 t ha-1, of the station of treatment of sewer of Barueri, Sao Paulo. The experiment was carried out in areas of 3,05 m2 in the times of 2,2; 4,0; 6,6; 14,3 and 21 months. For analysis of the elementary composition, it was used of the analysis technique by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experiment was submitted under normal tropical conditions in a forest station in Itatinga, Sao Paulo, of the University of Sao Paulo. For better details, the factors depth, doses and times statistical analyses of the results of the elementary composition of the soil samples were made. For all the biossolid doses conditioned with polymeric and applied in the soil, the composition of 17 of the 18 elements in the soil were not altered, with exception for Cr in the studied times. The elements As, Br, Ce, Co, Fe, Hf, La, Sm, Ta, Th, U and Yb presented higher levels in the deepest layers of soil; already the elements Cr, In the, Sb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the superficial layers. (author)

  5. Implementation of k0-INAA standardisation at ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey based on k0-IAEA software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Ayse Nur; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of k0-INAA method at the Istanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The neutron spectrum parameters such as epithermal neutron flux distribution parameter (α), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and thermal neutron flux (φth) were determined at the central irradiation channel of the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using bare triple-monitor method. HPGe detector calibrations and calculations were carried out by k0-IAEA software. The α, f and φth values were calculated to be -0.009, 15.4 and 7.92·1012 cm-2 s-1, respectively. NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash and intercomparison samples consisting of clay and sandy soil samples were used to evaluate the validity of the method. For selected elements, the statistical evaluation of the analysis results was carried out by z-score test. A good agreement between certified/reported and experimental values was obtained.

  6. k0-INAA for APM samples collected in period of June 2004 - March 2005 and some marine certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airborne particulate matter (APM) samples have been collected in 2004 using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 at two sites of industrial (Ho Chi Mihn City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. Three marine certified reference materials have been selected to establish a k0-NAA procedure for marine samples. The concentration of trace multi-element in the samples has been determined by the k0-INAA procedure using Ko-DALAT software developed in Dalat NRI. About 28 elements in 224 APM samples collected at two areas of Dateh and HCMC of Vietnam in period from June, 2004 to March, 2005 were presented in report. The statistical analysis was applied to the data set to investigate the pollution source at sampling sites. The results proved that the k0-NAA on the Dalat research reactor is a reliable and effective analytical technique for characterization of trace multi-element in APM and marine samples for air and marine environmental pollution study in Vietnam. (author)

  7. Study on the pre-qin pottery and proto-porcelain from boluo county, Guangdong province with INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven pottery and proto-porcelain sherds collected from Meihuadun, Yingang and Henglingshan sites of Boluo County, Guangdong Province were studied with INAA. These sherds are of Western Zhou to Warring States Period. Concentrations of 27 elements were measured, then principal component analysis and other statistical procedures were applied to the data set in order to classify these sherds. This study shows: (1) Though these 3 archaeological sites are located close to each other within an area of about 1000 km2, ancient potters of these sites might use raw materials of different origins for pottery production, as pottery sherds of these 3 sites show different chemical compositions. Such differentiation is also observed for the proto-porcelain samples, indicating that proto-porcelain samples found at Meihuadun and Henglingshan might be of different provenance; (2) In each site during the Western Zhou to Spring-Autumn Period the same raw material was used for both hard pottery and soft pottery manufacturing, while during the Warring States Period no similarity in chemical compositions was observed between hard pottery and soft pottery samples. It is wondered if this phenomenon means an advancement of ceramic technology

  8. A new monitor for routine thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate monitoring in k0 INAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster-Ammerlaan, M J J; Bacchi, M A; Bode, P; De Nadai Fernandes, E A

    2008-12-01

    The Zr-Au set for monitoring the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate and the epithermal spectrum parameter alpha is not always practicable for routine application of INAA in well-thermalized facilities. An alternative set consisting of Cr, Au and Mo provides values for the thermal neutron fluence rate, f and alpha that are not significantly different from those found via the Zr-Au method and the Cd-covered Zr-method. The IRMM standard SMELS-II was analyzed using the (Au-Cr-Mo) monitor and a good agreement was obtained.

  9. Elemental Analysis and Natural Radioactivity Levels of Clay by Gamma Ray Spectrometer and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Alharbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increased global demand for clay, the present work involves the use of INAA for elemental analysis and pollutants concentration in clay. The samples were collected from Aswan in South Egypt. The samples were irradiated using the thermal neutrons “at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor” and at a neutron flux “of 7 × 10 n/cm s”. Twenty-six elements quantitatively and qualitatively were specified for the first time upon studying the samples. The elements determined are U, Th, Ta, Hf, Lu, Eu, Ce, Ba, Sn, Nb, Rb, Zn, Co, Fe, Cr, Sc, Sm, La, Yb, As, Ga, K, Mn, Na, Ti, and Mg. The concentrations of natural radionuclides 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K were also calculated. Based on these concentrations, to estimate the exposure risk for using clay as raw materials in building materials, the radiation hazard indices such as radium equivalent activities, effective doses rate, and the external hazard indices have been computed. The obtained results were compared with analogous studies carried out in other countries and with the UNSCEAR reports.

  10. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  11. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelica, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania); Carmo Freitas, M. do [Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal); Ene, A. [Dunarea de Jos Univ. of Galati (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry, Physics and Environment; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  12. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x1012 cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  13. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  14. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA

  15. Determination of essential elements in commercial infant foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: pvallinoto@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Eating habits are important determinants of health conditions during childhood. Commercial infant food is an important part of the diet for many babies. As such it is necessary that such food contain sufficient amounts of essential elements. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of malnutrition throughout the world. Commercial infant food is classified into four different stages: Stages 1 and 2 are adequate for babies older than 6 months, but new flavors and food are introduced in stage 2; Stage 3 is offered to 8 month old babies; Junior Stage is recommended to children over 1 year old. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were determined in commercial infant food samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Twenty-seven infant food samples were bought in stores around Sao Paulo city during 2011. These samples were freeze-dried and homogenized before analysis. The powdered samples were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. For validation of the methodology, INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST-SRM 1577b Bovine Liver reference materials were analyzed. Most of the concentration results were below the World Health Organization's recommended daily intake for infants from 6 to 12 months old. These low essential element concentration results in commercial infant foods obtained in our study indicate that infants should not only be fed with commercial baby foods. (author)

  16. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  17. Study on activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity aluminum has been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The determination of copper contents is aluminum has been used to evaluate its purity level. A new sensitive method has been developed by using graphite thermal column to reduce or eliminate the interference of 24Na which is generated from 27Al (n,α) 24Na reaction by fast neutron. Influence for activity of 24Na due to above reaction is found to be between 2.3 - 2.8 %. Copper contents in the high purity aluminum come out 0.542±0.084 ppm. In addition, contents of 23 other impurity elements (<0.1 - 0.01 ppm) are measured using general method after detection limit and optimum conditions are established. (author)

  18. Study on the mercury evolution in a laboratory multi specific aquatic system by using instrumental neutron activation analysis; Estudio de la evolucion del mercurio en un sistema acuatico de laboratorio multiespecifico utilizando analisis por activacion neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubach, Debora; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Arribere, Maria A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Analisis por Activacion Nautronica; Pechen de d`Angelo, Ana; Ferrari, Ana; Venturino, Andres [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary study on the evolution of mercury in the organisms of a laboratory multi specific aquatic system was performed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Some of the possible effects of mercury toxicity were monitored by analyzing early biochemical indicators. The system consisted of an aquarium with bed sediments, aquatic macrophytes (Myriophyllum sp.), bivalves (Diplodom sp.) and exotic fish, simulating a long term contamination situation of unknown causes, where the sediments are the contaminant reservoir. Samples of the abiotic components of the system were analyzed at the beginning of the experiment, and again when the organisms were sampled. Fish carcass, kidney and liver samples, bivalve hepatopancreas, and whole macrophytes were extracted ana analyzed for mercury and other elements by INAA at the beginning of the experiment, and after 48 and 96 hours. Since some crustal elements such as Sc and La were detected in the hepatopancreas and macrophyte samples, enrichment factors for mercury, with respect to the <63 {mu}m sediment fraction, were computed to discriminate the metabolized Hg content from that associated to the particulate. The hepatopancreas index, some indicators of oxidative stress ({gamma}-Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine content and lipid peroxidation) and brain acetilcolinesterasa were measured as early indicators of toxicity. (author) 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Determination of essential and toxic elements in commercial baby foods by instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry; Determinacao dos elementos essenciais e toxicos em alimentos comerciais infantis por analise por ativacao com neutrons e espectrometria de absorcao atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallinoto, Priscila

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be breast fed exclusively for at least six months after birth. After this period, it is recommended to start introducing complementary foods, in order to meet the child's nutritional, mineral and energy needs. Commercial food products for infants form an important part of the diet for many babies. Thus, it is very important that such food contains sufficient amounts of minerals. Inadequate complementary feeding is a major cause of high rates of infant malnutrition in developing countries. In this study, essential elements: Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn and toxic elements: As, Cd, Hg levels were determined in twenty seven different commercial infant food product samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). In order to validate both methodologies the reference material: INCT MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST - SRM 1577b Bovine Liver by INAA and NIST - SRM 1548th Typical Diet and NIST - SRM 1547 Peach Leaves by AAS were analyzed. The twenty seven baby food samples were acquired from Sao Paulo city supermarkets and stores. Essential and toxic elements were determined. Most of the essential element concentrations obtained were lower than the World Health Organization requirements, while concentrations of toxic elements were below the tolerable upper limit. These low essential element concentrations in these samples indicate that infants should not be fed only with commercial complementary foods. (author)

  20. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm-2 s-1 for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  1. Rare earth elements in core marine sediments of coastal East Malaysia by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Ahmadreza; Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Kamari, Halimah Mohamed; Kong, Yap Chee; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Elias, Md Suhaimi

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the concentration of REEs (Dy, Sm, Eu,Yb, Lu, La and Ce) that are present in the core marine sediments of East Malaysia from three locations at South China Sea and one location each at Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea. The sediment samples were collected at a depth of between 49 and 109 m, dried, and crushed to powdery form. The entire core sediments prepared for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) were weighted approximately 0.0500 g to 0.1000 g for short irradiation and 0.1500 g to 0.2000 g for long irradiation. The samples were irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 4.0×10(12) cm(-2) s(-1) in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor operated at 750 kW. Blank samples and standard reference materials SL-1 were also irradiated for calibration and quality control purposes. It was found that the concentration of REEs varies in the range from 0.11 to 36.84 mg/kg. The chondrite-normalized REEs for different stations suggest that all the REEs are from similar origins. There was no significant REEs contamination as the enrichment factors normalized for Fe fall in the range of 0.42-2.82. PMID:26405840

  2. Determination of multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2003-08-01

    Multielements in a typical Japanese diet certified reference material prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan, in collaboration with the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five samples (ca. 510-1000 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10(12) n cm(-2) s(-1) (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (TRIGA Mark-II, 100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional gama-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 38 elements were determined by these methods. PMID:12945682

  3. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  4. Simultaneous multi-element determination in some cosmetic samples of different origins using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used to determine some trace, minor and major elements in some cosmetic samples. These samples have been randomly selected from the Egyptian market. Some of these cosmetics are imported from the world market and the others are manufactured in Egypt. Up to 25 elements have been quantitatively determined in selected cosmetic samples. These elements are: As, Br, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Rb, Ta, Tb, Th, U, W, Yb and Zn. Two certified standard reference materials have been used to assure the accuracy and precision of the technique, which are IAEA-405 and SL-1. Two different γ-radioactivity counting systems have been used and compared. Some of the analyzed samples contain some elements, which according to the list of the European Union must not be present in cosmetics. Moreover, some of these elements are present in a very high concentration. Thus, some of the analyzed samples contain arsenic, antimony, chromium and cobalt with the following respectively concentration ranges, in ppm, 0.37-3.67, 0.14-5.36, 2.94-29 768 (∝ 3%) and 0.52-4.12. (orig.)

  5. Essential elements in different types of eggs by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrogi, Jessica B.; Gomes, Bruna G.; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: jessica.ambrogi@hotmail.com, E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: avegliano@uol.com.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eggs are excellent sources of protein and provide essential nutrients to human nutrition. Neither the color of the shell nor that of the yolk affects the egg nutritive value, even though this value can vary according to the eggs from different poultries, and as well as according to the feed given to them. The egg consumption of the Brazilian southeastern population is 9.9 g/day, which represents 0.61% of the daily food consumption per capita. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Cr, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se, Sc and Zn in three types of eggs (hen, free-range and quail eggs). The edible parts of the eggs (egg white and egg yolks) were analyzed Hard-boiled and Raw. The Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the element concentrations. The samples were irradiated for approximately eight hours in flux of 4.5-5.5 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, at nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. There was variation in the elements concentrations among the types of eggs and between Hard-boiled and Raw eggs. (author)

  6. Determination of trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis in Anatolian bentonitic clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, N.; Tulun, T.; Alemdar, A.

    1998-08-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was carried out for the determination of trace elements in non-swelling type bentonitic clays. Samples were irradiated in Triga Mark II type of reactor at the Nuclear Institute of Technical University of Istanbul. Irradiation was performed in two steps for "short and long lived" isotopes. The γ spectra of short lived isotopes were interpreted with respect to Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ti, Mn, V qualitatively and that of long lived isotopes with respect to Sc, Cr, Br, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Yb, Hf quantitatively. The relative richness of the trace elements (Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, K) observed in the Sampo 90 program was obtained using Atomic Absorption technique by normalizing its value to that of sodium. The silicon content of samples was determined by gravimetry. The results indicated that Sample I contained relatively higher amount of REE, Sb, Ca and Na than Sample II. The amount of Sc, Cr and Br were about similar in both samples. Concentrations of La, Ce, Sm and Yb are higher than REE abundances found in all natural waters. These results suggest that Ca-bentonite samples are representative of primary deposition environment. In addition, the Sc content of both the samples indicates that Ca-bentonite deposits originated from continental crust. The relatively high amount of REE might bring about porosity problems in the use of Ca-bentonite in cement and concrete production.

  7. Determination of some mineral components of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some mineral elements in the leaves, peel (periderm) and the tuber (edible portion) of seven cassava cultivars were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The cassava specimens were made up of three improved cultivars namely, TMS 30572, (Afisiafi), TMS 50395 (Gblomaduade) and TMS 4 (2) 1425 (Abasa fitaa). The others are a locally produced mutant 'Tek bankye' and two landraces 'Ankrah' and 'Akosua tumtum'. A total of 10 elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Mn, Na, Br, Cl, Zn, and K) were identified in all the cultivars studied. The tuber portion contained 10 elements while the leaves and the peel contained 8 and 9 elements, respectively. Five of the elements identified (Ca, Na, K, Mg, and Cl) are classified as major elements in human nutrition while three (Mn, V, and Zn) are trace elements. The major elements were detected in high concentration in the peel of most of the cultivars than the edible tuber or leaves. Al was found in very high concentrations ranging from 643.6 to 12610.0 mg/kg in the peel except in 'Akosua tumtum' where its concentration was below 100 mg/kg. The concentration of Ca and Mg meets the recommendations made by Subcommittee on Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). The presence of five major and three trace elements in the tuber indicates that cassava has a rich mineral source which makes it safe for human consumption. (author)

  8. Applications of neutron activation analysis in agriculture of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Soil is one of the main components of biosphere, which is subject to Man's economic activity from year to year. Unfortunately, during last 50-60years it became an object of the chemization (the treatment of crop by poison chemicals and the usage of mineral fertilizers).Thus, definite pre-conditions are created to migrate to substances applied along the soil horizon. These substances fall into organism of Man and animals through soil-contacting media: plants, air, water. In this respect the instrumental neutron-activation techniques which allows determination of about 40 chemical elements in soils and other objects of environment, with detection limit equal to 0.001-10.0mg/kg and not more than 30% uncertainty, are provided with the Ge -detector (the Canberra firm). The report discusses some metrological points of INAA concerning the objects of environment, in particular, the influence of space-time non-uniformity of chemical element distributions on the reliability of analysis results. The elaborated techniques make it possible to: - establish the elemental composition of soils, cotton, natural waters, mineral fertilizers, aerosol dust of near land layer of various climatic zones of Uzbekistan, including the airs around the Aral sea. - study of the interrelation between the soil elemental composition and the chemism in the evolution of pathological processes - find the correlation between the cotton returns and Mn contents in soils and to elaborate on this base a new way to value the presown grain quality - choose the wall material of ancient monuments of a region, which were not strongly subjected to ecological impact, as standards to monitor the background of chemical elements in soils - value the ecologically agrochemical conditions of soils for main cotton-sawing zones of Uzbekistan - perform a large scale mapping of soils to find the Mn contents and to elaborate the technology of introduction of Mn - containing microfertilizers - estimate the

  9. Characterization of the inaA gene and expression of ice nucleation phenotype in Pantoea ananatis isolates from Maize White Spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A M; Figueiredo, J E F; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Paccola-Meirelles, L D

    2016-01-01

    Maize White Spot (MWS), a foliar disease caused by Pantoea ananatis, could cause up to 60% yield loss. Some strains of P. ananatis harboring the ice nucleation gene inaA catalyze the formation of ice nuclei, causing tissue damage at temperatures slightly below freezing. Little is known about the relationship between the presence of the ina gene in this maize pathogen and its expression during the phenomenon of ice nucleus formation. Here, we attempted to verify the presence of the inaA gene and the expression of phenotype in vitro. The identity of the isolates and the presence of the inaA gene were determined by P. ananatis species-specific primers. The expression of the inaA gene was assessed in vitro by the visualization of ice-crystal formation in water at subzero temperatures. A total of ninety P. ananatis isolates from MWS lesions were characterized. The presence of the inaA gene was confirmed by gel electrophoresis of the 350-400-bp PCR products. The inaA primers did not lead to DNA fragment amplification in three isolates. The ice nucleation phenotype was expressed in 83.34% of the isolates carrying the inaA gene. Our study showed that the ice nucleation in P. ananatis isolated from MWS lesions was dependent on the presence of a functional ina gene in the genome. We also found evidence indicating that some P. ananatis strains have a mutated form of the inaA gene, producing a non-functional ice nucleation protein. This is the first report on inaA gene characterization in P. ananatis isolates from Maize White Spot. PMID:26985943

  10. Application of neutron activation analysis to the study of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAA was a very convenient method for hair analysis. The preliminary results of our clinical study of elemental composition of hair from patients with insulin - requiring diabetes have proved again that scalp hair is a significant health status indicator. We found statistically significant changes of the concentrations of some essential and non-essential elements in the hair of diabetic patients, which may be related with the metabolic disorders specific for the disease. Future studies will need to provide more information on the possible role of some elements in diabetes. Also we intend to broaden the scope of the investigation to many elements and to other types of diabetes, in order to validate the results and the conclusions. (author)

  11. Neutron activation analysis of Urartian pottery from eastern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 275 pottery and clay samples from Urartian period sites in eastern Anatolia were analyzed by INAA. The pottery sample originates primarily from the fortress and Outer Town at Ayanis and also includes samples from nearby sites in the Lake Van basin. A small sample of pottery from Bastam, a contemporary Urartian fortress in northwest Iran, and Kef Kalesi, a site on the north shore of Lake Van were also analyzed. Ten distinct compositional groups were identified during the course of the analysis suggesting that pottery was produced at multiple locations throughout the Urartian kingdom. In addition to identifying multiple production locales, the long-distance movement of pottery from the sites of Kef Kalesi and Bastam into the Van Basin and the movement of pottery from Ayanis to Bastam were documented. (author)

  12. PGAA, INAA and luminescence to trace the 'history' of 'The Panoramic View of Lisbon'. Lisbon before the earthquake of 1755 in painted tiles (Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Panoramic View of Lisbon' is a unique masterpiece of Portuguese glazed tiles which depicts the city before the earthquake of 1755. Compositional analysis was done by PGAA, INAA and XRD. The first absolute dating by luminescence was done, including a reconstruction of the history of radiation exposure of the pieces. Compositional patterns of the tiles suggest the use of carbonated clays from downtown Lisbon to manufacture the ceramic bodies at high firing temperatures (900-1100 deg C). Luminescence dating results point to the manufacture of 'The Panoramic View of Lisbon' in the late 17th-early 18th centuries. (author)

  13. An elemental concentration open source database for Hogdahl-Convention and Westcott-Formalism based on K0-INAA method in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic database has been developed and implemented for K0-INAA method in Malaysia. Databases are often developed according to national requirements. This database contains constant nuclear data for k0-INAA method. Hogdahl-convention and Westcott-formalism as 3 separate command user interfaces. It has been created using Microsoft Access 2007 under a Windows operating system. This database saves time and the quality of results can be assured when the calculation of neutron flux parameters and concentration of elements by k0-INAA method are utilised. An evaluation of the database was conducted by IAEA Soil7 where the results published which showed a high level of consistency. (Author)

  14. Activation analysis in forensic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of neutron activation analysis in forensics are grouped into 3 categories: firearms-discharge applications, elemental analysis of other nonbiological evidence materials (paint, other), and elemental analysis of biological evidence materials (multielemental analysis of hair, analysis of hair for As and Hg). 18 refs

  15. Assessment of the Portuguese k0-INAA laboratory performance by evaluating internal quality control data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Portuguese INAA laboratory processes approximately one thousand of multi-matrix samples per year, generating fifteen thousands of results in the same period, using the k0 methodology. In order to ensure that the data produced meets the require quality any sample analysed is processed together with a reference material. Therefore, every year a large amount of results of many reference materials are generated. This work analysed a large database created with the results from the reference materials irradiated in the period 2009-2013. Zeta-scores were calculated and different control charts were created as function of the time period, irradiated mass, reference material and operator. The objective of this work was to recognise human errors, to identify deficiencies in the protocols and to improve the quality of the results generated by the laboratory. (author)

  16. Elemental Analysis and Natural Radioactivity Levels of Clay by Gamma Ray Spectrometer and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    W. R. Alharbi; El-Taher, A.

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased global demand for clay, the present work involves the use of INAA for elemental analysis and pollutants concentration in clay. The samples were collected from Aswan in South Egypt. The samples were irradiated using the thermal neutrons “at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor” and at a neutron flux “of 7 × 10 n/cm s”. Twenty-six elements quantitatively and qualitatively were specified for the first time upon studying the samples. The elements determined are U, Th, Ta, Hf, Lu, Eu,...

  17. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.2) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-03-15

    A pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide and a delayed neutron counting system. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.2) involving a manual system and an automatic system for delayed neutron activation analysis (DNAA) were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. In this technical report, the conception, design, operation and control of PTS no.2 was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured by a mock-up test, a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, automatic operation control by personal computer, delayed neutron counting system, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  18. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  19. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  20. Determination of metals and rare earths in leach solution of phosphogypsum by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); Determinacao de metais e terras raras em solucao lixiviada de fosfogesso por AANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gabriela J.L., E-mail: glcosta@ipen.br [Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saueia, Catia H.R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: chsaueia@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The phosphogypsum is a sub-product of the fertilizer industries and is composed of the gypsum matrix (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) which naturally contains high tenors of impurities such as 2P{sub O}5 and metals coming from the original phosphat rock. The Brazilian phosphogypsum and the various uses has been researched through his elementary and radiochemistry characterization. This work determine the metals (As, Ba, Co and Se) and rare earths (La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb and Lu) presents in samples of phosphogypsum leach solutions

  1. Selected environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAA is very useful for the determination of trace and minor elements in many environmental applications. While instrumental NAA (INAA) has a number of valid applications in this field, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) prior to, or post irradiation provides some significant advantages. One of the major focus points for environmental applications of NAA is to assess the magnitude of various pollutants. This paper discusses doing this via two methods, namely air monitoring and biological monitoring. (author)

  2. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  3. Experimental parameters optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis in order to determine selected elements in some industrial soils in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is optimization of the experimental parameters for analysis of soil matrix by instrumental neutron activation analysis and quantitative determination of barium, cerium, lanthanum, rubidium, scandium and thorium in soil samples collected from industrialized urban areas near Istanbul. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MARK II Research Reactor of Istanbul Technical University. Two types of reference materials were used to check the accuracy of the applied method. The achieved results were found to be in compliance with certified values of the reference materials. The calculated En numbers for mentioned elements were found to be less than 1. The presented data of element concentrations in soil samples will help to trace the pollution as an impact of urbanization and industrialization, as well as providing database for future studies. - Highlights: • Optimization of experimental parameters is important for high sensitivity results by INAA. • Assessment of uncertainty sources is necessary to increase reliability of results. • The aim of this study is to determine a number of elements in industrial soil samples. • The higher concentrations of studied elements are due to rapid industrialization. • This baseline data can be used in future studies for other industrial areas

  4. Determination of REE and U in agricultural soils from Jaguari River basin, Sao Paulo, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. It is weakly radioactive and occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water. The rare earth elements (REE) form the largest chemically coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specificity of the REE have given them a level of technological, environmental, and economic importance considerably greater than might be expected. The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of the lanthanides (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu), and U, considering the soil use and occupation from the Jaguari river basin, Sao Paulo. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE and U analysis The study area is located in a traditional agricultural area which is nowadays one of the main industrial regions of Brazil. In order to evaluate the quality of these soils in relation to lanthanides and U levels, the obtained concentrations were compared to guiding values reported by environmental protection agencies. The 75th percentile for U in agricultural soils (2.76 mg kg-1) was higher than in the control areas (1.61 mg kg-1), but much lower than the maximum allowed concentration for soils in The Netherlands (28.3 mg kg-1). The lanthanides presented concentration levels higher than the guiding values of the RIVM - -National Institute for Public Health and the Environment guidelines. (author)

  5. Determination of U235 enrichment from nuclear fuel by neutronic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enrichment of 235U in UO2 pellets samples through the instrumental neutron activation analysis method (I.N.A.A.) was determined. By high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (H.R.G.S.), from analysis of isotopic ratios between fission products peaks from 235U and 239Np different energies peaks from 238U, the enrichment was achieved. The 'Boatstrap' statistics technique for the analytical results, which is based in shaping results of an unknown distribution to the Gaussian distribution by B replications in interested statistics such as: the mean and its standard error, was introduced. (M.J.C.)

  6. Characteristics of the elemental compositions of particulate matter at a subway platform using INAA and XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Basic Science; Jeong, J.H.; Jung, B.W.; Lee, J.H. [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Kim, K.H. [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environment and Energy

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a total of 21 elements were determined from PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at one subway station using INAA and XRF. In order to assess the pollution status and distribution characteristics in a subway station, the absolute concentration levels, concentration ratios, and crustal enrichment factors of these elements were analyzed. PM2.5 concentrations in the subway station varied in the range of 24.8 to 72.6 {mu}g m{sup -3} (average {+-} standard deviation: 42.6{+-}10.6 {mu}g m{sup -3}), while those of PM10 from 38.0 to 101 {mu}g m{sup -3} (67.2{+-}15.5 {mu}g m{sup -3}). The relative contribution of elemental components in each particle fraction accounted for about 42 and 44%, respectively. Out of all metals, Fe was predominant to represent about 29 and 27% of each particle fraction. In contrast, the crustal sources were estimated to contribute to about 3.7 and 2.3% of the total Fe concentrations, respectively. Thus, one can conclude that considerable quantities of airborne Fe particles originated mainly from subway sources, probably due to the wearing of the steel products like wheel, rail, brake, etc. (orig.)

  7. ZAKI a windows-based k sub o standardization code for in-core INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ojo, J O

    2002-01-01

    A new computer code ZAKI, for k sub o -based INAA standardization, written in Visual Basic for the WINDOWS environment is described. The parameter alpha measuring the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum shape from the ideal 1/E shape, and the thermal-to-epithermal flux ratio f, are monitored at each irradiation position for each irradiation using the ''triple bare monitor with k sub o '' technique. Stability of the irradiation position with respect to alpha and f is therefore assumed only for the duration of the irradiation. This now makes it possible to use k sub o standardization even for in-core reactor irradiation channels without an a priori knowledge of alpha and f values as required by existing commercial software. ZAKI is considerably versatile and contains features which allow for use of several detectors at different counting geometries, direct inputting of peak search output from GeniePc, and automatic nuclide identification of all gamma lines using an in-built library. Sample results for ...

  8. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  9. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.1) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-03-15

    A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide and a delayed neutron counting system. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS no.1) involving a manual system and an semiautomatic system were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. In this technical report, the conception, design, operation and control of these system (PTS no.1) was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured by a mock-up test, a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  10. Development of Pneumatic Transfer Irradiation Facility (PTS no.3) for Neutron Activation Analysis at HANARO Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sun, G. M.; Baek, S. Y.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, Y. J

    2008-04-15

    A pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the most important facilities used during neutron irradiation of a target material for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in a research reactor. In particular, a fast pneumatic transfer system is essential for the measurement of a short half-life nuclide. The pneumatic transfer irradiation system (PTS no.3) involving a manual system and an semi-automatic system were reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor and NAA laboratory of RI building in 2006. In this technical report, the design, operation and control of these system (PTS no.3) was described. Also the experimental results and the characteristic parameters measured from a functional operation test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time of irradiation capsule, the different neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc. are reported to provide a user information as well as a reactor's management and safety.

  11. Fast-neutron activation analysis of light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The determination of lithium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and other light chemical elements in various modern materials in microgram level is of importance for analytical science. As it is well-known, a thermal neutron activation of C, H, N, and O produces negligible γ-ray activity. 13C (n, γ) 14C and 2H (n, γ) 3H reactions produce very small activities of the non- γ- emitters 3H and 14C, and the 19O (n, γ)19O and 15N(n, γ)16N reactions give very short lived 19O (27 sec) and 16N (7.1 sec). All of these reactions have extremely low thermal neutron cross sections. Therefore a major advantage of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is the determination of trace elements in biological, medical and environmental materials. For this reason the above mentioned problems are solved with use of some variants of nuclear analytical techniques based on application of charged particle accelerators. However, there are several non-traditional reactor activation analysis techniques to solve such problems which have been developed and applied in various fields of semiconductor industry, biology, geology. In recent years these techniques were named as the nuclear reactor based charged particles activation analysis (NRCPAA). We distinguished two possible applications of a nuclear reactor as charged particles source. During last years the capabilities of the NRCPAA were investigated intensively and some our results were applied to determine light elements contents [1,2]. The recoil protons are produced as the result of (n, p) elastic and inelastic scattering interaction of fast neutrons with nucleus of light elements, for example, hydrogen. These protons are applied for the development of proton activation analysis for the determination of large concentrations of Li, B and O. The non-destructive activation analysis with use of 14-MeV fast neutrons (FNAA) is the most suitable method for analysis of N, P and Si. FNAA was applied for determination of nitrogen

  12. Elemental characterization of Hazm El-Jalamid phosphorite by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) have been used to achieve accurate knowledge about the elemental analysis of phosphate ore deposits collected from Hazm El-Jalamid Northeast of Saudi Arabia. The samples were prepared for irradiation by thermal neutrons using a thermal neutron flux of 7×10(12)ncm(-2)s(-1) at ACT Lab Canada. The concentrations of 19 elements were determined. These included 12 major, minor and trace elements (Au, As, Ba, Br, Cr, Mo, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, U and Zn) and 7 rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb and Lu). Major elements (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cr, Ti, Mn, P, Sr and Ba) were determined using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The comparison of the concentration of U and the REEs in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples with those of the Umm Wu'al phosphate from Saudi Arabia and El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphate from Egypt shows that the contents of U and REEs are clearly higher in the Umm Wu'al, El-Sibayia and El Hamrawein phosphates than in the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate samples. The results of major, trace elements, uranium and rare earth elements (REE) from El Jalamid phosphate have been compared with the global values of these elements. The concentrations for most of the elements studied are lower than the concentrations reported in the literature. The acquired data will serve as a reference for the follow-up studies to assess the agronomic effectiveness of the Hazm El-Jalamid phosphate rocks. PMID:27235886

  13. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,γ), product, 26.32 h 76As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via 122Sb and 64Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV 76As/564-keV 122Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics

  14. Fast determination of impurities in metallurgical grade silicon for photovoltaics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, J., E-mail: jonathan.hampel@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Boldt, F.M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Gerstenberg, H. [ZWE FRM-II der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hampel, G.; Kratz, J.V. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Reber, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Wiehl, N. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Standard wafer solar cells are made of near-semiconductor quality silicon. This high quality material makes up a significant part of the total costs of a solar module. Therefore, new concepts with less expensive so called solar grade silicon directly based on physiochemically upgraded metallurgical grade silicon are investigated. Metallurgical grade silicon contains large amounts of impurities, mainly transition metals like Fe, Cr, Mn, and Co, which degrade the minority carrier lifetime and thus the solar cell efficiency. A major reduction of the transition metal content occurs during the unidirectional crystallization due to the low segregation coefficient between the solid and liquid phase. A further reduction of the impurity level has to be done by gettering procedures applied to the silicon wafers. The efficiency of such cleaning procedures of metallurgical grade silicon is studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Small sized silicon wafers of approximately 200 mg with and without gettering step were analyzed. To accelerate the detection of transition metals in a crystallized silicon ingot, experiments of scanning whole vertical silicon columns with a diameter of approximately 1 cm by gamma spectroscopy were carried out. It was demonstrated that impurity profiles can be obtained in a comparably short time. Relatively constant transition metal ratios were found throughout an entire silicon ingot. This led to the conclusion that the determination of several metal profiles might be possible by the detection of only one 'leading element'. As the determination of Mn in silicon can be done quite fast compared to elements like Fe, Cr, and Co, it could be used as a rough marker for the overall metal concentration level. Thus, a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon material is demonstrated. - Highlights: > We demonstrate a fast way to determine impurities in photovoltaic silicon by NAA. > We make first experiments of

  15. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,..gamma..), product, 26.32 h /sup 76/As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via /sup 122/Sb and /sup 64/Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV /sup 76/As/564-keV /sup 122/Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics.

  16. Chemical composition analysis of ancient bricks and potteries by internal monostandard NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ko-based internal monostandard INAA (IM-INAA) method was used for the determination of major, minor and trace element concentrations in ancient bricks as well as potteries, collected from Buddhist (4th B.C. to 3rd A.D.) sites of in and around Vishakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Chemical composition analysis of these artifacts was carried out for the provenance study and also to find out possible correlations among the bricks and potteries. INAA is one of the best techniques used for the provenance study due to its advantageous properties like simultaneous multielement capability, negligible matrix effect, no spectral interference and inherent precision and accuracy

  17. Determination of trace elements in bottled water in Greece by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four different bottled water brands sold in Greece in the winter of 2001-2002 were analyzed for a wide range of chemical elements, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The elements Na and Br were determined instrumentally (INAA), whereas the other metals and trace elements radiochemically (RNAA). The results indicated that the mean level of all the elements determined in the samples were well within the European Union (EU) directive on drinking water and accomplish the drinking water standards of the World Health Organisation (WHO) as well as of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  18. Investigation of trace and ultra-trace elements of nutritional and toxicological significance in Italian potable waters by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The element concentrations in potable water samples collected in two different urban areas for the water supply, Rome and Florence, are determined by INAA and compared. The results on drinking water of Rome show that the potentially toxic elements (Sb, Hg, Cr, Ni, etc.) are present at levels below the limit values whereas the essential human elements give a convenient nutritional support. Further, it is also evidenced that the elemental composition is quite similar to that of uncontaminated natural waters. According to the drinking water of Florence the characterization of the concentration of elements show an almost good situation except for Al. (author)

  19. A new monitor for routine thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate monitoring in k{sub 0} INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J. [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.j.koster-ammerlaan@tudelft.nl; Bacchi, M.A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo 13400-970, Piracicaba (Brazil); Bode, P. [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo 13400-970, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The Zr-Au set for monitoring the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate and the epithermal spectrum parameter {alpha} is not always practicable for routine application of INAA in well-thermalized facilities. An alternative set consisting of Cr, Au and Mo provides values for the thermal neutron fluence rate, f and {alpha} that are not significantly different from those found via the Zr-Au method and the Cd-covered Zr-method. The IRMM standard SMELS-II was analyzed using the (Au-Cr-Mo) monitor and a good agreement was obtained.

  20. Determination of trace elements in samples from 110 coal mines in China by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, 29 elements (As,Ba,Br,Ce,Co,Cr,Cs,Eu,Fe,Hf,K,Na,La,Lu,Nd,Ni,Rb,Sb,Sc,Se,Sm,Sr,Ta,Tb,Th,U,W,Yb and Zn) in samples of 110 coal mines in China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Quality control of these analysis was assured by analysis of the U.S. NBS SRM-1632a(coal) and SRM-1633a(fly ash). (author)

  1. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  2. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  3. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis for Determination of As, Cr, Hg, and Se in Mosses in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Toluca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mejía-Cuero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a study of environmental monitoring at different sampling sites from the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Toluca (MAVT, Mexico, using mosses (Leskea angustata (Tayl. and Fabronia ciliaris (Brid. and soil samples. The epiphytic mosses and soils were sampled in two campaigns within two periods of the year, a rainy and dry-cold season. The selected sampling sites included urban regions (UR, transitional regions (TR, and protected natural areas (PA. The samples were analyzed by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA to determine As, Cr, Hg, and Se principally. However, due to the versatility of the analytic technique used, other elements including Cs, Co, Sc, Sb, Rb, Ce, La, Eu, and Yb were also detected. Statistical analysis (As, Cr, Hg, and Se was carried out with principal components and cluster analysis methods; this revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and the degree of pollution in the areas sampled. The obtained results in mosses showed that the concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Cs, Rb, Ce, La, and Yb increased with respect to the concentrations obtained during the first sampling, whereas Se, Sc, Sb and Eu, concentrations were decreased. For As and Hg, the concentrations were similar in both sampling periods. The soil samples present the most significant concentration.

  4. Analysis of molasses samples from various sugar industries in Maharashtra using 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molasses samples from various sugar industries in Maharashtra State have been analysed for their physico-chemical characteristics as well as elemental contents. The elements sodium, potassium, chlorine and manganese were determined using 252Cf neutron source by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Other parameters such as ash, moisture, total dissolved solids, pH as well as element Ca were estimated by usual conventional chemical methods. The percentage of various parameters varies from industry to industry and the concentration of elements is found in the order K > Ca > Cl > Na> Mn. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  6. Study on Distribution and location of selenium and other elements in different mitochondrial compartments of human liver by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles and contain many kinds of enzymes and proteins. Mitochondria are the energy factories of the eukaryote cells, which play essential physiological roles in cells and principally produce the bulk of cellular ATP through oxidative metabolism. Mitochondria not only play crucial roles in the process of energy conversion but also take part in other functions, including maintaining ion homeostasis, metabolism and apoptosis. Therefore, it is considered as a key biomonitor of cell apoptosis, which is closely relevant to cell survival or death. As the main place of metabolism and detoxification, liver may contain relatively high levels of many trace elements. Subcellular distribution patterns of some elements in human liver have been analyzed in our previous work. However, the distribution of trace elements in mitochondrial ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. In present study, the distribution patterns of eleven elements in mitochondrial subfractions of normal human liver specimens were studied by applying the separating techniques of chemical treatment and differential centrifugation combined with element-specific detection of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and hydrid-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The quality assurance of INAA was checked by the analysis of the reference material of NIST bovine liver (1577a) and the Chinese reference materials of mussel (GBW 08571) and poplar leave (GBW 07604). Because selenium is possible to be lost via volatilization under such a long irradiation of 48 hrs, its content was determined with HG-AFS. We found that 3.3 % of the total mitochondrial protein were located in the outer membrane, 20.4 % in the intermembrane space, 63.8 % in the inner membrane and 12.5 % in the matrix of human liver mitochondria. The concentrations of Ca, Co and Zn were highest in the matrix and Ba, Cr, Fe, Sb, Sc, and Th in the outer membrane, whereas, the highest

  7. Study of the distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in Solanum lycocarpum from different tropical environments in Brazil by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the concentration of eight rare earth elements (REE), La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, was determined by neutron activation analysis (INAA), in plant leaves of Solanum lycocarpum. This species is a typical Brazilian 'cerrado' plant, widely distributed in Brazil. The analysis of the plant reference materials CRM Pine Needles (NIST 1575) and Spruce Needles (BCR 101) proved that the methodology applied was sufficiently accurate and precise for the determination of REE in plants. In order to better evaluate the uptake of the REE from the soil to the plant, the host soil was also analyzed by ESiAA. The studied areas were Salitre, MG, Serra do Cipo, MG, Lagoa da Pampulha and Mangabeiras, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and Cerrado de Emas, in Pirassununga, SP. The results were analyzed through the calculation of transfer factors soil-plant and by using diagrams normalized to chondrites. The data obtained showed different transfer factors from soil to plant as the subtract changes. Similar distribution patterns for the soil and the plant were obtained in all the studied sites, presenting an enrichment of the light REE (La to Sm), in contrast to the heavy REE (Eu to Lu), less absorbed. These results indicate that the light REE remain available to the plant in the more superficial soil layers. The similarity between the distribution patterns indicates a typical REE absorption by this species, in spite of the significant differences in the substratum . (author)

  8. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Delmonte, Barbara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Maggi, Valter

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10(-13)-10(-6) g, improving previous results of 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. PMID:27154827

  9. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to the determination of essential and toxic elements in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the concentrations of essential elements Ca (calcium), CI (chlorine), K (potassium), Mg (magnesium), Na (sodium), Co (cobalt), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Fe (iron), Mn (manganese). Mo (molybdenum), Se (selenium), V (vanadium) and Zn (zinc), the toxic elements As (arsenic), Cd (cadmium) and Hg (mercury) and the elements without defined functions to the animal metabolism, such as Br (bromine), Eu (europium). La (lanthanum), Rb (rubidium), Sb (antinomies), Sc (scandium), Ta (tantalum), Th (thorium) and U (uranium) were determined in agroindustrial by-products employed in animal feeding by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Forty samples of agroindustrial by-products were analyzed, six of which are from animal origin and the others are from vegetable origin. All these materials are widely used in bovine feeding, mainly in dry season, when the forage become scarce. The precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by means of analysis of the following certified reference materials: Rice Flour NIES-CRM-10C, Pig Kidney BCR-CRM, Oyster Tissue NIST-SRM-1566a e Buffalo River Sediment NIST-SRM-2704. The results, in general, are lower than 10 %. The results for the most of essential minerals were lower than the toxic limit for animals, and they reached the minimum requirements for domestic animals, although some agroindustrial by-products showed concentrations lower than the requirement. For all samples, the concentrations of toxic minerals were lower than the toxic limit (author)

  10. Instrumentation in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rise of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a tool in geochemical research has parallelled advances in detector, multi-channel analyzer, and computer technology. Micro-computers are now being integrated into NAA systems, and gamma-ray spectrometer instrumentation is evolving towards direct-reading systems. The investigator is faced with a wide range of possibilities and choices when equipping or re-equipping a laboratory. The geoscientist is provided with an overview of the available instrumentation and what soon may be feasible. (L.L.)

  11. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em cogumelos comestiveis por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-07-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  12. An evaluation of the environmental implications of petroleum refinery emissions by multielemental neutron activation analysis of rumen fluid ash of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study environmental pollution in and around a petroleum refinery complex, a multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used to assay concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Mo, K, Na, P, Sc, Rb, Se, Sr, W and Zn in the rumen fluid ash sample of buffaloes from the vicinity of the refinery. Corresponding samples from a control area 300 km away from the refinery were analysed. Standard Reference Materials, Bovine liver (SRM 1577a), Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) and Animal bone (CRM H-5) were also analysed for quality control. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons at 1012-1013n cm-2 s-1 and counted by high-resolution γ spectrometry. Mean elemental concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Cr, Hg and Fe were found to be enhanced, whereas those of Na, K, Cl, Cu, Mn and P were depleted in samples from the vicinity of the refinery complex compared to controls. The environmental implications of anomalous elemental concentrations are discussed. (Author)

  13. Source apportionment for indoor PM2.5 and elemental concentrations using by a positive matrix factorization and an instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matters, especially the PM2.5 (aerodynamic equivalent diameter, AED, less than 2.5 μm) fraction has been important. This is because of their potential for deposition on to the human respiratory system being accompanied by many harmful trace metals (such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn). The indoor air quality has become a great concern since late 1980s, because the population spends a majority of their time in various indoor environments. The indoor particulate matter may be influenced from outdoor environment and indoor sources such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), combustion devices, cooking, etc. In this study, we undertake the measurements of about 26 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on our measurement data, we characterize concentration status and mutual relationship between indoor and adjacent outdoor air quality. Next, sources at indoor/outdoor environment were identified and the contributions of each source were quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF)

  14. Source apportionment for indoor PM2.5 and elemental concentrations using by a positive matrix factorization and an instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong Myoung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Byoung Won; Lee, Jin Hong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Airborne particulate matters, especially the PM2.5 (aerodynamic equivalent diameter, AED, less than 2.5 {mu}m) fraction has been important. This is because of their potential for deposition on to the human respiratory system being accompanied by many harmful trace metals (such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn). The indoor air quality has become a great concern since late 1980s, because the population spends a majority of their time in various indoor environments. The indoor particulate matter may be influenced from outdoor environment and indoor sources such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), combustion devices, cooking, etc. In this study, we undertake the measurements of about 26 elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Based on our measurement data, we characterize concentration status and mutual relationship between indoor and adjacent outdoor air quality. Next, sources at indoor/outdoor environment were identified and the contributions of each source were quantified by positive matrix factorization (PMF)

  15. Determination of concentrations of chromium and other elements in soil and plant samples from leather tanning area by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium, one of the toxic elements, along with other elements has been determined in samples of soil and plant (leaves and seeds) from Jajmau Area, Kanpur district, India, which is irrigated with effluent waste water from leather tanning industries. Soil and plant samples were collected from these areas and analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using high flux reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of fifteen elements in soil and five elements in plant samples were determined by relative method. Chromium concentrations were found to be in range of 45-3,900 mg kg-1in soil samples and 14-83 mg kg-1 in plant samples. This study showed that Cr is present in significant amounts, in the soil as well as in the plant samples, near to the leather tanning area. As a part of quality control work, IAEA reference material (RM) SL-3 and NIST standard reference material (SRM) 1645 were analyzed and the quality of the results has been evaluated by calculating % deviations from recommended/literature/certified values. (author)

  16. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Oh, M.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk.

  17. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk

  18. Analysis of Cl, Mn, Na, Zn in Food Samples by a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Chung, Yong Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ok Hee [YongIn University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Due to their westernized dietary habit, Korean children are still threatened by the increasing risks of chronic disease such as obesity, hypertension, low immunity, etc. In addition, they are often exposed to a deficiency of Ca, Mg, Fe and micro-minerals which are necessary for their growth, immunity, and prevention of anemia. Nonetheless, the nutritional adequacy of mineral intakes for children is difficult to assess because of a lack of related studies and a nutritional database with respect to Korean children's foods. In this study, ninety kinds of foods consisting of lunch meals from an elementary and a middle school and children's favorite snacks were collected and prepared for an analysis. INAA which has an advantage of a non-destructive technique was employed to determine the elements like Cl, Mn, Na, Cl in the pretreated food samples. Quality control was carried out by using certified reference materials. From the analytical results, elemental concentration range in the collected samples according to the food groups was summarized.

  19. Analysis of Cl, Mn, Na, Zn in Food Samples by a Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their westernized dietary habit, Korean children are still threatened by the increasing risks of chronic disease such as obesity, hypertension, low immunity, etc. In addition, they are often exposed to a deficiency of Ca, Mg, Fe and micro-minerals which are necessary for their growth, immunity, and prevention of anemia. Nonetheless, the nutritional adequacy of mineral intakes for children is difficult to assess because of a lack of related studies and a nutritional database with respect to Korean children's foods. In this study, ninety kinds of foods consisting of lunch meals from an elementary and a middle school and children's favorite snacks were collected and prepared for an analysis. INAA which has an advantage of a non-destructive technique was employed to determine the elements like Cl, Mn, Na, Cl in the pretreated food samples. Quality control was carried out by using certified reference materials. From the analytical results, elemental concentration range in the collected samples according to the food groups was summarized

  20. Elemental analysis of lichen bioaccumulators before exposure as transplants in air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichen transplants from relatively unpolluted sites are successfully used as heavy metal bioaccumulators for long-term air pollution monitoring. Significant element accumulations are generally revealed after 6 to 12 months of exposure. The main objective of this interdisciplinary research is to get a low-price survey of the air pollution level in some critical areas of Romania by nuclear and atomic analytical methods, based on the element accumulating property of transplanted lichens. The lichen species Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea collected from the Prealps, northeast Italy, have been selected for this study. Experimental setup for standardized lichen exposure needs special plastic frames ('little traps': 15 · 15 · 1.5 cm, with 1cm2 mesh) which are fixed horizontally on stainless steel posts at about 1.5 m above the ground. Prior to exposure, the lichen material is cleansed of some vegetal impurities and then shortly washed using de-ionised water. The initial (zero-level) contents of lichens were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA) methods. INAA was carried out at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest (IFIN) and while EDXRFA at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. The investigated elements were: As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V and Zn. From among them, Cd, Co and Sb can be determined only by INAA and ICP-MS, Pb only by EDXRFA and PIXE, and S only by EDXRFA. A statistical intercomparison of the results allowed a good quality control of the used analytical methods for these specific matrices. This work was supported in part by European Commission Center of Excellence Project ICA1-CT-2000-70023: IDRANAP (Inter-Disciplinary Research and Applications based on Nuclear and Atomic Physics), Work Package 2 (Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure

  1. Interactive user's application to Genie 2000 spectroscopy system for automation of hair neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years lower plants such as mosses or lichens and for arid countries bark and leaves of tree have been used as biomonitors in environmental studies. Alongside with plants the trace elemental human hair composition also has been used as an indicator of pollution of natural and industrial environments. Because of convenience, easy access, nondestruction of sampling, and also preservation of information for a long time period, human hair even more often and widely used in various researches. In the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan hair trace element analysis in environment monitoring and mapping and in health status studies have been used. Scientist of activation analysis laboratory always has a lot of routine work on biological objects analysis, so they regularly improved applied nuclear techniques. At present one of such good work-out technique is consider a hair multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis using single comparator standard method. Since in frames of the 'Enhanced nuclear techniques for materials identification' STCU project, the Radioanalytical Center (RAC) was created in October 2004, for analysis such objects as metals and alloys, minerals and ores, hydrogeological samples, technological products, soils, fertilizers, biological samples, foodstuff, water, sediments, construction materials, as well as materials of unknown composition the unique equipment of RAC have been used. For example, human hair analysis has performed on the base of HP Ge-detector with high resolution gamma-spectrometer of Canberra Industries, Inc. Genie-2000 Spectroscopy System of Canberra spectrometers, represents the true state of the art in spectroscopy software platforms. Genie 2000 is a comprehensive set of capabilities for acquiring and analyzing spectra from Multichannel Analyzers (MCA). Its functions include MCA control, spectral display and manipulation, basic spectrum analysis and

  2. Assessment of Bivalves as potential bioindicator of heavy metal pollution along Ghana's coast using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of environmental metal pollution along the coast of Ghana was investigated by analysing the heavy and trace metals in the soft body tissue and shells of two abundant bivalve molluses Donax pulchelus, the brown mussel Perna perna and the sediment in which they live at three different sampling locations (Accra, Cape Coast and Axim). Potentially toxic or toxic metals analysed in this study were Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, V, Zn using the analytical technique instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the quantitative determination of the heavy metals. Marine sediment reference material (Estuarine Sediment SRM 1646a) and Peach leaves SRM 1547 provided the certified reference in the quality assurance control. The concentration found in the potentially toxic heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni,and Zn) all recorded lower than the maximum acceptable limits in the bivalve molluscs designated for human consumption, fluctuating between blow detection limit <0.03 to 180.38μ/g. The other elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Na) recorded a high concentration in both Donax pulchelus and Perna perna (4.54μ/g to 565.13μ/g) in all the sampling location.The minor elements (V and Sc) recorded between 0.05 μ/g to 5.68μ/g. The data on the concentration of the bivalve mollusc also showed lower values compared with other regions of the world. The physicochemical parameters determined were generally supportive of aquatic life providing the necessary conditions. (au)

  3. Trace elements of normal, benign hypertrophic and cancerous tissues of the Human prostate gland investigated by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaichick, Sofia, E-mail: s-zaichick@northwestern.edu [Radionuclide Diagnostics Department, Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Koroleva Street- 4, Obninsk 249020, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Zaichick, Vladimir, E-mail: vezai@obninsk.com [Radionuclide Diagnostics Department, Medical Radiological Research Centre, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Koroleva Street- 4, Obninsk 249020, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    The Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn contents in normal (n=37), benign hypertrophic (n=43), and cancerous tissues (n=60) of the human prostate gland were investigated by neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M{+-}S{Epsilon}{Mu}) for content (mg/kg, dry weight basis) of trace elements in the normal tissue were: Ag-0.048{+-}0.009, Co-0.045{+-}0.004, Cr-0.53{+-}0.08, Fe-111{+-}9, Hg-0.056{+-}0.011, Rb-12.7{+-}0.9, Sb-0.045{+-}0.007, Sc-0.029{+-}0.005, Se-0.70{+-}0.04, and Zn-1000{+-}110, respectively. It was observed that in benign hypertrophic tissues the contents of Co, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se were higher than in normal tissues, with statistically significant differences. The contents of Co, Rb, Sc, and Zn were significantly lower and those of Ag, Cr, Fe, Hg, and Sb were significantly higher in cancerous tissues than in normal tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INAA is an adequate tool for the determination of trace element contents in the samples of human prostate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In benign hypertrophic tissues the Co, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se contents were higher than in normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In cancerous tissues contents of Co, Rb, Sc, and Zn were significantly lower than in normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In cancerous tissues the Ag, Cr, Fe, Hg, and Sb contents were higher than in normal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimation of Zn content in a needle-biopsy core may be used as a tool to diagnose prostate cancer.

  4. Evaluation of trace elements in some northern-Nigeria traditional medicinal plants using INAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladipo, M.O.A., E-mail: oaoladipo2004@yahoo.com [Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Njinga, R.L., E-mail: njingaraymond@yahoo.co.uk [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Baba, A. [Physics Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria); Muhammad, H.L. [Chemistry Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State (Nigeria)

    2012-06-15

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants: Boerhavia diffusa, Euphoria hirta, Senna occidentalis, Senna obtusofolia, Cyprus dilatatus and Mitracarpus villosu. These plants were irradiated in the Nigeria Research reactor-1, at flux levels of 2.25E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the outer channel and 5.0E+11 ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} in the inner channel. A total of the twenty one elemental concentrations were evaluated highlighted the similarity between the elements obtained for the six plants. It was found that Euphoria hirta and Senna occidentalis have similar concentrations of elements. Boerhavia difusa, Mitracarpus villosus, Cyprus dilatalus and Senna obttusifolia were also similar in elemental content to each other, while Boerhavia difusa was the only exceptional outlier. The accuracy of measurements was evaluated by analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage references standard materials and the results show good agreement with certified or literature values within {+-}0.01% to {+-}0.87%. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-trace elemental determination of six medicinal plants in northern Nigeria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accuracy of the measurements was based on analyzing IAEA-359 cabbage, a standard reference material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results showed good agreement with certified values within {+-}0.01 % to {+-}0.87%.

  5. Conference on instrumental activation analysis IAA 92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication contains 26 abstracts primarily concerned with neutron activation analysis, although other analytical techniques based on X-ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE, PIGE, RBS are also included. Some contributions deal with aspects of quality practice and assurance in radioanalytical laboratories, with marketing of instrumental neutron activation analysis services, with hard- and software aspects of radiation detection, etc. (Z.S.)

  6. Elemental analysis of the frontal lobe of 'normal' brain tissue and that affected by Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Normal' brain tissue and brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease has been taken from the frontal lobe of both hemispheres and their elemental compositions in terms of major, minor and trace elements compared. Brain samples were obtained from the MRC Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, London. 25 samples were taken from 18 individuals (5 males and 13 females) of mean age 79.9 ± 7.3 years with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and 26 samples from 15 individuals (8 males and 7 females) of mean age 71.8 ± 13.0 years with no pathological sings of Alzheimer's disease ('normals'). The elemental concentration of the samples were determined by the techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Cs were detected by INAA and significant differences in concentrations were found between concentrations in normal and Alzheimer tissue for the elements. Na, Cl, K, Se, Br and Rb, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cd were detected by PIXE analysis and significant differences found for the elements P, S, Cl, K and Ca. (author)

  7. Applying INAA to assess dietary intake of elements through fish from coastal areas near Vishakhapatnam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential and toxic element concentrations were measured in fish from coastal areas of Pudimadaka near Vishakhapatnam by neutron activation analysis. Elemental concentrations were observed to be within guideline values fit for human consumption. Correlation among elements suggests similar biogeochemical properties and possibly similar sources. The daily dietary intake values were comparable with reported literature from India and ICRP reference man. Hazard Quotients for all elements were <1. These data will serve as baseline values of elemental concentrations that can be compared with future elemental levels during the operational and post-operational stages of the nuclear facility to be set up at this location. They can also be useful for further studies to identify the spatial and seasonal variations of elements in fish species and monitor the concentration level of elements in this region. (author)

  8. A new method for processing INAA results without the necessity of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When neutron activation analysis is used for elemental determinations in samples taken from environment, and quite different in origin, certain questions arise: is the method absolute or relative, precise or accurate? How should objects be chosen to represent the subject studied? How should the conclusions of the measurement be used? How are the quality and intensity of the flux to be controlled? What corrections are needed for the effects of perturbing elements, uranium and boron? How sensitive is the method or - which amounts to the same thing - what is the best time to analyse an element in a given matrix? The authors attempt to answer these questions and illustrate the subject by way of a few specific examples: mineral and river water, sea and river sediments, aerosols, quartz tools, hair, nodules and Mn deposits, diamonds, wines, PWR effluents. (author)

  9. Micro and macro constituents of sediment cores from Itupararanga reservoir Sorocaba, SP, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), Osasco, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Avaliacao de Impacto Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Itupararanga reservoir was constructed by LIGHT for generating electrical energy, starting its operations in 1912. It is formed by the Sorocaba river dam. The reservoir finds itself in an area of strong environmental pressures. The waters of the Itupararanga reservoir are currently also used to supply approximately 63% of the basin of Sorocaba, in addition to power generation and recreation areas of nearby cities. Since 2003 it keeps receiving alerts from CETESB (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) that continues today. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected, were collected using a 60 cm core sampler, sliced at every 10 cm. The sediment samples were dried at 40 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na) and trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) metals. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by the analysis of certified reference materials. The results obtained were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) and UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The enrichment factors (EF) was assessed for sediment contamination index. Statistical tools of Factorial and Cluster analyses were applied to the data. (author)

  10. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  11. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  12. Quality control analysis of imported fertilizers used in Ghana: the macronutrients perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Enti-Brown

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this environmental research was to validate specifications indicated by manufacturers on their fertilizer products. Selected fertilizers types were sampled from five major fertilizer importing companies in Ghana for macronutrient analysis to determine the fertilizer quality. Five analytical techniques including Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA, flame photometry, Kjeldahl method for nitrogen analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to achieve this objective. Two reference materials (IAEA Soil-7 and SRM 1646a Estuarine Sediment were used to validate the quantitative method employed in the INAA. There was generally good agreements (98% and above between the measured values and the certified values for the primary macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P and K. However, same could not be said for secondary macronutrients calcium, magnesium and sulphur (Ca, Mg and S. The secondary macronutrient values measured were compared to standard values from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA in cases where they were not certified by the manufacturer. Most of the manufacturers' claims for primary macronutrients were valid. However, most of them fell short of the requirements for secondary macronutrient concentration. There is therefore the need for a good quality control system to undertake periodic quality monitoring of the chemical compositions of fertilizers imported into the country since they may directly or indirectly have impacts on the environment.

  13. Application of INAA for investigation of magnesium and aluminium oxide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents investigations of changes in optical absorption and photo luminescence spectra of magnesium oxide, and natural and synthetic magnesium aluminium spinel related with the content of transition metal ions (Cr, Fe, Mn) and the irradiation with fast neutrons. Six synthetic single magnesium aluminium spinel crystals with different stoichiometry (MgO·nAl2O3), five natural crystals from Ural and Pamir deposits, and seven MgO crystals were studied. Micro impurities (Cr, Fe, and Mn) and macro component (Mg, Al) quantities have been determined using the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Concentrations of impurities in different spinels were found in following ranges: for Cr-1 × 10-4 to 8 × 10-2 %, for Mn-2 × 10-5 to 23 %, for Fe-1 × 10-4 to 1.2 %. Three ranges of luminescence: 380-460, 650-850 and 850-1,050 nm, were established in the most part of the investigated MgO samples. Analysis shows that the intensity of emission in each of these regions is strongly dependent on the concentration of transition metal ions. Great deviation from the stoichiometry of the irradiated MgO·2.8Al2O3 crystal leads to the local structure of α-Al2O3 formation around Cr3+ ions. The orange emission is attributed to Mn2+ in octahedral coordination, it can be assumed that the band at 570 nm is belonging to the complex centre 'Mn2+-F+ (or F centre)'. (author)

  14. Studies on mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazonic region using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intensive gold exploration activities started in Brazil in the 1980's, in the Amazonic region. Ever since, awareness of the general public and of the authorities has been growing, as to the dangers of environmental contamination by disposal of metallic mercury used for extraction of gold by amalgamation. It is estimated by Malm et al that around 2000 tonnes of mercury have been released in the Amazon in the last 20 years as a consequence of these activities. In the framework of a Project developed at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission ) and with support from the IAEA first as a part of a Coordinated Research Programme and then as a Technical Cooperation Project a nuclear analytical technique, instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA ,was applied to the study of mercury contamination in Brazilian Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Indian reservation, located in the Amazonic region. Hair samples from the Indians and from a control population were analysed for total mercury and very high concentrations of mercury were found in the Indians, with means up to about 20 times that of the control population. Following this work on analysis of hair samples of the Brazilian Indians, where the application of a nuclear technique allowed the analysis of mercury in about 400 samples, it is necessary to make a more complete study on this area, analyzing samples of fish and other foodstuffs consumed by the Indians, as well as soils and sediments of the region, in order to assess the sources of contamination. The hair samples of the Indians have been also analysed in this Project for methylmercury, a very toxic compound of mercury, which is able to surpass biological barriers like the placenta and cause severe damage to the nervous system of the fetus. With the collaboration of the Jozef Stefan Institute, of Ljubljana, Slovenia, methylmercury was analysed in many of the hair samples of the Indians, using another

  15. Determination of trace elements in GPC fractions of oil-sand asphaltenes by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asphaltene samples precipitated from Athabasca and Cold Lake oil-sand bitumens were separated into 12 fractions of varying molecular weight by preparative gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Each fraction was then analyzed by analytical GPC and visible spectrometry. Concentrations of As, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Ga, Hf, Hg, La, Ni, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Tb, Th, U, V, Zn, and Zr in the fractions were determined by neutron activation analysis. Molecular weights of the Athabasca fractions are generally higher than the corresponding Cold Lake fractions. Between 58% and 90% of the metal contents occur in the high molecular weight fractions of both asphaltenes. Except for V and Cr, which show biomodel distributions, all the elements have decreasing concentrations as the molecular weight of the fraction decreases. High molecular weight fractions, constituting about 55% of the whole asphaltenes, contain nonporphyrin bound vanadium compounds. It is estimated that 27% and 31% of V present in Athabasca and Cold Lake asphaltenes respectively occur as porphyrin type compounds, including vanadyl prophyrins released from the asphaltene micelle during the separation and vanadyl porphyrins bearing high-molecular-weight substituents

  16. Analysis of HR activities in selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Šárka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on theoretical knowledge and analysis of the basic HR activities in the selected company to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the policies implemented personnel work. Then propose an effective ways of improving HR activities and employee satisfaction. Basic personal activities analyzed in this thesis are the adaptation, acquisition and selection of employees, performance management and staff appraisal, remuneration and training of staff. Analysis of pers...

  17. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  18. k0-NAA implementation and application at IPEN neutron activation laboratory by using the k0-IAEA software: application to geological sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has been analysing geological samples such as rocks, soils and sediments, for many years with the INAA comparative method, for geochemical and environmental research. This study presents the results obtained in the implementation of the k0-standardization method at LAN - IPEN, for geological sample analysis, by using the program k0- IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The thermal to epithermal flux ratio f and the shape factor α of the epithermal flux distribution of the IPEN IEA-R1 nuclear reactor were determined for the pneumatic irradiation facility and one selected irradiation position, for short and long irradiations, respectively. To obtain these factors, the 'are triple-monitor' method with 197Au- 96Zr-94Zr was used. In order to validate the methodology, the geological reference materials basalts JB-1 (GSJ) and BE-N (IWG-GIT), andesite AGV-1 (USGS), granite GS-N (ANRT), SOIL-7 (IAEA) and sediment Buffalo River Sediment (NIST - BRS-8704), which represent different geological matrices, were analysed. The concentration results obtained agreed with assigned values, with bias less than 10% except for Zn in AGV-1 (11.4%) and Mg in GS-N (13.4%). Three different scores were used to evaluate the results: z-score, zeta-score and Uscore. The z-score showed that the results can be considered satisfactory (z3) for Mn in BE-N, Mg, Ce and La in GS-N, Mg in JB-1, and Th and Eu in Buffalo River Sediment. The U-score test showed that all results, except Mg in JB-1, were within 95% confidence interval. These results indicate excellent possibilities of using this parametric method at the LAN-IPEN for geological samples analysis in geochemical and environmental studies. (author)

  19. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para a determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de ovos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: pagliaro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10{sup 12} cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance is pointed out of neutron activation analysis in the preparation of reference materials, and studies are reported conducted recently by UJV. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used in testing homogeneity and in determining 28 elements in newly prepared reference standards of coal fly ash designated ENO, EOP and ECH. For accuracy testing, the same method was used in the analysis of NBS SRM-1633a Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash and IAEA CRM Soil-5 and RM Soil-7. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis was used in determining Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn in biological materials NBS SRM-1577 Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale and in IAEA RM Milk Powder A-11 and Animal Muscle H-4. In all instances very good precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis results were shown. (author)

  1. Neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper will describe the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in developing methods for the large-scale activation analysis of samples for the geochemical prospecting of metals. The geochemical prospecting for uranium started in Finland in 1974 and consequently a manually operated device for the delayed neutron activation analysis of uranium was taken into use. During 1974 9000 samples were analyzed. The small capacity of the analyzer made it necessary to develop a completely automated analyzer which was taken into use in August 1975. Since then 20000-30000 samples have been analyzed annually the annual capacity being about 60000 samples when running seven hours per day. Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis is used for the analysis of more than 40 elements. Using instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis 25-27 elements can be analyzed using one irradiation and 20 min measurement. During 1982 12000 samples were analyzed for mining companies and Geological Survey of Finland. The capacity is 600 samples per week. Besides these two analytical methods the analysis of lanthanoids is an important part of the work. 11 lanthanoids have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separation methods have been developed for several elements to improve the sensitivity of the analysis

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of site-dependent uptake and distribution of trace elements in the saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from marsh fields in the Schelde estuary, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an environmental chemical investigation the uptake of heavy metals by a saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from two differently polluted salt marsh sites of the North Sea between 20 to 30 trace elements were determined in soil and plant organs. A sensitive gamma ray counting system was installed and tested for instrumental activation analyses (INAA). Installations to improve sensitivity as well as conditions necessary for reliable trace element analysis with the aid of Anticompton spectrometers (ACS) are described. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method was determined by the analysis of reference- and control materials of the german environmental specimen bank. In order to characterise the state of pollution of the salt marsh soils pollution-factors for single elements as well as interelemental correlations were evaluated. In addition, uptake and translocation factors of the biological samples were calculated. The many highly significant correlations between elements within the plant organs indicated that uptake appears to be physiologicaly controlled and not dependent on soil concentration. In order to detect further consequences of differing pollution influences within these plants biochemical separation techniques were applied and trace element levels in selected extracts were determined. For the specification of heavy metals gelpermeation chromatography of ethanolic extracts proved to be the most promising method. Furthermore, propositions for the use of trace elements as a fingerprint for pollution status and characterisation of species for referenz- and specimenbank materials have been developed. Aster tripolium as a cadmium accumulating plant can probably be used as an indicator in the monitoring of cadmium polluted salt marsh areas. (orig.)

  3. Applications of neutron activation analysis in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis technique is discussed in brief. This technique is used for quality control of raw materials, process materials and finished products, as well as activities in research and development for the improvement of the products and new products. The uses of this technique in several experienced industries are mentioned (author)

  4. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three recently completed studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are reported: a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author) 12 refs

  5. New studies in forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies in forensic neutron activation analysis are being extended in This Laboratory. Three of these new studies are reported here: 1) a study of 0.22-caliber rimfire cartridge primers, 2) a large-scale study of shotgun pellets, and 3) a new 5-element procedure for the analysis of bullet-lead and shotgun-pellet samples. (author)

  6. Computational Models for Analysis of Illicit Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat

    Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents dev...... population globally sensitive to specific world issues. The models discuss the dynamics of population in response to such issues. All the models presented in the thesis can be combined for a systematic analysis of illicit activities.......Numerous illicit activities happen in our society, which, from time to time affect the population by harming individuals directly or indirectly. Researchers from different disciplines have contributed to developing strategies to analyze such activities, in order to help law enforcement agents...... devise policies to minimize them. These activities include cybercrimes, terrorist attacks or violent actions in response to certain world issues. Beside such activities, there are several other related activities worth analyzing, for which computational models have been presented in this thesis...

  7. Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kučerová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague Faculty of Economics and Management Department of Trade and Accounting Abstract of Diploma Thesis Evaluation of business activity using financial analysis Martina Kučerová © 2012 CULS in Prague Summary: The aim of this thesis is to apply methods of financial analysis on chosen business for its first three accounting periods 2009, 2010 and 2011. The thesis is further analysis of my bachelor thesis on to...

  8. Identification of provenance of obsidian samples analyzing elemental composition by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study on 111 obsidian artifacts collected during an archaeological campaign performed by the University of Siena near Sesto Fiorentino (Florence, Italy) are reported. Earlier, we used the concentration ratios among some elements as reported in the literature to discriminate the deposit sources. Later, optimizing the characterization and for having a more strong classification, multivariate chemiometric investigation has been performed (multivariate statistical analysis in Principal Components and Discriminating Factor Analysis). The data obtained show three wellseparated groups connected to the relative sites in Lipari and in Sardinia (flows A and C from Arci Mountain). (author)

  9. Determination of Methylmercury Traces in Biological Matrix: Chemical Extraction and Nuclear Quantification with the Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury is present in the environment as a result of the human and natural activities.The total amount of Hg present in the biosphere has been incremented three times since the industrial era, and now it is affecting in a global sense all the ecosystem.One of the main entrance of Hg in the human diet is the consumption of fish and other marine creatures.Most of the ingested Hg is mono methylmercury (MeHg), which is one of the most toxic forms in which this element could be found because it crosses membranes.Since the toxicity levels are low, the determination of concentrations of total Hg and Me Hg require very careful sampling, sample conditioning and analytical procedures to prevent either losses or contamination, or the degradation of the Hg species.In this work, we implemented a chemical Me Hg extraction procedure, using a ionic exchange resin, with three different types of fish tissue: muscle, liver and hepato pancreas.After Me Hg extraction, the determination and quantification was made by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, by measuring the 197 Au, y el 203 Tl deexcitation s, created through the radioactive decay of the isotopes 197 Hg y 203 Hg.The influence of several parameters on the overall extraction process, such as velocity of passage through the ionic exchange column and the acid concentration used in the extraction was evaluated.Regarding the INAA determinations, a choice was made for the irradiation, decay and counting times, neutron and gamma doses, and the counting geometry The detection limit found for this technique (dry weight) is 140 pg MeHg/g. The Hg contents of the muscle samples were measured with the 279 keV emission of the product of the 202 Hg(n,g)203 Hg reaction, with a recovery of (100 ± 13)%. Liver and Hepato pancreas samples were measured with the 77 keV gamma emission of the 197 Hg, checking this result with the 67 y 69 keV X emissions from the same isotope.The liver samples needed an extra vacuum filtering process during

  10. Human hair neutron activation analysis: analysis on population level, mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is an outstanding analytical method having very wide applications in various fields. Analysis of human hair within last decades mostly based on neutron activation analysis is a very attractive illustration of the application of nuclear analytical techniques. Very interesting question is how the elemental composition differs in different areas or cities. In this connection the present paper gives average data and maps of various localities in the vicinity of drying-out Aral Sea and of various industrial cities in Central Asia. (author)

  11. Determination of Hg and other elements in fish and plant samples from Amazonic region, by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de Hg e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de peixes e plantas da regiao amazonica, por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Debora I.T.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Fostier, Anne Helene [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Analitica

    1996-07-01

    In the present work the region of Serra do Navio, Amapa State, was chosen to asses the Hg contamination due to gold mining activities. As part of monitoring of this region, fishes and plants were collected and analysed by instrumental neutron activation (INAA). Through this method it was possible to determine the concentration of the elements: As, Ca, Cr, Co, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn in fishes and Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn in plants. Mercury concentrations found in fishes ranged from 0.64 to 1.11 {mu}/g and from 0.83 to 0.15 {mu}g/g in plants. These results were compared with those obtained by the atomic absorption technique and they agreed well. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method were checked by means of analyses of reference materials. (author)

  12. Neutron activation spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in analytical geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is to show the geochemists who are interested in neutron activation spectrometry (NAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) which analytical possibilities these methods offer him. As a review of these analytical possibilities, a lieterature compolation is given which is subdivided into two groups: 1) rock (basic, intermediary, acid, sediments, soils and nuds, diverse minerals, tectites, meteorites and lunar material). 2) ore (Al, Au, Be, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, Pb, Pt, Sn, Ti, W, Zn, Zr, U and phosphate ore, polymetallic ores, fluorite, monazite and diverse ores). The applied methods as well as the determinable elements in the given materials can be got from the tables. On the whole, the literature evaluation carried out makes it clear that neutron activation spectrometry is a very useful multi-element method for the analysis of rocks. The analysis of ores, however, is subjected to great limitations. As rock analysis is very frequently of importance in prospecting for ore deposits, the NAS proves to be extremely useful for this very field of application. (orig./LH)

  13. Testing the homogeneity of candidate reference materials by solid sampling - AAS and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity to quantify a natural material's homogeneity with respect to its elemental distribution prior to chemical analysis of a given aliquot is emphasised. Available instruments and methods to obtain the relevant information are described. Additionally the calculation of element specific, relative homogeneity factors, HE, and of a minimum sample mass M5% to achieve 5% precision on a 95% confidence level is given. Especially, in the production and certification of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) this characteristic information should be determined in order to provide the user with additional inherent properties of the CRM to enable more economical use of the expensive material and to evaluate further systematic bias of the applied analytical technique. (author)

  14. Assessment of Pollution into the Densu Delta Wetland Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzifa Denutsui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to assess the levels of trace elements and the extent of pollution in the surface water and sediments from in the Densu delta wetland using INAA, PLI and the help of statistical tools like PCA and CA establish their common sources. Eight samples of surface water, eight samples of sediments were taken for elemental analysis. The samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, as well as trace elements (Al, Cu, V, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr, Fe and As. The results showed that the surface water in the area can be described as slightly alkaline with pH of 7.5 and high conductivities of 150-3412:S/cm with corresponding TDS of 80-1750 mg/L. Statistical analyses such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Cluster Analysis (CA were used to identify trace elements pollution in the wetland area. Results from CA and PCA suggest positive relationships between the two analyses. Trace elements were identified as originating from a common source in all the analyses. The PLI calculated for sediments in the study area were found to be below the index limit of 1. This shows that the surface waters are not yet polluted with respect to trace elements but the originality of the ecosystem is threatened.

  15. High-capacity neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility, the Reactor Activation Facility, was designed and built and has been in operation for about a year at one of the Savannah River Plant's production reactors. The facility determines uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples collected in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, which is sponsored and funded by the United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office. The facility has a demonstrated average analysis rate of over 10,000 samples per month, and a peak rate of over 16,000 samples per month. Uranium is determined by cyclic activation and delayed neutron counting of the U-235 fission products; other elements are determined from gamma-ray spectra recorded in subsequent irradiation, decay, and counting steps. The method relies on the absolute activation technique and is highly automated for round-the-clock unattended operation

  16. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  17. Design of Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratorium Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the planning to increase of the research and service quality in the ''Neutron activation analysis'' (APN),the design of mentioned ''Neutron activation analysis laboratories room'' has been done in the multi purpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy. By the using the designed installation, the irradiation preparation and counting sample can be done. The design doing by determination of installation lay out and maximum particle contain in the air. The design installation required a unit of 1 HP blower, a unit of 1 HP split air condition and 2 units 1200 x 800 mm HEPA filter. This paper concluded that this design is feasible to fabricated

  18. Quality assurance in biomedical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary report represents an attempt to identify some of the possible sources of error in in vitro neutron activation analysis of trace elements applied to specimens of biomedical origin and to advise on practical means to avoid them. The report is intended as guidance for all involved in analysis, including sample collection and preparation for analysis. All these recommendations constitute part of quality assurance which is here taken to encompass the two concepts - quality control and quality assessment. Quality control is the mechanism established to control errors, while quality assessment is the mechanism used to verify that the analytical procedure is operating within acceptable limits

  19. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  20. The Atomic Fingerprint: Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, Bernard [Carnegie-Mellon University

    1972-01-01

    The nuclei of atoms are stable only when they contain certain numbers of neutrons and protons. Since nuclei can absorb additional neutrons, which in many cases results in the conversion of a stable nucleus to a radioactive one, neutron activation analysis is possible.

  1. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  2. Transforming Teacher Education, An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Jane; Blake, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the work of teacher education in England and Scotland. It seeks to locate this work within conflicting sociocultural views of professional practice and academic work. Drawing on an activity theory framework that integrates the analysis of these seemingly contradictory discourses with a study of teacher educators' practical…

  3. Neutron activation analysis of Etruscan pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been widely used in archaeology for compositional analysis of pottery samples taken from sites of archaeological importance. Elemental profiles can determine the place of manufacture. At Cornell, samples from an Etruscan site near Siena, Italy, are being studied. The goal of this study is to compile a trace element concentration profile for a large number of samples. These profiles will be matched with an existing data bank in an attempt to understand the place of origin for these samples. The 500 kW TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory is used to collect NAA data for these samples. Experiments were done to set a procedure for the neutron activation analysis with respect to sample preparation, selection of irradiation container, definition of activation and counting parameters and data reduction. Currently, we are able to analyze some 27 elements in samples of mass 500 mg with a single irradiation of 4 hours and two sequences of counting. Our sensitivity for many of the trace elements is better than 1 ppm by weight under the conditions chosen. In this talk, details of our procedure, including quality assurance as measured by NIST standard reference materials, will be discussed. In addition, preliminary results from data treatment using cluster analysis will be presented. (author)

  4. Analysis by neutron activation analysis a some ancient Dacian ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Dacian ceramics, from three different establishments from Romanian territory have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. A series of elements has been determined: Ba, Eu, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm. Ba is the element that could be considered to differentiate relatively the three groups of ceramics.

  5. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  6. Multiscale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamborino, Diana; Martinell, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps which are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions we show that the multiscale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also be extracted from the analysis.

  7. The application of activation analysis for the control of bromide accumulation in vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil desinfestation with methyl bromide increases the uptake of bromine by plants. The natural bromine content of crops and fruits was found in the range of 1 up to 5 ppm in fresh weight. The highest acceptable level is 50 ppm in fresh weight. By using methyl bromide as a soil fumigant, a bromine accumulation was found in the crops to levels up to 20-500 ppm in fresh matter. The uptake of bromine differs in various parts of the vegetable crops. The highest bromine concentration could be observed in the leaves. The bromine uptake by plants depends on (a) the fumigation technique (applied amounts, reaction time, date of cultivation); (b) the growing conditions (soil type, climate and irrigation); (c) the plants (species, rotation, harvesting time etc.). The INAA is a simple and rapid method to analyse bromine in vegetables within a wide range using Br-80 and Br-82. Since several years this method has also been used to control imported crops. The samples were subjected to a short irradiation (1-3 minutes at 1013ncm-2sec-1). After the decay time of a few minutes the induced activity was measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer. The limit of detection varies between 0.1 and 0.5 ppm Br in fresh vegetable samples. (T.G.)

  8. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  9. KFUPM fast neutron activation analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly established Fast Neutron Activation Analysis facility at the Energy Research Laboratory is described. The facility mainly consists of a fast neutron irradiation station and a gamma ray counting station. Both stations are connected by a fast pneumatic sample transfer system which transports the sample from the irradiation station to the counting station in a short time of 3 s. The fast neutron activation analysis facility has been tested by measuring the 27A(n, α)24Na and 115In(n, n')115mIn cross sections at 14.8 and 2.5 MeV neutron energies, respectively. Within the experimental uncertainties, the measured cross sections for these elements agree with the published values. (orig.)

  10. Reactor neutron activation analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific application of neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) for industrial materials is demonstrated by the determination of impurities in BeO, Al, Si, Cu, Ge, GaP, GaAs, steel, and irradiated uranium. A group scheme gives an orientation about the possibilities of n.a.a. The use of different standards, methods for the measurement of low radioactivities and errors caused by recoil reaction and radiation stimulated diffusion are discussed. (author)

  11. Analysis of the toenail as a biomonitor of supranutritional intake of Zn, Cu, and Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toenail was examined as a biological monitor of Mg, Zn, and Cu intake using an observational case control model. The One Source Cohort matched 63 individuals in Columbia Missouri who took the One Source multivitamin with 63 control individuals. The matching criteria were based on age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, and body mass index. The multivitamin contained supra-nutritional levels of Se, Mg, Cu, and Zn. The toenail clippings were examined for these elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A statistical analysis did not indicate a significant difference for Mg, Cu, or Zn between the nails of One Source supplement users and control subjects (p-4). This internal Se control suggests that the One Source Cohort is largely free from misclassification errors that could interfere with the biomonitor response for the supranutritional intake of Mg, Cu, and Zn. (author)

  12. Principal component analysis of air particulate data from the industrial area of islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Gent air sampler was used to collect 72 pairs of size fractionated coarse and fine (PM/sub 10/ and PM/sub 2.5/) particulate mass samples from the industrial zone (sector I-9) of Islamabad. These samples were analyzed for their elemental composition using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Principal component analysis (PCA), which can be used for source apportionment of quantified elemental data, was used to interpret the data. Graphical representations of loadings were used to explain the data through grouping of the elements from same source. The present work shows well defined elemental fingerprints of suspended soil and road dust, industry, motor vehicle exhaust and tyres, and coal and refuses combustions for the studied locality of Islamabad. (author)

  13. Activation Analysis and Public Health. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of activation analysis has useful and distinctive applications, not yet fully recognized or exploited, in public health. Three areas of usefulness may be recognized. 1. Industrial hygiene. Activation analysis offers a simple and efficient method for assessing and controlling occupational hazards associated with the handling of toxic materials, such as compounds of arsenic and of mercury. Examination of hair and nail samples, taken at six-monthly intervals, will yield a surprising amount of information regarding the influence on occupational exposure of individual variation in working habits, and inadequacy or non-observance of hygienic rules and other prescribed safety measures. 2. Epidemiology. The advantage conferred by activation analysis lies in the possibility of rapid and accurate estimation of trace element concentrations in small samples of tissue or other materials, such as can readily be obtained from population groups large enough to be statistically significant. Surveys of this kind have interesting potentialities in relation to dental caries, cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. 3. Recognition of essential trace elements. Surveys of trace element concentrations suggest that the variability of tissue levels among members of a population is smaller for essential trace elements than for non-essential elements. It is possible also that tissue levels show a normal distribution for essential elements and a log-normal distribution for non-essential elements. (author)

  14. Neutron Activation analysis of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis for the simultaneous determination of chlorine, bromine, sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, zinc, nickel, antimony and iron in waste water is described. They were determined in waste water samples under normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation simultaneously using a suitable monostandard method. Standardized water samples were used and irradiated in polyethylene ampoules at a neutron flux of 1013 cm-2 s-1 for periods of 1 minute, 1 and 10 hours. A Ge hyperpure detector was used for your activity determination, with count times of 60, 180, 300 and 600 seconds. The obtained results show than the method can be utilized for the determination of this elements without realize anything previous treatment of the samples. (Author)

  15. Co-ordinated research project on use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studying human health impacts of toxic elements consumed through foodstuffs contaminated by industrial activities. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Co-ordinated research project is to provide a scientific basis for better assessment of selected pollutants in the food chain with a view to elucidating their impacts on human health and nutrition. Results of this study will enhance the existing body of knowledge and can be used to develop preventive strategies. Specific objectve: To determine the extent to which toxic element levels in food are affected by surrounding industrial activities and to assess potential human exposure from the consumption of such foodstuffs. EXPECTED RESEARCH OUTPUTS (RESULTS): Harmonized protocols and procedures for sampling and analyses; ? Compiled results for toxic element levels and their average daily dietary intake (ADDI) / dietary intake; Evaluated toxic element exposure levels based on biological indicators (where applicable); Publications of the study results in an IAEA TECDOC, and in peer-reviewed journals by participants. ACTION PLAN (ACTIVITIES) a. Core research activities: 1 Identification of the study areas and population groups. 2 Collection of information on food consumption patterns of the population groups under study (e.g. through questionnaires). 3 Development of harmonized protocols and validation of analytical methodologies in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. 4 Collection and analysis of food samples, and estimation of the dietary intake. 5 Collection and analysis of biological indicators where applicable. 6 Evaluation of possible relationships between human exposures and biological indicators for the pollutants studied. 4b. Supplementary activities: ? Speciation studies of pollutants. ? Comparison of present and previous data on relevant parameters. ? Possible production and distribution of laboratory intercomparison samples. 7. Recommendations for nuclear analytical techniques ? Nuclear analytical technique (NAT) such as INAA, PIXE, PIGE, XRF should be the primary technique of analysis; Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA

  16. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  17. Multielemental analysis of soils by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an instrumental neutron activation analysis of some elemental concentrations in different soil samples near the industrial areas at Tirupati, India, are reported. Altogether 14 elements, Sm, La, Cr, Co, Zn, Cs, Ce, Th, Rb, Na, K, Sr, Fe and Eu were determined. The samples were irradiated with neutrons at the 100 kW Triga - Mainz research reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector in connection with a multichannel analyzer. The results are discussed. (author)

  18. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  19. Dietary intake of Arsenic, Iodine and Selenium by adolescents in three Orphanages in Southern Ghana using Radiochemical Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for Osu, Tutu- Akwapim and Teshie were 102 ± 25 [74-148], 115 ± 25 [74-151], and 340 ± 117 [189- 566] μg day-1 respectively. The mass fraction of Se in the lyophilized diets for Osu, Tutu- Akwapim and Teshie were 165 ± 61 [117-285], 203 ± 68 [111-305], and 250 ± 92 [129- 408] ng Se g-1 lyophilized matter respectively. The mass fraction of Se in the lyophilized diet samples for Tutu-Akwapim was again determined by ko-INAA (Kayzero instrumental neutron activation analysis). The mass fraction obtained with ko-INAA (206 ± 120 ng g-1) was in excellent agreement with RNAA (203 ± 68 ng g-1). The dietary intake ofSe were 58 ± 17 [42-88],82 ± 31 [44-136] and 92 ± 44 [46-153] μg Se day-1 for Osu, Tutu-Akwapim and Teshie respectively. The adolescent's dietary exposure to As in the three orphanages were lower than the World Health Organization's provisional tolerable daily intake (WHO PTDI) of 2.14 μg/kg body weight/day [which translates to 107 μg As day-1 for adolescents weighing 50 kg]. The adolescents dietary exposure to As were also within the European Food Safety Authority's benchmark dose limit (EFSA BMDL01) of 0.37-1.22μg/kg body weight/day for 95th percentile (high level) consumers [which translates to 18.5-61 μg As day-1 for adolescents weighing 50 kg]. The dietary intake of I for adolescents in Osu and Tutu-Akwapim orphanages though lower than the United States (US) Institute of Medicine's recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 150 μg I day-1, were within the normal 100-150 μg I day-1 dietary intake common in non- iodine deficient countries of the world. The dietary intakes of Se in the three orphanages were comparable to the US Institute of Medicine's RDA of 55 μg Se day-1, and also within the global average Se intake range of 20-300 μg Se day-1. The adolescents' dietary intake of As provides ample safety, and their dietary intakes of I and Se were adequate. (au)

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  1. analysis of some human-daily - used products and studying the correlation between elemental content and possible health harm using chemical and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    radiochemical and chemical techniques have been used for analysis of some human-daily-used products. these techniques were: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). the first technique was used for simultaneously multi-element determination of some trace, minor, and major elements in the analyzed samples, whereas icp-ms was used for analysis of Cd,Cu,Hg, and Pb in some samples. in the present study samples of various products as indicated below were analyzed: 1- samples of various kinds of cosmetic products such as : compact face powder, compact rouge make-up, compact eyeshadow, 2-samples of some common drugs. 3- samples of different kinds of toothpaste, and shaving cream. 4- samples of some mosquitoes exterminators. these samples have been randomly selected from the egyptian market. some of these samples were imported from the world market, and the others were manufactured in Egypt

  2. Scalable histopathological image analysis via active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Shaoting; Liu, Wei; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    Training an effective and scalable system for medical image analysis usually requires a large amount of labeled data, which incurs a tremendous annotation burden for pathologists. Recent progress in active learning can alleviate this issue, leading to a great reduction on the labeling cost without sacrificing the predicting accuracy too much. However, most existing active learning methods disregard the "structured information" that may exist in medical images (e.g., data from individual patients), and make a simplifying assumption that unlabeled data is independently and identically distributed. Both may not be suitable for real-world medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel batch-mode active learning method which explores and leverages such structured information in annotations of medical images to enforce diversity among the selected data, therefore maximizing the information gain. We formulate the active learning problem as an adaptive submodular function maximization problem subject to a partition matroid constraint, and further present an efficient greedy algorithm to achieve a good solution with a theoretically proven bound. We demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm on thousands of histopathological images of breast microscopic tissues. PMID:25320821

  3. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country

  4. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajcevic, Marija; Jacimovic, Radojko; Budic, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-18

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  5. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajčevič, Marija; Jačimović, Radojko; Budič, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-01

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  6. Neutron activation studies of the in-body corrosion of hip-joint prostheses made of Co-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the trace element composition of 18 elements was investigated in human tissues (articular capsule and fascia lata) of 36 persons after removal of hip-joint prostheses made of Co-Cr alloys. Normal trace element concentrations were determined studying a group of 26 patients before receiving their first artificial hip-joint. The tissues of patients with metal implants exhibited a heavy burdening by corrosion products (Co, Cr, Ni) from the prostheses as well as by Zr, Hf and Ba from the bone cements. Moreover, changes in the distribution of trace elements not contained in the steel were also observed. A comparison of the analytical results with those of model experiments of the corrosion of Co-Cr alloy in Ringer's solution demonstrates that the distribution pattern of corrosion products in the tissues are influenced by both, the biochemical properties as well as by selective dissolution of the alloy constituents. (author)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of IAEA research project, ''Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants'', a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentration in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and amoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. (author)

  8. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  9. Research Activities involving Radioactivation Analysis in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Triga Mark-II Research Reactor was installed at this institute in 1960, it was furnished with a pneumatic tube, a fume hood, and a laboratory bench for the purpose of developing the utilization of the research reactor in this country. This marked the commencement of research activity in radioactivation analysis in Korea. Since the output of the reactor was not sufficient enough to perform any sophisticated fundamental research work in nuclear science, radioactivation analysis was considered as one of the most promising means of utilising the reactor. Various requests for routine analysis of the trace elements contained in Korean mineral ores, archaeological materials, domestic industrial samples, native medicinal plants, and criminological samples had been filed at this institute. Fortunately, a well trained scientist and technician for the radioactivation work had been working at this division and hence these requests from the public had been well worked out to receive much recognition of scientists and engineers both in this country and overseas. A brief summary of the research work accomplished is presented in this paper and a brief outline of the routine analytical work is also described on the basis of local situations

  10. Investigation of the heavy metal pollution of Danube delta sediments by TTPIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental composition of sediments collected from some Danube Delta lakes (Malita, Furtuna, Lund, Mester and Sinoe), which are located in active sedimentary zones, was investigated by using two complementary methods: thick target proton-induced X-ray emission (TTPIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The goal was to obtain a complete survey of heavy metal pollution and reconstruct recent pollution history in these Danube Delta lakes. Vertical distribution was analyzed, except for the case of Sinoe Lake, from which samples were collected only at the surface. During PIXE measurements, the pellets of 12 mm diameter and ∼ 1.5 mm thickness were bombarded using 3 MeV proton beams delivered by the FN-Tandem accelerator of IFIN-HH. The X-ray spectra were measured with a Ge-HP detector of 180 eV/5.9 KeV energy resolution for some micro.C charge accumulation. Control samples of reference sediments (IAEA, SL-1 and SOIL-7) prepared in the same conditions were also measured. Corrections were made for proton stopping and X-ray self-attenuation in the thick samples. Thirty-eight samples from the first four lakes and 7 samples from Sinoe Lake were analyzed, and the concentrations of 27 elements in every sample were determined by TTPIXE method. The following elements: S, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ni, Ga, Pb, and Hg could not be determined by INAA in our conditions. A typical measured spectrum where the presence of various pollutant elements is shown. Five elements - As, Br, Cr, Sb and Zn - were identified as pollutants by INAA method, showing concentrations about 1.5-2 x larger at the sediments surface. The vertical distribution of the presumed pollutant elements generally reflected the pollution history of the Danube Delta, namely a steady increase in pollution till the end of the 1980s, which can be associated with intense industrialization of Central and Eastern European countries prior to 1990. We think the interplay with TTPIXE method

  11. Neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urinary calculi resulting from disorders in the urinary system are mostly composed of uric acid, urates, calcium oxalate, alkaline earth phosphates (Ca and Mg), triple phosphate (magnesium ammonium phosphate), calcium carbonate, cystine, xanthine, and traces of proteins. The determination of these macro-constituents has been carried out by different analytical procedures. No attempts however, have been reported regarding the determination of trace elements in urinary stones, apart from that of Herring et al., who investigated the consumption of strontium by urolithiasis patients. The present work is a non-destructive neutron activation analysis of urinary calculi, to search the variation in concentration of certain trace elements with the chemical composition of the calculus

  12. Reactor neutron activation for multielemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis using single comparator (K0 NAA method) has been used for obtaining multielemental profiles in a variety of matrices related to environment. Gold was used as the comparator. Neutron flux was characterised by determining f, the epithermal to thermal neutron flux ratio and cc, the deviation from ideal shape of the neutron spectrum. The f and a were determined in different irradiation positions in APSARA reactor, PCF position in CIRUS reactor and tray rod position in Dhruva reactor using both cadmium cut off and multi isotope detector methods. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for radioactive assay of the activation products. This technique is being used for multielement analysis in a variety of matrices like lake sediments, sea nodules and crusts, minerals, leaves, cereals, pulses, leaves, water and soil. Elemental profiles of the sediments corresponding to different depths from Nainital lake were determined and used to understand the history of natural absorption/desorption pattern of the previous 160 years. Ferromanganese crusts from different locations of Indian Ocean were analysed with a view to studying the distribution of some trace elements along with Fe and Mn. Variation of Mn/Fe ratio was used to identify the nature of the crusts as hydrogenous or hydrothermal. Fe-rich and Fe-depleted nodules from Indian Ocean were analysed to understand the REE patterns and it is proposed that REE-Th associated minerals could be the potential Th contributors to the sea water and thus reached ferromanganese nodules. Dolomites (unaltered and altered), two types of serpentines and intrusive rock dolerite from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin were analysed for major, minor and trace elements. The elemental concentrations are used for distinguishing and characterising these minerals. From our investigations, it was concluded that both dolomite and dolerite contribute elements in the serpentinisation process. Chemical neutron

  13. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  14. Solar active regions: a nonparametric statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pelt, J; Tuominen, I

    2009-01-01

    The sunspots and other solar activity indicators tend to cluster on the surface of the Sun.These clusters very often occur at certain longitudes that persist in time.It is of general interest to find new and simple ways to characterize the observed distributions of different indicators and their behaviour in time. In the present work we use Greenwich sunspot data to evaluate statistical but not totally coherent stability of sunspot distribution along latitudes as well as longitudes. The aim was to obtain information on the longitudinal distribution of the underlying spot-generating mechanism rather than on the distribution and migration of sunspots or sunspot groups on the solar surface. Therefore only sunspot groups were included in the analysis, and only the time of their first appearance was used. We use simple nonparametric approach to reveal sunspot migration patterns and their persistency. Our analysis shows that regions where spots are generated tend to rotate differentially as the spots and spot group...

  15. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis potentialities in archaeological ceramics studies; Potencialidades da analise por ativacao com neutrons instrumental em estudos de ceramicas arqueologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Rosemeire P.; Munita, Casimirio S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Marcia A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    1999-11-01

    In this work, precision and sensitivity of the determination of As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn in ceramic samples by INAA were evaluated. Two clay samples Brick Clay (NIST-SRM-697 reference material)and Ohio Red Clay (a well known clay sample) were analyzed for this purpose. Archaeological ceramic fragments from Agua Limpa Site, in Monte Alto city, SP were also analyzed. The archaeological ceramics were produced in the quotidian activities of non writing preterite societies, in sedentarization process. The ceramic chemical information are used to identify raw material sources and to study production and distribution models, which allow the reconstruction of the socio-cultural development and integration of extinguished societies. (author) 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Determination of trace elements in Egyptian cane sugar (Deshna Factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielement instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses were utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth, respectively. (author)

  18. Activation analysis in Europe: present and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the present-day European contribution to activation analysis, covering neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Attention is paid to the available irradiation facilities, in particular nuclear reactors, cyclotrons and Van de Graaff accelerators, and linear electron accelerators. Mention is made of progress in fundamental fields, but the attention is especially focussed on practical applications: environmental, geochemical/cosmochemical, biological/medical, and high-purity materials. Eventually, the role of activation analysis in research projects of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and in the Reference Materials program of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is emphasized

  19. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  20. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x1012 n cm-2 s-1 were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the μg g-1 levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  1. Metal, trace and rare earth element assessment in a sedimentary profile from Promissao reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A.; Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: shasilva@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (ELAI/CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Quimica Inorganica; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DGRN/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia e Recursos Naturais; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2015-07-01

    In the present study the preliminary results for the Promissao reservoir, situated in the Lower Tiete region covering a little more than 1% of the SP state population, is characterized by intense agropastoral activities. Its operations for generating electrical energy started in 1975. It is located at Tiete River and its hydrographic basin has a drainage area of 530 km{sup 2}. The total extension of the reservoir is 110 km along the Tiete River, with a medium depth of 20 m. A core sampler was used and a 33 cm sediment core was collected from the dam in January 2013, sliced at every 2.5 cm, totaling 13 samples. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major (Fe, K, and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, and Zn) and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, and Yb). The enrichment factor (EF) was applied to the results obtained by using North American Shale Composite, Upper Continental Crust and the concentration values of the last layer of this profile as reference values for sediment contamination index assessment. When the results for As, Cr, and Zn were compared to threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) oriented values, sediments from 0-10 cm exceeded the TEL values for As (5.9 mg kg{sup -1}), all samples exceeded the PEL values for Cr (90 mg kg{sup -1}), and all samples had much lower values than TEL values for Zn (123 mg kg{sup -1}). (author)

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some fossil samples from Romanian palaeolontologic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fossilization process, elemental contents of the buried materials are modified by different physical, chemical and biological factors, such as ground water flow and degree of aeration, chemical composition of the soil, bacterial activity, the process being influenced by the climatical conditions. Bone tissue, by the calcium phosphate mineral (hydroxyapatite) in the external part and organic component (fat and collagen) in the inner part, has proved to be a proper substrate for minor elements accumulation. The uniform increasing of certain elemental concentrations during the fossilization process is generally used in palaeoscience for the age dating. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method was used by us to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn, and of the rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb contents of two different fossil materials discovered in Romania during 1995-1996: Elephas primigenius mammoth mandible bone (1.5-2 million years age) and Pecten solarium shell (20-25 million years age). Mammoth mandible bone samples were taken both from the external and the internal part of the bone. Shell fragments were taken in association with the surrounding rock samples. Irradiations were carried out at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest (neutron fluence rate 2.3 x 1012 cm-2 s-1 and at the TRIGA reactor in Pitesti (neutron fluence rate 5 x 1013 cm-2 s-1. For the mammoth mandible bone (relative high contents of U and P) corrections were done for the uranium fission and (n,γ)β- contribution to Ce, La, Nd and Sm concentrations, and for the phosphorus interference in Al determination. It was taken into account that 141 Ce, 140 La, 147 Nd, 153 Sm isotopes are originated not only by the neutron activation reactions of these elements, but also from the beta- decay chains of the uranium fission products; for 153 Sm, spectral interference with 103.65 keV X-ray of 239 Pu (by

  3. Activation analysis for the Ignitor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Ignitor experiment is to produce DT plasma regimes where ignition can take place. From the neutronics point of view, after a first period of machine set up and tuning in aneutronic operation, a second phase of 2.5 MeV neutron production with pure deuterium plasmas at increasing density is anticipated. After that, a transition phase to increasing percentage of tritium will be followed by several years of operations with 50% of tritium leading to short but intense 14-MeV neutron emission. To deal with the concerns due to the strong neutron emission, a detailed description of the actual Ignitor machine is implemented in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code to calculate the neutron fluxes in all machine components, taking in account the streaming through the ports. These fluxes are then used as input for the FISPACT-97 code for the analysis of the activation at the end of life and at intermediate times for safety assessment purposes. The resulting dose rate outside the device is also studied. The results point out that remote handling is needed for repair/maintenance of inner components following the DD operations, and that the access in the hall near the device could be restricted from the beginning of DT operations. The requirements on additional shield are discussed

  4. Instrumental neutron activation analysis as an analytical tool supporting the establishment of guidelines and databases for workers' health awareness programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dangerous diseases that are easily identified. The main problem is that the majority of workers are exposed to low levels of toxic chemicals that can be lethal in the long term, owing to chronic diseases. Most often the onset of the diseases goes unnoticed, and the presence of a lung cancer or heart disease is attributed to non-occupational causes. As a result, these cases of illness do not become part of the compiled data. Besides, there is no specialized and complete literature concerning occupational aetiology, nor is there an evaluation of the onset of disease linked to long term exposure to low levels of toxic agents. With the aim of giving support to the Workers' Health Awareness Programme of the Secretaria Municipal de Saude (Municipal Department of Health) of Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais state, an assessment was done in galvanizing factories by means of airborne particulate matter collected in air filters and in hair and toenails as biomonitors. This project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, COEP-UFMG. All research involving human beings has to be submitted to this committee in order to protect the population studied. The k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was chosen to be applied for the determination of elements in air filters and in hair and toenail samples, as it can determine several elements in the same sample almost simultaneously, with a low detection limit and without any chemical procedure as is required in the majority of non-nuclear techniques, and also because it requires only a small amount of sample for the analysis. The k0 method was applied to all samples, demonstrating its quality as a versatile technique, and it was confirmed to be one of the most advantageous and suitable nuclear analytical techniques

  5. Contribution of nuclear analytical techniques to the rescue of Brazilian history through the analysis of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prehistory of the last two millennia in Brazil has been characterized by the coexistence of several cultures in each region. Some were competing - specialized agricultural societies in the alluvial plains - but other groups lived in a more isolated and probably peaceful way in the upper interfluvial region. It is difficult to determine what the level of integration was between the different tribes of the Proto-Ge, Proto-Tupi, Proto-Aruaque and Carib populations. Archaeologists wanted to obtain more information concerning social behaviour through the chemical analysis of the ceramics. To provide some clues to help the archaeologists find the answers, k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine element concentrations in the ceramics. The k0 INAA technique was chosen to be applied to the determination of elements because it can determine several elements in the same sample almost simultaneously, with a low detection limit and without any chemical procedure, as is required in the majority of non-nuclear techniques. This technique was the most suitable for this study because it did not entail the destruction of these important items of historical ceramics, it required only a very small piece of the materials to be analysed, and it was able to give the element concentration of more than 20 elements from just one small piece of precious ceramic. The k0 method was applied to all samples, demonstrating its quality as a versatile technique, and it was confirmed to be one of the most advantageous and suitable nuclear analytical techniques

  6. Application of Data Mining methods in analysis of company's activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyurina Dina N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers expediency of application of Data Mining means along with traditional statistical methods of analysis of financial and economic activity of a company for revealing all possible factors that influence upon effectiveness of its functioning by means of solving clusterisation tasks. It shows main advantages of application of Data Mining means in analysis of company's activity. It offers an algorithm of conduction analysis of company's activity, which facilitates significant ...

  7. 中子活化法表征酸奶与苹果中有机卤化物%Study of organohalogens in yogurt and apple by neutron activation analysis and related techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 柴之芳; 孙慧斌

    2008-01-01

    利用仪器中子活化分析、气相色谱和化学分离相结合的方法,研究随机采自北京、深圳超市的酸奶(20个品牌)和苹果(9种)中总卤素、可萃取有机卤素、可萃取持久性有机卤素和可鉴别持久性有机氯.结果显示,Cl、Br和I的INAA探测极限分别为50 ng、8 ng和3.5 ng.酸奶中可萃取有机氯占总氯含量的0.005%~0.043%,其中约24%为耐浓硫酸的可萃取持久性有机氯,可鉴别有机氯占总EPOCl的0.7%~13.1%;苹果中相应比例分别为1.6%~5.1%、34%和0.5%~6.2%,表明酸奶与苹果中的氯化物主要为极性水溶性化合物,EOCl主要为酸溶或酸不稳定氯化物,大部分EPOCl为现代气相色谱技术尚不能鉴别的未知化合物,仍留待人们去认识.%Twenty brands of Chinese commercial yogurt specimens and nine different kinds of apple samples collected randomly from supermarkets in Beijing and Shenzhen,China,were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with gas chromatography (GC) and chemical separation methods for total halogens,extractable organohalogens (EOX),extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) and identified organochlorines. The INAA detection limits are 50 ng,8 ng and 3.5 ng for Cl,Br and I,respectively. The extractable organochlorines (EOCl) accounted for 0.005% to 0.043% of the total chlorine in yogurt and 1.6% to 5.1% in apple.About 24% of EOCl kept undecomposed as the extractable persistent organochlorines (EPOCl) after treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid in yogurt,and 34% in apple.These results indicated that chlorine in the two selected foodstuffs mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organochlorines,and most EOCl in yogurt and apple were acid-liable or acid-soluble fractions. The Ratios of identified organochlorines to total EPOCl were 0.7% to 13.1% and 0.5% to 6.2% in yogurt and apple samples,respectively,which implying that a major portion of EPOCl measured in yogurt and apple

  8. Intruder Activity Analysis under Unreliable Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2007-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of counting intruder activities within a monitored domain by a sensor network. The deployed sensors are unreliable. We characterize imperfect sensors with misdetection and false-alarm probabilities. We model intruder activities with Markov Chains. A set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models the imperfect sensors and intruder activities to be monitored. A novel sequential change detection/isolation algorithm is developed to detect and isolate a change from an HMM representing no intruder activity to another HMM representing some intruder activities. Procedures for estimating the entry time and the trace of intruder activities are developed. A domain monitoring example is given to illustrate the presented concepts and computational procedures.

  9. High-Throughput Analysis of Enzyme Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guoxin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) techniques have been applied to many research fields nowadays. Robot microarray printing technique and automation microtiter handling technique allows HTS performing in both heterogeneous and homogeneous formats, with minimal sample required for each assay element. In this dissertation, new HTS techniques for enzyme activity analysis were developed. First, patterns of immobilized enzyme on nylon screen were detected by multiplexed capillary system. The imaging resolution is limited by the outer diameter of the capillaries. In order to get finer images, capillaries with smaller outer diameters can be used to form the imaging probe. Application of capillary electrophoresis allows separation of the product from the substrate in the reaction mixture, so that the product doesn't have to have different optical properties with the substrate. UV absorption detection allows almost universal detection for organic molecules. Thus, no modifications of either the substrate or the product molecules are necessary. This technique has the potential to be used in screening of local distribution variations of specific bio-molecules in a tissue or in screening of multiple immobilized catalysts. Another high-throughput screening technique is developed by directly monitoring the light intensity of the immobilized-catalyst surface using a scientific charge-coupled device (CCD). Briefly, the surface of enzyme microarray is focused onto a scientific CCD using an objective lens. By carefully choosing the detection wavelength, generation of product on an enzyme spot can be seen by the CCD. Analyzing the light intensity change over time on an enzyme spot can give information of reaction rate. The same microarray can be used for many times. Thus, high-throughput kinetic studies of hundreds of catalytic reactions are made possible. At last, we studied the fluorescence emission spectra of ADP and obtained the detection limits for ADP under three different

  10. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳

    2014-01-01

    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  11. Karyotype Analysis Activity: A Constructivist Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Noveera T.

    2015-01-01

    This classroom activity is based on a constructivist learning design and engages students in physically constructing a karyotype of three mock patients. Students then diagnose the chromosomal aneuploidy based on the karyotype, list the symptoms associated with the disorder, and discuss the implications of the diagnosis. This activity is targeted…

  12. Role of neutron activation analysis in the study of heavy metal pollution of a lake-river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of a study of combined organic and metallic pollution of the Coeur d'Alene Lake-River and Spokane River system and the role played by nuclear techniques in the investigation are presented. The Coeur d'Alene River drains through the N. Idaho Pb--Zn mining region of Kellogg and the mining industry is the major source of metallic pollution of the lake and river system. The first part of the study has involved the determination of Pb, Zn, Ag, Cd, As, Cu, Sb, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Ba, Eu, La, Tb, Y, Zr, Fe, Mn, Mo, by INAA in waters, sediments and organisms throughout the region. Extremely high values for Pb, Zn, Sb, Fe and other metals were found in the Coeur d'Alene River delta sediments and in the lake sediments. Results from the study of metals in an aquatic ecosystem show the value of combining nuclear techniques with other methods of trace analysis in practical pollution problems

  13. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  14. PIXE analysis of the obsidian support of two paintings from the Louvre by Murillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, CNRS UMR 171, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Chiappero, P.J. [Dep. Histoire de la Terre, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, USM201, 6I rue Bufon, 75005 Paris (France); Gendron, F.; Gonthier, E. [Dep. de Prehistoire, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, Museum National d ' Histoire Naturelle, 1 rue Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Meslay, O. [Departement des peintures, Musee du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Poupeau, G. [lnstiut de Recherche sur les Archeomateriaux, UMR 5060 CNRS-Universite Bordeaux 3, Maison de l ' Archeologie, Esplanade des Antilles, 33607, Pessac (France); Tenorio, D. [ININ, km 36 carretera Mexico-Toluca, CP 52045, Edo. Mex. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The very unusual black backings of two paintings by the Spanish master Murillo (1617-1682) representing Passion Scenes, on display at the Louvre museum, have been analyzed by PIXE with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The support proved to be obsidian, a natural volcanic glass widely employed to produce archaeological artefacts, in particular in South and Meso-America. Five archaeological artifacts with similar shape to the paintings called 'obsidian mirrors', originating from Mexico and belonging to the collections of the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, have been analyzed and the composition of four of them showed to be very similar to Murillo obsidians. The comparison with the results obtained on reference obsidian samples from Mexican sources and with data from the literature by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) suggested that the Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Michoacan, Mexico is the source of the obsidian employed for the paintings. A field trip to this area was therefore organized to collect samples whose natural slab shape and chemical composition confirmed the Ucareo provenance hypothesis. The rectangular backing of Murillo paintings are unlikely archaeological artefacts but rather objects specially made after the Spanish conquest by Meso american craftsmen, among which some were exported to Europe where Murillo spent all his life. The observation, in the walls of the church and other Christian monuments in Ucareo, of obsidian inlays, a material of particular significance in the pre-Hispanic culture, underlines the complex intrication of native culture and European influences which are also carried by Murillo paintings. Meanwhile, a third painting on obsidian by Murillo as been identified in the Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas, U.S.A. This study also points out that even if the ranges of elements dosed by PIXE and INAA do not fully overlap, the measurements obtained by both techniques can be efficiently used for provenancing obsidians

  15. PIXE analysis of the obsidian support of two paintings from the Louvre by Murillo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very unusual black backings of two paintings by the Spanish master Murillo (1617-1682) representing Passion Scenes, on display at the Louvre museum, have been analyzed by PIXE with the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF. The support proved to be obsidian, a natural volcanic glass widely employed to produce archaeological artefacts, in particular in South and Meso-America. Five archaeological artifacts with similar shape to the paintings called 'obsidian mirrors', originating from Mexico and belonging to the collections of the Musee de l'Homme in Paris, have been analyzed and the composition of four of them showed to be very similar to Murillo obsidians. The comparison with the results obtained on reference obsidian samples from Mexican sources and with data from the literature by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) suggested that the Ucareo/Zinapecuaro, Michoacan, Mexico is the source of the obsidian employed for the paintings. A field trip to this area was therefore organized to collect samples whose natural slab shape and chemical composition confirmed the Ucareo provenance hypothesis. The rectangular backing of Murillo paintings are unlikely archaeological artefacts but rather objects specially made after the Spanish conquest by Meso american craftsmen, among which some were exported to Europe where Murillo spent all his life. The observation, in the walls of the church and other Christian monuments in Ucareo, of obsidian inlays, a material of particular significance in the pre-Hispanic culture, underlines the complex intrication of native culture and European influences which are also carried by Murillo paintings. Meanwhile, a third painting on obsidian by Murillo as been identified in the Museum of Fine Arts of Houston, Texas, U.S.A. This study also points out that even if the ranges of elements dosed by PIXE and INAA do not fully overlap, the measurements obtained by both techniques can be efficiently used for provenancing obsidians objects. (Author)

  16. International conference activation analysis and its applications (ICAAA): abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International conference on the Activation Analysis and its Applications was hold in Beijing of China on October 15-19, 1990. It was organized and co-sponsored by Division of Activation Analysis and Radioanalysis, National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Nuclear Society, etc.. 159 pieces of Articles in the field were received in the conference, from many countries

  17. Trace Analysis of Ancient Gold Objects Using Radiochemical Neutron Activation

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, A; Constantinescu, O; Badica, T; Popescu, I V; Besliu, C; Leahu, D; Olariu, Agata; Constantinescu, Mioara; Leahu, Doina

    1999-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been applied to investigate the microelements in gold samples with archaeological importance. Chemical separation has allowed the determination of traces of Ir, Os, Sb, Zn, Co, Fe, Ni. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the determination of Cu.

  18. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Ryel, Sung; Kang, Young Hwan; Lee, Kil Yong; Yeon, Yeon Yel; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2000-08-01

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis.

  19. Development of educational program for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is developed to apply an educational and training program for graduate student and analyst utilizing neutron activation analysis. The contents of guide book consists of five parts as follows; introduction, gamma-ray spectrometry and measurement statistics, its applications, to understand of comprehensive methodology and to utilize a relevant knowledge and information on neutron activation analysis

  20. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, O.G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)], E-mail: duliu@b.astral.ro; Cristache, C.I. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia-Hulubei' , P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)], E-mail: ocarmen@ifin.nipne.ro; Culicovc, O.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot Curie str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: otilia_culicov@yahoo.com; Frontasyeva, M.V. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot Curie str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.ru; Szobotca, S.A. [National Institute of Geoecology and Marine Geology, 34 Dimitrie Onciul str., 024504 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: szobi@geoecomar.ro; Toma, M. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia-Hulubei' , P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models.

  1. Teaching-Learning Activity Modeling Based on Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungrog Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies are currently being carried out on personalized services based on data analysis to find and provide valuable information about information overload. Furthermore, the number of studies on data analysis of teaching-learning activities for personalized services in the field of teaching-learning is increasing, too. This paper proposes a learning style recency-frequency-durability (LS-RFD model for quantified analysis on the level of activities of learners, to provide the elements of teaching-learning activities according to the learning style of the learner among various parameters for personalized service. This is to measure preferences as to teaching-learning activity according to recency, frequency and durability of such activities. Based on the results, user characteristics can be classified into groups for teaching-learning activity by categorizing the level of preference and activity of the learner.

  2. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavono...

  3. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  4. Insurer’s activity as object of economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Poplavskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the substantiation of theoretical fundamentals of insurer’s analysis and peculiarities of its implementation. The attention has been focused on the important role of economic analysis in economic science which is confirmed by its active use in research and practical orientation. The author summarizes the classification and principles of insurer’s activity analysis, supplements it with specific principles for insurer’s environment, publicity and risk-orientation which enable increasingly to take into account the peculiarities of insurance relations. The paper pays attention to the specification of elements of analysis and its key directions including the analysis of insurer’s financing, the analysis of insurance operations and the analysis of investment activity which will allow the effective functioning of risk management system.

  5. Introduction of Prompt Gamma Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xing-hua; XIAO; Cai-jin; ZHANG; Gui-ying; YAO; Yong-gang; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; HUA; Long; NI; Bang-fa

    2013-01-01

    CARR will provide with maximal neutron flux in Asia,the third of the world.By using the high quality neutron beam and the advanced international experience,Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis(PGNAA)facility will be setup at high level.PGNAA on CARR will promote the development of nuclear analysis technology and improve Chinese status in the nuclear analysis field.

  6. Total Diet Study. Mg and Mn content estimation of a Market Basket of Sao Paulo state (Brazil) by Instrumental Neutron Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Diet Studies (TDS) have been carried out to estimate dietary intakes of the essential and toxic elements for a large-scale population over a specific period of time. In this study, the TDS was based on the evaluation of food representing a Market Basket (MB), which reflected the dietary habits of the Sao Paulo State population, corresponding to 72 % of the average food consumption for the state of Sao Paulo. In the present Total Diet Study, magnesium and manganese concentrations were determined in 30 of the most consumed food groups of a MB of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. Element concentrations were determined by INAA in freeze-dried samples and ranged in mg kg-1. Mg 41.4 (fats)-5287 (coffee) and Mn 0.12 (prime grade beef)-32.9 (coffee). The average daily Mg and Mn intake was calculated by multiplying the concentration of each element in each table-ready food group by the respective weight (g day-1) of the food group in the MB and adding the products from all food groups. The results of daily dietary intakes in this study were: Mg 174.8 and Mn 1.34 mg day-1. Theses values were lower than the adequate intake (AI) proposed by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (USA National Academy) for adults. The low levels of Mg and Mn intakes presented in this TDS are probably due to the fact that MB of this study represented only 72 % of the weight of the most consumed household foods of Sao Paulo State. (author)

  7. Design professional activity analysis in design management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Souza Libanio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Design use perception, as an essential element for achieving competitive advantage, also suggests the need to manage the design activities in companies. However, a few is discussed about the activity of these design professionals who participate in this process, their roles, functions and competencies, including  their connections to a company and other involved sectors. This article aims to analyze, during the design management processes, the work relations of design professionals connected to organizations both internal and externally, in order to comprehend the structure and intervenient factors on the activity of these professionals, as well as the interactions with their main coworkers. The methodology was exploratory and qualitative, using in-depth interviews with three design professionals. Subsequently, the responses were analyzed allowing the comparison of these obtained data to the theoretical bases researched. Through this case study, it was possible to realize the aspects and the structure of the design professional activity, connected intern and externally to organizations, as well as its relations with the main coworkers.

  8. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  9. Active Shape Analysis of Mandibular Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Kreiborg, Sven;

    2003-01-01

    This work contains a clinical validation using biological landmarks of a Geometry Constrained Diffusion registration of mandibular surfaces. Canonical Correlations Analysis is extended to analyse 3D landmarks and the correlations are used as similarity measures for landmark clustering. A novel Ac...

  10. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PODLASIE PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Kisło; Iwona Skoczko

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability crit...

  11. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  12. Rapid radiochemical separations in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid radiochemical separation procedures based on the removal of metal ions by columns of C18-bonded silica gel after selective complexation are examined and the simplicity of the method demonstrated by its application to the determination of Mn, Cu and Zn in neutron-activated biological material. The method is rapid and reliable and readily adaptable in all radiochemical laboratories. An alternative separation procedure for selenium in blood plasma involving desalination and concentration of the selenium protein complex by gel filtration or ultrafiltration is briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Active vision in satellite scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, Martine

    1994-01-01

    In earth observation or planetary exploration it is necessary to have more and, more autonomous systems, able to adapt to unpredictable situations. This imposes the use, in artificial systems, of new concepts in cognition, based on the fact that perception should not be separated from recognition and decision making levels. This means that low level signal processing (perception level) should interact with symbolic and high level processing (decision level). This paper is going to describe the new concept of active vision, implemented in Distributed Artificial Intelligence by Dassault Aviation following a 'structuralist' principle. An application to spatial image interpretation is given, oriented toward flexible robotics.

  14. OLDAPS: Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, F.M.; Sterba, J.H.; Bichler, M. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Neelmeijer, C.; Merchel, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Pearce, N.J.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The natural volcanic glass obsidian is one of the classical objects of archaeometric analyses. Reliable provenancing by means of the highly specific chemical composition, the 'chemical fingerprint', can provide information about trading routes, extension of territory, long-distance contacts and the mobility of prehistoric people. Since the pioneer work of Cann and Renfrew in 1964 [1] various analytical methods have been employed on obsidian samples in order to locate their provenance. The existing data already offers important knowledge about long-distance interactions between prehistoric human populations. However, most applied techniques just show a small part of the element spectrum. Latest studies showed that published results gained by different analytical methods are not consistent due to systematic errors [2-3]. Therefore, the application of three complementary analytical techniques on the same set of raw material samples allows both a better characterization of obsidian sources and a comparison and validation of analytical results. The aim of this multi-methodical approach is to apply in particular: 1) lon Beam Analysis (IBA) comprising of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE), 2) Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), 3) Laser Ablation-lnductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to detect a maximum element spectrum and to compare element concentrations determined with at least two analytical techniques. This approach should check the accuracy and reliability of analytical results and should show a maximum of compositional differences between European obsidian sources to reveal the most characteristic 'chemical fingerprint' composed of more than 40 elements. These investigations are part of a new multi-methodical analytical database called the 'Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System' (OLDAPS). This novel scientific approach for

  15. A statistical analysis of electrical cerebral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the statistical properties of the amplitude of the electroencephalographic signal. The experimental method is described (implantation of electrodes, acquisition and treatment of data). The program of the mathematical analysis is given (calculation of probability density functions, study of stationarity) and the validity of the tests discussed. The results concerned ten rabbits. Trips of EEG were sampled during 40 s. with very short intervals (500 μs). The probability density functions established for different brain structures (especially the dorsal hippocampus) and areas, were compared during sleep, arousal and visual stimulus. Using a Χ2 test, it was found that the Gaussian distribution assumption was rejected in 96.7 per cent of the cases. For a given physiological state, there was no mathematical reason to reject the assumption of stationarity (in 96 per cent of the cases). (author)

  16. Mathematical analysis of complex cellular activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bertram, Richard; Teka, Wondimu; Vo, Theodore; Wechselberger, Martin; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on mathematical physiology that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. The first article reviews the basic theory of calcium oscillations (common to almost all cell types), including spatio-temporal behaviors such as waves. The second article uses, and expands on, much of this basic theory to show how the interaction of cytosolic calcium oscillators with membrane ion channels can result in highly complex patterns of electrical spiking. Through these examples one can see clearly how multiple oscillatory processes interact within a cell, and how mathematical methods can be used to understand such interactions better. The two reviews provide excellent examples of how mathematics and physiology can learn from each other, and work jointly towards a better understanding of complex cellular processes. Review 1: Richard Bertram, Joel Tabak, Wondimu Teka, Theodore Vo, Martin Wechselberger: Geometric Singular Perturbation Analysis of Burst...

  17. Diagnosis of mucoviscidosis by neutron activation analysis. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptoms pathology, incidence, and gravity of the inherent syndrome called mucoviscidosis, or cystic fibrosis are described in this Part I. The analytical methods used for its diagnosis, both the conventional chemical ones and by neutron activation analysis are also summarised. Finally, an analytical method to study the incidence of mucoviscidosis in Brazil is presented. This , essentially, consists in bromine determination, in fingernails, by resonance neutron activation analysis. (author)

  18. Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) for Elemental Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin P. Gardner

    2006-04-11

    This research project was to improve the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) measurement approach for bulk analysis, oil well logging, and small sample thermal enutron bean applications.

  19. ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PODLASIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kisło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the period where the impact of human activity took dangerous size is considered to be 40 years of the nineteenth century. Then the large-scale production of electricity increased production of metallurgical industry and transport development. Significant changes contributed to rapid population growth and urbanization and industrialization processes. Man by intensive exploitation reduces or completely exhausted most natural resources. This has resulted in the availability criterion, which is distinguished by inexhaustible and exhaustible resources. Exhaustible resources may include solar, wind, energy, ocean currents and the energy of the Earth. Exhaustible resources, however, are the elements of nature that as a result of the operation can be completely depleted or destroyed. These resources include: water, soil, plant world, animal world natural resources. The greater the intensity of acquiring human resources, the faster will be the depleted. There is also a very important division of exhaustible resources: non-renewable resources, renewable and very difficult reproducible (living areas. Non-renewable resources are mainly minerals, such as iron ore, crude oil, coal, sulfur, natural gas, useful stones, limestone, salt, and many other minerals. After extraction resources are processed, and the bed from which they were extracted can no longer be used. It is different from renewable resources; they are characterized by the fact that over time they are reconstituted, although, for this to happen balance of the environment through the rational use must be maintained. These resources include, among others, soil, water, flora and fauna, as well as atmospheric air.

  20. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v). PMID:24792543

  1. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  2. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  3. Performance analysis of active schedules in identical parallel machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changjun WANG; Yugeng XI

    2007-01-01

    Active schedule is one of the most basic and popular concepts in production scheduling research. For identical parallel machine scheduling with jobs' dynamic arrivals, the tight performance bounds of active schedules under the measurement of four popular objectives are respectively given in this paper. Similar analysis method and conclusions can be generalized to static identical parallel machine and single machine scheduling problem.

  4. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  5. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  6. Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in selected region

    OpenAIRE

    Helcl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis on the topic "Supply and demand analysis of leisure activities in the region," focuses on the forms of spending free time in the selected region. The theoretical part deals with the study of scientific publications focusing on leisure and leisure education. The economic concepts are examined to define the work, factors affecting leisure adults and content of leisure activities and leisure educational activities. The legal system of the Czech Republic defining the possibilities of a...

  7. Neutron activation analysis for environmental sample in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Nouchpramool, Sunun; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Sumitra, Tatchai [Chulalongkorn Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis has been applied for the trace elements analysis in environmental samples. Thirty three samples of airborne particulate were collected every week at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) during the period of June 1998 to March 1999. The Ti, I, Mg, Na, V, K, Cl, Al, Mn, Ca, As, Sm, Sb, Br, La, Ce, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Zn and Co were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis utilizing 2 MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The certified reference materials 1632a and 1633a from National Bureau of Standard were select as standard. (author)

  8. Activation analysis in the environment: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science is disciplined curiosity. Activation analysis was created more than 50 yr ago by Hevesy's curiosity and Levi's experimental skill. Technology is the exploitation of machines and materials for the fulfillment of human needs or wants. The early history of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was greatly influenced by military requirements. Since then the technique has found applications in many disciplines, including materials science, medicine, archaeology, geochemistry, agriculture, and forensic science. More recently, neutron activation analysts, responding to increasing public interest and concern, have made distinctive contributions to the study of environmental problems. Activation analysis, though it uses some procedures derived from physics, is essentially a chemical technique. The chemical study of the environment may be reviewed under many headings; three are discussed here: 1. occupational medicine 2. health of the general public 3. environmental pollution

  9. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai Mohammed Farid; Sameh Reda Hussein; Lamiaa Fawzy Ibrahim; Mohammed Ali El Desouky; Amr Mohammed Elsayed; Ahmad Ali El Oqlah; Mahmoud Mohammed Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss. (A. palaestinum) (black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity. Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities. Results:Four flavonoid compounds were isolated (luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin, isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01%of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds. Conclusions:The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition, chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  10. Cytotoxic activity and phytochemical analysis of Arum palaestinum Boiss.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mai; Mohammed; Farid; Sameh; Reda; Hussein; Lamiaa; Fawzy; Ibrahim; Mohammed; Ali; El; Desouky; Amr; Mohammed; Elsayed; Ahmad; Ali; El; Oqlah; Mahmoud; Mohammed; Saker

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the fractionated extract as well as isolated compounds of Arum palaestinum Boiss.(A. palaestinum)(black calla lily), and to identify the volatile components which may be responsible for the potential antitumor activity.Methods: A. palaestinum was collected from its natural habitats and subjected to phytochemical analysis for separation of pure compounds. In vitro cytotoxic activity was investigated against four human carcinoma cell lines Hep2, He La, Hep G2 and MCF7 for the fractionated extract and isolated compounds. While, the diethyl ether fraction was subjected to GC–MS analysis as it exhibited the most potent cytotoxic effect to evaluate the active constituents responsible for the cytotoxic activities.Results: Four flavonoid compounds were isolated(luteolin, chrysoeriol, isoorientin,isovitexin) from the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate. The extracts and the pure isolated compounds showed a significant high antiproliferative activity against all investigated cell lines. The GC–MS analysis revealed the separation and identification of 15 compounds representing 95.01% of the extract and belonging to different groups of chemical compounds.Conclusions: The present study is considered to be the first report on the cytotoxic activities carried out on different selected fractions and pure compounds of A. palaestinum to provide evidences for its strong antitumor activities. In addition,chrysoeriol and isovitexin compounds were isolated for the first time from the studied taxa.

  11. Elemental analysis by nuclear reactions in selected mineral assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) as a multi-elemental analytical technique for application in geochemical studies has been investigated. The contribution and unique features of PIXE as compared with other well-established analytical techniques is discussed. One such contribution is the analysis of minute (few microgram) grains of separated mineral phases, where these have a low frequency of occurence on the one hand, and / or require meticulous separation or collection on the other hand, or if variations in composition from grain to grain are meaningful. Mineral separates used in the investigation were selected specifically for their significance in geochemical studies related to the mineralisation of the Witwatersrand goldbearing system. These include gold, zircon and chromite. The success of PIXE in the analysis of gold, zircon, chromite and diamond samples is discussed. Comparisons are made of single grain and bulk (many grain) sample analyses and of PIXE measurements on such samples with instrumental activation analysis (INAA). The contribution of such analysis to the study of the evolution of the Witwatersrand system is discussed. The specific features of PIXE were exploited in a search for superheavy elements. A monazite sample from Malaysia was investigated for the occurrence of the element Z = 126. An upper limit of 110 plus minus 33 ppm for the possible concentration of this superheavy element in monazite is deduced

  12. MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE ENTERPRISE AS MODEL OF ACTIVITY OF THE HUMAN: SEARCH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Flerovich Vildanov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualized demand of manufactury company's efficiency from the point of quality charachteristics. Reveal unbreakable connection of man and organisation, on example of the comparative analysis of man's and manufacture company's activities. Studing models of company's and men's activities in order to reveal similarity. In order of their implementation to the economics assumes opportunity of using scientific methods, which use for studying functions, vital activities and behavior of the men.

  13. A package for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M E Medhat; A Abdel-Hafiez; Z Awaad; M A Ali

    2005-08-01

    A package for gamma spectrum analysis (PGSA) was developed using object oriented Borland C++ design for MS-windows. This package consists of five programs which can be used for gamma-ray spectrum analysis and routine neutron activation analysis. The advantages of PGSA are its simple algorithms and its need for only minimum amount of input information.

  14. Analysis of nuclear activity of ten polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas-Lemes, P; Dors, O L; Faúndez-Abans, M

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of mass from the interaction process that forms the polar ring galaxies is a factor that favors the conditions necessary to trigger nonthermal nuclear activities.. This fact encouraged the chemical analysis of ten polar ring galaxies. In order to verify the presence of an active nucleus in these galaxias, we built diagnostic diagrams using lines H{\\beta}, [OIII], [HI], H{\\alpha}, [NII], and [SII] and classified the type of nuclear activity. For galaxies that do not show shock, the parameters N2 and O3N2 were also determined. From this sample, we identified seven galaxies with an active nucleus and three that behave as HII regions. One galaxy with an active nucleus was classified as Seyfert. Although our data do not provide a statistically significant sample, we can speculate that polar ring galaxies are a setting conducive to trigger non-thermal nuclear activities.

  15. Status Report on the Neutron Activation Analysis Activities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippines has a one megawatt open-pool type nuclear research reactor which is presently utilized in the conduct of nuclear research and development activities. The reactor is operated by the Philippine Atomic Research Center, the research arm of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. The reactor is presently utilized in the production of some radioisotopes, nuclear physics experiments and neutron activation analysis. For activation analysis the facilities available include the two 2 inch pneumatic tubes and a 2-inch central core dry-pipe. Although the reactor has been operative since 1963 it was only in the latter part of 1966 that a neutron activation analysis group was organized and almost immediately the training of personnel and setting up of a radiochemical laboratory and nucleonic counting assembly were initiated. Today, the counting system include a 100 channel analyzer with a 3 x 3 inch Nal(Tl) crystal

  16. Survey on Neutron Activation Analysis Activities at the Dalat Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Centre (D.N.R.C.) during the past few years has been involved in conducting an activation analysis service. Work has been carried out in collaboration with other organizations. However, no rigid research programme of our own has been established and thus the Radiochemistry Division of the D.N.R.C. has no personnel and special facilities permanently engaged in this field. The equipment and facilities used are shared with other activities within the Division and the whole Centre. The activities in neutron activation analysis at the D.N.R.C. are sporadically revived by requests for analysis. Up to now, such analyses have been performed free of charge. Most of the work was carried out on biological materials such as vegetables, raw natural rubber (RES smoked sheets of different qualities, crepes and dried rubber films obtained from concentrated natural latex) from hevea tree leaves from various clones

  17. Performance Analysis for Dispensing Mechanism of Active Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The dispensing mechanism of active code is a key technology in an active network. Conventional capsule and programmable switch approaches have their own shortcomings. The DCCAN(distributed code caching for active network) mechanism presented in this paper overcomes these shortcomings. In this paper, capsule and programmable switch approaches are introduced, and their shortcomings are analyzed. The principle of the DCCAN mechanism is described. The theory analysis in transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism and capsule approach are described. The theory analysis shows that the DCCAN mechanism has many good characteristics and can improve the efficiency of an active network. Key factors which affect the transmit width based on the DCCAN mechanism are discussed. The using condition of the DCCAN mechanism is also discussed.

  18. Visual Analysis of Biological Activity Data with Scaffold Hunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karsten; Koch, Oliver; Kriege, Nils; Mutzel, Petra; Schäfer, Till

    2013-12-01

    The growing interest in chemogenomics approaches over the last years has led to an increasing amount of data regarding chemical and the corresponding biological activity space. The resulting data, collected in either in-house or public databases, need to be analyzed efficiently to speed-up the increasingly difficult task of drug discovery. Unfortunately, the discovery of new chemical entities or new targets for known drugs ('drug repurposing') is not suitable to a fully automated analysis or a simple drill down process. Visual interactive interfaces that allow to explore chemical space in a systematic manner and facilitate analytical reasoning can help to overcome these problems. Scaffold Hunter is a tool for the visual analysis of chemical compound databases that provides integrated visualization and analysis of biological activity data and fosters the interactive exploration of data imported from a variety of sources. We describe the features and illustrate the use by means of an exemplary analysis workflow.

  19. Neutron Activation Analysis for investigation of elemental composition of Amarantus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied for the characterization of the elemental composition of Amaranthus seeds, known in the prehistorical period, a tropical plant with promising nutritional and economic value. The characterization is enriched by the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for cobalt, molybdenum and uranium content. The comparison of the results, for three sorts of edible flour, commercially available: Soya Flour, Corn Bean Flour and Amaranthus Flour, is presented. The validation of the analytical methods used was carried out on the basis of participation in the interlaboratory comparison organized by the INCT (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) and by NIST (SRM 1575a). (author)

  20. Xenon diffusion studies with prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing a better understanding of xenon transport through porous systems is critical to predicting how this gas will enter the atmosphere after a below ground nuclear weapons test. Radioxenon monitoring is a vital part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System. This work details the development of prompt gamma activation analysis for measuring the diffusion rates of xenon and argon gases through a porous medium. The University of Texas at Austin maintains a prompt gamma activation analysis facility with a peak neutron flux of ∼ 1.5 x 107 cm-2 s-1 and a beam diameter of 1 cm. Due to the relatively large prompt gamma cross sections of many stable xenon isotopes at thermal and sub-thermal neutron energies, prompt gamma activation analysis is a suitable technique for in situ non-destructive analysis of natural xenon. A test chamber has been designed and constructed to utilize prompt gamma activation analysis to measure xenon and argon diffusion through geological materials (e.g., sand, soil, etc.). Initial experiments have been conducted to determine the detection limits for stable gas measurements. The results from these experiments will be utilized to benchmark parts of a xenon transport model that is being used to determine diffusion coefficients for xenon and argon. (author)

  1. DNQAA program to be used in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of the analysed elements were calculated by the program, based on the instrumental technique of analysis by activation. The DNQAA corrects due to the radioactive decay and to the neutron flow variation or carried particles and too the error propagation involved in the analysis. It is written in ORACL to be used in the ORTEC 6240-42 system. (L.M.J.)

  2. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O G; Cristache, C I; Culicovc, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Szobotca, S A; Toma, M

    2009-05-01

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models. PMID:19230682

  3. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Isolability of faults is a key issue in fault diagnosis whether the aim is maintenance or active fault-tolerant control. It is often encountered that while faults are detectable, they are only group-wise isolable from a usual diagnostic point of view. However, active injection of test signals on...... system inputs can considerably enhance fault isolability. This paper investigates this possibility of active fault isolation from a structural point of view. While such extension of the structural analysis approach was suggested earlier, algorithms and case studies were needed to explore this theory. The...

  4. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Frutiger, Sally A.;

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing. Hum. Brain Mapping 15...

  5. Cluster analysis of activity-time series in motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Daniela; Nielsen, Finn Å; Futiger, Sally A;

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of learning focus on brain areas where the activity changes as a function of time. To circumvent the difficult problem of model selection, we used a data-driven analytic tool, cluster analysis, which extracts representative temporal and spatial patterns from the voxel...... practice-related activity in a fronto-parieto-cerebellar network, in agreement with previous studies of motor learning. These voxels were separated from a group of voxels showing an unspecific time-effect and another group of voxels, whose activation was an artifact from smoothing...

  6. IN VITRO ANALYSIS OF MIGRATION ACTIVITY OF ENCEPHALYTOGENIC T CEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in an adoptive transfer model is caused by injecting animal with activated T cells specific for a CNS antigen, e.g., basic myelin protein. Development of autimmune inflammation in such a model is connected with changed functional stateof encephalytogenic (EG T cells in the coure of disease progression, as reflected by changes in their activation, proliferation and motility levels. Present work describes an original technique allowing for in vitro analysis of encephalytogenic T cell motility, and studying effects of certain compomemts of extracellular matrix upon migration and functional activities of EG T cells.

  7. Aerosol and air pollution study by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activation analysis technique was used in air pollution and aerosol elemental content and size distribution investigations. Air pollution samples were collected on Whatman 41 paper filters which were activated along with known quantities of standards in a flux of approximately 1013 nxcm-2xs-1. The activity of the samples was measured with a 40 cm3 Ge(Li) detector and analyzed with the computer program JANE, which identified the isotopes and found their quantities by normalization with the standard measurement results. Correlation between the various elements, in particular those belonging to dust from the desert and those considered typical urban air pollution, is investigated. (author)

  8. Nondestructive multielemental analysis of ancient roman pottery using photon activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several analytical methods were tested for the multiparameter-analysis of ancient roman pottery in order to elaborate a procedure for their identification. Main constituents, minor and trace-elements have been analyzed by high-energy photon activation analysis, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy. The environmental influence on the concentrations of the minor constituents and trace elements during deposition of the sherds in the soil has been examined. A comparison has been made between analysis data of ancient pottery obtained by photon activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and 14 MeV neutron activation analysis. Tables are given on the time dependence of the trace elements. The numerical data are summarized in several diagrams. (T.G.)

  9. Analysis by Neutron activation of the Calakmul jadeite mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to know the elemental composition of archaeological materials with the purpose to find relations that allow to establish their origin standards. the origin and present localization of pre hispanic archaeological pieces can lead to the determination of commercial routes and of technology transfer among different ancient cultures. In the present work it has been realized a systematic analysis using the Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique of three samples obtained from Calakmul jadeite mask, tomb I, that in addition to give a composition of constituent and trace elements detected by this technique it has leaded to establish an applicable methodology to the routine analysis of ceramics of historical interest. (Author)

  10. Statistical analysis of acoustic wave parameters near active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, M Cristina Rabello; Scherrer, Philip H

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyse the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call `nearby regions'), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disc locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring diagram analysis of all active regions observed by HMI during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhancement (the `acoustic halo effect') is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes...

  11. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  12. Application of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Park, Kwang Won; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This technical report is written for the promotion to utilization of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis facility to be installed in HANARO reactor. It is described for a practical aspects including experiment and equipments, methodology, current status of the research and development and its applications. 102 refs., 32 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  13. Making Sense of Total VET Activity: An Initial Market Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    Following the successful first national publication of total vocational education and training (VET) activity and presentation of various informative data products, NCVER has continued to undertake further analysis of the submitted data. This paper is the first in a suite of the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) authored…

  14. Neutron activation analysis - an aid to forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forensic Science is oriented towards the examination of evidence specimens, collected from a scene of crime in order to establish the link between the criminal and the crime. This science therefore has a profound role to play in criminal justice delivery system. The importance of neutron activation analysis (NAA) as a specialised technique to aid crime investigation has emerged and has been recognised

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of some ayurvedic medicines: Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Vinchurkar, M.S. (Poona Univ., Pune (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-12-01

    Several medicines have been manufactured and prescribed to overcome mineral deficiencies in the human body. Such medicines are mixtures of several components. The present work is undertaken to analyze various Ayurvedic medicines, mainly of herbal origin and used for different purposes, for their elemental contents, by neutron activation analysis. (author).

  16. Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from the sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses samples from 74 factories were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The concentration values of the 35 elements was determined. The toxicity and the influence of the presence of theses elements in sugar loss in the molasses and fermentative process is discussed

  17. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Cho, H. J. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility.

  18. Development of HANARO Activation Analysis System and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. Establishment of evaluation system using a data for a neutron activation analysis : Improvement of NAA measurement system and its identification, Development of combined data evaluation code of NAA/PGAA, International technical cooperation project 2. Development of technique for a industrial application of high precision gamma nuclide spectroscopic analysis : Analytical quality control, Development of industrial application techniques and its identification 3. Industrial application research for a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis : Improvement of Compton suppression counting system (PGAA), Development of applied technology using a PGAA system 4. Establishment of NAA user supporting system and KOLAS management : Development and validation of KOLAS/ISO accreditation testing and identification method, Cooperation researches for a industrial application, Establishment of integrated user analytical supporting system, Accomplishment of sample irradiation facility

  19. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rashed-Al-Mahfuz; Md. Rabiul Islam; Keikichi Hirose; Md. Khademul Islam Molla

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  20. Analysis of Some Egyptian Cosmetic Samples by Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Medhat, M E; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2001-01-01

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. In our work, the concentration of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe, were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CASIA OCCIDENTALIS (L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkanna Lunavath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of using natural products has increased and the active plant extracts are frequently screened for new drug discoveries. The present study deals with the screening of Casia occidentalis leaves for their antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria. Plant Cassia occidentalis belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae, is a diffuse offensively odorous under shrub. Casia occidentalis were shade dried, powered and was extracted using solvents Methanol. The antimicrobial activity test performed by the disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts fractions of HXF, CTF, CFF and AQF showed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, phytosterols, fixed oils and phenolic compounds. The AQF fraction of C. occidentalis showed high activity across pseudomonas aeuruginosa and staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of Casia occidentalis leaves in the treatment of various diseases caused by micro-organisms.

  2. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of optogenetic modulation of neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Gu, L.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    Here, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether optogenetically activated neuronal firing recordings could be characterized as multifractal series. Optogenetics is emerging as a valuable experimental tool and a promising approach for studying a variety of neurological disorders in animal models. The spiking patterns from cortical region of the brain of optogenetically-stimulated transgenic mice were analyzed using a sophisticated fluctuation analysis method known as multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). We observed that the optogenetically-stimulated neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process. Further, we used MFDFA to monitor the effect of chemically induced pain (formalin injection) and optogenetic treatment used to relieve the pain. In this case, dramatic changes in parameters characterizing a multifractal series were observed. Both the generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum effectively differentiates the neural activities during control and pain induction phases. The quantitative nature of the analysis equips us with better measures to quantify pain. Further, it provided a measure for effectiveness of the optogenetic stimulation in inhibiting pain. MFDFA-analysis of spiking data from other deep regions of the brain also turned out to be multifractal in nature, with subtle differences in the parameters during pain-induction by formalin injection and inhibition by optogenetic stimulation. Characterization of neuronal firing patterns using MFDFA will lead to better understanding of neuronal response to optogenetic activation and overall circuitry involved in the process.

  3. Development and validation of I-activation analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-Activation Analysis Code (IAAC) is a nuclear depletion code which solves coupled Bateman equations for radioactive-transmutation and growth-decay system for large numbers of isotopes to get time evolution of decay products and nuclear activity. It is currently being developed primarily for neutron activation and radiation waste analysis, as a part of the code development activities. The code functions by separating long and short-lived isotopes and then uses the well-known matrix exponential method to quickly solve a large system of coupled, linear, first-order ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients for long-lived isotopes. This method allows a faster treatment of complex decay and transmutation schemes. The short-lived isotopes are solved using approximated decay-chain method. FENDL 3.0 neutron activation files are used for data library. Separate set of code modules are designed to read, decode, convert and condense the continuous-energy ACE formatted data into 175 VITAMIN-J energy groups. The new compiled library that includes half-lives and neutron absorption cross sections is then used as input source for nuclear data. The code is readily suitable for calculations pertaining to nuclear transmutation, activation and decay studies in mainly fusion applications and activation analyses. Details of the code and its primary validation performed for various test cases and material compositions, largely related to current ITER project specific neutronic and radiation analyses will be presented. The nuclear activity calculations are validated against FISPACT, available under EASY code system. (author)

  4. Aspects of precision and accuracy in neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical results without systematic errors and with accurately known random errors are normally distributed around their true values. Such results may be produced by means of neutron activation analysis both with and without radiochemical separation. When all sources of random variation are known a priori, their effect may be combined with the Poisson statistics characteristic of the counting process, and the standard deviation of a single analytical result may be estimated. The various steps of a complete neutron activation analytical procedure are therefore studied in detail with respect to determining their contribution to the overall variability of the final result. Verification of the estimated standard deviation is carried out by demonstrating the absence of significant unknown random errors through analysing, in replicate, samples covering the range of concentrations and matrices anticipated in actual use. Agreement between the estimated and the observed variability of replicate results is then tested by a simple statistic T based on the chi-square distribution. It is found that results from neutron activation analysis on biological samples can be brought into statistical control. In routine application of methods in statistical control the same statistical test may be used for quality control when some of the actual samples are analysed in duplicate. This analysis of precision serves to detect unknown or unexpected sources of variation of the analytical results, and both random and systematic errors have been discovered in practical trace element investigations in different areas of research. Particularly, at the ultratrace level of concentration where there are few or no standard reference materials for ascertaining the accuracy of results, the proposed quality control based on the analysis of precision combined with neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation, with an a priori precision independent of the level of concentration, becomes a

  5. Offgas Analysis and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Activated Carbon from Bamboo Sawdust by Chemical Activation With KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yong; LIU Ping; WANG Xiufang; ZHONG Guoying; CHEN Guanke

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo sawdust was used as the precursor for the multipurpose use of waste.Offgases released during the activation process of bamboo by KOH were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively by a gas analyzer. TG/DTG curves during the pyrolysis process with different impregnation weight ratios (KOH to bamboo) were obtained by a thermogravimetric analyzer. Pyrolysis mechanism of bamboo was proposed. The results showed that the offgases were composed of CO, NO,SO2 and hydrocarbon with the concentration of 1 372, 37, 86, 215 mg/L, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the pyrolytic process mainly experienced two steps. The first was the low temperature activation step (lower than 300 ℃), which was the pre-activation and induction period.The second was the high temperature activation step(higher than 550 ℃), which was a radial activation followed by pore production. The second process was the key to control the pore distribution of the final product.

  6. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  7. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program

  8. Teaching chemistry with neutron activation analysis at Dalhousie University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) has been operating since July 1976 and has proven to be an invaluable tool in many teaching programs. These reactors are inherently safe and are designed to serve teaching and research needs of the universities, research centers, hospitals, etc. Since the DUSR has been, from its inception, associated with the Trace Analysis Research Centre, which is the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Department of Chemistry, the main thrust of its use continues to be in the field of nuclear analytical chemistry. Both teaching and research programs involve trace element analysis by neutron activation

  9. Active Greens : An Analysis of the Determinants of Green Party Members' Activism in Environmental Movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; van Schuur, Wijbrandt

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates green party members' activism in the environmental movement and tests how a number of predictors, theoretically suggested in the past yet rarely empirically tested, can account for it. The authors' analysis is based on an extensive data set of members of 15 green parties in

  10. Some Applications of Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrang, Farshid

    2003-07-01

    illustrated how the activated water would propagate along that pipe. C) Combustion products. In order to investigate the oxidation in combustion products (deposits), the total amount of oxygen in the deposits collected from combustion chambers of a modern gasoline engine was measured, using cyclic fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). As a compartment, the organic compounds containing oxygen were identified using {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results of FNAA showed that the amount of oxygen in deposits varies depending on where the deposits have been formed. {sup 13}C NMR has showed that the carbon backbone of the deposits exists as highly oxidized poly aromatics and/or graphitic structure. D) On-line fast neutron activation analysis. On-line neutron activation analysis was used to detect the amount of oxygen in bulk liquids. The method was optimised for on-line detection of oxygen in rapeseed oil. The goal was to develop a non-intrusive method for measurement of the total amount of oxygen in oil during combustion/oxidation.

  11. Study of mineral and essential trace elements in milk and dairy products by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of food composition related to nutritional and toxicological contents has been emphasized in recent years. Some chemical elements are needed for cell metabolism, while excess or deficiency may be responsible for disorders. Milk is considered the most important food during the first months of life, nutritional needs of children being satisfied by milk and dairy products. These foods provide the main trace elements for the good growth of different tissues as well as the functioning of several enzymatic systems. Important deficiencies in mineral during this period can interfere with children's development. Determination of mineral and trace elements by using spectroscopic techniques generally involves a pretreatment of sample. Sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because of the long preparation time and the possibilities for contamination and losses of the analyte associated with this step. Different procedures of sample preparation (dry ashing digestion, wet digestion using an open focused microwave and a hot plate) were evaluated for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk and dairy products by the ICP OES technique. In this work the concentrations obtained for the elements determined by the ICP OES technique after using the different treatments of sample were compared to the results obtained by the INAA technique, that does not require dissolution of sample. The partial digestion with diluted hydrochloric acid was found to be suitable for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk samples and dairy products. (author)

  12. The use of neutron activation analysis for the study of environmental risks associated with the fly ash from burning Polish coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work oriented towards assessment of environmental risk associated with the emission of fly-ash into atmosphere and its storage on solid waste depositories included: 1. Elaboration of the INAA procedure for the determination of 20-24 elements in the fly-ashes. This method was next used for the analysis of fly-ashes from three different Polish power stations working on hard coal. 2. Studies on leaching of trace elements from neutron irradiated fly-ash by water and H2SO4 solution (pH=2.5) simulating acid rain. The results were compared with analogous experiments in which elements leached from non-irradiated fly-ash were determined by AAS and spectrophotometry. 3. Preparation and certification on the basis of an international intercomparison of the new Polish CRM - fine fly-ash (CTA-FFA-1). Although the certification is still not completed it is almost certain that it will be possible to establish ''recommended values'' for at least 34 elements and ''information values'' for another 10 to 16 ones. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  14. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  15. Molecular activation analysis for organo-halogen contaminants in yogurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of total halogen (TX), extractable organo-halogen (EOX), extractable persistent organo-halogen (EPOX), organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 18 different yogurt specimens of 14 brands from Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shijiazhuang were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), molecular activation analysis (MAA) and GC-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The results indicated that the halogen in yogurt mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organo-halogen compounds. About 1/3 to 1/4 of EOX was EPOX. Further, EOCl and EPOCl were the main organo-halogen species in yogurt. The average concentration of the unknown organo-chlorine was 96% of the EPOCl. HCHs and DDTs were still the main contaminants of OCPs in the yogurt of interest. Also, PCB202, PCB103 and PCB208 were the main contaminants of PCBs. (authors)

  16. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung

    2003-05-01

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology.

  17. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology

  18. Practical aspects of operating a neutron activation analysis laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is intended to advise in everyday practical problems related to operating a neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory. It gives answers to questions like ''what to use NAA for'', ''how to find relevant research problems'', ''how to find users for the technique'', ''how to estimate the cost of the analysis and how to finance the work'', ''how to organize the work in a rational way'' and ''how to perform the quality control''. It gives advice in choosing staff, equipment, and consumables and how to design facilities and procedures according to need and available resources. Potential applications of economic or environmental importance, reactor facilities, counting and measuring equipment of the lab, cooperation with other analytical groups and competitiveness of NAA are discussed by experienced analysts. The compiled 8 tables of data useful for neutron activation analysts are a valuable asset for research labs as well as industrial quality control units. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Software for a measuring facility for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software package has been developed for an APPLE P.C. The programs are intended to control an automated measuring station for photon activation analysis at GELINA, the linear accelerator of C.B.N.M. at Geel (Belgium). They allow to set-up a measuring scheme, to execute it under computer control, to accumulate and store 2 K-spectra using a built-in ADC and to output the results as listings, plots or evaluated reports

  20. Design and analysis of an active power factor correction circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhen

    1989-01-01

    The design of an active-unity power factor correction circuit with variable-hysteresis control for off-line dc-to-dc switching power supplies is described. Design equations relating the boost inductor current ripple to the circuit components selection and circuit performance arc discussed. A computer-aided design program (CADO) is developed to give the optimal circuit components selection. A 500 watt, 300 volt experimental circuit is built to verify the simulation and analysis ...